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Sample records for annelid lumbricus rubellus

  1. Transcriptome profiling of developmental and xenobiotic responses in a keystone soil animal, the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan A John

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural contamination and anthropogenic pollution of soils are likely to be major determinants of functioning and survival of keystone invertebrate taxa. Soil animals will have both evolutionary adaptation and genetically programmed responses to these toxic chemicals, but mechanistic understanding of such is sparse. The clitellate annelid Lumbricus rubellus is a model organism for soil health testing, but genetic data have been lacking. Results We generated a 17,000 sequence expressed sequence tag dataset, defining ~8,100 different putative genes, and built an 8,000-element transcriptome microarray for L. rubellus. Strikingly, less than half the putative genes (43% were assigned annotations from the gene ontology (GO system; this reflects the phylogenetic uniqueness of earthworms compared to the well-annotated model animals. The microarray was used to identify adult- and juvenile-specific transcript profiles in untreated animals and to determine dose-response transcription profiles following exposure to three xenobiotics from different chemical classes: inorganic (the metal cadmium, organic (the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene, and agrochemical (the herbicide atrazine. Analysis of these profiles revealed compound-specific fingerprints which identify the molecular responses of this annelid to each contaminant. The data and analyses are available in an integrated database, LumbriBASE. Conclusion L. rubellus has a complex response to contaminant exposure, but this can be efficiently analysed using molecular methods, revealing unique response profiles for different classes of effector. These profiles may assist in the development of novel monitoring or bioremediation protocols, as well as in understanding the ecosystem effects of exposure.

  2. Comparative transcriptomic responses to chronic cadmium, fluoranthene, and atrazine exposure in Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svendsen, C.; Owen, J.; Kille, P.; Wren, J.; Jonker, M.J.; Headley, B.A.; Morgan, A.J.; Blaxter, M.; Stürzenbaum, S.R.; Hankard, P.K.; Lister, L.J.; Spurgeon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional responses of a soil-dwelling organism (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus) to three chemicals, cadmium (Cd), fluoranthene (FA), and atrazine (AZ), were measured following chronic exposure, with the aim of identifying the nature of any shared transcriptional response. Principal

  3. Synergism of Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida Pf-20 in Inducing Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIEK SRI WAHYUNI

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida decompose soil organic matters. The population of P. putida Pf-20 increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the cucumber growth medium. The process of organic decomposition was much better if the medium was introduced with both L. rubellus and P. putida Pf-20, compared to the medium contained only either one of those organisms. The activity of L. rubellus may serve to provide nutrients for both the cucumber and P. putida. The role of P. putida to reduce disease severity was increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the growth medium. The synergism of these two organisms, reduced either the level of disease severity to CMV-48 and C/N ratio of medium, but increased the content of available phosphor and potassium.

  4. C60 exposure induced tissue damage and gene expression alterations in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Handy, R.D.; Heckmann, L.H.; Hout, van der A.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C60 exposure (0, 15 or 154 mg/kg soil) on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were assessed at the tissue and molecular level, in two experiments. In the first experiment, earthworms were exposed for four weeks, and in the second lifelong. In both experiments, gene expression of heat shock

  5. Bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and reproduction toxicity in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.C.; Bonten, L.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated possible bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and sublethal reproduction impairment in Lumbricus rubellus. Clay-loam (pH 7.3) and sandy soil (three pH values of 4.3–6.0) were amended with zinc sulfate at six soil concentrations of total Zn ranging from

  6. Flooding responses of three earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus, in a laboratory-controlled environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, M.I.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Morrien, E.; Wagenaar, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    To get a better understanding of earthworm' responses towards flooding, three laboratory experiments were performed with the species Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus. Flooding response was determined in a pot experiment, in which the earthworms were incubated

  7. Flooding responses of three earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus, in a laboratory-controlled environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, M.I.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Morriën, W.E.; Wagenaar, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    To get a better understanding of earthworm' responses towards flooding, three laboratory experiments were performed with the species Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus. Flooding response was determined in a pot experiment, in which the earthworms were incubated

  8. PENAMBAHAN CACING TANAH Lumbricus rubellus DAN KEONG MAS Pomacea canaliculata PADA PAKAN AYAM PETELUR DALAM PENINGKATAN KANDUNGAN OMEGA 3 PADA TELUR

    OpenAIRE

    Farmansyah, Muarif

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang Penambahan Cacing Tanah Lumbricus rubellus dan Keong mas Pomacea canaliculata Pada Pakan Ayam Petelur Dalam Peningkatan Kandungan Omega 3 Pada Telur bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan penambahan Cacing tanah Lumbricus rubellus dan Keong mas Pomaceacanaliculata L pada ayam petelur dalam meningkatkan kandungan omega 3. Komposisi pakan yang digunakan antara lain P1 = Pakan standar 80% + 15% cacing tanah lumbricus rubellus+ 5%keong mas Pomacea canaliculata L, P2 =...

  9. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted by Lumbricus Rubellus

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Murwono, R.P. Djoko; Nugroho, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus). In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only t...

  10. Uji in Vitro Penghambatan Aktivitas Escherichia Coli Dengan Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus Rubellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Julendra, H; Sofyan, A

    2007-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the inhibition growth of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) meal. The earthworm meal was used in various concentrations, i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of earthworm meal in 100 ml DMSO for 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v) as treatments respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in Randomized Complete Block Design. Duncan's multiple range test and polynomials orthogonal were used. Inhibition effects were measured through agar well diffusion test....

  11. Uji in Vitro Penghambatan Aktivitas Escherichia coli dengan Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus rubellus)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Julendra; A. Sofyan

    2007-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the inhibition growth of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) meal. The earthworm meal was used in various concentrations, i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of earthworm meal in 100 ml DMSO for 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v) as treatments respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in Randomized Complete Block Design. Duncan’s multiple range test and polynomials orthogonal were used. Inhibition effects were measured through agar well diffusion test....

  12. Resistance to copper toxicity in populations of the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus from contaminated mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, C J; Piearce, T G; Meharg, A A; Semple, K T

    2001-10-01

    Two arsenic and heavy metal-contaminated mine spoil sites, at Carrock Fell, Cumbria, United Kingdom, and Devon Great Consols Mine, Devon, United Kingdom, have been found to support populations of the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister and Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny). Lumbricus rubellus and D. rubidus collected from the Devon site and an uncontaminated site were kept for 28 d in uncontaminated soil and in soil containing 750 mg/kg CuCl2, the state of the specimens being recorded using a semiquantitative assessment of earthworm health (condition index). The condition index remained high for all specimens except those of L. rubellus and D. rubidus from uncontaminated sites, which displayed 100% mortality. Bioavailability of Cu in the soils from one uncontaminated and two contaminated sites and in the uncontaminated soil treated with CuCl2 was determined using sequential extraction. Soils from Devon Great Consols had the greatest availability of Cu, Carrock Fell the lowest. Total tissue Cu for L. rubellus and D. rubidus from the contaminated sites did not change significantly for each species during the experiment. Total tissue concentrations of Cu for L. rubellus and D. rubidus from uncontaminated sites increased significantly during the first 7 d, after which mortality was 90%, making it impossible to continue the analysis.

  13. Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Vijver, Martina G.; Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M.; Hobbelen, Peter H.F.; Koolhaas, Josee E.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Vliet, Petra C.J. van; Jan Hendriks, A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. - Earthworm metal concentrations are less than linearly related to total soil concentrations and predicted pore water concentrations

  14. Uji in Vitro Penghambatan Aktivitas Escherichia coli dengan Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Julendra

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the inhibition growth of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus meal. The earthworm meal was used in various concentrations, i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of earthworm meal in 100 ml DMSO for 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v as treatments respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in Randomized Complete Block Design. Duncan’s multiple range test and polynomials orthogonal were used. Inhibition effects were measured through agar well diffusion test. Results showed that earthworm meal contain antibacterial compound which inhibit E. coli activity. There was a significant difference (P0.05 with 75% (w/v. It is concluded that earthworm meal is capable to inhibit E. coli in-vitro at the optimum level of 50% (w/v.

  15. Effects of silver nanoparticles (NM-300K) on Lumbricus rubellus earthworms and particle characterization in relevant test matrices including soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.J.C. van der; Handy, R.D.; Waalewijn-Kool, P.L.; Berg, J.H.J. van den; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Bovenschen, J.; Molleman, B.; Baveco, J.M.; Tromp, P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Koopmans, G.F.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Brink, N.W. van den

    2014-01-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP; at 0mg Ag/kg, 1.5mg Ag/kg, 15.4mg Ag/kg, and 154mg Ag/kg soil) and silver nitrate (AgNO3; 15.4mg Ag/kg soil) on earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus, was assessed. A 4-wk exposure to the highest AgNP treatment reduced growth and reproduction compared with the

  16. Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCourse, E. James, E-mail: james.la-course@liverpool.ac.u [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Hernandez-Viadel, Mariluz; Jefferies, James R. [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Barrett, John [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A.; Kille, Peter [Biosciences, University of Cardiff, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Brophy, Peter M. [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) is a terrestrial pollution sentinel. Enzyme activity and transcription of phase II detoxification superfamily glutathione transferases (GST) is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker. This study combined sub-proteomics, bioinformatics and biochemical assay to characterise the L. rubellus GST complement as pre-requisite to initialise assessment of the applicability of GST as a biomarker. L. rubellus possesses a range of GSTs related to known classes, with evidence of tissue-specific synthesis. Two affinity-purified GSTs dominating GST protein synthesis (Sigma and Pi class) were cloned, expressed and characterised for enzyme activity with various substrates. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following SDS-PAGE were superior in retaining subunit stability relative to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This study provides greater understanding of Phase II detoxification GST superfamily status of an important environmental pollution sentinel organism. - This study currently provides the most comprehensive view of the Phase II detoxification enzyme superfamily of glutathione transferases within the important environmental pollution sentinel earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  17. Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCourse, E. James; Hernandez-Viadel, Mariluz; Jefferies, James R.; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.; Barrett, John; John Morgan, A.; Kille, Peter; Brophy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) is a terrestrial pollution sentinel. Enzyme activity and transcription of phase II detoxification superfamily glutathione transferases (GST) is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker. This study combined sub-proteomics, bioinformatics and biochemical assay to characterise the L. rubellus GST complement as pre-requisite to initialise assessment of the applicability of GST as a biomarker. L. rubellus possesses a range of GSTs related to known classes, with evidence of tissue-specific synthesis. Two affinity-purified GSTs dominating GST protein synthesis (Sigma and Pi class) were cloned, expressed and characterised for enzyme activity with various substrates. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following SDS-PAGE were superior in retaining subunit stability relative to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This study provides greater understanding of Phase II detoxification GST superfamily status of an important environmental pollution sentinel organism. - This study currently provides the most comprehensive view of the Phase II detoxification enzyme superfamily of glutathione transferases within the important environmental pollution sentinel earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  18. Assessment of avoidance behaviour by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasion cyaneum) in linear pollution gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of time and mode of depuration on tissue copper concentrations of the earthworms Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.E.; Hodson, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris were exposed to 250, 250 and 350 mg kg -1 Cu respectively in Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq) amended soil for 28 d. Earthworms were then depurated for 24 to 72 h, digested and analysed for Cu and Ti or, subsequent to depuration were dissected to remove any remaining soil particles from the alimentary canal and then digested and analysed. This latter treatment proved impossible for E. andrei due to its small size. Regardless of depuration time, soil particles were retained in the alimentary canal of L. rubellus and L. terrestris. Tissue concentration determinations indicate that E. andrei should be depurated for 24 h, L. rubellus for 48 h and L. terrestris should be dissected. Ti was bioaccumulated and therefore could not be used as an inert tracer to determine mass of retained soil. Calculations indicate that after 28 d earthworms were still absorbing Cu from soil. - Even after 72 h depuration earthworms retain soil particles in their alimentary canal that can bias tissue concentration determinations

  20. Effect of time and mode of depuration on tissue copper concentrations of the earthworms Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: biogas@greenfinch.co.uk; Hodson, M.E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris were exposed to 250, 250 and 350 mg kg{sup -1} Cu respectively in Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2(aq)} amended soil for 28 d. Earthworms were then depurated for 24 to 72 h, digested and analysed for Cu and Ti or, subsequent to depuration were dissected to remove any remaining soil particles from the alimentary canal and then digested and analysed. This latter treatment proved impossible for E. andrei due to its small size. Regardless of depuration time, soil particles were retained in the alimentary canal of L. rubellus and L. terrestris. Tissue concentration determinations indicate that E. andrei should be depurated for 24 h, L. rubellus for 48 h and L. terrestris should be dissected. Ti was bioaccumulated and therefore could not be used as an inert tracer to determine mass of retained soil. Calculations indicate that after 28 d earthworms were still absorbing Cu from soil. - Even after 72 h depuration earthworms retain soil particles in their alimentary canal that can bias tissue concentration determinations.

  1. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  2. Effects of silver nanoparticles (NM-300K) on Lumbricus rubellus earthworms and particle characerization in relevant test matrices including soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Handy, R.D.; Waalewijn-Kool, P.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Bovenschen, J.; Molleman, B.; Baveco, J.M.; Tromp, P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Koopmans, G.F.; Rietjens, I.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP; at 0¿mg Ag/kg, 1.5¿mg Ag/kg, 15.4¿mg Ag/kg, and 154¿mg Ag/kg soil) and silver nitrate (AgNO3; 15.4¿mg Ag/kg soil) on earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus, was assessed. A 4-wk exposure to the highest AgNP treatment reduced growth and reproduction compared with the

  3. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswo Sumardiono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus. In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only took half processing time of conventional technique. It is occurred by red worm additional ease cellulose degradation contain in manure which is could not decomposed with composting bacteria. The purposes of this research are to investigate the effect of manure comparison to red worm growth and to evaluate the effect of comparison between manure and market waste to red worm growth. This research was conducted by vary the weight of red worm (100 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr, 400 gr, 500 gr and market waste addition (50 gr, 100 gr, 150 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr. Moreover, 3 kg of manure was mixed by various weight of red worm, while variation of market waste addition was involved 500 gr red worm and 3 kg manure mixture. Optimum increasing weight of red worm that was obtained by 100 gr red worm addition is 160 gr within 2 weeks. In added market waste variation, the highest increasing of red worm was resulted by 50 gr market waste addition, with 60 gr increasing weight of red worm. Production of casting fertilizer was highly effected by composition of used materials such as medium, manure and red worm comparison as well as market waste additional

  4. Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils – relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giska, I.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Skip, B.; Laskowski, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related

  5. Effects of C{sub 60} nanoparticle exposure on earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and implications for population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, M.J.C. van der, E-mail: merel.vanderploeg@wur.n [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalssesteeg 3, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Baveco, J.M.; Hout, A. van der [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalssesteeg 3, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bakker, R. [RIKILT, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rietjens, I.M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brink, N.W. van den [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalssesteeg 3, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of C{sub 60} nanoparticles (nominal concentrations 0, 15.4 and 154 mg/kg soil) on mortality, growth and reproduction of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were assessed. C{sub 60} exposure had a significant effect on cocoon production, juvenile growth rate and mortality. These endpoints were used to model effects on the population level. This demonstrated reduced population growth rate with increasing C{sub 60} concentrations. Furthermore, a shift in stage structure was shown for C{sub 60} exposed populations, i.e. a larger proportion of juveniles. This result implies that the lower juvenile growth rate due to exposure to C{sub 60} resulted in a larger proportion of juveniles, despite increased mortality among juveniles. Overall, this study indicates that C{sub 60} exposure may seriously affect earthworm populations. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that juveniles were more sensitive to C{sub 60} exposure than adults. - C{sub 60} nanoparticle exposure can affect Lumbricus rubellus populations.

  6. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  7. As-resistance in laboratory-reared F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting an As-contaminated mine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, C.J.; Morgan, A.J.; Charnock, J.M.; Semple, K.T.; Lowe, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies provided no unequivocal evidence demonstrating that field populations of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (1843), exhibit genetically inherited resistance to As-toxicity. In this study F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring derived from adults inhabiting As-contaminated field soil were resistant when exposed to 2000 mg kg -1 sodium arsenate. The offspring of uncontaminated adults were not As-resistant. Cocoon viability was 80% for F1 and 82% for F2 offspring from As-contaminated adults and 59% in the F1 control population. High energy synchrotron analysis was used to determine whether ligand complexation of As differed in samples of: resistant mine-site adults, the resistant F1 and F2 offspring of the mine-site earthworms exposed to the LC 25 sodium arsenate (700 mg kg -1 ) of the F1 parental generation; and adult L. rubellus from an uncontaminated site exposed to LC 25 concentrations of sodium arsenate (50 mg kg -1 ). XANES and EXAFS indicated that As was present as a sulfur-coordinated species. - As-resistance in F1, F2 and F3 offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  8. 'Systems toxicology' approach identifies coordinated metabolic responses to copper in a terrestrial non-model invertebrate, the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Jacob G; Sidhu, Jasmin K; Rana, Faisal; Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus; Wren, Jodie F; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter

    2008-06-03

    New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister) to sub-lethal levels of copper (10-480 mg/kg soil) for 70 days as a real-world situation, and monitored both molecular (cDNA transcript microarrays and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling: metabolomics) and ecological/functional endpoints (reproduction rate and weight change, which have direct relevance to population-level impacts). Both of the molecular endpoints, metabolomics and transcriptomics, were highly sensitive, with clear copper-induced differences even at levels below those that caused a reduction in reproductive parameters. The microarray and metabolomic data provided evidence that the copper exposure led to a disruption of energy metabolism: transcripts of enzymes from oxidative phosphorylation were significantly over-represented, and increases in transcripts of carbohydrate metabolising enzymes (maltase-glucoamylase, mannosidase) had corresponding decreases in small-molecule metabolites (glucose, mannose). Treating both enzymes and metabolites as functional cohorts led to clear inferences about changes in energetic metabolism (carbohydrate use and oxidative phosphorylation), which would not have been possible by taking a 'biomarker' approach to data analysis. Multiple post-genomic techniques can be combined to provide mechanistic information about the toxic effects of chemical contaminants, even for non-model organisms with few additional mechanistic toxicological data. With 70-day no-observed-effect and lowest-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC) of 10 and 40 mg kg-1 for metabolomic and microarray profiles, copper is shown to interfere with energy metabolism in an important soil organism at an ecologically and functionally relevant level.

  9. 'Systems toxicology' approach identifies coordinated metabolic responses to copper in a terrestrial non-model invertebrate, the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stürzenbaum Stephen R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister to sub-lethal levels of copper (10–480 mg/kg soil for 70 days as a real-world situation, and monitored both molecular (cDNA transcript microarrays and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling: metabolomics and ecological/functional endpoints (reproduction rate and weight change, which have direct relevance to population-level impacts. Results Both of the molecular endpoints, metabolomics and transcriptomics, were highly sensitive, with clear copper-induced differences even at levels below those that caused a reduction in reproductive parameters. The microarray and metabolomic data provided evidence that the copper exposure led to a disruption of energy metabolism: transcripts of enzymes from oxidative phosphorylation were significantly over-represented, and increases in transcripts of carbohydrate metabolising enzymes (maltase-glucoamylase, mannosidase had corresponding decreases in small-molecule metabolites (glucose, mannose. Treating both enzymes and metabolites as functional cohorts led to clear inferences about changes in energetic metabolism (carbohydrate use and oxidative phosphorylation, which would not have been possible by taking a 'biomarker' approach to data analysis. Conclusion Multiple post-genomic techniques can be combined to provide mechanistic information about the toxic effects of chemical contaminants, even for non-model organisms with few additional mechanistic toxicological data. With 70-day no-observed-effect and lowest-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC of 10 and 40 mg kg-1 for metabolomic and microarray profiles, copper is shown to interfere with energy metabolism in an important soil organism at an ecologically and functionally relevant level.

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl 2 extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: phobbelen@usgs.gov; Koolhaas, J.E. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, C.A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl{sub 2} extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools.

  12. Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils – relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giska, Iwona; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Skip, Borys; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related to soils properties. Experimental results were compared with tissue metal concentrations observed in earthworms from the studied transect. Cd and Pb were intensively accumulated by the earthworms, with very slow or no elimination. Their uptake rate constants, based on 0.01 M CaCl 2 -extractable concentrations in the soils, increased with soil pH. Internal concentrations of Cu and Zn were maintained by the earthworms at a stable level, suggesting efficient regulation of these metals by the animals. The estimated uptake and elimination kinetics parameters enabled fairly accurate prediction of metal concentrations reached within a life span of L. rubellus in nature. - Highlights: • We estimated bioavailability of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn to the earthworm L. rubellus. • Earthworms intensively accumulated Cd and Pb. • Uptake rate constants of Cd and Pb increased with soil pH. • Earthworms showed efficient regulation of Cu and Zn internal concentrations. • Toxicokinetics was predictive of metal accumulation by earthworms in the field. - Toxicokinetics tests with earthworms are indicative of metal bioavailability in the field

  13. Transcriptome profiling of developmental and xenobiotic responses in a keystone soil animal, the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owen, J.; Hedley, B.A.; Svendsen, C.; Wren, J.; Jonker, M.J.; Hankard, P.K.; Lister, L.J.; Stürzenbaum, S.R.; Morgan, A.J.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Blaxter, M.L.; Kille, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Natural contamination and anthropogenic pollution of soils are likely to be major determinants of functioning and survival of keystone invertebrate taxa. Soil animals will have both evolutionary adaptation and genetically programmed responses to these toxic chemicals, but mechanistic

  14. Responses of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) to copper and cadmium as determined by measurement of juvenile traits in a specifically designed test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, D J; Svendsen, C; Kille, P; Morgan, A J; Weeks, J M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two metals, copper and cadmium, on the growth and development of juvenile Lumbricus rubellus were measured in a toxicity test in which individuals were grown in isolation. This design had a number of advantages over traditional test systems for earthworms. Importantly, the test is specifically designed to measure two juvenile traits (survival over and length of the juvenile period) that have been shown to have a high sensitivity for determining population growth rate. The test system also maximizes replication, while allowing time-series-based monitoring of individual growth. For both metals, significant exposure-dependent effects on survival, growth, development time, and (less certainly) maturation weight were observed. Comparisons of the relative toxicity of the two metals indicated different concentration-response relationships. For copper, hormesis was found at low levels, while only at the highest soil concentration tested (10.07 micromol g(-1)) were (severe) toxic effects present. For cadmium, hormesis was also evident at the lowest concentration tested; however, at soil levels above this, a graded concentration-dependent toxic effect was apparent. These differences in the exposure response patterns can be (tentatively) explained in terms of the mechanisms for handling copper (an essential metal for earthworms) and cadmium (a putative nonessential element). The applicability of the test for routine measurement of chemical effects on ecologically relevant juvenile traits is also outlined and future developments are discussed.

  15. Transplantation immunity in annelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Miller, Barbara J.; Cooper, E. L.

    1971-01-01

    The oligochaete annelids Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia foetida were used to demonstrate adoptive transfer of transplantation immunity. Eisenia grafts were used as sensitizing antigen and test grafts. Host Lumbricus injected with coelomic fluid containing coelomocytes from Lumbricus donors previously sensitized to Eisenia grafts rejected test grafts in an accelerated fashion. The rejection time was shorter and significantly different from that of worms injected with saline or coelomocytes from unsensitized worms. Coelomocytes resemble various vertebrate leucocytes and immunocytes and seem equivalent to a hypothetical invertebrate precursor wandering cell which recognizes and reacts to antigen. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5558033

  16. In vitro nanoparticle toxicity to rat alveolar cells and coelomocytes from the earthworm Lumbricus rubelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Haan, de L.H.J.; Ershov, D.S.; Fokkink, R.G.; Zuilhof, H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of immune cells (coelomocytes) of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms was investigated for exposure to selected nanoparticles, in order to obtain further insight in mechanisms of effects observed after in vivo C60 exposure. In the in vivo study, tissue damage appeared to occur without

  17. Is Diurodrilus an annelid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W.

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial marine meiofaunal worms of the genus Diurodrilus have always been considered part of Annelida, either as basal or derived, though generally with reference to Dinophilidae. New evidence shows that Diurodrilus has a unique anatomy, and lacks key annelid features, possibly even segmenta...

  18. Uptake routes and toxicokinetics of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diez-Ortiz, M.; Lahive, E.; Kille, P.; Powell, K.; Morgan, A.J.; Jurkschat, K.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.; Svendsen, C.; Spurgeon, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Current bioavailability models, such as the free ion activity model and biotic ligand model, explicitly consider that metal exposure will be mainly to the dissolved metal in ionic form. With the rise of nanotechnology products and the increasing release of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) to the

  19. Pengaruh penambahan kultur azotobacter pada feses kambing terhadap kualitas media dan produktivitas cacing tanah (Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Cholis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to determine the effect of addition of Azotobacter bacterial culture into media of goat faeces on medium quality and earthworm productivity; and also to examine the best dose of Azotobacter bacterial cultures addition. The research material was 800 g earthworm aged 3 months old. The research method was experimental with Completely Randomized Design using 4 treatments and 4 replications. The results show that addition of Azotobacter bacterial culture had a significant effect (P<0.01 on the medium quality and earthworm productivity (coccoon production, the number of juvenils per coccoon, coccoon hatching percentage, the numbers and weight of earthworm. The bacterial culture addition of 350 cc/100 kg goat faeces was found the best. We suggest to follow the study with observation about the effect of the length of fermentation to the medium quality and earthworm productivity. Keywords: Azotobacter, goat faeces, earthworm

  20. A new class of amphiphiles: annelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovitsi, Dimitra

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis presents annelids, organometallic compounds which may form into organised phases. The author describes the synthesis of an amphipathic ligand of its cobaltic and cupric complexes. The formation of micelles and of thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals is highlighted. The copper (II) annelid environment is studied by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The author demonstrates, in micellar phase, the effect of molecular cooperativity on acid-base balance, on metallic ion complexation, on the photo-sensitized electronic transfer, and on the formation of poly-nuclear complexes [fr

  1. On some Polychaetous Annelids from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1922-01-01

    Though we know already a rather large number of Polychaetous Annelids from the Caribbean Sea, hitherto, as far as I know, no Annelids have been described from the coast of the island Curaçao and I therefore was very glad, that my colleague Dr. VAN DER HORST kindly placed in my hands for

  2. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  3. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.; Hankard, P.K.; Stubberud, H.E.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Demographic methods can translate toxicant effects on individuals into consequences for populations. To date few such studies have been conducted with longer-lived invertebrates. This is because full life-cycle experiments are difficult with such species. Here we report the effects of copper and

  4. Cu accumulation by Lumbricus rubellus as affected by total amount of Cu in soil, soil moisture and soil heterogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinussen, M.P.J.C.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the effect of soil heterogeneity on accumulation of pollutants in a contaminated soil by earthworms, we performed experiments under laboratory conditions with soil from a Cu-contaminated site, followed by experiments under field conditions. The first experiments were set up as a

  5. Neuromuscular Structure, Evolution and Development in Meiofaunal Annelids with Special Focus on Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Dinophilidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra

    regionalization (yet molecular), but comparison of closely related species revealed unexpected plasticity in the distribution of specific neuropeptidergic cells. The relatively similar molecular profile of the microscopic and macroscopic annelid brain suggests the presence of a common annelid pattern, though...

  6. Early events in annelid regeneration: a cellular perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bely, Alexandra E

    2014-10-01

    The ability to regenerate extensive portions of the body is widespread among the phylum Annelida and this group includes some of the most highly regenerative animals known. Knowledge of the cellular and molecular basis of regeneration in this group is thus important for understanding how regenerative processes have evolved both within the group and across animal phyla. Here, the cellular basis of annelid regeneration is reviewed, with a focus on the earliest steps of regeneration, namely wound-healing and formation of the blastema. Information from a wide range of annelids is compiled in order to identify common and variable elements. There is a large body of valuable older literature on the cellular basis of regeneration in annelids and an effort is made to review this literature in addition to more recent studies. Annelids typically seal the wound through muscular contraction and undergo some autolysis of tissue at the site of the wound. Bodily injury elicits extensive cell migration toward the wound, involving several different types of cells. Some migrating cells form a tissue-clot and phagocytize damaged tissues, whereas others are inferred to contribute to regenerated tissue, specifically mesodermal tissue. In one annelid subgroup, the clitellates, a group of mesodermal cells, sometimes referred to as neoblasts, is inferred to migrate over considerable distances, with cells moving to the wound from several segments away. Epidermis and gut epithelia severed upon amputation typically heal by fusing with like tissue, although not always. After amputation, cellular contacts with the extracellular matrix are disrupted and major changes in cell morphology and adhesion occur within tissues near the wound. Interactions of tissues at the wound appear key for initiating a blastema, with a particularly important role suggested for the ventral nerve cord, although species are variable in this regard; longer-distance effects mediated by the brain are also reported. The

  7. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Duygu Özpolat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. Results We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  8. Bio-inspired annelid robot: a dielectric elastomer actuated soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Han-Qing; Zou, Jiang; Dong, Wan-Ting; Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-31

    Biologically inspired robots with inherent softness and body compliance increasingly attract attention in the field of robotics. Aimed at solving existing problems with soft robots, regarding actuation technology and biological principles, this paper presents a soft bio-inspired annelid robot driven by dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) that can advance on flat rigid surfaces. The DEA, a kind of soft functional actuator, is designed and fabricated to mimic the axial elongation and differential friction of a single annelid body segment. Several (at least three) DEAs are connected together into a movable multi-segment robot. Bristles are attached at the bottom of some DEAs to achieve differential friction for imitating the setae of annelids. The annelid robot is controlled by periodic square waves, propagating from the posterior to the anterior, which imitate the peristaltic waves of annelids. Controlled by these waves, each DEA, one-by-one from tail to head, anchors to the ground by circumferential distention and pushes the front DEAs forward by axial elongation, enabling the robot to advance. Preliminary tests demonstrate that a 3-segment robot can reach an average speed of 5.3 mm s -1 (1.871 body lengths min -1 ) on flat rigid surfaces and can functionally mimic the locomotion of annelids. Compared to the existing robots that imitate terrestrial annelids our annelid robot shows advantages in terms of speed and bionics.

  9. Population growth and development of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in a polluted field soil: possible consequences for the godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Hout, van der A.; Bodt, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Many soils are polluted with Mixtures of moderate levels of contaminants. In The Netherlands 175,000 sites in rural areas are classified as highly polluted. However, it remains unclear to what extent local ecosystems are endangered. In this paper, we report on the effect of contaminants on

  10. The effect of earthworms (.i.Lumbricus rubellus./i.) and simulated tillage on soil organic carbon in a long-term microcosm experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Špaldoňová, A.; Fričová, K.; Bartuška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, November (2014), s. 58-64 ISSN 0038-0717 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon sequestration * earthworms * ergosterol * litter decomposition * microbial respiration * soil processes Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 3.932, year: 2014

  11. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that

  12. Evolutionary Origin of Body Axis Segmentation in Annelids and Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, S. Martin

    2003-01-01

    During the period of this report, we have made a number of important discoveries. To date this work has led to 4 peer-reviewed publications in primary research journals plus 1 minireview and 1 chapter in the proceedings of a meeting. Publications resulting from this grant support are enumerated at the end of the report. Two additional, on-going studies also described. 1. Using laser cell ablation, we have obtained evidence that an annelid - the leech Helobdella robusta - patterns the anteroposterior (AP) polarity of its nascent segment primordia independent of cell interactions oriented along the AP axis. 2. We cloned a Helobdella homologue (hro-hh) of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog, and used in situ hybridization and northern blots to characterize its expression in the embryo. 3. We have used laser cell ablations to examine the possible role of cell interactions during the developmental patterning of the 4 rostralmost "head" segments of the leech Helobdella robusta.

  13. Evidence for stanniocalcin and a related receptor in annelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanega, Cherry; Radman, Dennis P; Flowers, Bree; Sterba, Thomas; Wagner, Graham F

    2004-10-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a prime example of a hormone whose discovery in fish led to its subsequent discovery in mammals. STC is considered to be first and foremost a vertebrate polypeptide hormone with regulatory effects on ion transport, mitochondrial function and steroid hormone synthesis. The gene is widely expressed in both fishes and mammals, and the hormone can operate via both local and endocrine signaling pathways. In spite of the growing catalogue of vertebrate hormones and receptors with homologues in invertebrates, the notion that there might be an invertebrate STC homolog has received scant attention to date. In the present study, we have provided evidence for STC in annelid worms (freshwater leeches). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of two STC immunoreactive (STCir) proteins in leech tissue extracts of 100 and 193 kDa. These same extracts significantly lowered the rate of gill calcium transport upon injection into fish. Similarly, fish STC increased the rate of whole body calcium uptake when administered to leeches, and STC receptors of high affinity were identified on isolated leech plasma membranes. Two discrete populations of STC-positive cells were also identified in leeches using antibodies to fish STC and fish STC cRNA probes. One of the cell types was confined to the skin. The second cell type was confined to the coelomic cavity and identified as an adipose cell, which in leeches is a major repository of fat. Collectively, the data constitutes compelling evidence for the existence of STC-related proteins and receptors in annelids that share structural and functional similarities with those in vertebrates.

  14. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, U.; Elliott, M.

    2010-01-01

    The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  15. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kutschera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882 began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881. Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae and the role of these annelids as global “ecosystem reworkers” (concept of bioturbation. In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Biogeographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10 000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  16. Evolution of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial phosphagen kinases unique to annelid groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumiko; Uda, Kouji; Shimada, Mayumi; Takahashi, Ken-Ichi; Gamou, Shinobu; Ellington, W Ross; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2007-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a member of a group of phosphoryl transfer enzymes called phosphagen kinases that play a key role in cellular energy transactions in animals. Three CK isoform gene families are known-cytoplasmic CK (CK), flagellar CK (fCK), and mitochondrial CK (MiCK). Each of the isoforms has a unique gene structure (intron/exon organization). A broad array of other phosphagen kinases is present in animals. Some of these enzymes are found only in annelids and closely related groups including glyocyamine kinase (GK), lombricine kinase (LK), taurocyamine kinase (TK), and a unique arginine kinase (AK) restricted to annelids. Phylogenetic analyses of these annelid phosphagen kinases indicate that they appear to have evolved from a CK-like ancestor. To gain a greater understanding of the relationship of the CK isoforms to the annelid enzymes, we have determined the intron/exon organization of the genes for the following phosphagen kinases: Eisenia LK, Sabellastarte AK, and Arenicola mitochondrial TK (MiTK). Analysis of genomic database for the polychaete Capitella sp. yielded two putative LK genes [cytoplasmic LK and mitochondrial LK (MiLK)]. The intron/exon organization of these genes was compared with available data for cytoplasmic and mitochondrial CKs, and an annelid GK. Surprisingly, these annelid genes, irrespective of whether they are cytoplasmic (LK, AK, and GK) or mitochondrial (MiTK and MiLK), had the same 8-intron/9-exon organization and were strikingly similar to MiCK genes sharing seven of eight splice junctions. These results support the view that the MiCK gene is basal and ancestral to the phosphagen kinases unique to annelids.

  17. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Luke A; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Vinther, Jakob

    2016-08-31

    As a result of their plastic body plan, the relationships of the annelid worms and even the taxonomic makeup of the phylum have long been contentious. Morphological cladistic analyses have typically recovered a monophyletic Polychaeta, with the simple-bodied forms assigned to an early-diverging clade or grade. This is in stark contrast to molecular trees, in which polychaetes are paraphyletic and include clitellates, echiurans and sipunculans. Cambrian stem group annelid body fossils are complex-bodied polychaetes that possess well-developed parapodia and paired head appendages (palps), suggesting that the root of annelids is misplaced in morphological trees. We present a reinvestigation of the morphology of key fossil taxa and include them in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of annelids. Analyses using probabilistic methods and both equal- and implied-weights parsimony recover paraphyletic polychaetes and support the conclusion that echiurans and clitellates are derived polychaetes. Morphological trees including fossils depict two main clades of crown-group annelids that are similar, but not identical, to Errantia and Sedentaria, the fundamental groupings in transcriptomic analyses. Removing fossils yields trees that are often less resolved and/or root the tree in greater conflict with molecular topologies. While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Molecular regionalization in the compact brain of the meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Dinophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerbl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain. Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa. Therefore, analyses on microscopic, direct-developing annelids are important to attain a general picture of the evolutionary events underlying the vast diversity of annelid neuroanatomy. Results We have analyzed the expression domains of 11 evolutionarily conserved genes involved in brain and anterior neural patterning in adult females of the direct-developing meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus. The small, compact brain shows expression of dimmed, foxg, goosecoid, homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle, orthopedia, pax6, six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1. Although most of the studied markers localize to specific brain areas, the genes six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1 are expressed in nearly all perikarya of the brain. All genes except for goosecoid, pax6 and nk2.2 overlap in the anterior brain region, while the respective expression domains are more separated in the posterior brain. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the expression patterns of the genes foxg, orthodenticle, orthopedia and six3/6 correlate with those described in Platynereis dumerilii larvae, and homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle and synaptotagmin-1 resemble the pattern of late larvae of Capitella teleta. Although data on other annelids are limited, molecular similarities between adult Dinophilus and larval Platynereis and Capitella suggest an overall conservation of molecular mechanisms patterning the anterior neural regions, independent

  19. Nervous system development in lecithotrophic larval and juvenile stages of the annelid Capitella teleta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Néva P; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan; Moore, Richard E; Seaver, Elaine C

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of nervous systems requires an understanding of their architecture and development across diverse taxa. The spiralians encompass diverse body plans and organ systems, and within the spiralians, annelids exhibit a variety of morphologies, life histories, feeding modes and associated nervous systems, making them an ideal group for studying evolution of nervous systems. We describe nervous system development in the annelid Capitella teleta (Blake JA, Grassle JP, Eckelbarger KJ. Capitella teleta, a new species designation for the opportunistic and experimental Capitella sp. I, with a review of the literature for confirmed records. Zoosymposia. 2009;2:25-53) using whole-mount in situ hybridization for a synaptotagmin 1 homolog, nuclear stains, and cross-reactive antibodies against acetylated α-tubulin, 5-HT and FMRFamide. Capitella teleta is member of the Sedentaria (Struck TH, Paul C, Hill N, Hartmann S, Hosel C, Kube M, et al. Phylogenomic analyses unravel annelid evolution. Nature. 2011;471:95-8) and has an indirectly-developing, lecithotrophic larva. The nervous system of C. teleta shares many features with other annelids, including a brain and a ladder-like ventral nerve cord with five connectives, reiterated commissures, and pairs of peripheral nerves. Development of the nervous system begins with the first neurons differentiating in the brain, and follows a temporal order from central to peripheral and from anterior to posterior. Similar to other annelids, neurons with serotonin-like-immunoreactivity (5HT-LIR) and FMRFamide-like-immunoreactivity (FMRF-LIR) are found throughout the brain and ventral nerve cord. A small number of larval-specific neurons and neurites are present, but are visible only after the central nervous system begins to form. These larval neurons are not visible after metamorphosis while the rest of the nervous system is largely unchanged in juveniles. Most of the nervous system that forms during

  20. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    The origin of anchialine and marine cave fauna is still a highly debated topic in Evolutionary Biology. Restricted and disjunct distribution and uncertain affinities of some marine cave endemic lineages have favored their interpretation as living fossils, surviving the extinction of their coastal....... The results yielded new data on poorly understood groups of annelids, but also on some more general aspects of regarding colonization and speciation processes to submarine caves. From an annelid evolution perspective, we produced new phylogenetic studies for Protodrilidae (with the description of four new...... genera), Saccocirridae and Nerillidae, as well as novel results on the character evolution and diversity of these groups. From the more general prospective of the cave colonization, our results highlight the importance of shift of habitats is a crucial process to understand the morphological change...

  1. Avoidance behaviour and survival of two annelid oligochaetes exposed to two fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The use of pesticides in crop fields may have negative effects on soil biodiversity. Earthworms and enchytraeids are annelid oligochaetes involved in the evolution of soil organic matter and structure at different complementary scales. This study focused on the impact of two pesticides, an organic fungicide widely used to protect cereal crops in conventional agriculture and copper, a fungicide widely used in organic agriculture on fruit trees, vine or solanaceae to prevent spore germination. ...

  2. Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles-Chávez C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida is reported. The product (humus is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

  3. Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola-Gonzalez, A.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Angeles-Chávez, C.; Castaño, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2010-09-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids ( Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product ( humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

  4. Structural Characterization of Silica Particles Extracted from Grass Stenotaphrum secundatum: Biotransformation via Annelids

    OpenAIRE

    Espíndola-Gonzalez, A.; Fuentes-Ramirez, R.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Castaño, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the structural characterization of silica particles extracted from Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) grass using an annelid-based biotransformation process. This bioprocess starts when St. Augustine grass is turned into humus by vermicompost, and then goes through calcination and acid treatment to obtain silica particles. To determine the effect of the bioprocess, silica particles without biotransformation were extracted directly from the sample of grass. The characteri...

  5. The aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos River headsprings, Hays County, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean L.D. Worsham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The San Marcos River in Central Texas has been well studied and has been demonstrated to be remarkably specious. Prior to the present study, research on free-living invertebrates in the San Marcos River only dealt with hard bodied taxa with the exception of the report of one gastrotrich, and one subterranean platyhelminth that only incidentally occurs in the head spring outflows. The remainder of the soft-bodied metazoan fauna that inhabit the San Marcos River had never been studied. Our study surveyed the annelid fauna and some other soft-bodied invertebrates of the San Marcos River headsprings. At least four species of Hirudinida, two species of Aphanoneura, one species of Branchiobdellida, and 11 (possibly 13 species of oligochaetous clitellates were collected. Other vermiform taxa collected included at least three species of Turbellaria and one species of Nemertea. We provide the results of the first survey of the aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos Springs, along with a dichotomous key to these annelids that includes photos of some representative specimens, and line drawings to elucidate potentially confusing diagnostic structures.

  6. The aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos River headsprings, Hays County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, McLean L. D.; Gibson, Randy; Huffman, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The San Marcos River in Central Texas has been well studied and has been demonstrated to be remarkably specious. Prior to the present study, research on free-living invertebrates in the San Marcos River only dealt with hard bodied taxa with the exception of the report of one gastrotrich, and one subterranean platyhelminth that only incidentally occurs in the head spring outflows. The remainder of the soft-bodied metazoan fauna that inhabit the San Marcos River had never been studied. Our study surveyed the annelid fauna and some other soft-bodied invertebrates of the San Marcos River headsprings. At least four species of Hirudinida, two species of Aphanoneura, one species of Branchiobdellida, and 11 (possibly 13) species of oligochaetous clitellates were collected. Other vermiform taxa collected included at least three species of Turbellaria and one species of Nemertea. We provide the results of the first survey of the aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos Springs, along with a dichotomous key to these annelids that includes photos of some representative specimens, and line drawings to elucidate potentially confusing diagnostic structures. PMID:27853397

  7. Whole-body single-cell sequencing reveals transcriptional domains in the annelid larval body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Kaia; Eling, Nils; Vergara, Hernando Martinez; Bertucci, Paola Yanina; Musser, Jacob; Vopalensky, Pavel; Brunet, Thibaut; Collier, Paul; Benes, Vladimir; Marioni, John C; Arendt, Detlev

    2018-01-24

    Animal bodies comprise diverse arrays of cells. To characterise cellular identities across an entire body, we have compared the transcriptomes of single cells randomly picked from dissociated whole larvae of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We identify five transcriptionally distinct groups of differentiated cells, each expressing a unique set of transcription factors and effector genes that implement cellular phenotypes. Spatial mapping of cells into a cellular expression atlas, and wholemount in situ hybridisation of group-specific genes reveals spatially coherent transcriptional domains in the larval body, comprising e.g. apical sensory-neurosecretory cells vs. neural/epidermal surface cells. These domains represent new, basic subdivisions of the annelid body based entirely on differential gene expression, and are composed of multiple, transcriptionally similar cell types. They do not represent clonal domains, as revealed by developmental lineage analysis. We propose that the transcriptional domains that subdivide the annelid larval body represent families of related cell types that have arisen by evolutionary diversification. Their possible evolutionary conservation makes them a promising tool for evo-devo research. (167/250). © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Molecular regionalization in the compact brain of the meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Dinophilidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Martín-Durán, José M.; Worsaae, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa. Therefore, analyses on microscopic, direct......-developing annelids are important to attain a general picture of the evolutionary events underlying the vast diversity of annelid neuroanatomy. RESULTS: We have analyzed the expression domains of 11 evolutionarily conserved genes involved in brain and anterior neural patterning in adult females of the direct......BACKGROUND: Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain). Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central...

  9. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of fleshy pored mushrooms: Neoboletus luridiformis and Hortiboletus rubellus from western Himalayan range of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Khalid, N.; Dentinger, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fleshy pored mushrooms is the name given to boletes due to their porous hymenium and fleshy nature. These are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes found in all continents except Antarctica. These mushrooms are important economically due to their edibility and medicinal value. This research work highlights the diversity of boletes in Pakistan and their correct identification by using molecular phylogenetic techniques. Western Himalayan range (WHR) of Pakistan is considered as diversity rich area. During present investigation regarding diversity of boletes in these areas, two bolete taxa viz. Hortiboletus rubellus and Neoboletus luridiformis were found under conifers. These mushrooms were collected and analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically by using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA sequences, and compared with their allies. All description and comparison with related taxa is provided in detail. These boletes are first time analyzed using molecular method from Pakistan. (author)

  11. Structural Characterization of Silica Particles Extracted from Grass Stenotaphrum secundatum: Biotransformation via Annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Espíndola-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the structural characterization of silica particles extracted from Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine grass using an annelid-based biotransformation process. This bioprocess starts when St. Augustine grass is turned into humus by vermicompost, and then goes through calcination and acid treatment to obtain silica particles. To determine the effect of the bioprocess, silica particles without biotransformation were extracted directly from the sample of grass. The characterization of the silica particles was performed using Infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS. Both types of particles showed differences in morphology and size. The particles without biotransformation were essentially amorphous while those obtained via annelids showed specific crystalline phases. The biological relationship between the metabolisms of worms and microorganisms and the organic-mineral matter causes changes to the particles' properties. The results of this study are important because they will allow synthesis of silica in cheaper and more ecofriendly ways.

  12. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazave, Eve; Guillou, Aurélien; Balavoine, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages.

  13. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg- 1 ) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  14. Novel mobbing strategies of a fish population against a sessile annelid predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Jose; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2016-09-12

    When searching for food, foraging fishes expose themselves to hidden predators. The strategies that maximize the survival of foraging fishes are not well understood. Here, we describe a novel type of mobbing behaviour displayed by foraging Scolopsis affinis. The fish direct sharp water jets towards the hidden sessile annelid predator Eunice aphroditois (Bobbit worm). We recognized two different behavioural roles for mobbers (i.e., initiator and subsequent participants). The first individual to exhibit behaviour indicating the discovery of the Bobbit directed, absolutely and per time unit, more water jets than the subsequent individuals that joined the mobbing. We found evidence that the mobbing impacted the behaviour of the Bobbit, e.g., by inducing retraction. S. affinis individuals either mob alone or form mobbing groups. We speculate that this behaviour may provide social benefits for its conspecifics by securing foraging territories for S. affinis. Our results reveal a sophisticated and complex behavioural strategy to protect against a hidden predator.

  15. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids--earthworms, leeches and their relatives--is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like 'crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record.

  16. The impact of paralogy on phylogenomic studies - a case study on annelid relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten H Struck

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic studies based on hundreds of genes derived from expressed sequence tags libraries are increasingly used to reveal the phylogeny of taxa. A prerequisite for these studies is the assignment of genes into clusters of orthologous sequences. Sophisticated methods of orthology prediction are used in such analyses, but it is rarely assessed whether paralogous sequences have been erroneously grouped together as orthologous sequences after the prediction, and whether this had an impact on the phylogenetic reconstruction using a super-matrix approach. Herein, I tested the impact of paralogous sequences on the reconstruction of annelid relationships based on phylogenomic datasets. Using single-partition analyses, screening for bootstrap support, blast searches and pruning of sequences in the supermatrix, wrongly assigned paralogous sequences were found in eight partitions and the placement of five taxa (the annelids Owenia, Scoloplos, Sthenelais and Eurythoe and the nemertean Cerebratulus including the robust bootstrap support could be attributed to the presence of paralogous sequences in two partitions. Excluding these sequences resulted in a different, weaker supported placement for these taxa. Moreover, the analyses revealed that paralogous sequences impacted the reconstruction when only a single taxon represented a previously supported higher taxon such as a polychaete family. One possibility of a priori detection of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences could combine 1 a screening of single-partition analyses based on criteria such as nodal support or internal branch length with 2 blast searches of suspicious cases as presented herein. Also possible are a posteriori approaches in which support for specific clades is investigated by comparing alternative hypotheses based on differences in per-site likelihoods. Increasing the sizes of EST libraries will also decrease the likelihood of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences, and in the case

  17. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: → Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. → Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. → Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  18. Biological Effects of a Carbohydrate-Binding Protein from an Annelid, Perinereis nuntia Against Human and Phytopathogenic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar M. A. Kawsar; Sarkar M. A. Mamun; Md S. Rahman; Hidetaro Yasumitsu; Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2010-01-01

    Lectins have a good scope in current clinical microbiology research. In the present study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a D-galactose binding lectin (PnL) was purified from the annelid, Perinereis nuntia (polychaeta) by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 32 kDa as a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. The hemagglutinating activity of the PnL showed against trypsinized and g...

  19. Annelid symbiont assemblage and European stone crayfish − a deterministic relationship with implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Christian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected European stone crayfish, Austropotamobius torrentium, is a host to epibionts inhabiting its exoskeleton. Despite evidence of the close association of these epibionts to the crayfish and the beneficial services provided for the crayfish, the main factors influencing their occurrence, distribution and abundance are still poorly understood. In order to investigate the stone crayfish epibiont community, the ecological requirements of individual species, and aspects of the host-epibiont relationship we collected data at several crayfish populations in Austria, Switzerland and Germany. At each location, we recorded the epibiont position on the crayfish host along with a number of biotic and abiotic parameters. Apart from recording the Branchiobdella species B. parasita, B. hexadonta, B. pentadonta and B. balcanica, we detected for the first time the polychaete Hystricosoma chappuisi in the European Alps. Species-specific biogeographical and habitat factors such as river catchment borders, crayfish length, water temperature and nutrients concentration were identified to be important for the occurrence and abundance of epibionts. Branchiobdella species were strongly linked to certain host body areas, providing evidence for the existence of different functional traits within the annelid assemblage. With this study we demonstrate that the crayfish–epibionts relationship includes structural and functional complexities that can be important for defining management units in future conservation policies. Due to benefits for the mutualistic relationship, restocking and reintroduction actions are likely to be more successful, if ecological requirements of both the host and the epibiont species are considered.

  20. MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND MICRORELIEF OF THE LUMBRICUS CELOMOCYTES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Andreevich Prisnyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study the morphometric parameters and microrelief of the coelomocytes membrane of the Lumbricus representatives in normal and under osmotic pressure. Materials and methods: In the experiments, representatives of three species belonging to the genus Lumbricus were used. To conduct each series of experiments a coelomic liquid of 15 representatives of each species was used. From the circulation system of each individual examined, at least 250 cells were processed. The study of morphometric parameters of coelomocytes was carried out in isotonic conditions, and also with the use of osmotic tests in vitro. The features of the surface topography of coelomocytes were study using the “Integra Vita Probe Nanaboratorium” (NT-MDT, Russia. The analysis of amplitude and functional average statistical parameters of membrane roughness is carried out. The results of the research were processed using statistics methods using the Microsoft Excel 7.0 analysis package. Results: The Lumbricus representatives of revealed differences in the responses of amoebocytes and eleocytes to the effect of osmotic stress. Under the conditions of osmotic pressure, several morphologically different forms were found among the cells of each type. This indicates the potential ability of coelomocytes to spread out on the substrate for any type of osmotic pressure. The change in the topography of the cell membrane of coelomocytes under the hypoosmotic pressure is characterized by a smoothing of the microrelief structures with a decrease in the size of the microvysings and microinvaginations. Conclusion: The microrelief of the coelomocytes membrane reflects the features of their functional status changing under the influence of environmental factors.

  1. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Dew-worms in white nights: High latitude light constrains earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) behaviour at the soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil is an effective barrier to light penetration that limits the direct influence of light on belowground organisms. Variation in aboveground light conditions, however, is important to soil-dwelling animals that are periodically active on the soil surface. A prime example is the earthworm Lumbricus...

  3. Conditional and specific cell ablation in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Babu Veedin-Rajan

    Full Text Available The marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii has become a model system for evo-devo, neurobiology and marine biology. The functional assessment of its cell types, however, has so far been very limited. Here we report on the establishment of a generally applicable, cell type specific ablation technique to overcome this restriction. Using a transgenic strain expressing the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase (ntr under the control of the worm's r-opsin1 locus, we show that the demarcated photoreceptor cells can be specifically ablated by the addition of the prodrug metronidazole (mtz. TUNEL staining indicates that ntr expressing cells undergo apoptotic cell death. As we used a transgenic strain co-expressing ntr with enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp coding sequence, we were able to validate the ablation of photoreceptors not only in fixed tissue, using r-opsin1 riboprobes, but also by monitoring eGFP+ cells in live animals. The specificity of the ablation was demonstrated by the normal presence of the eye pigment cells, as well as of neuronal markers expressed in other cells of the brain, such as phc2, tyrosine hydroxylase and brn1/2/4. Additional analyses of the position of DAPI stained nuclei, the brain's overall neuronal scaffold, as well as the positions and projections of serotonergic neurons further confirmed that mtz treatment did not induce general abnormalities in the worm's brain. As the prodrug is administered by adding it to the water, targeted ablation of specific cell types can be achieved throughout the life of the animal. We show that ablation conditions need to be adjusted to the size of the worms, likely due to differences in the penetration of the prodrug, and establish ablation conditions for worms containing 10 to 55 segments. Our results establish mtz/ntr mediated conditional cell ablation as a powerful functional tool in Platynereis.

  4. Life history and seasonal breeding of the deep-sea annelid Ophryotrocha sp. (Polychaeta: Dorvelleidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François

    2014-09-01

    Shallow-water annelids of the genus Ophryotrocha have become a popular biological system for exploring ecological, behavioral, developmental, and toxicological questions. Here we report on the successful maintenance in holding tanks, complete life cycle, and reproductive phenology of a first deep-water representative that could be used as a model species. This Ophryotrocha, which has yet to be formally described, is large (12-16 mm long) and exhibits simultaneous hermaphroditism. Specimens collected off northeast Newfoundland (eastern Canada) between 500 and 1500 m depth were monitored under flow-through laboratory conditions for over three years. They consistently exhibited seasonal feeding from April to February, followed by a reproductive season between February and May. Gametogenesis was initiated in early January and completed in early to mid-February, followed by courtship, which mainly involved pairs of individuals attached head to tail for hours to days. Transparent gelatinous masses containing 80-110 eggs were laid from mid-February to late-March. Propagules developed in the mass to the 1-chaetiger stage and, at an ambient temperature of ~1-4 °C, offspring emerged 30-45 days post-laying. Only ~40-45% of the eggs laid developed to the 1-chaetiger stage, with evidence of adelphophagy. After emerging from the gelatinous mass, 1-chaetiger stages remained aggregated and were guarded by adults for a few days before dispersing. All parents died following the dispersal of their offspring. The new generation reached sexual maturity in 8-9 months and was ready to reproduce the following January-February. A few cases of segmenting adult worms were also observed. Three complete generations developed successively to sexual maturity over the course of this study.

  5. Characterization of a Novel Spirochete Associated with the Hydrothermal Vent Polychaete Annelid, Alvinella pompejana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara J.; Cary, S. Craig

    2001-01-01

    A highly integrated, morphologically diverse bacterial community is associated with the dorsal surface of Alvinella pompejana, a polychaetous annelid that inhabits active high-temperature deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites along the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Analysis of a previously prepared bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) library identified a spirochete most closely related to an endosymbiont of the oligochete Olavius loisae. This spirochete phylotype (spirochete A) comprised only 2.2% of the 16S rDNA clone library but appeared to be much more dominant when the same sample was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure (12 to 18%). PCR amplification of the community with spirochete-specific primers used in conjunction with DGGE analysis identified two spirochete phylotypes. The first spirochete was identical to spirochete A but was present in only one A. pompejana specimen. The second spirochete (spirochete B) was 84.5% similar to spirochete A and, more interestingly, was present in the epibiont communities of all of the A. pompejana specimens sampled throughout the geographic range of the worm (13°N to 32°S along the EPR). The sequence variation of the spirochete B phylotype was less than 3% for the range of A. pompejana specimens tested, suggesting that a single spirochete species was present in the A. pompejana epibiotic community. Additional analysis of the environments surrounding the worm revealed that spirochetes are a ubiquitous component of high-temperature vents and may play an important role in this unique ecosystem. PMID:11133434

  6. Mesonerilla neridae, n. sp. (Nerillidae): First meiofaunal annelid from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W

    2009-01-01

    Though most common in coastal sandy bottoms, nerillid annelids have been found in a broad variety of habitats around the world and two genera have previously been reported from the deep sea. During a cruise to the southern East Pacific Rise and northern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (near Easter Island......) in 2005, six specimens of a new species of Mesonerilla were collected at depths of 2234-2649 m. Samples were taken via DSV Alvin with a slurp gun collecting fine silt and volcanic glass shards in cracks, fissures, and mussel beds from 5-20 m away from active venting areas. As well as being the first deep...

  7. Biophysical Properties of Lumbricus terrestris Erythrocruorin and Its Potential Use as a Red Blood Cell Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Elmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous generations of hemoglobin (Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been plagued by key biophysical limitations that result in severe side-effects once transfused in vivo, including protein instability, high heme oxidation rates, and nitric oxide (NO scavenging. All of these problems emerge after mammalian Hbs are removed from red blood cells (RBCs and used for HBOC synthesis/formulation. Therefore, extracellular Hbs (erythrocruorins from organisms which lack RBCs might serve as better HBOCs. This review focuses on the erythrocruorin of Lumbricus terrestris (LtEc, which has been shown to be extremely stable, resistant to oxidation, and may interact with NO differently than mammalian Hbs. All of these beneficial properties show that LtEc is a promising new HBOC which warrants further investigation.

  8. What role do annelid neoblasts play? A comparison of the regeneration patterns in a neoblast-bearing and a neoblast-lacking enchytraeid oligochaete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroko Myohara

    Full Text Available The term 'neoblast' was originally coined for a particular type of cell that had been observed during annelid regeneration, but is now used to describe the pluripotent/totipotent stem cells that are indispensable for planarian regeneration. Despite having the same name, however, planarian and annelid neoblasts are morphologically and functionally distinct, and many annelid species that lack neoblasts can nonetheless substantially regenerate. To further elucidate the functions of the annelid neoblasts, a comparison was made between the regeneration patterns of two enchytraeid oligochaetes, Enchytraeus japonensis and Enchytraeus buchholzi, which possess and lack neoblasts, respectively. In E. japonensis, which can reproduce asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration, neoblasts are present in all segments except for the eight anterior-most segments including the seven head-specific segments, and all body fragments containing neoblasts can regenerate a complete head and a complete tail, irrespective of the region of the body from which they were originally derived. In E. japonensis, therefore, no antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability exists in the trunk region. However, when amputation was carried out within the head region, where neoblasts are absent, the number of regenerated segments was found to be dependent on the level of amputation along the body axis. In E. buchholzi, which reproduces only sexually and lacks neoblasts in all segments, complete heads were never regenerated and incomplete (hypomeric heads could be regenerated only from the anterior region of the body. Such an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability was observed for both the anterior and posterior regeneration in the whole body of E. buchholzi. These results indicate that the presence of neoblasts correlates with the absence of an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability along the body axis, and suggest that the annelid neoblasts are

  9. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  10. Annetocin, an annelid oxytocin-related peptide, induces egg-laying behavior in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumi, T; Ukena, K; Matsushima, O; Ikeda, T; Fujita, T; Minakata, H; Nomoto, K

    1996-10-01

    Annetocin, an oxytocin-related peptide which we isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, induced a series of egg-laying-related behaviors in the earthworms. These stereotyped behaviors consisted of well-defined rotatory movements, characteristic body-shape changes, and mucous secretion from the clitellum. Each of these behaviors is known to be associated with formation of the cocoon in which eggs are deposited. In fact, some of the earthworms injected with annetocin (> 5 nmol) laid eggs. Such egg-laying-related behaviors except for oviposition were also induced by oxytocin, but not by Arg-vasopressin and some other bioactive peptides isolated from E. foetida. Furthermore, annetocin also induced these egg-laying-like behaviors in the leech Whitmania pigra, but not in the polychaete Perinereis vancaurica. These results suggest that annetocin plays some key role in triggering stereotyped egg-laying behaviors in terrestrial or fresh-water annelids that have the clitella.

  11. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Acetylcholine-binding Protein from the Marine Annelid Capitella teleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, T.; Petrovich,; Mercier, K; DeRose, E; Cuneo, M; Williams, J; Johnson, K; Lamb, P; London, R; Yakel, J

    2010-01-01

    We identified a homologue of the molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta, from the annelid phylum. The amino acid sequence of C. teleta AChBP (ct-AChBP) is 21-30% identical with those of known molluscan AChBPs. Sequence alignments indicate that ct-AChBP has a shortened Cys loop compared to other Cys loop receptors, and a variation on a conserved Cys loop triad, which is associated with ligand binding in other AChBPs and nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) {alpha} subunits. Within the D loop of ct-AChBP, a conserved aromatic residue (Tyr or Trp) in nAChRs and molluscan AChBPs, which has been implicated directly in ligand binding, is substituted with an isoleucine. Mass spectrometry results indicate that Asn122 and Asn216 of ct-AChBP are glycosylated when expressed using HEK293 cells. Small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest that the overall shape of ct-AChBP in the apo or unliganded state is similar to that of homologues with known pentameric crystal structures. NMR experiments show that acetylcholine, nicotine, and {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind to ct-AChBP with high affinity, with KD values of 28.7 {micro}M, 209 nM, and 110 nM, respectively. Choline bound with a lower affinity (K{sub D} = 163 {micro}M). Our finding of a functional AChBP in a marine annelid demonstrates that AChBPs may exhibit variations in hallmark motifs such as ligand-binding residues and Cys loop length and shows conclusively that this neurotransmitter binding protein is not limited to the phylum Mollusca.

  12. Measurement and simulation of unmyelinated nerve electrostimulation: Lumbricus terrestris experiment and numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarolić, A; Živković, Z; Reilly, J P

    2016-06-21

    The electrostimulation excitation threshold of a nerve depends on temporal and frequency parameters of the stimulus. These dependences were investigated in terms of: (1) strength-duration (SD) curve for a single monophasic rectangular pulse, and (2) frequency dependence of the excitation threshold for a continuous sinusoidal current. Experiments were performed on the single-axon measurement setup based on Lumbricus terrestris having unmyelinated nerve fibers. The simulations were performed using the well-established SENN model for a myelinated nerve. Although the unmyelinated experimental model differs from the myelinated simulation model, both refer to a single axon. Thus we hypothesized that the dependence on temporal and frequency parameters should be very similar. The comparison was made possible by normalizing each set of results to the SD time constant and the rheobase current of each model, yielding the curves that show the temporal and frequency dependencies regardless of the model differences. The results reasonably agree, suggesting that this experimental setup and method of comparison with SENN model can be used for further studies of waveform effect on nerve excitability, including unmyelinated neurons.

  13. Effect of heavy metal exposure on blood haemoglobin concentration and methemoglobin percentage in Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, A; Lionetto, M G; Sanchez-Hernandez, J C; Schettino, T

    2011-06-01

    The earthworm haemoglobin (Hb) is a large extracellular hemoprotein flowing in a closed circulatory system. In spite of the fundamental role of this respiratory pigment in earthworm physiology, little is known about its sensitivity to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible effect of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, mercury) exposure on Hb concentration and oxidation state (methemoglobin formation) in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In addition, the tissue concentration of metallothioneins, a well-known biomarker of heavy metal exposure, was determined as an indicator of metal uptake. The animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu and Hg utilizing the standard acute toxicity test, "Filter paper test" for 48 h. Exposure to heavy metals (10(-5)-10(-3) M for Cd, 10(-4)-10(-3) M for Hg, and 10(-4)-10(-2) M for Cu) was found to increase haemoglobin concentration in L. terrestris, although the magnitude of such an increase was dependent on the metal. In addition, metal exposure led to the formation of methemoglobin. Compared to other known biological responses to heavy metals, such as metallothionein induction, methemoglobin increase showed a higher sensitivity and a higher percentage variation in exposed organisms, showing to be a possible suitable biomarker of exposure/effect to be included in a multi biomarker strategy in earthworm in soil monitoring assessment.

  14. Biomarker response in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chemical pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, A; Lionetto, M G; Schettino, T

    2011-09-15

    Earthworms are important organisms for the soil ecosystem. They are sensitive to toxic chemicals and represent useful bioindicator organisms for soil biomonitoring. Recently the use of biomarkers in earthworms has been increasingly investigated for soil monitoring and assessment purpose. The aim of the preset paper was to analyze the pollutant-induced response of a suite of cellular and biochemical biomarkers in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to copper sulphate or methiocarb in OECD soil at the maximal concentrations recommended in agriculture. These responses were compared to lifecycle parameters such as survival, growth and reproduction. Granulocyte morphometric alteration, lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein concentration, and acetylcholinesterase activity were considered. In either copper sulphate or methiocarb exposure conditions the mean percentage variation of the pollutant-induced molecular and cellular biomarkers was consistent with the whole organism end-point responses. In particular pollutant-induced granulocyte enlargement, detected in either copper sulphate or methiocarb exposed organisms, showed to be a potential general biomarker that may be directly linked to organism health. Compared to the other biological responses to pollutants, it showed high sensitivity to pollutant exposure suggesting its possible applications as a sensitive, simple, and quick general biomarker for monitoring and assessment applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioavailability and cellular effects of metals on Lumbricus terrestris inhabiting volcanic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Andre; Soto, Manu; Cunha, Regina; Marigomez, Ionan; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2006-01-01

    Whether the radial thickness (RT) of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) reflects the bioavailability of metals in soils was investigated in two areas, one with active volcanism (Furnas) and another with no volcanic activity since 3 million years ago (Santa Maria), in the Azores. Metal contents in soil samples and earthworms from the two areas were analyzed. Autometallography and measurements of the RT were performed in the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium. Earthworms from the active volcanic area demonstrated lower RT of chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium as well as higher levels of bioavailable metals, especially Zn and Cd. Comparison of bioavailable metal contents between both areas suggests a higher risk for uptake of potentially toxic metals in the active volcanic area than in the non-active volcanic area, which is reflected by the lower RT of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium in the former. - In earthworms, differences in the chloragogenous tissue morphometry may be related to the bioavailability of metals in soils

  16. Bioavailability and cellular effects of metals on Lumbricus terrestris inhabiting volcanic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Andre [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, R. Mae de Deus, APT 1422, PT-9501-855 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)]. E-mail: aamaral@notes.uac.pt; Soto, Manu [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzi Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 PK E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Cunha, Regina [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, R. Mae de Deus, APT 1422, PT-9501-855 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzi Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 PK E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rodrigues, Armindo [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, R. Mae de Deus, APT 1422, PT-9501-855 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2006-07-15

    Whether the radial thickness (RT) of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) reflects the bioavailability of metals in soils was investigated in two areas, one with active volcanism (Furnas) and another with no volcanic activity since 3 million years ago (Santa Maria), in the Azores. Metal contents in soil samples and earthworms from the two areas were analyzed. Autometallography and measurements of the RT were performed in the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium. Earthworms from the active volcanic area demonstrated lower RT of chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium as well as higher levels of bioavailable metals, especially Zn and Cd. Comparison of bioavailable metal contents between both areas suggests a higher risk for uptake of potentially toxic metals in the active volcanic area than in the non-active volcanic area, which is reflected by the lower RT of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium in the former. - In earthworms, differences in the chloragogenous tissue morphometry may be related to the bioavailability of metals in soils.

  17. Metal redistribution by surface casting of four earthworm species in sandy and loamy clay soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, M.I.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bioturbation of metal contaminated soils contributes considerably to redistribution and surfacing of contaminated soil from deeper layers. To experimentally measure the contribution of Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus and L. terrestris to soil surface casting, a

  18. Cell lineage and cell cycling analyses of the 4d micromere using live imaging in the marine annelidPlatynereis dumerilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Handberg-Thorsager, Mette; Vervoort, Michel; Balavoine, Guillaume

    2017-12-12

    Cell lineage, cell cycle, and cell fate are tightly associated in developmental processes, but in vivo studies at single-cell resolution showing the intricacies of these associations are rare due to technical limitations. In this study on the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, we investigated the lineage of the 4d micromere, using high-resolution long-term live imaging complemented with a live-cell cycle reporter. 4d is the origin of mesodermal lineages and the germline in many spiralians. We traced lineages at single-cell resolution within 4d and demonstrate that embryonic segmental mesoderm forms via teloblastic divisions, as in clitellate annelids. We also identified the precise cellular origins of the larval mesodermal posterior growth zone. We found that differentially-fated progeny of 4d (germline, segmental mesoderm, growth zone) display significantly different cell cycling. This work has evolutionary implications, sets up the foundation for functional studies in annelid stem cells, and presents newly established techniques for live imaging marine embryos.

  19. High-dose antioxidant therapy and steroids might improve the outcome of acute renal failure from intoxication by Cortinarius rubellus: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, Julia; Mayer, Gert; Maurer, Anton

    2012-12-01

    Only a small number of cases with favourable outcome after acute renal failure due to intoxication by Cortinarius sp. have been reported in the literature, and approximately half of the patients develop chronic renal failure and dialysis-dependency. We report the case of a couple with acute renal failure after accidental intake of Cortinarius rubellus and a favourable outcome after treatment with high-dose antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine and steroids. Dialysis was never necessary in both patients and renal function was almost normal at the end of follow-up. Underdiagnosis of this rare cause of acute renal failure is likely due to the fact that affected patients develop symptoms of intoxication after a delay of 2-30 days. In patients with unclear acute renal failure with or without gastrointestinal symptoms, intoxication from Cortinarius sp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Early treatment with high-dose antioxidant therapy and steroids might be effective in reducing the risk of chronic renal failure.

  20. Direct detection of a single evoked action potential with MRS in Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawsky, Alexander J; Dingledine, Raymond; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) measures neural activity indirectly by detecting the signal change associated with the hemodynamic response following brain activation. In order to alleviate the temporal and spatial specificity problems associated with fMRI, a number of attempts have been made to detect neural magnetic fields (NMFs) with MRI directly, but have thus far provided conflicting results. In this study, we used MR to detect axonal NMFs in the median giant fiber of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, by examining the free induction decay (FID) with a sampling interval of 0.32 ms. The earthworm nerve cords were isolated from the vasculature and stimulated at the threshold of action potential generation. FIDs were acquired shortly after the stimulation, and simultaneous field potential recordings identified the presence or absence of single evoked action potentials. FIDs acquired when the stimulus did not evoke an action potential were summed as background. The phase of the background-subtracted FID exhibited a systematic change, with a peak phase difference of (-1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-5) radians occurring at a time corresponding to the timing of the action potential. In addition, we calculated the possible changes in the FID magnitude and phase caused by a simulated action potential using a volume conductor model. The measured phase difference matched the theoretical prediction well in both amplitude and temporal characteristics. This study provides the first evidence for the direct detection of a magnetic field from an evoked action potential using MR. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Polychaete Annelid (segmented worms) Species Composition in the Deep Gulf of Mexico following the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    QU, F.; Rowe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments 5 to 9 km from the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill site were sampled using a 0.2 m2 box corer 5 months after the event to assess the effects of the oil spill on polychaete annelid (segmented worms) community structure. Numbers of species, abundance, and biodiversity indices were all significantly lower than pre-spill values from similar depths in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). All of the five dominant species were different. Non-selective deposit feeders and selective deposit feeders were still the most frequent feeding guilds, but their abundances decreased significantly after the event. A large number of carnivorous Sigalionidae may be a response to an accumulation of PAHs on the sediment. Multivariate analyses (CLUSTER and multidimensional scaling (MDS)) illustrate the differences between assemblages near the DWH and those from prior studies in similar deep GoM habitats. In sum, the polychaete populations appeared to be at an early stage of succession in the recovery from the spill or they could be a resident assemblage that is the natural characteristic infauna in or adjacent to natural seeps of fossil hydrocarbons.

  2. Allocation of cytoplasm to macromeres in embryos of annelids and molluscs is positively correlated with egg size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caleb; Stankowich, Theodore; Pernet, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary transitions between feeding and nonfeeding larval development have occurred many times in marine invertebrates, but the developmental changes underlying these frequent and ecologically important transitions are poorly known, especially in spiralians. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypothesis that evolutionary changes in egg size and larval nutritional mode are associated with parallel changes in allocation of cytoplasm to macromere cell lineages in diverse annelids and molluscs. Our analyses show that embryos of species with large eggs and nonfeeding larvae tend to allocate relatively more embryonic cytoplasm to macromeres at 3rd cleavage than do embryos of species with small eggs and feeding larvae. The association between egg size and allocation to macromeres in these spiralians may be driven by constraints associated with mitotic spindle positioning and size, or may be a result of "adaptation in cleavage" to maintain rapid cell cycles in micromeres, position yolk in cell lineages where it can be most efficiently used, or adjust allocation to ectoderm to accommodate changes in embryonic surface area/volume ratio. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of tree leaf litter, deer fecal pellets, and soil properties on growth of an introduced earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris): Implications for invasion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassidy N. Yatso; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2016-01-01

    Invasive earthworm communities are expanding into previously earthworm-free forests of North America, producing profound ecosystem changes. Lumbricus terrestris is an invasive anecic earthworm that consumes a large portion of the detritus on the soil surface, eliminating forest floor organic horizons and reducing soil organic matter. Two mesocosm...

  4. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  5. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: → Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. → We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. → Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. → The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  6. Three new species of Gladiolus (Iridaceae from South Africa, a major range extension for G. rubellus and taxonomic notes for the genus in southern and tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Gladiolus L. are described from South Africa.  G. dolichosiphon is the second known member of series Blandus from the mountains of the Little Karoo in Western Cape, and is distinguished from other members of the long tubed, pink-flowered G. carneus complex by its 5 or 6 linear leaves, creamy pink to salmon flowers with a tube 30-50 mm long and longer than the dorsal tepal, and its late summer flowering. G. karooicus from the Klein Roggeveld and the northern foothills of the Witteberg, is a spring-flowering species allied to G. permeabilis but has bright, canary-yellow flowers with the lower part of the lower tepals involute and conspicuously auriculate.  G. reginae is an edaphic endemic of the Sekhuk- huneland Centre of Floristic Endemism in Mpumalanga, and flowers in autumn. It is evidently a glabrous member of section Densiflorus series Scabridus, distinguished by its long-tubed flowers, streaked with red on the lower tepals and blotched with red in the throat. Anomalously, however, it has the tubular inner bracts and large capsules diagnostic of section Ophiolyza series Oppositiflorus. A re-examination of the morphology suggests that series Scabridus is better placed in section Ophiolyza and a slightly revised classification of Gladiolus in southern Africa is proposed. We also propose the replacement name G. sulculatus for the Tanzanian species, G. sulcatus Goldblatt, a later homonym of G. sulcatus Lam. Finally, a recent sighting of what appears to be G. rubellus from northern Namibia constitutes the first record of this species in the country and a major range extension from its previous known occurrence in southeastern Botswana.

  7. Tri-domain Bifunctional Inhibitor of Metallocarboxypeptidases A and Serine Proteases Isolated from Marine Annelid Sabellastarte magnifica*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-del-Rivero, Maday; Trejo, Sebastian A.; Reytor, Mey L.; Rodriguez-de-la-Vega, Monica; Delfin, Julieta; Diaz, Joaquin; González-González, Yamile; Canals, Francesc; Chavez, Maria Angeles; Aviles, Francesc X.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel bifunctional metallocarboxypeptidase and serine protease inhibitor (SmCI) isolated from the tentacle crown of the annelid Sabellastarte magnifica. SmCI is a 165-residue glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 19.69 kDa (mass spectrometry) and 18 cysteine residues forming nine disulfide bonds. Its cDNA was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR and nested PCR using degenerated oligonucleotides. Employing this information along with data derived from automatic Edman degradation of peptide fragments, the SmCI sequence was fully characterized, indicating the presence of three bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor/Kunitz domains and its high homology with other Kunitz serine protease inhibitors. Enzyme kinetics and structural analyses revealed SmCI to be an inhibitor of human and bovine pancreatic metallocarboxypeptidases of the A-type (but not B-type), with nanomolar Ki values. SmCI is also capable of inhibiting bovine pancreatic trypsin, chymotrypsin, and porcine pancreatic elastase in varying measures. When the inhibitor and its nonglycosylated form (SmCI N23A mutant) were overproduced recombinantly in a Pichia pastoris system, they displayed the dual inhibitory properties of the natural form. Similarly, two bi-domain forms of the inhibitor (recombinant rSmCI D1-D2 and rSmCI D2-D3) as well as its C-terminal domain (rSmCI-D3) were also overproduced. Of these fragments, only the rSmCI D1-D2 bi-domain retained inhibition of metallocarboxypeptidase A but only partially, indicating that the whole tri-domain structure is required for such capability in full. SmCI is the first proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases able to act as well on another mechanistic class of proteases (serine-type) and is the first of this kind identified in nature. PMID:22411994

  8. Effect of temperature on heavy metal toxicity to earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Annelida: Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A Q; Ahmed, S A; Salazar, A; Gurumendi, J; Khan, A; Vargas, M; von Catalin, B

    2007-10-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) acclimated at 2 degrees C above their habitat temperature (10-12 degrees C) showed about 5% increase in basal rate of oxygen consumption, which increased to about 38% in 14-16 degrees C- and 40% in 16-18 degrees C-, but decreased by 84% in 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms. Temperature also increased the blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, which decreased slightly in 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms. The worms acclimated at 20-22 degrees C showed their blood to be hypovolemic than that of 10-12 degrees C worms indicating dehydration. Pre-exposure of 10-14 degrees C-acclimated worms to sublethal concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead did not significantly affect the rate of respiration. However, at higher temperatures all these metals inhibited oxygen consumption; zinc, lead, and cadmium by approximately 11% and copper by approximately 18% of that at 14-16 degrees C. At 20-22 degrees C, the respiration was further inhibited, 36% by copper, 18% by cadmium, and approximately 10% by lead and zinc. Copper, lead, and zinc decreased the temperature-enhanced increase in blood Hb concentration at all temperatures. In 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms heavy metal exposure slightly lowered the oxygen affinity of Hb as well as caused shifts in carbon monoxide difference spectra. The acute toxicity of these metals was not affected by a 2 degrees C rise in acclimation temperature but increased by 17% (lead), 33% (copper), and 5% (zinc) in 14-16 degrees C- and by 40% (lead), 149% (copper), and 132% (zinc) in 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms. The increase in toxicity of metals caused by high temperatures may be due to limiting the scope of aerobic metabolism (oxygen extraction, transport, and utilization) via quantitative and qualitative effects on Hb. This terrestrial species appears to be tolerant of slight increases in habitat temperature, such as that expected with current global climate change. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The asymmetric cell division machinery in the spiral-cleaving egg and embryo of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Aron B; Chou, Hsien-Chao; Schneider, Stephan Q

    2017-12-11

    Over one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called 'spiral cleavage' to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo. Astonishingly, very little is known about the underlying molecular machinery to orchestrate these ACDs in spiral-cleaving embryos. Here we identify, for the first time, cohorts of factors that may contribute to early embryonic ACDs in a spiralian embryo. To do so we analyzed stage-specific transcriptome data in eggs and early embryos of the spiralian annelid Platynereis dumerilii for the expression of over 50 candidate genes that are involved in (1) establishing cortical domains such as the partitioning defective (par) genes, (2) directing spindle orientation, (3) conveying polarity cues including crumbs and scribble, and (4) maintaining cell-cell adhesion between embryonic cells. In general, each of these cohorts of genes are co-expressed exhibiting high levels of transcripts in the oocyte and fertilized single-celled embryo, with progressively lower levels at later stages. Interestingly, a small number of key factors within each ACD module show different expression profiles with increased early zygotic expression suggesting distinct regulatory functions. In addition, our analysis discovered several highly co-expressed genes that have been associated with specialized neural cell-cell recognition functions in the nervous system. The high maternal contribution of these 'neural' adhesion complexes indicates novel general adhesion functions during early embryogenesis. Spiralian embryos are champions of ACD generating embryonic cells of different size with astonishing accuracy. Our results suggest that the molecular machinery for ACD is already stored as maternal transcripts in the oocyte. Thus, the spiralian egg can

  10. Studium diverzity a aktivity mikrobního společenstva výsypkových substrátů ovlivněných aktivitou pionýrského druhu žížaly .i.Lumbricus rubellus./i. (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištůfek, Václav; Frouz, Jan; Elhottová, Dana; Márialigeti, K.; Borsodi, A.; Tóth, E.; Ruznyak, A.; Chroňáková, Alica; Uhlířová, E.; Pižl, Václav; Šustr, Vladimír; Baldrian, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2007), VII-VIII ISSN 1210-4612 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06154; GA AV ČR 1QS600660505 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 12/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : microbial community * saprophagous fauna * diverzity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. The effect of anthropogenic contaminations (PAH, PCB) on terrestrial annelids in conurban ecosystems. Final report; Einfluss von anthropogenen Schadstoffen (PAK und PCB) auf terrestrische Invertebraten urbaner Oekosysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achazi, R.K.; Beylich, A.; Chroszcz, G.; Dueker, C.; Heck, M.; Henneken, M.; Flenner, C.; Froehlich, E.; Garbers, U.; Khan, M.A.; Kreibich, M.; Kronshage, J.; Philippe, L.; Pilz, C.; Rothe, B.; Schabedoth, E.; Schaub, K.; Scheiwe, E.; Schmid, C.; Steudel, I.; Struwe, M.; Throl, C.; Wuertz, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Back, H.; Naehring, D.; Thielemann, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Oekologie und Umweltplanung mbH, Nussloch (Germany)

    1997-09-23

    The project was conducted from August 1993 until May 1997. The objectives were (a) an elaboration of effect concentrations and index values for organic contaminants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals in soil of conurbations for the community of decomposers, (b) the improvement of a biotest system for the evaluation of the habitat function of contaminated soils and (c) to obtain informations concerning a controlled utilization of contaminated areas. For that purpose field investigations in former sewage water irrigation areas of Berlin, Germany, concerning the abundance, species composition and dominance structure of terrestrial annelids (Enchytraeids, Lumbricids) were performed, as well as bioassays using contaminated soils of these sites and soils spiked with bezo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, PCB 52, Cd and Cu and experiments on accumulation, elimination and biotransformation in annelids. 12 of the 17 sites investigated lacked earthworms, while only 2 sites lacked enchytraeids. The abundance of enchytraeids was in the range of 500 to 12.500/m{sup 2}, compared to 25.000 to 280.000/m{sup 2} on reference sites. The hostility of the soils of former irrigation fields to annelids was confirmed by lamina bait tests and by bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus, E. albidus, E. buchholzi and Eisenia f. fetida. The ecotoxicity of the combined contaminants was enforced by the acidity and the degradation of the soils. The toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants to terrestrial annelids was definitely proved by reproduction tests in the agar test system. The applied methods of investigation can be used for evaluation of contaminated soils. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Projekt wurde von August 1993 bis Mai 1997 durchgefuehrt. Ziele waren die Erarbeitung (a) von Wirkschwellen fuer organische Schadstoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetalle im Boden fuer Destruenten urbaner Oekosysteme, (b) von Biotestsystemen zur Bewertung der Lebensraumfunktion belasteter Boeden und (c) von Hinweisen zur

  12. Deep transcriptome-sequencing and proteome analysis of the hydrothermal vent annelid Alvinella pompejana identifies the CvP-bias as a robust measure of eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alvinella pompejana is an annelid worm that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean. Living at a depth of approximately 2500 meters, these worms experience extreme environmental conditions, including high temperature and pressure as well as high levels of sulfide and heavy metals. A. pompejana is one of the most thermotolerant metazoans, making this animal a subject of great interest for studies of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Results In order to complement existing EST resources we performed deep sequencing of the A. pompejana transcriptome. We identified several thousand novel protein-coding transcripts, nearly doubling the sequence data for this annelid. We then performed an extensive survey of previously established prokaryotic thermoadaptation measures to search for global signals of thermoadaptation in A. pompejana in comparison with mesophilic eukaryotes. In an orthologous set of 457 proteins, we found that the best indicator of thermoadaptation was the difference in frequency of charged versus polar residues (CvP-bias, which was highest in A. pompejana. CvP-bias robustly distinguished prokaryotic thermophiles from prokaryotic mesophiles, as well as the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum from mesophilic eukaryotes. Experimental values for thermophilic proteins supported higher CvP-bias as a measure of thermal stability when compared to their mesophilic orthologs. Proteome-wide mean CvP-bias also correlated with the body temperatures of homeothermic birds and mammals. Conclusions Our work extends the transcriptome resources for A. pompejana and identifies the CvP-bias as a robust and widely applicable measure of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Reviewer This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, L. Aravind and Anthony M. Poole.

  13. atonal- and achaete-scute-related genes in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii: insights into the evolution of neural basic-Helix-Loop-Helix genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Detlev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional studies in model organisms, such as vertebrates and Drosophila, have shown that basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH proteins have important roles in different steps of neurogenesis, from the acquisition of neural fate to the differentiation into specific neural cell types. However, these studies highlighted many differences in the expression and function of orthologous bHLH proteins during neural development between vertebrates and Drosophila. To understand how the functions of neural bHLH genes have evolved among bilaterians, we have performed a detailed study of bHLH genes during nervous system development in the polychaete annelid, Platynereis dumerilii, an organism which is evolutionary distant from both Drosophila and vertebrates. Results We have studied Platynereis orthologs of the most important vertebrate neural bHLH genes, i.e. achaete-scute, neurogenin, atonal, olig, and NeuroD genes, the latter two being genes absent of the Drosophila genome. We observed that all these genes have specific expression patterns during nervous system formation in Platynereis. Our data suggest that in Platynereis, like in vertebrates but unlike Drosophila, (i neurogenin is the main proneural gene for the formation of the trunk central nervous system, (ii achaete-scute and olig genes are involved in neural subtype specification in the central nervous system, in particular in the specification of the serotonergic phenotype. In addition, we found that the Platynereis NeuroD gene has a broad and early neuroectodermal expression, which is completely different from the neuronal expression of vertebrate NeuroD genes. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that the Platynereis bHLH genes have both proneural and neuronal specification functions, in a way more akin to the vertebrate situation than to that of Drosophila. We conclude that these features are ancestral to bilaterians and have been conserved in the vertebrates and annelids lineages, but

  14. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  15. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of the earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris) as biomarker of soil pollution along Porsuk River Basin (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Gözde Aydoğan

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated biomarker responses of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in order to evaluate the soil pollution along Porsuk River Basin. Samples consisted of animals from six sites that are agricultural regions and a forested control. Histopathological and biochemical alterations were examined. Significant histopathological alterations were observed in animals from three of the sampling sites. There was an enlargement of epithelial cell lining, mucus cell hyperplasia and increase in mucus secretion. Circular and longitudinal muscles lost their structural integrity. Chloragogenous tissue was dilated and vocuolized. Necrosis was observed in the cells and tissues of some affected worms. A load of heavy metals in tissues of animals was determined. Heavy metals were found to be accumulated particularly in longitudinal muscles of animals. CAT activity was found to be increased in animals from three of the experimental sites. GST activity was also increased in five sites while it was stable in one site. The results have shown that animals from locations particularly that are close to urbanized and industrialized regions were seriously affected from the soil pollution around the basin. These results are reflecting the biological effects of soil pollution around Porsuk River Basin on the indicator organism L. terrestris and constitute an early warning of ecological change in relation to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collange, B.; Wheelock, C.E.; Rault, M.; Mazzia, C.; Capowiez, Y.; Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg -1 chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (≤1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  17. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  18. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure

  19. Metallothionein Induction in the Coelomic Fluid of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris following Heavy Metal Exposure: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are useful bioindicator organisms for soil biomonitoring. Recently the use of pollution biomarkers in earthworms has been increasingly investigated for soil monitoring and assessment. Earthworm coelomic fluid is particularly interesting from a toxicological perspective, because it is responsible for pollutant disposition and tissue distribution to the whole organism. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of heavy metal exposure on metallothionein (Mt induction in the coelomic fluid of Lumbricus terrestris in view of future use as sensitive biomarker suitable for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment. L. terrestris coelomic fluid showed a detectable Mt concentration of about 4.0±0.6 μg/mL (mean ± SEM, n=10 in basal physiological condition. When the animals were exposed to CuSO4 or CdCl2 or to a mixture of the two metals in OECD soils for 72 h, the Mt specific concentration significantly (P<0.001 increased. The Mt response in the coelomic fluid perfectly reflected the commonly used Mt response in the whole organism when the two responses were compared on the same specimens. These findings indicate the suitability of Mt determination in L. terrestris coelomic fluid as a sensitive biomarker for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment.

  20. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, 45071 Toledo (Spain)], E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.es; Wheelock, Craig E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  1. Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity in Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 (Clitellata: resurrection of L. herculeus (Savigny, 1826.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W James

    Full Text Available The widely studied and invasive earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 has been the subject of nomenclatural debate for many years. However these disputes were not based on suspicions of heterogeneity, but rather on the descriptions and nomenclatural acts associated with the species name. Large numbers of DNA barcode sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I obtained for nominal L. terrestris and six congeneric species reveal that there are two distinct lineages within nominal L. terrestris. One of those lineages contains the Swedish population from which the name-bearing specimen of L. terrestris was obtained. The other contains the population from which the syntype series of Enterion herculeum Savigny, 1826 was collected. In both cases modern and old representatives yielded barcode sequences allowing us to clearly establish that these are two distinct species, as different from one another as any other pair of congeners in our data set. The two are morphologically indistinguishable, except by overlapping size-related characters. We have designated a new neotype for L. terrestris. The newly designated neotype and a syntype of L. herculeus yielded DNA adequate for sequencing part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI. The sequence data make possible the objective determination of the identities of earthworms morphologically identical to L. terrestris and L. herculeus, regardless of body size and segment number. Past work on nominal L. terrestris could have been on either or both species, although L. herculeus has yet to be found outside of Europe.

  3. DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity in Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 (Clitellata): resurrection of L. herculeus (Savigny, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Samuel W; Porco, David; Decaëns, Thibaud; Richard, Benoit; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Erséus, Christer

    2010-12-29

    The widely studied and invasive earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 has been the subject of nomenclatural debate for many years. However these disputes were not based on suspicions of heterogeneity, but rather on the descriptions and nomenclatural acts associated with the species name. Large numbers of DNA barcode sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I obtained for nominal L. terrestris and six congeneric species reveal that there are two distinct lineages within nominal L. terrestris. One of those lineages contains the Swedish population from which the name-bearing specimen of L. terrestris was obtained. The other contains the population from which the syntype series of Enterion herculeum Savigny, 1826 was collected. In both cases modern and old representatives yielded barcode sequences allowing us to clearly establish that these are two distinct species, as different from one another as any other pair of congeners in our data set. The two are morphologically indistinguishable, except by overlapping size-related characters. We have designated a new neotype for L. terrestris. The newly designated neotype and a syntype of L. herculeus yielded DNA adequate for sequencing part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The sequence data make possible the objective determination of the identities of earthworms morphologically identical to L. terrestris and L. herculeus, regardless of body size and segment number. Past work on nominal L. terrestris could have been on either or both species, although L. herculeus has yet to be found outside of Europe.

  4. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

  5. Interactions of juvenile Lumbricus terrestris with adults and their burrow systems in a two-dimensional microcosm Interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com adultos e seus sistemas de galerias em um microcosmo bidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Grigoropoulou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate interactions of Lumbricus terrestris juveniles with adults and with inherited burrow systems. An experiment was set up using a two dimensional Evans' boxes microcosm. Adult L. terrestris were added to 16 boxes (one individual per box and kept in darkness at 17ºC along with eight unoccupied boxes for two months. The adult L. terrestris were removed from eight randomly selected boxes, and L. terrestris juveniles were added (one juvenile per box, composing three treatments with eight replicates: 1, with an adult in an inherited burrow (ABJ; 2, alone in an inherited burrow (BJ; and 3, alone in a previously uninhabited box (J. The proportion of juveniles occupying adult burrows observed was significantly different in treatments ABJ (48% and BJ (75%. The mean mass of juveniles at experimental termination differed significantly among treatments and was greater in treatment J (4.04±0.39 g in comparison to the BJ (3.09±0.93 g and ABJ treatments (2.13±0.64 g. Results suggest a negative influence of both the presence of an adult and its burrow system on juvenile growth. Intraspecific competition partially explained this, but further investigation is required to examine how an inherited environment (i.e. burrow could negatively affect the growth of juveniles.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com indivíduos adultos e com sistemas de galerias herdados. O experimento foi realizado usando microcosmos bidimensionais de Evans como unidades experimentais. Adultos de L. terrestris foram colocados em 16 unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade e mantidos no escuro a 17ºC juntamente com oito unidades experimentais inabitadas, por dois meses. Os adultos foram removidos de oito unidades selecionadas aleatoriamente e juvenis foram adicionados a todas as unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade, em três tratamentos, com oito repetições: 1, com um

  6. Expression of the pair-rule gene homologs runt, Pax3/7, even-skipped-1 and even-skipped-2 during larval and juvenile development of the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta does not support a role in segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seaver Elaine C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelids and arthropods each possess a segmented body. Whether this similarity represents an evolutionary convergence or inheritance from a common segmented ancestor is the subject of ongoing investigation. Methods To investigate whether annelids and arthropods share molecular components that control segmentation, we isolated orthologs of the Drosophila melanogaster pair-rule genes, runt, paired (Pax3/7 and eve, from the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta and used whole mount in situ hybridization to characterize their expression patterns. Results When segments first appear, expression of the single C. teleta runt ortholog is only detected in the brain. Later, Ct-runt is expressed in the ventral nerve cord, foregut and hindgut. Analysis of Pax genes in the C. teleta genome reveals the presence of a single Pax3/7 ortholog. Ct-Pax3/7 is initially detected in the mid-body prior to segmentation, but is restricted to two longitudinal bands in the ventral ectoderm. Each of the two C. teleta eve orthologs has a unique and complex expression pattern, although there is partial overlap in several tissues. Prior to and during segment formation, Ct-eve1 and Ct-eve2 are both expressed in the bilaterial pair of mesoteloblasts, while Ct-eve1 is expressed in the descendant mesodermal band cells. At later stages, Ct-eve2 is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, and in mesoderm along the dorsal midline. In late stage larvae and adults, Ct-eve1 and Ct-eve2 are expressed in the posterior growth zone. Conclusions C. teleta eve, Pax3/7 and runt homologs all have distinct expression patterns and share expression domains with homologs from other bilaterians. None of the pair-rule orthologs examined in C. teleta exhibit segmental or pair-rule stripes of expression in the ectoderm or mesoderm, consistent with an independent origin of segmentation between annelids and arthropods.

  7. Impact of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris living sites on the greenhouse gas balance of no-till arable soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15-week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32 % higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13 % higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions in the laboratory. In the field, the significantly elevated macrofaunal densities in the vicinity of middens likely contributed to the higher emissions from areas occupied by L. terrestris. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18 %, but only 6 and 2 % of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-till soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  8. An enriched stable isotope technique to estimate the availability of soil zinc to Lumbricus terrestris (L.) across a salinization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Derek W; Lev, Steven M; Snodgrass, Joel W; Ownby, David R; Prince, Lisa M; Casey, Ryan E

    2011-03-01

    An enriched stable isotope approach was developed to evaluate Zn bioavailability to Lumbricus terrestris. The decrease in (68)Zn/(66) Zn in organ tissues was used to assess the relative magnitude of the bioavailable soil Zn pool. This tool was then used to specifically evaluate bioavailability as a function of soil cation distribution. Storm-water pond soils were modified using two treatment regimens whereby H(2)O-extractable Zn was varied either by different ZnCl(2) amendments or by constant ZnCl(2) amendment followed by varying the soil cation distribution through salt amendments (NaCl or CaCl(2)). Earthworms previously equilibrated in (68) Zn-spiked soil were introduced to experimental soils, and after 2 d, removed for analysis of isotopic ratios in specific tissues. Despite a wide range of H(2)O-extractable Zn values produced by the salt treatments (0.007-24.3 mg/kg), a significant relationship between Zn turnover rate in earthworm tissues and H(2)O-extractable Zn in the salt-treated soils was not observed. Rather, considering both treatment regimens, turnover rate better correlated with Zn present in broader pools, such as that extracted by 6M HNO(3). The bioavailability of trace metals to earthworms may be poorly characterized by loosely bound fractions such as the pore water. Additionally, the turnover rate of (68)Zn in anterior organ tissues may be an effective tool to evaluate the relative magnitude of the bioavailable soil Zn pool. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  9. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Single-particle cryo-EM using alignment by classification (ABC): the structure ofLumbricus terrestrishaemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Pavel; Seer-Linnemayr, Charlotte; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Matadeen, Rishi; De Carlo, Sacha; Alewijnse, Bart; Portugal, Rodrigo V; Pannu, Navraj S; Schatz, Michael; van Heel, Marin

    2017-09-01

    Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can now yield near-atomic resolution structures of biological complexes. However, the reference-based alignment algorithms commonly used in cryo-EM suffer from reference bias, limiting their applicability (also known as the 'Einstein from random noise' problem). Low-dose cryo-EM therefore requires robust and objective approaches to reveal the structural information contained in the extremely noisy data, especially when dealing with small structures. A reference-free pipeline is presented for obtaining near-atomic resolution three-dimensional reconstructions from heterogeneous ('four-dimensional') cryo-EM data sets. The methodologies integrated in this pipeline include a posteriori camera correction, movie-based full-data-set contrast transfer function determination, movie-alignment algorithms, (Fourier-space) multivariate statistical data compression and unsupervised classification, 'random-startup' three-dimensional reconstructions, four-dimensional structural refinements and Fourier shell correlation criteria for evaluating anisotropic resolution. The procedures exclusively use information emerging from the data set itself, without external 'starting models'. Euler-angle assignments are performed by angular reconstitution rather than by the inherently slower projection-matching approaches. The comprehensive 'ABC-4D' pipeline is based on the two-dimensional reference-free 'alignment by classification' (ABC) approach, where similar images in similar orientations are grouped by unsupervised classification. Some fundamental differences between X-ray crystallography versus single-particle cryo-EM data collection and data processing are discussed. The structure of the giant haemoglobin from Lumbricus terrestris at a global resolution of ∼3.8 Å is presented as an example of the use of the ABC-4D procedure.

  11. Combining µXANES and µXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinza, Loredana; Schofield, Paul F.; Hodson, Mark E.; Weller, Sophie; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Geraki, Kalotina; Quinn, Paul D.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental set-up enabling microfocus fluorescence XANES mapping and microfocus XRD mapping on the same sample at beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source is described. To demonstrate this set-up the heterogeneous mineralogy in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris has been analysed. Data analysis methods have been developed which enable µXRD and µXANES two-dimensional maps to be compared. The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime. This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray diffraction (µXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules. However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil amended with 500 p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques, µXRD and µXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good agreement in the phase maps produced

  12. Combining µXANES and µXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinza, Loredana [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Schofield, Paul F. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Weller, Sophie [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Ignatyev, Konstantin; Geraki, Kalotina; Quinn, Paul D.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W., E-mail: fred.mosselmans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental set-up enabling microfocus fluorescence XANES mapping and microfocus XRD mapping on the same sample at beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source is described. To demonstrate this set-up the heterogeneous mineralogy in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris has been analysed. Data analysis methods have been developed which enable µXRD and µXANES two-dimensional maps to be compared. The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime. This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray diffraction (µXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules. However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil amended with 500 p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques, µXRD and µXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good agreement in the phase maps produced.

  13. Effects of organic pollution in the distribution of annelid communities in the Estero de Urías coastal lagoon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ferrando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Estero de Urías coastal lagoon is subjected to several anthropogenic activities and has been characterized since 1997 through the study of benthic fauna. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of annelids and their relationships with environmental variables (depth, sediment temperature, grain size and organic matter in order to determine the current degree of perturbation. Density, species richness, diversity, dominance, biomass, and the application of classification and ordination techniques allowed us to distinguish 5 zones: 1 a non-perturbed zone at the mouth of the lagoon, 2 a slightly perturbed zone surrounded by mangroves and shrimp farms, 3 a temporarily perturbed zone close to the effluent of the thermoelectric plant, 4 a perturbed zone in front of the slaughterhouse and fish factory, and 5 a very perturbed zone subjected to sewage and industrial input. Only minor changes in granulometry and faunal composition were observed in comparison with previous data from the same area, suggesting that the lagoon is still perturbed due to the effect of anthropogenic activities.

  14. Combining µXANES and µXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinza, Loredana; Schofield, Paul F; Hodson, Mark E; Weller, Sophie; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Geraki, Kalotina; Quinn, Paul D; Mosselmans, J Frederick W

    2014-01-01

    The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime. This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray diffraction (µXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules. However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil amended with 500 p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques, µXRD and µXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good agreement in the phase maps produced.

  15. Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D

    2013-03-01

    Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced β-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Richard [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: rp232604@muhlenberg.edu; Kelsey, Jason W. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.edu; White, Jason C. [Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.white@po.state.ct.us

    2007-07-15

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost.

  17. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

    2007-07-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media.

  18. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W.; White, Jason C.

    2007-01-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost

  19. Distribution of heavy metals in Lumbricus terrestris, Aporrectodea longa and A. rosea measured by atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.; Laursen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of Ca, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn has been investigated in the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris, Aporectodea longa and A. rosea by atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry measurements. The material of L. terrestris originated from the garden of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in central Copenhagen. Material of the other two species was sampled in sewage sludge treated plots. It was found that lead and cadmium are accumulated in the gut wall and from here transferred to waste nodules (brown bodies). In L. terrestris more lead was transferred to waste nodules than cadmium. Also large amounts of zinc were accumulated in the gut wall. Analyses of L. terrestris calciferous glands showed that these take part in regulation and excretion of a number of heavy metals. Lead and cadmium content was low in the ventral nerve chord and seminal vesicles. A. longa with poorly developed calciferous glands seems to rely more on waste nodule formation in the ultimate immobilization of lead. (author)

  20. Mitigating N2O emissions from clover residues by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) without adverse effects on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang; Duan, YunFeng; Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    in a 28-d mesocosm experiment, where DMPP spraying prior to tillage was simulated. Above-ground parts of 15N-labelled clover residues were treated with DMPP and either placed at 10 cm depth to simulate ploughing (PL), or mixed with soil at 0–10 cm depth to simulate rotovation (RO). Earthworms (Lumbricus...... terrestris) were introduced to study their role in residue decomposition and N2O emissions. Fluxes and isotopic composition of N2O were determined with dynamic chambers using laser spectroscopy. A gradual increase in 15N-enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the main source. DMPP reduced...... cumulative N2O emissions in PL from 241 to 146 mg N m−2; the reduction in RO was smaller, from 103 to 94 mg N m−2, and not significant, possibly due to higher oxygen and soil NO3− availability. After 28 d incubation, on average > 90% of the earthworms were recovered, and in vivo N2O production from L...

  1. Depuration and uptake kinetics of I, CS, MN, ZN and CD by the earthworm (lumbricus terrestris) in radiotracer-spiked litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.; Cornwell, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The relative depuration and uptake kinetics of contaminants should be known to interpret appropriately the use of organisms such as earthworms in environmental bioassays and monitoring. For example, 14-d earthworm bioassays should be interpreted with the knowledge that some contaminants will continue to accumulate in tissues for months. The radiotracers 125 I, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn, and 109 Cd were applied to deciduous litter and specimens of Lumbricus terrestris were exposed, either to litter alone or to litter on the top of soil columns. Depuration was monitored for 120 d and uptake, in a separate experiment, for 20 d. Both depuration and uptake were described using two-phase, first-order statistical models. Gut clearance had a mean half-time of 1.4 d. The mean half-time for physiological depuration decreased from I (210 d) > Cd (150 d) > Zn (69 d) > Mn (40 d) > Cs (24 d). Both the deputation and the uptake experiments were necessary to resolve even partially the multiphase processes. Earthworm/soil dry weight concentration ratios decreased from Cd > Zn > I ≥ Cs ≥ Mn. The very slow kinetics indicate that tissue concentrations will increase continuously for a long time, with important implications for subsequent food-chain transfers. (author)

  2. The Effect of Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) Population Density and Soil Water Content Interactions on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, A.K.; Gordon, A.M.; Thevathasan, N.V.; Demers, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms may have an influence on the production of N 2 O, a greenhouse gas, as a result of the ideal environment contained in their gut and casts for denitrifier bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) population density, soil water content and N 2 O emissions in a controlled greenhouse experiment based on population densities (90 to 270 individuals m-2) found at the Guelph Agroforestry Research Station (GARS) from 1997 to 1998. An experiment conducted at considerably higher than normal densities of earthworms revealed a significant relationship between earthworm density, soil water content and N 2 O emissions, with mean emissions increasing to 43.5 g ha-1day-1 at 30 earthworms 0.0333 m-2 at 35% soil water content. However, a second experiment, based on the density of earthworms at GARS, found no significant difference in N 2 O emissions (5.49 to 6.99 g ha-1day-1) aa a result of density and 31% soil water content

  3. Earthworm activity and decomposition of 14C-labelled grass root systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyl, A.; Didden, W.A.M.; Marinussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Decomposition of 14C-labelled root systems of the grass species Holcus lanatus and Festuca ovina, representative of mesotrophic and oligotrophic situations, respectively, was monitored during 14 months under field conditions in the presence or absence of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus). During the

  4. Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Vijver, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida

  5. Using dynamic energy budget modeling to predict the influence of temperature and food density on the effect of Cu on earthworm mediated litter consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the dependence on temperature and food density of effects of Cu on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, using a dynamic energy budget model (DEB-model). As a measure of the effects of Cu on food consumption, EC50s (soil concentrations

  6. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals on terrestrial annelids in urban soils O efeito de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos e metais pesados em anelídeos terrestres de solos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pižl Václav

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals on earthworms and enchytraeids was studied in urban parks, in Brno, Czech Republic. In spring and autumn 2007, annelids were collected and soil samples taken in lawns along transects, at three different distances (1, 5 and 30 m from streets with heavy traffic. In both seasons, two parks with two transects each were sampled. Earthworms were collected using the electrical octet method. Enchytraeids were extracted by the wet funnel method from soil cores. All collected annelids were counted and identified. Basic chemical parameters and concentrations of 16 PAH, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were analysed from soil from each sampling point. PAH concentrations were rather low, decreasing with the distance from the street in spring but not in autumn. Heavy metal concentrations did not decrease significantly with increasing distance. Annelid densities did not significantly differ between distances, although there was a trend of increase in the number of earthworms with increasing distance. There were no significant correlations between soil content of PAH or heavy metals and earthworm or enchytraeid densities. Earthworm density and biomass were negatively correlated with soil pH; and enchytraeid density was positively correlated with soil phosphorus.O efeito da contaminação do solo por hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (PAH e metais pesados em minhocas e enquitreídeos foi estudado em parques urbanos, em Brno, República Tcheca. Na primavera e outono de 2007, os anelídeos foram coletados, e amostras de solo foram retiradas de gramados ao longo de transectos, em três diferentes distâncias (1, 5 e 30 m de ruas com muito tráfego. Nas duas estações, foram amostrados dois parques com dois transectos cada um. As minhocas com uso do método do octeto elétrico, e os enquitreídeos foram extraídos das amostras de solo pelo método do funil úmido. Todos os anel

  7. Incorporation of 13C labelled root-shoot residues in soil in the presence of Lumbricus terrestris: An isotopic and molecular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Alexis, Marie; Nguyen Tu, Thanh Tu; Anquetil, Christelle; Vaury, Véronique; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Litter from plant biomass deposited on soil surface can either be mineralized; releasing CO2 to the atmosphere, or transferred into the soil as organic compounds. Both pathways depend on biotic factors such as litter characteristics and the of soil organism activity. During the last decades, many studies have focused on the origin of organic matter, with a particular attention to the fate of root and shoot litter. It is generally admitted that roots decompose at a slower rate than shoots, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in soil for compounds originating from roots. Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition and carbon cycling, ingesting both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed and dejected in the form of casts at the soil surface or along earthworm burrows. The simultaneous impact of earthworms and root-shoot on soil carbon cycling is still poorly understood. This study aimed at (1) defining the rate of incorporation of root and shoot litter with or without earthworms and (2) characterizing the molecular composition of soil organic matter upon litter decomposition, after one year of experimentation. A mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass root and shoot litter in the soil, in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil samples were collected at 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as surface casts, at the beginning and after 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 54 weeks of experiment. Organic carbon content and δ13C values were determined for all the samples with Elemental Analysis - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Lipid-free soil and cast samples after 54 weeks of incubation were analyzed with Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Pyrolysis products were grouped into six classes: polysaccharides, lignin derived compounds, phenols, N-compounds, aliphatic compounds and sterols. Each pyrolysis product was quantified thanks to its peak area, relative to the total area of the

  8. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests : complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J.; Cave, Mark R.; Harrington, Chris F.; Jenkin, Gawen R.T.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysi...

  9. Assessment of short and long-term effects of imidacloprid on the burrowing behaviour of two earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris) by using 2D and 3D post-exposure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbrenner, Nils; Moser, Isabelle; Triebskorn, Rita; Capowiez, Yvan

    2011-09-01

    Adverse effects of agrochemicals on earthworms' burrowing behaviour can have crucial impacts on the entire ecosystem. In the present study, we have therefore assessed short- and long-term effects on burrowing behaviour in the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris after exposure to a range of imidacloprid concentrations (0.2-4 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)) for different exposure times (1, 7, 14 d). 2D-terraria were used for the examination of post-exposure short-term effects (24-96 h), while post-exposure long-term effects were assessed by means of X-ray burrow reconstruction in three dimensional soil cores (6 weeks). For the latter each core was incubated with two specimens of L. terrestris and four of A. calignosa. Short-term effects on the burrowing behaviour (2D) of A. caliginosa were already detected at the lowest test concentration (0.2 mg kg(-1) DW), whereas such effects in L. terrestris were not observed until exposure to concentrations 10 times higher (2 mg kg(-1) DW). For both species tested in the 2D-terraria, "total burrow length after 24 h" and "maximal burrow depth after 24 h" were the most sensitive endpoints. 3D reconstructions of the burrow systems made by both earthworm species in the repacked soil cores revealed a significant linear decrease in burrow volume with increasing imidacloprid concentration. Since many of the observed effects occurred at imidacloprid concentrations relevant to natural conditions and since reduced activities of earthworms in soils can have crucial impacts on the ecosystem level, our results are of environmental concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Nitrogen Excretory Metabolism of Lumbricus Terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the earthworm as a laboratory animal for studying the effect of starvation on nitrogen metabolism is discussed. Simple techniques and methods are presented allowing in vivo physiological responses to be compared with changes in the enzyme potential of gut tissue. (Author/MA)

  11. Roles of epi-anecic taxa of earthworms in the organic matter recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Kevin; Monard, Cécile; Santonja, Mathieu; Pérès, Guénola; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Given their impact on soil functioning and their interactions with soil organisms, earthworms contribute to the recycling of organic matter and participate significantly in the numerous ecosystem services provided by soils. Most studies on the role of earthworms in organic matter recycling were conducted at the level of the four functional groups (epigeic, epi-anecic, anecic strict and endogeic), but their effects at taxa level remain largely unknown. Still, within a functional group, anatomic and physiologic earthworm taxa traits are different, which should impact organic matter recycling. This study aims at determining, under controlled conditions, epi-anecic taxa differences in (i) leaf litter mass loss, (ii) assimilation and (iii) impact on microorganisms communities implied in organic matter degradation. In seperate microcosms, we chose 4 epi anecic taxa (Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus centralis and Lumbricus terrestris). Each taxon was exposed separately to leaves of three different plants (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Corylus avellana). In the same microcosm, leaves of each plant was both placed on the surface and buried 10cm deep. The experiment lasted 10 days for half of the samples and 20 days for the second half. Microorganisms communities were analysed using TRFLP in each earthworm taxon burrow walls at 20 days. We observed differences between epi-anecic taxa depending on species of plant and the duration of the experiment. Results are discussed taking into account physical and chemical properties of these 3 trophic resources (e.g. C/N ratio, phenolic compounds, percentage of lignin and cellulose...).

  12. Circadian and Circalunar Clock Interactions in a Marine Annelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Zantke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Life is controlled by multiple rhythms. Although the interaction of the daily (circadian clock with environmental stimuli, such as light, is well documented, its relationship to endogenous clocks with other periods is little understood. We establish that the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii possesses endogenous circadian and circalunar (monthly clocks and characterize their interactions. The RNAs of likely core circadian oscillator genes localize to a distinct nucleus of the worm’s forebrain. The worm’s forebrain also harbors a circalunar clock entrained by nocturnal light. This monthly clock regulates maturation and persists even when circadian clock oscillations are disrupted by the inhibition of casein kinase 1δ/ε. Both circadian and circalunar clocks converge on the regulation of transcript levels. Furthermore, the circalunar clock changes the period and power of circadian behavior, although the period length of the daily transcriptional oscillations remains unaltered. We conclude that a second endogenous noncircadian clock can influence circadian clock function.

  13. Dietary flexibility aids Asian earthworm invasion in North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Snyder, Bruce A; Molina, Marirosa; Li, Jianxiong; Rao, Xingquan; Siemann, Evan; Fu, Shenglei

    2010-07-01

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, such as comparing the differences in traits and/or impacts of species between native and/or invaded ranges, do not determine the extent to which the performance of invaders is due to either the effects of species traits or habitat characteristics. Here we explore the interaction between two of the most widespread earthworm invaders in the world (Asian Amynthas agrestis and European Lumbricus rubellus) and study the effects of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately through an alternative approach of "third habitat" in Tennessee, USA. We propose that feeding behaviors of earthworms will be critical to invasion success because trophic ecology of invasive animals plays a key role in the invasion process. We found that (1) the biomass and isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) of A. agrestis were not impacted by either direct effects of L. rubellus competition or indirect effects of L. rubellus-preconditioned habitat; (2) A. agrestis disrupted the relationship between L. rubellus and soil microorganisms and consequently hindered litter consumption by L. rubellus; and (3) compared to L. rubellus, A. agrestis shifted its diet more readily to consume more litter, more soil gram-positive (G+) bacteria (which may be important for litter digestion), and more non-microbial soil fauna when soil microorganisms were depleted. In conclusion, A. agrestis showed strong invasiveness through its dietary flexibility through diet shifting and superior feeding behavior and its indirectly negative effect of habitat invasibility on L. rubellus via changes in the soil microorganism community. In such context, our results expand on the resource fluctuation hypothesis and support the superior

  14. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, Caroline J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: clangdon@uclan.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Arnold, Rebecca E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}. After 28 days LC50{sub -95%confidencelimit}{sup +95%confidencelimi}= {sup t} values were E. andrei5824{sub -361}{sup +898} mg Pb kg{sup -1}, L. rubellus2867{sub -193}{sup +145} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and A. caliginosa2747{sub -304}{sup +239} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841{sub -68}{sup +150} mg Pb kg{sup -1}, L. rubellus1303{sub -201}{sup +240} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and A. caliginosa1208{sub -206}{sup +212} mg Pb kg{sup -1}. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  16. Predicting copper toxicity to different earthworm species using a multicomponent Freundlich model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hao; Vijver, Martina G; He, Erkai; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2013-05-07

    This study aimed to develop bioavailability models for predicting Cu toxicity to earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus, Aporrectodea longa, and Eisenia fetida) in a range of soils of varying properties. A multicomponent Freundlich model, complying with the basic assumption of the biotic ligands model, was used to relate Cu toxicity to the free Cu(2+) activity and possible protective cations in soil porewater. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of Cu based on the total Cu concentration varied in each species from soil to soil, reaching differences of approximately a factor 9 in L. rubellus, 49 in A. longa and 45 in E. fetida. The relative sensitivity of the earthworms to Cu in different soils followed the same order: L. rubellus > A. longa > E. fetida. Only pH not other cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), and Mg(2+)) were found to exert significant protective effects against Cu toxicity to earthworms. The Freundlich-type model in which the protective effects of pH were included, explained 84%, 94%, and 96% of variations in LC50s of Cu (expressed as free ion activity) for L. rubellus, A. longa, and E. fetida, respectively. Predicted LC50s never differed by a factor of more than 2 from the observed LC50s. External validation of the model showed a similar level of precision, even though toxicity data for other soil organisms and for different endpoints were used. The findings of the present study showed the possibility of extrapolating the developed toxicity models for one earthworm species to another species. Moreover, the Freundlich-type model in which the free Cu(2+) activity and pH in soil porewater are considered can even be used to predict toxicity for other soil invertebrates and plants.

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  18. Glutathione S-transferases in earthworms (Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenersen, J; Guthenberg, C; Mannervik, B

    1979-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity (EC 2.5.1.18) was demonstrated in six species of earthworms of the family Lumbricidae: Eisenia foetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rebellus, Allolobophora longa, Allolobophora caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica. Considerable activity was obtained with 1-chlorl-2,4-dinitrobenzene and low activity with 3,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, but no enzymic reaction was detectable with sulphobromophthalein 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane of trans-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one as substrates. Enzyme prepartations from L. rubellus and A. longa were the most active, whereas A. chlorotica gave the lowest activity. The ratio of the activities obtained with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 3,4-cichloro-1-nitrobenzene was very different in the various species, but no phylogenetic pattern was evident. Isoelectric focusing gave rise to various activity peaks as measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate, and the activity profiles of the species examined appeared to follow a taxonomic pattern. The activity of Allolobophora had the highest peak in the alkaline region, whereas that of Lumbricus had the highest peak in the acid region. Eisenia showed a very complex activity profile, with the highest peak ne pH 7. As determined by an enzymic assay, all the species contained glutathione, on an average about 0.5 mumol/g wet wt. Conjugation with glutathione catalysed by glutathione S-transferases may consequently be an important detoxification mechanism in earthworms. PMID:486159

  19. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable

  20. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

  1. Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Płytycz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

  2. A novel anti-plant viral protein from coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida: purification, characterization and its identification as a serine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Noda, Kanako; Nakazawa, Masami; Miyatake, Kazutaka; Ohki, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2008-12-01

    A novel protein showing strong antiviral activities against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tomato mosaic virus (TMV) was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida. The protein was characterized as a cold-adapted serine protease. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 27,000 by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.5 and 40-50 degrees C. The protease activity at 4 degrees C was 60% of that obtained at the optimal temperature. The activity was suppressed by various serine protease inhibitors. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed homology with serine proteases of earthworms, E. foetida and Lumbricus rubellus previously studied. Our results suggest that the enzyme can be applicable as a potential antiviral factor against CMV, TMV, and other plant viruses.

  3. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijver, Martina G.; Vink, Jos P.M.; Miermans, Cornelis J.H.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2007-01-01

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species

  4. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

    2008-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  5. Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk; Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csv@ceh.ac.uk; Lister, Lindsay J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: llist@ceh.ac.uk; Hankard, Peter K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pkh@ceh.ac.uk; Kille, Peter [School of Biosciences, University of Cardiff, PO Box 911, Cardiff, CF1 3US (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kille@cardiff.ac.uk

    2005-08-15

    Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC-{sub 50} in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals. - Comparative analysis of life-cycle, physiological and molecular responses to Cu and Cd indicate similar responses under static and fluctuating climate regimes.

  6. Effect on heavy metals concentration from vermiconversion of agro-waste mixed with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Abu Bakar; Choy, May Yee; Noor, Zalina Mahmood; Noorlidah, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost mixed with livestock excreta, i.e. cow dung or goat manure, was contaminated with landfill leachate and vermiremediated in 75 days. Results showed an extreme decrease of heavy metals, i.e. Cd, Cr and Pb up to 99.81% removal as effect of vermiconversion process employing epigeic earthworms i.e. Lumbricus rubellus. In addition, there were increments of Cu and Zn from 15.01% to 85.63%, which was expected as non-accumulative in L. rubellus and secreted out as contained in vermicompost. This phenomenon is due to dual effects of heavy metal excretion period and mineralisation. Nonetheless, the increments were 50-fold below the limit set by EU and USA compost limits and the Malaysian Recommended Site Screening Levels for Contaminated Land (SSLs). Moreover, the vermicompost C:N ratio range is 20.65-22.93 and it can be an advantageous tool to revitalise insalubrious soil by acting as soil stabiliser or conditioner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J; Cave, Mark R; Harrington, Chris F; Jenkin, Gawen T

    2009-04-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysis of soil and earthworm total arsenic via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed following a mixed acid digestion. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were elevated (204-9,025 mg kg(-1)) at DGC. The arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both earthworm species was found to correlate positively with the human bioaccessible fraction (HBF), although the correlation was only significant (P earthworms as complementary tools is explored as a holistic and multidisciplinary approach towards understanding risk at contaminated sites. Arsenic resistant earthworm species such as the L. rubellus populations at DGC are presented as a valuable tool for understanding risk at highly contaminated sites.

  8. The effect of earthworms on the fractionation and bioavailability of heavy metals before and after soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2007-01-01

    The effect of two earthworm species, Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida, on the fractionation/bioavailability of Pb and Zn before and after soil leaching with EDTA was studied. Four leaching steps with total 12.5 mmol kg -1 EDTA removed 39.8% and 6.1% of Pb and Zn, respectively. EDTA removed Pb from all soil fractions fairly uniformly (assessed using sequential extractions). Zn was mostly present in the chemically inert residual soil fraction, which explains its poor removal. Analysis of earthworm casts and the remainder of the soil indicated that L. rubellus and E. fetida actively regulated soil pH, but did not significantly change Pb and Zn fractionation in non-remediated and remediated soil. However, the bioavailability of Pb (assessed using Ruby's physiologically based extraction test) in E. fetida casts was significantly higher than in the bulk of the soil. In remediated soil the Pb bioavailability in the simulated stomach phase increased by 5.1 times. - Earthworm activity increases heavy metal bioavailability in soil before and after remediation

  9. The effect of earthworms on the fractionation and bioavailability of heavy metals before and after soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si

    2007-07-15

    The effect of two earthworm species, Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida, on the fractionation/bioavailability of Pb and Zn before and after soil leaching with EDTA was studied. Four leaching steps with total 12.5 mmol kg{sup -1} EDTA removed 39.8% and 6.1% of Pb and Zn, respectively. EDTA removed Pb from all soil fractions fairly uniformly (assessed using sequential extractions). Zn was mostly present in the chemically inert residual soil fraction, which explains its poor removal. Analysis of earthworm casts and the remainder of the soil indicated that L. rubellus and E. fetida actively regulated soil pH, but did not significantly change Pb and Zn fractionation in non-remediated and remediated soil. However, the bioavailability of Pb (assessed using Ruby's physiologically based extraction test) in E. fetida casts was significantly higher than in the bulk of the soil. In remediated soil the Pb bioavailability in the simulated stomach phase increased by 5.1 times. - Earthworm activity increases heavy metal bioavailability in soil before and after remediation.

  10. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  11. Small-angle X-ray scattering on extracellular oxygen binding proteins and on one phosphorylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, A.

    1996-02-01

    The extracellular hemoglobins (Hbs) and Chlorocruorins (Chls) of annelids are giant multisubunit proteins of up to ∼ 200 polypeptide chains with molecular masses of about 3.500 kDa. They differ from all other Hbs in having both O 2 -binding chains and 'linker' chains. The latter are required for assembly and structural integrity of the proteins and are deficient in or lack heme. In this work the influence of O 2 binding on the overall structure of Lumbricus terrestris hemoglobin, Eudistylia vancouverii Chlorocruorin and Lumbricus terrestris hemoglobin dodecamer (assembly of 12 polypeptide chains) was investigated using the method of small-angle X-ray scattering. No dramatic effects were observed, although a tendency to smaller values of the radius of gyration, maximal intraparticle distance and volume upon deoxygenation of the samples was observed. Models of the three dimensional structures of the above mentioned proteins and of Macrobdella decora hemoglobin are proposed. Furthermore a detailed model of Lumbricus terrestris hemoglobin is proposed, wherein 12 models of the dodecamer subunit and additional linker chains build up the whole model, thus supporting the 'bracelet-model'. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments of the α-glucan phosphorylase of Corynebacterium callunae led to a model of its quartenary structure with an axial ratio of about 1:0.95:0.41. (author)

  12. The impact of pedestrian activity on soil annelids in urban greens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Schlaghamerský, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, Suppl. 1 (2007), S68-S71 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * enchytraeids * pedestrian activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2007

  13. From mowing to grazing: Does the change in grassland management affect soil annelid assemblages?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Šídová, A.; Pižl, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, Suppl. 1 (2007), S72-S78 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SE/620/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lumbricidae * Enchytraeidae * Tubificidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2007

  14. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the annelid Enchytraeus crypticus in agar-based exposure media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdá, K.; Opršál, J.; Knotek, P.; Pouzar, M.; Vlček, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 11 (2016), s. 1512-1520 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : terrestrial ecotocicity test * zinc ocide nanoparticles * potworm Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  15. Gills of hydrothermal vent annelids: Structure, ultrastructure and functional implications in two alvinellid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, Claude; Gaill, Françoise

    The anatomy, fine structure, diffusion distances and respiratory surface areas of the gills of two species of the polychaete family Alvinellidae have been investigated. Each gill consists of a stem on which are inserted two opposite rows of respiratory elements: flat sickle-shaped lamellae in Alvinella pompejana and cylindrical filaments in Paralvinella grasslei. Both lamellae and filaments have a ciliated mucous epidermis, a central layer of supporting and muscle cells and are devoid of coelomic cavity. Each respiratory element possesses one afferent and one efferent marginal vessel, united to each other distally, and connected proximally to separate longitudinal vessels running in the stem. Superficial parallel blood spaces connect the marginal vessels across the lamella or filament. Deeper, between the basal laminae of the epidermis and that of the central cell layer, a blood sinus is also present. The marginal vessels and the superficial blood spaces actually are intraepidermal extensions of this deep blood sinus. The diffusion distances are very small owing to the intraepidermal position of the respiratory blood spaces. The specific gill surface areas in A. pompejana and P. grasslei are the largest known today in polychaetes, respectively 12 and 47 cm 2 per g wet weight. The distinctive features of the gills are possibly related to a low oxygen content of the ambient seawater. Numerous crystalline granules scattered in the gill epidermis suggest that this epithelium has a detoxifying function.

  16. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    The origin of anchialine and marine cave fauna is still a highly debated topic in Evolutionary Biology. Restricted and disjunct distribution and uncertain affinities of some marine cave endemic lineages have favored their interpretation as living fossils, surviving the extinction of their coastal...

  17. Design, validation and annotation of transcriptome-wide oligonucleotide probes for the oligochaete annelid Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available High density oligonucleotide probe arrays have increasingly become an important tool in genomics studies. In organisms with incomplete genome sequence, one strategy for oligo probe design is to reduce the number of unique probes that target every non-redundant transcript through bioinformatic analysis and experimental testing. Here we adopted this strategy in making oligo probes for the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species for which we have sequenced transcriptome-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our objectives were to identify unique transcripts as targets, to select an optimal and non-redundant oligo probe for each of these target ESTs, and to annotate the selected target sequences. We developed a streamlined and easy-to-follow approach to the design, validation and annotation of species-specific array probes. Four 244K-formatted oligo arrays were designed using eArray and were hybridized to a pooled E. fetida cRNA sample. We identified 63,541 probes with unsaturated signal intensities consistently above the background level. Target transcripts of these probes were annotated using several sequence alignment algorithms. Significant hits were obtained for 37,439 (59% probed targets. We validated and made publicly available 63.5K oligo probes so the earthworm research community can use them to pursue ecological, toxicological, and other functional genomics questions. Our approach is efficient, cost-effective and robust because it (1 does not require a major genomics core facility; (2 allows new probes to be easily added and old probes modified or eliminated when new sequence information becomes available, (3 is not bioinformatics-intensive upfront but does provide opportunities for more in-depth annotation of biological functions for target genes; and (4 if desired, EST orthologs to the UniGene clusters of a reference genome can be identified and selected in order to improve the target gene specificity of designed probes. This approach is particularly applicable to organisms with a wealth of EST sequences but unfinished genome.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-15

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  19. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals on terrestrial annelids in urban soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Schlaghamerský, J.; Tříska, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2009), s. 1050-1055 ISSN 0100-204X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Enchytraeidae * Lumbricidae * soil pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2009

  20. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved ( 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms (Diplocardia sp.) feeding mostly on mineral soil and epi-endogeic earthworm (L. rubellus) feeding on both plant residues and soil organic matter.

  1. Metal redistribution by surface casting of four earthworm species in sandy and loamy clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Mathilde I; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Eijsackers, Herman J P

    2008-12-01

    Bioturbation of metal contaminated soils contributes considerably to redistribution and surfacing of contaminated soil from deeper layers. To experimentally measure the contribution of Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus and L. terrestris to soil surface casting, a time-course experiment was performed under laboratory conditions. Earthworms were incubated in perspex columns filled with sandy soil (2% organic matter, 2.9% clay) or loamy clay soil (15% organic matter, 20% clay), and surface casts were collected after up to 80 days. On the sandy soil, A. caliginosa and L. rubellus brought approximately 7.1-16 g dry wt. casts/g fresh wt. earthworm to the surface, which is significantly more than A. chlorotica and L. terrestris (2.5-5.0 g dry wt./g fresh wt.). A. caliginosa was the only species that produced significantly more surface casts in the sandy soil than in the loamy clay soil. In the loamy clay soil, no differences in biomass-corrected casting rates were found among the species. Surface casting rates tended to decrease after 20 days. Considering the densities of the different species in a Dutch floodplain area Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden, surface cast production is estimated to amount to 2.0 kg dry soil/m2 after 80 days, which could be extrapolated to 2.7-9.1 kg/m2 per year. These amounts correspond to a surface deposition of a layer of approximately 1.9-6.5 mm/year, which is of the same order or even slightly higher than the sedimentation rate and much higher than the amount of soil brought to the soil surface by bioturbating small mammals.

  2. Investigations performed on the compost worm Eisenia fetida and selected species of earthworms concerning the intake of HCB and pyrene with the goal of deriving a bioaccumulation test; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme von HCB und Pyren durch den Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und ausgewaehlte Regenwurmwildarten. Ableitung eines Bioakkumulationstests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vespermann, A.; Riepert, F.; Pflugmacher, J. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Inst. fuer Oekotoxikologie im Pflanzenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The man issues of the studies described were the validation of a test design for the assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of environmental pollutants and the applicability of Eisenia fetida as a model-organism and artificial soil (OECD) as a standard test substrate. The test organisms used were E. fetida of our own breeding stock and Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora longa and Lumbricus rubellus sampled from a field site. Test soils used were the artificial soil (OECD) and a BBA field soil. Soils were each contaminated with 10 mg HCB and Pyrene per soil dry-weight. Within the test period of 4 weeks, samples were taken weekly for residue analysis in the worms and soils. Bioaccumulation factors (AF) calculated for E. fetida and the free-living species were in the range of 10-17 (HCB) and 0.9-1.7 (Pyrene) depending on the soil used. By re-calculation of the concentrations in soil to concentrations in soil water, the resulting bioconcentration factors are compared with published BCF values determined from QSAR's of other worm species and fresh water fish. It could be concluded that the existing earthworm tests (OECD 1984, ISO 1998) represent an appropriate design for testing the bioconcentration potential of chemicals in soil. (orig.) [German] Ziel der beschriebenen Untersuchungen war die praktische Ueberpruefung eines Methodenentwurfs zur Erfassung der Bioakkumulation von Umweltchemikalien mit Eisenia fetida, der Eignung von E. fetida als Modellorganismus und des OECD-Kunstbodens als Standardsubstrat. Als Testorganismen wurden aus eigener Zucht der Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und nach Feldentnahme Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora longa und Lumbricus rubellus eingesetzt. Testboeden waren der OECD-Kunstboden und ein Boden vom Versuchsfeld der BBA in Berlin-Dahlem. Beiden Boeden wurden die Testsubstanzen Hexachlorbenzol und Pyren in einer Konzentration von 10 mg/kg Bodentrockengewicht zugemischt

  3. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Kost, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  4. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  5. Effects of chronic exposure to clothianidin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L. terrestris individuals. We undertook three separate experiments, each with different exposure routes: treated soil only (experiment A), treated food and soil combined (experiment B) and treated food only (experiment C). Mortality was negatively affected by exposure from treated soil only with greatest mortality observed in the groups exposed to the two highest concentrations (20 ppb and 100 ppb), but no clear effect on mortality was found in the other two experiments. When clothianidin was present in the food, an anti-feedant effect was present in months one and two which subsequently disappeared; if this occurs in the field, it could result in reduced rates of decomposition of treated crop foliage. We found no significant effects of any treatment on worm body mass. We cannot rule out stronger adverse effects if worms come into close proximity to treated seeds, or if other aspects of fitness were examined. Overall, our data suggest that field-realistic exposure to clothianidin has a significant but temporary effect on food consumption and can have weak but significant impacts on mortality of L. terrestris.

  6. Effects of chronic exposure to clothianidin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Basley

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L. terrestris individuals. We undertook three separate experiments, each with different exposure routes: treated soil only (experiment A, treated food and soil combined (experiment B and treated food only (experiment C. Mortality was negatively affected by exposure from treated soil only with greatest mortality observed in the groups exposed to the two highest concentrations (20 ppb and 100 ppb, but no clear effect on mortality was found in the other two experiments. When clothianidin was present in the food, an anti-feedant effect was present in months one and two which subsequently disappeared; if this occurs in the field, it could result in reduced rates of decomposition of treated crop foliage. We found no significant effects of any treatment on worm body mass. We cannot rule out stronger adverse effects if worms come into close proximity to treated seeds, or if other aspects of fitness were examined. Overall, our data suggest that field-realistic exposure to clothianidin has a significant but temporary effect on food consumption and can have weak but significant impacts on mortality of L. terrestris.

  7. Miniature excitatory synaptic ion currents in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris body wall muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, E. M.; Nurullin, L. F.; Nikolsky, E.; Vyskočil, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2007), s. 655-658 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 06-04-48458; Nsh(RU) 4444.2006.4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ion currents * muscle cells * acetylcholine receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  8. Lytic activities in coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucková, L; Rejnek, J; Síma, P; Ondrejová, R

    1986-01-01

    Coelomic fluids of the two earthworm species E.foetida (E.F.) and L.terrestris (L.T.) have not only the ability to lyse various vertebrate erythrocytes but also to digest vertebrate serum proteins. Both activities are carried by different molecules since hemolysis but not proteolysis was inhibited by simple sugars. In contrary, proteolysis was blocked by PMSF which did not influence hemolysis. Coelomic fluids of E.F. digest effectively vertebrate serum proteins (PIgG, HSA) but not the proteins of L.T. coelomic fluids. The proteolytic activity was detected in approximately 40 000 mol. wt. fraction. After digestion proteolytic fragments were analyzed by immunoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and TCA precipitation. Two of the fragments reacting with PIgG antisera remained intact even after 120 h digestion.

  9. [Homologies between hemerythrins of sipunculids and cadmium-binding metalloprotein (MP II) from a polychaete annelid, Nereis diversicolor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, S; Sautiere, P; van Beeumen, J; Dhainaut-Courtois, N

    1991-01-01

    The determination of the first 33 amino acids of the Cd-binding-protein (MP II) of Nereis diversicolor (Annelida, Polychaeta) shows a homology of 79 and 61% with 2 respiratory proteins of sipunculids, respectively the myohemerythrin and the hemerythrin. The positive reaction obtained by immunocytochemistry over the hemerythrocytes of Sipunculus nudus using antibodies raised against MP II and the presence of iron on the MP II reinforce this similarity.

  10. Maternal inheritance of twist and analysis of MAPK activation in embryos of the polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the specification of the 4d (mesentoblast lineage in Platynereis dumerilii. We employ RT-PCR and in situ hybridization against the Platynereis dumerilii twist homolog (Pdu-twist to reveal mesodermal specification within this lineage. We show that Pdu-twist mRNA is already maternally distributed. After fertilization, ooplasmatic segregation leads to relocation of Pdu-twist transcripts into the somatoblast (2d lineage and 4d, indicating that the maternal component of Pdu-twist might be an important prerequisite for further mesoderm specification but does not represent a defining characteristic of the mesentoblast. However, after the primordial germ cells have separated from the 4d lineage, zygotic transcription of Pdu-twist is exclusively observed in the myogenic progenitors, suggesting that mesodermal specification occurs after the 4d stage. Previous studies on spiral cleaving embryos revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the 4d lineage and the activity of an embryonic organizer that is capable to induce the developmental fates of certain micromeres. This has raised the question if specification of the 4d lineage could be connected to the organizer activity. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the existence of such a proposed conserved organizer in Platynereis employing antibody staining against dpERK. In contrast to former observations in other spiralian embryos, activation of MAPK signaling during 2d and 4d formation cannot be detected which questions the existence of a conserved connection between organizer function and specification of the 4d lineage. However, our experiments unveil robust MAPK activation in the prospective nephroblasts as well as in the macromeres and some micromeres at the blastopore in gastrulating embryos. Inhibition of MAPK activation leads to larvae with a shortened body axis, defects in trunk muscle spreading and improper nervous system condensation, indicating a critical function for MAPK signaling for the reorganization of embryonic tissues during the gastrulation process.

  11. Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-30

    The Neanthes acuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthes arenaceodentata, complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. © 2013 Chandramouli et al.

  12. Control of the active site structure of giant bilayer hemoglobin from the Annelid Eisenia foetida using hierarchic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girasole, Marco; Arcovito, Alessandro; Marconi, Augusta; Davoli, Camilla; Congiu-Castellano, Agostina; Bellelli, Andrea; Amiconi, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The active site structure of the oxygenated derivative of the main subassemblies (whole protein, dodecamers, and trimers) of the giant haemoglobin from Eisenia foetida has been characterized by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The data revealed a remarkable effect of the hierarchic assemblies on the active site of the subunit. Specifically, the whole protein has the same site structure of the dodecamer, while a sharp conformational transition occurs when the dodecamer is disassembled into trimers (and monomers) revealing that constraints due to the protein matrix determine the active site geometry and, consequently, the protein function in these large complexes.

  13. Molecular genetic differentiation in earthworms inhabiting a heterogeneous Pb-polluted landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.; King, R.A.; Stuerzenbaum, S.R.; Kille, P.; Hodson, M.E.; Morgan, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    A Pb-mine site situated on acidic soil, but comprising of Ca-enriched islands around derelict buildings was used to study the spatial pattern of genetic diversity in Lumbricus rubellus. Two distinct genetic lineages ('A' and 'B'), differentiated at both the mitochondrial (mtDNA COII) and nuclear level (AFLPs) were revealed with a mean inter-lineage mtDNA sequence divergence of approximately 13%, indicative of a cryptic species complex. AFLP analysis indicates that lineage A individuals within one central 'ecological island' site are uniquely clustered, with little genetic overlap with lineage A individuals at the two peripheral sites. FTIR microspectroscopy of Pb-sequestering chloragocytes revealed different phosphate profiles in residents of adjacent acidic and calcareous islands. Bioinformatics found over-representation of Ca pathway genes in EST Pb libraries. Subsequent sequencing of a Ca-transport gene, SERCA, revealed mutations in the protein's cytosolic domain. We recommend the mandatory genotyping of all individuals prior to field-based ecotoxicological assays, particularly those using discriminating genomic technologies. - Landscapes punctuated by Pb-polluted islands have engendered local genetic differentiation in resident earthworms.

  14. Molecular genetic differentiation in earthworms inhabiting a heterogeneous Pb-polluted landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J., E-mail: Andrej@cardiff.ac.u [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); King, R.A. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Stuerzenbaum, S.R. [King' s College London, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Hodson, M.E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Morgan, A.J. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    A Pb-mine site situated on acidic soil, but comprising of Ca-enriched islands around derelict buildings was used to study the spatial pattern of genetic diversity in Lumbricus rubellus. Two distinct genetic lineages ('A' and 'B'), differentiated at both the mitochondrial (mtDNA COII) and nuclear level (AFLPs) were revealed with a mean inter-lineage mtDNA sequence divergence of approximately 13%, indicative of a cryptic species complex. AFLP analysis indicates that lineage A individuals within one central 'ecological island' site are uniquely clustered, with little genetic overlap with lineage A individuals at the two peripheral sites. FTIR microspectroscopy of Pb-sequestering chloragocytes revealed different phosphate profiles in residents of adjacent acidic and calcareous islands. Bioinformatics found over-representation of Ca pathway genes in EST{sub Pb} libraries. Subsequent sequencing of a Ca-transport gene, SERCA, revealed mutations in the protein's cytosolic domain. We recommend the mandatory genotyping of all individuals prior to field-based ecotoxicological assays, particularly those using discriminating genomic technologies. - Landscapes punctuated by Pb-polluted islands have engendered local genetic differentiation in resident earthworms.

  15. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  16. Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csv@ceh.ac.uk; Hankard, Peter K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pkh@ceh.ac.uk; Lister, Lindsay J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: llist@ceh.ac.uk; Fishwick, Samantha K. [Environment Agency, Block 1 Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samantha.fishwick@environment-agency.gov.uk; Jonker, Martijs J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mjonker@science.uva.nl; Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 {sup o}C) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime.

  17. The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

    2008-12-01

    The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 μM. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

  18. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, Timo; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain

  19. Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

  20. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IMPACT OF NANOPARTICLES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND ECOTOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta M. Gatti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A special greenhouse was constructed to verify the impact of nanoparticles dispersed in air and in the soil on plant and small animal models.  A 40x4m2 greenhouse was divided in two specular parts in order to have a polluted area (B  and the reference one (A. Two different systems to spray nanoparticles (NPs were set up: the first consists in a combustion of wood or coke perfused with an alcoholic solution containing Copper and Cobalt NPs and following emission of the micro and nanosized by-products in the greenhouse. The second system is a suitable sprayer of NPs starting from a water solution of engineered NPs of Cobalt, Nickel, Silver, Titania, Cerine. Plants (tomato, rice, tillandsia and moss and insects (Ceratitis capitata were exposed to NPs according to specific protocols, as well as  aquatic marine animal models (Earth worms (Lumbricus rubellus, Sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus, Brine shrimps (Artemia salina, Zebrafish (Danio rerio, Barnacles (Balanus amphitrite. The results indicate that the NPs produce some effects in photosinthesis in the plant and biological damages at the developmental stage in the sea urchins.

  1. Communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in soil-like bodies of soccer fields in Moscow oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Belobrov, V. P.

    2014-11-01

    Artificially created soil-like technogenic formations (STFs) of soccer fields are developed under combined action of intense technogenic and natural factors and processes, which cannot but affect the structure and biological activity of their microbial communities and mesofauna. The microflora of the STFs is very similar to the microflora of the background soddy-podzolic soils of Moscow oblast with respect to the composition of the physiological groups of microorganisms. However, they are drastically different in their quantitative characteristics. The numbers of all the trophic groups of microorganisms, except for the microscopic fungi, in the STFs are much higher than those in the zonal soils. An increased biological activity of the STFs is due to regular watering, heating, application of sand and mineral fertilizers, and technogenic turbation processes. The mesofauna of the STFs is represented by several ecological groups of earthworms, including soildwelling (endogeic) earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa), epigeic earthworms dwelling at the soil-litter interface ( Lumbricus rubellus), and litter-dwelling earthworms ( Eisenia foetida).

  2. Earthworm Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibriniolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP. The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate proenzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Joanna [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Olchawa, Ewa [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Plytycz, Barbara [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: plyt@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl

    2005-05-01

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes.

  4. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Gestel, C.A.; Ma, W.C.

    1988-06-01

    The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish.

  5. Purification of a protein from coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida and evaluation of its hemolytic, antibacterial, and antitumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Cao, Hong-Wei; Pu, Li-Jun; Cui, Yu-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Earthworm Eisenia foetida (Lumbricus rubellus), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for treating many diseases, and its coelomic fluid has extensive biological functions. The hemolytic, antibacterial and antitumor activities of an earthworm protein purified from coelomic fluid were investigated in vitro. We used ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography in sequence to isolate and purify an earthworm protein from coelomic fluid (ECFP), and ECFP was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Hemolytic assay and antibacterial tests were applied to determine the cytolytic activity of ECFP. The MTT method was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of ECFP on HeLa cells and LTEP-A2 cells. ECFP, with molecular weight determined to be approximately 38.6 kilodaltons (KDa), was shown to possess significant hemolytic activity to chicken red blood cells (CRBC) (minimal hemolytic concentration 0.39 µg/mL). Antibacterial effect of ECFP obviously tested against Escherichia coli (minimal bactericidal concentration, MBC 180 µg/ mL) and Staphylococcus aureus (MBC 90 µg/mL) were observed. Moreover, ECFP notably inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC₅₀ 77 µg/mL) and LTEP-A2 cells (IC₅₀ 126 µg/mL) both in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ECFP could serve as a component of the innate defense system of earthworms against foreign organisms, and thus it has potential pharmaceutical application in the future.

  6. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Koolhaas, Josee E.; Hamers, Timo; Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora; Reinecke, Sophie A.

    2009-01-01

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

  7. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Joanna; Olchawa, Ewa; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.; John Morgan, A.; Plytycz, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes

  8. KUANTITAS ANAKAN KULTUR SEMUT RANGRANG, Oecophylla smaragdina, SECARA ARTIFISIAL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN BEBERAPA JENIS PAKAN BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintang Dianing Ratri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oecophylla smaragdina or weaver ants is social insect that has an important role in the ecosystem. One of its main function is as a biological control agent in agriculture. The use of weaver ants in an effort to develop a biocontrol continues and increases, this has caused the significant decrease of the natural population of O. smaragdina. Therefore, the weaver ants rearing is needed to maintain its existence in natural habitat without excessive exploitation. The purpose of this study were to determine the effect of different types of feed i.e. snails, earthworms, and okara (tofu by-product in the production of weaver ants kroto; and to determine the different of treatments of feeds provided to the production quantity of weaver ants kroto. The experimental method used in this study with a completely randomized design. Treatment was given by different protein sources feeding i.e. snails (Pomacea canaliculata, earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus, and okara. Five replicates were appliead for each treatment. Earthworms fed ants produced highest number of kroto with total of 1,030 individuals and weight 87.4 gram in total. Snails fed ants produced 866 individuals and weight 73.1 gram. Okara fed ants produced 543 individuals and weight 45.9 gram.

  9. Towards a more appropriate water based extraction for the assessment of organic contaminant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Reid, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    This study correlated extractabilities of 37 d aged phenanthrene residues in four dissimilar soils with the fraction that was available for earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) accumulation and microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.) mineralisation. Extractability was determined using two established techniques, namely (1) a water based extraction using CO 2 equilibrated water and (2) an aqueous based hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Results showed no relationship between earthworm accumulation and phenanthrene extractability using either HPCD (r 2 =0.07; slope=-4.76; n=5) or the water based extraction (r 2 =0.31; slope=-5.34; n=5). Earthworm accumulation was overestimated by both techniques. In contrast, the fraction of phenanthrene extractable using both the HPCD technique and the water based extraction correlated strongly with microbial mineralisation. However, the slopes of these linear relationships were 0.48 (r 2 =0.96; n=10), and 0.99 (r 2 =0.88; n=10) for the water based extraction and HPCD, respectively. Thus, the HPCD extraction provided values that were numerically close to the mineralisation values, whilst the water based extraction values were approximately half the mineralisation values. It is submitted that HPCD extraction provided an appropriate method of assessing the fraction of contaminant available for microbial mineralisation in these dissimilar soils. - No significant difference was found between microbially mineralised phenanthrene and extractability using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in four dissimilar soils; the water-only extraction removed half of this fraction

  10. The burrowing characteristics of three common earthworm species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, G.S.; Tabley, F.J.; Butler, R.C.; Fraser, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The burrowing characteristics of 3 common earthworm species were studied using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in large cylinders (24.1 cm diameter) packed with topsoil (0-25 cm) and subsoil (25-50 cm) to representative field bulk density values and sown with ryegrass. Replicated cylinders (n 3), kept under constant moisture and temperature conditions, were inoculated with mature species of Lumbricus rubellus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, or Octolasion cyaneum earthworms at rates similar to their population density in the field. A non-inoculated, unreplicated control was also included. The number, biomass, and activity of the 3 species were then examined. X-ray CT scanning of large-diameter soil cylinders offers an alternative method for obtaining information on the burrowing characteristics of earthworms (Jegou et al. 1999). As this method is non-destructive, repeat measurements can be made and the use of large cylinders minimises edge effects. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the burrowing characteristics of 3 earthworm species (under artificial conditions) through measurement of 2-D porosity using X-ray CT scanning, (ii) estimate the extent of burrow backfilling between sequential scans, and (iii) estimate the continuity of earthworm burrows with depth through hydraulic conductivity measurements. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  11. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  12. Earthworm Protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.; Zhang, Z.; He, R.

    2010-01-01

    The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibrinolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP). The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate pro enzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Enhanced bioremoval of lead by earthworm-Lumbricus terrestris co-cultivated with bacteria-Klebsiella variicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anamika; Osborne, Jabez W

    2017-10-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal having devastating effects on the environment. The current study was focussed on bioremoval of lead using earthworm and lead resistant bacteria. Earthworms were subjected to various concentrations of lead in the soil bioaugmented with lead resistant bacteria (VITMVCJ1) to enhance the uptake of lead from the contaminated soil. Significant increase was observed in the length and body weight of the earthworms supplemented with lead resistant bacteria. Similarly, there was a substantial increase in the locomotion rate of the earthworms treated with lead resistant bacteria in comparison with the control. The gut micro flora of bacterial treated earthworms had increased number of bacterial cells than the untreated earthworms. The histopathological studies revealed the toxic effects of lead on the gut of earthworms indicating severe damage in lead resistant bacteria untreated worms, whereas the cells were intact in lead resistant bacteria treated worms. COMET assay showed increased DNA damage with higher tail DNA percent in the untreated earthworms. Further, the colonisation of the bacteria supplemented, onto the gut region of earthworms was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated a fair 50% uptake of lead within the biomass of earthworm treated with lead resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the extracellular haemoglobin of Haemopsis sanguisuga (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E J; Mosby, L J; Robinson, M S

    1976-01-01

    The haemoglobin from the blood of the horseleech, Haemopsis sanguisuga (L.), had a sedimentation coefficient, SO20, w, of 59.11 +/- 0.55 S, and a molecular weight as determined by sedimentation equilibrium of 3.71 X 10(6)+/-9904 X 10(6). In the electron microscope the molecule appeared to be made up of two hexagonal plates, as is found with other worm haemoglobins, with dimensions 24.4+/-2.0 nm (across the hexagon) and 15.2+/-1.4 nm (height). The amino acid composition and spectrum were closely similar to those of the haemoglobins of other annelids (e.g. Lumbricus). The alpha-helical content, calculated from circular-dichroism measurements in the far-u.v. region, was 56-63%. The haem content was 2.49%, corresponding to a minimum molecular weight per haem group of 24 800, but detergent-gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of polypeptide chains of mol.wts. 12 600, 14 800, 15 500 and 25 100. The pH-induced dissociation of the native molecule yielded compotosol of Soya-bean root nodules. Images PLATE 1 PMID:942373

  15. Accumulated metal speciation in earthworm populations with multigenerational exposure to metalliferous soils: cell fractionation and high-energy synchrotron analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jane; Charnock, John; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Hodson, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Predicting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soil organisms is complicated by site-specific biotic and abiotic parameters. In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. Our main findings were (i) earthworms were resident in soils with concentrations of Pb and Zn ranging from 1200 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) and 200 to 34,000 mg kg(-1), respectively; (ii) Pb and Zn primarily accumulated in the posterior alimentary canal in nonsoluble subcellular fractions of earthworms; (iii) site-specific differences in the tissue and subcellular partitioning profiles of populations were observed, with earthworms from a calcareous site partitioning proportionally more Pb to their anterior body segments and Zn to the chloragosome-rich subcellular fraction than their acidic-soil inhabiting counterparts; (iv) XAS indicated that the interpopulation differences in metal partitioning between organs were not accompanied by qualitative differences in ligand-binding speciation, because crystalline phosphate-containing pyromorphite was a predominant chemical species in the whole-worm tissues of all mine soil residents. Differences in metal (Pb, Zn) partitioning at both organ and cellular levels displayed by field populations with protracted histories of metal exposures may reflect theirinnate ecophysiological responses to essential edaphic variables, such as Ca2+ status. These observations are highly significant in the challenging exercise of interpreting holistic biomarker data delivered by "omic" technologies.

  16. Effects of an Ecosystem Engineer on Belowground Movement of Microarthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Erin K.; Proctor, Heather C.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers affect other species by changing physical environments. Such changes may influence movement of organisms, particularly belowground where soil permeability can restrict dispersal. We investigated whether earthworms, iconic ecosystem engineers, influence microarthropod movement. Our experiment tested whether movement is affected by tunnels (i.e., burrows), earthworm excreta (mucus, castings), or earthworms themselves. Earthworm burrows form tunnel networks that may facilitate movement. This effect may be enhanced by excreta, which could provide resources for microarthropods moving along the network. Earthworms may also promote movement via phoresy. Conversely, negative effects could occur if earthworms alter predator-prey relationships or change competitive interactions between microarthropods. We used microcosms consisting of a box connecting a “source” container in which microarthropods were present and a “destination” container filled with autoclaved soil. Treatments were set up within the boxes, which also contained autoclaved soil, as follows: 1) control with no burrows; 2) artificial burrows with no excreta; 3) abandoned burrows with excreta but no earthworms; and 4) earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) present in burrows. Half of the replicates were sampled once after eight days, while the other half were sampled repeatedly to examine movement over time. Rather than performing classical pairwise comparisons to test our hypotheses, we used AICc to assess support for three competing models (presence of tunnels, excreta, and earthworms). More individuals of Collembola, Mesostigmata, and all microarthropods together dispersed when tunnels were present. Models that included excreta and earthworms were less well supported. Total numbers of dispersing Oribatida and Prostigmata+Astigmata were not well explained by any models tested. Further research is needed to examine the impact of soil structure and ecosystem engineering on movement

  17. Effects of an ecosystem engineer on belowground movement of microarthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Cameron

    Full Text Available Ecosystem engineers affect other species by changing physical environments. Such changes may influence movement of organisms, particularly belowground where soil permeability can restrict dispersal. We investigated whether earthworms, iconic ecosystem engineers, influence microarthropod movement. Our experiment tested whether movement is affected by tunnels (i.e., burrows, earthworm excreta (mucus, castings, or earthworms themselves. Earthworm burrows form tunnel networks that may facilitate movement. This effect may be enhanced by excreta, which could provide resources for microarthropods moving along the network. Earthworms may also promote movement via phoresy. Conversely, negative effects could occur if earthworms alter predator-prey relationships or change competitive interactions between microarthropods. We used microcosms consisting of a box connecting a "source" container in which microarthropods were present and a "destination" container filled with autoclaved soil. Treatments were set up within the boxes, which also contained autoclaved soil, as follows: 1 control with no burrows; 2 artificial burrows with no excreta; 3 abandoned burrows with excreta but no earthworms; and 4 earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus present in burrows. Half of the replicates were sampled once after eight days, while the other half were sampled repeatedly to examine movement over time. Rather than performing classical pairwise comparisons to test our hypotheses, we used AIC(c to assess support for three competing models (presence of tunnels, excreta, and earthworms. More individuals of Collembola, Mesostigmata, and all microarthropods together dispersed when tunnels were present. Models that included excreta and earthworms were less well supported. Total numbers of dispersing Oribatida and Prostigmata+Astigmata were not well explained by any models tested. Further research is needed to examine the impact of soil structure and ecosystem engineering on movement

  18. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  19. Life cycle toxicity assessment of earthworms exposed to cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Ju, Yun-Ru; Liao, Chung-Min; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2017-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is of great concern in the soil environment and it can damage terrestrial organisms. The purpose of this study was to employ a toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic (TK/TD) approach to investigate the effects of toxicologically relevant Cd accumulation on the life cycle growth of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida) and to assess potential terrestrial ecosystem risk. We reanalyzed growth toxicity and whole body and pellet accumulation data linked with TK/TD and life cycle growth models to estimate key rate constants. The growth risk of earthworms exposed to Cd was also assessed. This study found that the estimated whole body killing rate constant (0.114 g d μg -1 ) was much lower than that of pellet (0.248 g d μg -1 ). The recovery rate constant for whole body (6.02 d -1 ) was much higher than that of pellet (2.91 d -1 ). We also employed a life cycle-based probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate the growth inhibition risk for earthworms in response to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd in Taiwan. Results showed that earthworms had a 90% growth inhibition probability risk of body weight, which was lower than 872.33 mg based on assessment of toxicologically relevant Cd accumulation. This study suggests that toxicologically relevant Cd accumulation could accurately reflect the capacity of Cd toxicity to earthworms. The integrated life cycle toxicity of earthworms exposed to Cd in this study provides a robust and applicable tool for the management of ecological risk assessment of Cd-contaminated soil.

  20. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60 Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60 Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60 Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60 Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  1. Anelídeos poliquetos associados a um briozoário: II. Palmyridae Polychaetous annelids associated to a bryozoan: II. Palmyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa H Morgado

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Palmyridae were found in colonies of the bryozoan Schizoporella unicorns (Johnston: Bhawania brunea new for the science, and Chrysopetalum occidentale Johnson, cited for the first time for the Brazilian coast. These two species are described and their distribution is established. Bhawania brunea sp. nov. is conspicuously characterized by the structures on the prostomium and the configuration of the paleae.

  2. Anelídeos poliquetos associados a um briozoário: III. Polynoidae Polychaetous annelids associated to a bryozoan: III. Polynoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa H Morgado

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Polynoidae, found in colonies of the bryozoan Schizoporella unicorns (Johnston, are here described. Among these Scalisetosus gracilis is a new species for science, and Halosdna glabra Hartman and Harmathöe macginitiei Pettibone, cited by the first time for Brazilian coast. Lepisdonotus caeruleus was the most abundant species of the family. Scalisetosus gracilis sp. nov. is characterized by the elytra with long and bifid papillae scattered on the surface as well as on external borders and distinct notosetae and neurosetae.

  3. Mass distributions of a macromolecular assembly based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have calculated the most probable mass distributions for Lumbricus and Riftia assemblies and their globin and linker subassemblies, based on the Lumbricus Er stoichiometry and using accurate subunit masses obtained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The expected masses of Lumbricus and Riftia Ers ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have calculated the most probable mass distributions for Lumbricus and Riftia assemblies and their globin and linker subassemblies, based on the Lumbricus Er stoichiometry and using accurate subunit masses obtained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The expected masses of Lumbricus and Riftia Ers ...

  5. Mechanisms of carbacholine and GABA action on resting membrane potential and Na+/K+-ATPase of Lumbricus terrestris body wall muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, E. M.; Nurullin, L. F.; Volkov, M. E.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 4 (2011), s. 520-524 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : GABA * acetylcholine * atropine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2011

  6. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of

  7. Interrelationships between soil biota and soil physical properties in forest areas of the Pieniny National Park (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Dzierwa, Agata

    2017-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park (PNP) in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). Investigated soil belonged to Eutric Cambisols and had silt or silt loam texture. The purpose of this research was to investigated relationship between soil biota, such as microbial activity, soil Oligochaeta (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and soil physical properties, such as water retention or aggregates stability. This research was conducted at six forest monitoring areas of the PNP. Sampling was collected in the September 2016. For each of the 6 places, undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were taken from the 0-15-cm and 15-30-cm layer in 3 to 5 replicates. Undisturbed soil was taken: i) into Kopecky cylinders to determined soil physical properties; ii) a soil cores to determined enchytraeids and fine roots biomass (RB). Disturbed soil was collected in 3 reps and homogenized. Next such soil samples were divided into three parts: i) fresh one to determined dehydrogenase activity (ADh), microbial carbon biomass (MC) and labile carbon (LC); ii) air-dried, passed through a sieve (2-mm mesh size) and used for analysis: pH, organic carbon and bulk density; iii) last part air dried was used to determined stability of different size aggregates. In field, earthworms were collected in 3 reps using hand sorting method. Investigated soils were strongly acidic to neutral (pH 4.8-6.8). Organic carbon (Corg) content was varied from 0.8% to 4.5% and was higher in 0-15-cm layers than in 15-30-cm layers. Higher Corgcontent was connected with lower bulk density. Enchytraeids density was ranged from 1807 ind. m-2 to 88855 ind. m-2 and was correlated with microbial activity (ADh and MB) and RB. Earthworms density (ED) was ranged from 7 ind. m-2to 507 ind. m-2. In investigated soil was 6 genus and 7 species (Octolasion lacteum, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea jassyensis, Lumbricus rubellus, Eisenia lucens, and Fitzingeria platyura depressa). ED was

  8. Spatial organisation of an ecological niche of the urbozem mesofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Pakhomov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study results of the spatial organisation of urbozem mesofauna are presented. We used the OMI-analysis methods. Field research was made in June, 1st, 2011 inthe Botanical Gardenof Dnipropetrovsk National University(DNU (earlier – the territoryof Y. Gagarinpark, Dnipropetrovsk. The studied plot is situated at a distance of 220 mfrom the Building 1 of DNU and at a distance of 60 mfrom Y. Gagarin Avenue(the Southeast direction. The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the Avenue. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of lower left point have been taken as (0; 0. The plot represents artificial forest-park planting. The vegetation has typically wood mesotrophic mesophilic character (93.3% – silvants, 90.0% – mesotrophes, 81.7% – mesophiles. In each point the soil mesofauna was studied; temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, dead leaves layer and herbage height were measured. Soil-zoological test area had a size of 25 × 25 cm. We found that earthworms are numerous and saprohages are presented by 5 species. The Aporrectodea caliginosa trapezoides (Duges, 1828 is a dominant species. Along with that species an ecological group of endogeic earthworms is presented by A. rosea rosea (Savigny, 1826 and Octolasion lacteum (Oerley, 1885. An ecological diversity of earthworms is supplemented by epigeic Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 and anecic Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884. The hygromorphs of earthworms range from ultrahygrophiles to mesophiles. The coenomorphic spectrum of earthworms is also rather wide and presented by “pratants”, “stepants”, “palludants” and “silvants”. The complex of earthworms in studied area is taxonomically and ecologically diverse. The ecological structure of soil animal community is presented by such dominant ecological groups as saprohages, pratants, hygrophiles

  9. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant

  10. PERANAN BAHAN ORGANIK BERNISBAH C/N RENDAH DAN CACING TANAH UNTUK MENDEKOMPOSISI LIMBAH KUI.IT KAYU Gmelina arborea (The Roles of Low C/N Ratio Organic Matters and Earthworms to Decompose Waste Barks of Gmelina arborea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryo Hardiwinoto

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Limbah kulit kayu berpotensi dapat menyebabkan dampak negatip terhadap lingkungan apabila tidak ditangani dengan baik. Sebagai bahan organik, limbah kulit kayu sebetulnya dapat dijadikan sbagai bahan baku kompos. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peranan penambahan bahan organik ber-nisbah C/N rendah dan cacing tanah dalam menurunkan nisbah C/N dan meningkatkan kandungan unsur hara makro dari kompos limbah kulit kayu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang disusun secara faktorial, terdiri dari 2 faktor dengan 5 ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah penambahan bahan organic ber-nisbah C/N rendah (daun Glyricideu maculuta and daun Gmelina arborea, dan taktor kedua adalah jenis cacing tanah, yaitu Lumbricus rubellus (Cl dan Eisenia foetida (C2. Parameter yang digunakan adalah kandungan karbon (C, dan beberapa unsur hara makro, yaitu: nitrogen (N, fosfor (P, kalium (K, kalsium (Ca and magnesium (Mg dari kompos limbah kulit kayu. Penambahan bahan organik ber-nisbah C/N rendah dan cacing tanah merupakan cara penanganan limbah kulit kayu yang ramah lingkungan. Penambahan bahan organik ber-nisbah C/N rendah secara nyata dapat menurunkan nisbah C/N dan meningkatkan kandungan unsur hara makro N, P, K, Ca dan Mg dari kompos limbah kulit kayu. Nisbah C/N kompos limbah kulit kayu dapat turun semakin rendah dan kandungan unsur hara makro N, P, K, Ca and Mg dapat naik semakin tinggi dengan adanya penambahan bahan organik ber-nisbah C/N yang semakin banyak. Cacing tanah menunjukkan peran yang sangat nyata dalam menurunkan nisbah CIN dan menaikkan kandungan unsur hara makro N, P, K, Ca dan Mg dari kompos limbah kulit kayu. Rerata nisbah C/N dari kompos limbah kulit kayu (C0 sebesar 56,17, dan dengan adanya perlakuan cacing tanah rerata nisbah C/N dapat turun secara sangat nyara menjadi 26,66 (Cl dan 22,94 (C2. Rerata kandungan N dari kompos limbah kulit kayu (C0 hanya sebesar 0,89 %, dan dengan adanya aktivitas

  11. Soil enzyme dynamics in chlorpyrifos-treated soils under the influence of earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Notario Del Pino, J; Capowiez, Yvan; Mazzia, Christophe; Rault, Magali

    2018-01-15

    Earthworms contribute, directly and indirectly, to contaminant biodegradation. However, most of bioremediation studies using these annelids focus on pollutant dissipation, thus disregarding the health status of the organism implied in bioremediation as well as the recovery of indicators of soil quality. A microcosm study was performed using Lumbricus terrestris to determine whether earthworm density (2 or 4individuals/kg wet soil) and the time of exposure (1, 2, 6, 12, and 18wk) could affect chlorpyrifos persistence in soil initially treated with 20mg active ingredientkg -1 wet soil. Additionally, selected earthworm biomarkers and soil enzyme activities were measured as indicators of earthworm health and soil quality, respectively. After an 18-wk incubation period, no earthworm was killed by the pesticide, but clear signs of severe intoxication were detected, i.e., 90% inhibition in muscle acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities. Unexpectedly, the earthworm density had no significant impact on chlorpyrifos dissipation rate, for which the measured half-life ranged between 30.3d (control soils) and 44.5d (low earthworm density) or 36.7d (high earthworm density). The dynamic response of several soil enzymes to chlorpyrifos exposure was examined calculating the geometric mean and the treated-soil quality index, which are common enzyme-based indexes of microbial functional diversity. Both indexes showed a significant and linear increase of the global enzyme response after 6wk of chlorpyrifos treatment in the presence of earthworms. Examination of individual enzymes revealed that soil CbE activity could decrease chlorpyrifos-oxon impact upon the rest of enzyme activities. Although L. terrestris was found not to accelerate chlorpyrifos dissipation, a significant increase in the activity of soil enzyme activities was achieved compared with earthworm-free, chlorpyrifos-treated soils. Therefore, the inoculation of organophosphorus-contaminated soils with L

  12. A revision of the genus Kaszabister Mazur (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Degallier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise the four species of Kaszabister Mazur, 1972, one of which, Kaszabister barrigai sp. n., is described as new. The other species in the genus are K. rubellus (Erichson, 1834, K. ferrugineus (Kirsch, 1873 and K. carinatus (Lewis, 1888. The species are principally known from the subtropics of South America, with one in Central America. Lectotypes are designated for K. rubellus and K. ferrugineus, and a key is provided for all the species. Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood, mainly S. invicta Buren and S. saevissima (Smith, are documented as hosts of three of the four species.

  13. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  14. Wetlands Research Program. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling Vegetation and Delineating Wetlands Transition Zones in Coastal West-Central Florida, January 1979-May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    include Brazilian pepper bush ( Schinus terebinthifolius ), mela- leuca (Nelalueca quinquenervia), and waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Austin 1978). 18...pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Broom-sedge Andropogon capillipes Nash Broom-sedge Andropogon virginicus L. Bugleweed Lycopus rubellus Moench 0 Bur...caroliniana Michx. Common willow Sambucus canadensis L. Elderberry Samolus ebracteatus HBK Water pimpernel Saururus cernuus L. Lizard’s tail Schinus

  15. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    T p.a latifolia L. Common chickweed Stellaria media (L.) C~r. , mo green-briar Smilax rotundifolia L. .,-mmcn horehound Marrubium vulgare L. :!Qon...Water- feather Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb. Water- horehound Lycopus rubellus Moench. Water-hyssop Bacopa Monnieri (L.) Wettet. Water-milfoil

  16. Segmental mode of neural patterning in sipuncula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    sipunculan, Phascolosoma agassizii, we found that neurogenesis initially follows a segmental pattern similar to that of annelids. Starting out with paired FMRFamidergic and serotonergic axons, four pairs of associated serotonergic perikarya and interconnecting commissures form one after another...

  17. 50 CFR 665.621 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Oxycheilinus diagrammus. Barred thicklip Hemigymnus fasciatus. three-spot wrasse Halichoeres trimaculatus. red... Annelids. Seaweed Algae. Live rock. All other PRIA coral reef ecosystem MUS that are marine plants...

  18. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  19. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  20. Ultrastructure of the extensively developed nuchal organs of Laonice bahusiensis (Annelida: Canalipalpata: Spionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny

    2010-03-01

    The nuchal organs of annelid Laonice bahusiensis (Spionidae) from northern Europe have been studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. L. bahusiensis is the first spionid species in which extensively developed, continuous nuchal organs are described. The nuchal organs of this genus are the longest known among polychaete annelids. They consist of paired double bands extending from the prostomium on a mid-dorsal caruncle for about 24-30 setigers. Their microanatomy corresponds to the general structural plan of nuchal organs: there are ciliated supporting cells and bipolar sensory cells with sensory cilia traversing an olfactory chamber. The organs are overlaid by a secondary paving-stone-like cover and innervated by one pair of longitudinally elongated nuchal nerves. These findings clearly favor the hypothesis that the paired, extensively developed ciliated structures found in some Spionidae are homologous with the prostomial nuchal organs characteristic of polychaete annelids.

  1. Six3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Patrick RH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heads of annelids (earthworms, polychaetes, and others and arthropods (insects, myriapods, spiders, and others and the arthropod-related onychophorans (velvet worms show similar brain architecture and for this reason have long been considered homologous. However, this view is challenged by the 'new phylogeny' placing arthropods and annelids into distinct superphyla, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, together with many other phyla lacking elaborate heads or brains. To compare the organisation of annelid and arthropod heads and brains at the molecular level, we investigated head regionalisation genes in various groups. Regionalisation genes subdivide developing animals into molecular regions and can be used to align head regions between remote animal phyla. Results We find that in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, expression of the homeobox gene six3 defines the apical region of the larval body, peripherally overlapping the equatorial otx+ expression. The six3+ and otx+ regions thus define the developing head in anterior-to-posterior sequence. In another annelid, the earthworm Pristina, as well as in the onychophoran Euperipatoides, the centipede Strigamia and the insects Tribolium and Drosophila, a six3/optix+ region likewise demarcates the tip of the developing animal, followed by a more posterior otx/otd+ region. Identification of six3+ head neuroectoderm in Drosophila reveals that this region gives rise to median neurosecretory brain parts, as is also the case in annelids. In insects, onychophorans and Platynereis, the otx+ region instead harbours the eye anlagen, which thus occupy a more posterior position. Conclusions These observations indicate that the annelid, onychophoran and arthropod head develops from a conserved anterior-posterior sequence of six3+ and otx+ regions. The six3+ anterior pole of the arthropod head and brain accordingly lies in an anterior-median embryonic region and, in consequence, the optic

  2. Decay of low-density polyethylene by bacteria extracted from earthworm’s guts: a potential for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, E.; Thapa, B.; Yang, X.; Gertsen, H.; Salánki, T.; Geissen, V.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2018-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is the most abundant source of microplastic pollution worldwide. A recent study found that LDPE decay was increased and the size of the plastic was decreased after passing through the gut of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta). Here, we investigated the

  3. Decay of low-density polyethylene by bacteria extracted from earthworm's guts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Thapa, Binita; Yang, Xiaomei; Gertsen, Henny; Salánki, Tamás; Geissen, Violette; Garbeva, Paolina

    2018-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is the most abundant source of microplastic pollution worldwide. A recent study found that LDPE decay was increased and the size of the plastic was decreased after passing through the gut of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta). Here, we investigated the

  4. Mass distributions of a macromolecular assembly based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    low resolution crystallographic structure of Lumbricus Er. (Royer et al 2000) established the stoichiometry to be. 144 globin chains arranged as 12 dodecamers tethered to. 36 linker chains, in agreement with the model proposed earlier (Vinogradov et al 1986) and the cryoEM 3D re- constructions (De Haas et al 1996a, b, c, ...

  5. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris).

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kwiri, Willy Cornelius. Vol 14, No 1 (2016) - Articles Domesticating Ugandan local earthworms: Survival of African nightcrawler Eudrillus eugeniae and common earthworm Lumbricus terrestris under different feeding rates in culture systems. Abstract. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Earthworm functional traits and interspecific interactions affect plant nitrogen acquisition and primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, Walter; Schmidt, Olaf; Brussaard, L.; Faber, J.H.; Bolger, T.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a greenhouse experiment to test how the functional diversity of earthworms, the dominant group of soil macro-invertebrates in many terrestrial ecosystems, affects nitrogen cycling and plant growth. Three species were chosen to represent a range of functional traits: Lumbricus terrestris

  8. Impacts of elevated CO2 and O3 on aspen leaf litter chemistry and earthworm and springtail productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy D. Meehan; Michael S. Crossley; Richard L. Lindroth

    2010-01-01

    Human alteration of atmospheric composition affects foliar chemistry and has possible implications for the structure and functioning of detrital communities. In this study, we explored the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaf litter chemistry, earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) individual...

  9. New earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae records from Vitosha Mts. (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTO VALCHOVSKI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with earthworm diversity from Vitosha Mountain (Bulgaria. During the investigation 10 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to 7 genera. Among them, two taxa are reported for the first time from the explored region. Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826 and Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 are proved to be new records from the territory of Vitosha Mountain.

  10. Organic matter composition and the protist and nematode communities around anecic earthworm burrows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, W.S.; Phuong, N.T.; Geisen, S.; Keith, A.M.; Dumack, K.; Bolger, T.; Bonkowski, M.; Brussaard, L.; Faber, J.H.; Chabbi, A.; Rumpel, C.; Schmidt, O.

    2016-01-01

    By living in permanent burrows and incorporating organic detritus from the soil surface, anecic earthworms contribute to soil heterogeneity, but their impact is still under-studied in natural field conditions. We investigated the effects of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus centralis on fresh carbon

  11. Guide to Common Tidal Marsh Invertebrates of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Richard W.

    The major groups of marine and estuarine macroinvertebrates of the tidal marshes of the northern Gulf of Mexico are described in this guide for students, taxonomists and generalists. Information on the recognition characteristics, distribution, habitat, and biology of salt marsh species from the coelenterate, annelid, mollusk and arthropod phyla…

  12. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  13. Phylogeny and systematics of Protodrilidae (Annelida) inferred with total evidence analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Rouse, Greg W.

    2015-01-01

    Protodrilidae is a group of small, superficially simple-looking annelids, lacking chaetae and appendages, except for two prostomial palps. Originally considered to be one of the primitive "archiannelid" families, its affinity within Annelida is still highly debated. Protodrilids are found worldwi...

  14. Enchytraeids and earthworms (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae, Lumbricidae) of parks in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Pižl, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2009), s. 145-173 ISSN 1864-6417 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : annelids * soil * urban ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Sublethal Toxic effects of spent Oil Based Drilling Mud and Cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal toxic effects of spent oil based drilling mud collected from an abandoned oil drilling site in Mpanak, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were assessed in the earthworm Aporrectodea longa. The test annelid was exposed to sub-lethal Concentration of 0ppm SPP; 62,500ppm SPP; 125, 000ppm SPP; 250,000ppm SPP and ...

  16. Relationships of Lower Invertebrates Aphid Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book contains contributions from some 26 authors, most of whom are recognized authorities in their respective fields. It covers phylogeny and related topics, from the evolution of the Porifera to the affinities of the annelid worms and deals not only with major groups such as Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes and Nematoda but ...

  17. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...

  18. Small angle X-ray scattering from protein in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.F. de; Torriani, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we report experiments performed with giant respiratory proteins from annelids. X-ray scattering data were obtained both by the use of conventional rotating anod source and synchotron radiation. Data from solutions with several protein concentrations were analyzed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, H.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and

  20. On a remarkable Syllis-bud with extrudible segmental organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1889-01-01

    Among a number of pelagic Annelids, collected in the Malayan Archipelago by Mr. D. S. Hoedt, I met with some fragments of a Syllis-species, characterized as well by its large orange-coloured eyes, as by a series of distinct brown spots on each side of the body. The largest fragment has a length of

  1. Reefs, sand and reef-like sand: A comparision of the benthic biodiversity of habitats in the Dutch Borkum Reef Grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, J.W.P.; Bos, O.G.; Glorius, S.T.; Lengkeek, W.; Cuperus, J.; Weide, van der B.E.; Agüera García, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reefs play an important role in the distribution of species associated with hard substrates and are of value forbiodiversity conservation. High densities of the habitat building annelid Lanice conchilega also increase localbiodiversity. This study describes the benthic biodiversity of a rocky reef

  2. Cellular and muscular growth patterns during sipunculan development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Maiorova, Anastassya S

    2011-01-01

    anlagen of the circular body wall muscles appear simultaneously and not subsequently as in the annelids. At the same time, the rudiments of four longitudinal retractor muscles appear. This supports the notion that four introvert retractors were part of the ancestral sipunculan bodyplan. The longitudinal...

  3. March 1977 Sandy beaches are unstable, often very exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CROFAUNA AND MEIOFAUNA OF FOUR SANDY BEACHES. 293. 1977). Soft bodied forms were not abundant. Oligocbaets never reached high numbers but are nevertheless important because of their relatively IalJe size (Giere 1975). The 'others' category was dominated by turbellarians. followed by annelids and nauplii ...

  4. The role of macroinvertebrates in the diets of the dominant fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made to calculate the consumption by fish of the main zoobenthic invertebrate groups, and this was estimated at 344 g m–2 y–1. Insects constituted only 10% of the invertebrates consumed, mainly by Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus. One third of the macroinvertebrates consumed by fish comprised annelids, 20% ...

  5. Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, Nancy Marie

    1971-01-01

    Although there have been several collections of polychaetous annelids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, very few spionids have been included in the published species lists. This is not because they are poorly represented in this area but probably a result of their small size and the fact

  6. A phylogenomic profile of hemerythrins, the nonheme diiron binding respiratory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuguchi Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemerythrins, are the non-heme, diiron binding respiratory proteins of brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans; they are also found in annelids and bacteria, where their functions have not been fully elucidated. Results A search for putative Hrs in the genomes of 43 archaea, 444 bacteria and 135 eukaryotes, revealed their presence in 3 archaea, 118 bacteria, several fungi, one apicomplexan, a heterolobosan, a cnidarian and several annelids. About a fourth of the Hr sequences were identified as N- or C-terminal domains of chimeric, chemotactic gene regulators. The function of the remaining single domain bacterial Hrs remains to be determined. In addition to oxygen transport, the possible functions in annelids have been proposed to include cadmium-binding, antibacterial action and immunoprotection. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree revealed a split into two clades, one encompassing archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the other comprising the remaining eukaryotes. The annelid and sipunculan Hrs share the same intron-exon structure, different from that of the cnidarian Hr. Conclusion The phylogenomic profile of Hrs demonstrated a limited occurrence in bacteria and archaea and a marked absence in the vast majority of multicellular organisms. Among the metazoa, Hrs have survived in a cnidarian and in a few protostome groups; hence, it appears that in metazoans the Hr gene was lost in deuterostome ancestor(s after the radiata/bilateria split. Signal peptide sequences in several Hirudinea Hrs suggest for the first time, the possibility of extracellular localization. Since the α-helical bundle is likely to have been among the earliest protein folds, Hrs represent an ancient family of iron-binding proteins, whose primary function in bacteria may have been that of an oxygen sensor, enabling aerophilic or aerophobic responses. Although Hrs evolved to function as O2 transporters in brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans, their function in

  7. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillito Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps represent oases of life in the deep-sea environment, but are also characterized by challenging physical and chemical conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on vent organisms in their habitat has not been well explored, in particular at a molecular level, most gene expression studies being conducted on coastal marine species. In order to better understand the response of hydrothermal organisms to different temperature regimes, differentially expressed genes (obtained by a subtractive suppression hybridization approach were identified in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus and the annelid Paralvinella pandorae irlandei to characterize the physiological processes involved when animals are subjected to long term exposure (2 days at two contrasting temperatures (10° versus 20°C, while maintained at in situ pressures. To avoid a potential effect of pressure, the experimental animals were initially thermally acclimated for 24 hours in a pressurized vessel. Results For each species, we produced two subtractive cDNA libraries (forward and reverse from sets of deep-sea mussels and annelids exposed together to a thermal challenge under pressure. RNA extracted from the gills, adductor muscle, mantle and foot tissue were used for B. thermophilus. For the annelid model, whole animals (small individuals were used. For each of the four libraries, we sequenced 200 clones, resulting in 78 and 83 unique sequences in mussels and annelids (about 20% of the sequencing effort, respectively, with only half of them corresponding to known genes. Real-time PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes identified in the corresponding libraries. Strong expression variations have been observed for some specific genes such as the intracellular hemoglobin, the nidogen protein, and Rab7 in P. pandorae, and the SPARC protein, cyclophilin, foot protein and adhesive plaque protein in B. thermophilus

  8. Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Homa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp., while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

  9. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  10. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  11. Microplastic transport in soil by earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Rillig, Matthias C.; Ziersch, Lisa; Hempel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite great general benefits derived from plastic use, accumulation of plastic material in ecosystems, and especially microplastic, is becoming an increasing environmental concern. Microplastic has been extensively studied in aquatic environments, with very few studies focusing on soils. We here tested the idea that microplastic particles (polyethylene beads) could be transported from the soil surface down the soil profile via earthworms. We used Lumbricus terrestris L., an anecic earthworm...

  12. Effect of Simulated Weathering and Aging of TNT in Amended Sandy Loam Soil on Toxicity to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytreaeus Crypticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Checkai, R.T.; Wentsel, R.S. 1993. Toxicity of selected munitions and munition-contaminated soil on the earthworm ( Eisenia foetida ). pp 1-22...earthworms Eisenia andrei and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to TNT contaminated soils (Johnson et al., 2000; Renoux et al., 2000; Robidoux et al., 2000...TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil. Chemosphere 55, pp 1339-1348. Linz, D.G.; Nakles, D.V., Eds. 1997

  13. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris...

  14. Comité Scientifique de la Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSIM

    Linnaeus, est un excellent bio-indicateur de pollution terrestre plus efficace que le ver de terre (Lumbricus terrestris, Linnaeus) [1]. En raison de sa sédentarité sur les sols et de son régime herbivore, il est aisément contaminé par les divers polluants présents dans l'air, le sol et la flore, d'où l'intérêt de son utilisation comme.

  15. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...

  16. Organic matter composition and the protist and nematode communities around anecic earthworm burrows

    OpenAIRE

    Andriuzzi, Walter S.; NGO, Phuong-thi; Geisen, Stefan; Keith, Aidan M.; Dumack, Kenneth; Bolger, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Brussaard, Lijbert; Faber, Jack H.; Chabbi, Abad; Rumpel, Cornelia; Schmidt, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    By living in permanent burrows and incorporating organic detritus from the soil surface, anecic earthworms contribute to soil heterogeneity, but their impact is still under-studied in natural field conditions. We investigated the effects of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus centralis on fresh carbon (C) incorporation, soil organic matter composition, protists, and nematodes of a Cambisol under grassland. We used plant material labelled with stable isotope tracers to detect fresh C input around e...

  17. Respiratory proteins in Sipunculus nudus--implications for phylogeny and evolution of the hemerythrin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Achim; Lieb, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Three major classes of respiratory proteins are known, hemoglobin, molluscan and arthropod hemocyanin, and hemerythrin (Hr). Similar to hemoglobin, respiratory Hr is packed into erythrocytes floating in the coelomic fluid and is only known from sipunculids, brachiopods, and priapulids. Owing to this scattered distribution, the presence of Hr is generally assumed to be the plesiomorphic condition without phylogenetic importance. By sequencing 2000 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Sipunculus nudus, we found 75 Hr-coding ESTs assembled to 20 cDNA contigs classified as four distinct Hr isoforms: three polymeric Hrs (subunit A, A', and B) and the monomeric myo-hemerythrin (myoHr). Phylogenetic analyses revealed a clade of annelid and sipunculan monomeric Hrs, distinct from polymeric Hrs. Monomeric Hrs from annelids and sipunculids can be clustered together using Maximum Likelihood tree-building and network analyses, as well as applying Bayesian methods. Three distinct Hr clusters were found for S. nudus, suggesting a new monomeric Hr isoform.

  18. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    Morphologically characterized by the presence of a dorsal covering of paired segmental scales (=elytra), scale worms are well represented throughout the scientific literature, and are a result of one of the most successful radiations of annelids. However, the phylogenetic relationships of elytrig......Morphologically characterized by the presence of a dorsal covering of paired segmental scales (=elytra), scale worms are well represented throughout the scientific literature, and are a result of one of the most successful radiations of annelids. However, the phylogenetic relationships...... to improve the overall resolution of the phylogenetic relationships within Aphroditiformia. To date, this is the largest and most diverse phylogenetic sampling of scale worms, being the first to include anchialine as well as several previously neglected interstitial representatives. Using combined and total...... evidence approaches, our phylogenetic analyses integrated morphological and molecular datasets, with subsequent sensitivity analyses to identify those groups with unstable positioning. Our inclusion of species from extreme environments showed several independent radiations among the deep sea, (anchialine...

  19. Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common b...

  20. Characterization, molecular cloning and localization of calreticulin in Eisenia fetida earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilerová, Marcela; Kauschke, E.; Kohlerová, Petra; Josková, Radka; Tučková, Ludmila; Bilej, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 397, - (2007), s. 169-177 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020208; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * annelids * invertebrates Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.871, year: 2007

  1. Chesapeake Bay Future Conditions Report. Volume 11. Biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    revealed large quantities of organic detritus , diatoms and flagellates, annelid larvae, sand, silt , sponge spicules , mollusk larvae, eggs and...type of spicules present . Although the boring sponge does not derive nourish— ment from the oyster body , it may from the shell. Apparently this sponge ...contract to the Baltimore District . The Chesapeake Research Consort ium is composed of the Virginia Inst itute of Marine Science , the Smithsonian

  2. Occurrence of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale in ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua) of the Tiete Ecological Park, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milanelo,Liliane; Moreira,Márcia Bento; Fitorra,Lílian S.; Petri,Bruno S.S.; Alves,Melissa; Santos,Aparecida de Cássia dos

    2009-01-01

    Dioctophymosis is a worldwide renal parasitosis caused by the Dioctophyma renale nematode, which results in progressive destruction of renal tissue. Aquatics annelids are considered the main intermediate hosts and the literature refers as permanent hosts of dogs, wild mammals and even humans. During procedures for population control of coatis (Nasua nasua) in the Ecological Park of Tietê (PET), was noticed the presence of parasitosis by D. renale. From 68 animals, males and females, young and...

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). WHITE SHRIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    detritus, chitin, parts of annelids September 1979. and gastropods, fish parts, bryozoans, sponges , corals, filaments )f algae, The hait shrimp fishery...foods. , and newly hatched brine shrimp to feed the mysis stages. Christmas and White shrimp are an important Etzold (1977) reported that early food for...effort and and marine organisms. Wiley- price-cost trends in the Gulf of Interscience, New York. 868 pp. Mexico shrimp fishery: implications on Mexico’s

  4. Identification and cloning of an invertebrate-type lysozyme from Eisenia andrei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josková, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 8 (2009), s. 932-938 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0378; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA AV ČR KJB500200613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Annelids * Invertebrates * Antimicrobial protein Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  5. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system. The m...... of the early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  6. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  7. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  8. Mitochondrial group I and group II introns in the sponge orders Agelasida and Axinellida

    OpenAIRE

    Huchon, Doroth?e; Szitenberg, Amir; Shefer, Sigal; Ilan, Micha; Feldstein, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-splicing introns are present in the mitochondria of members of most eukaryotic lineages. They are divided into Group I and Group II introns, according to their secondary structure and splicing mechanism. Being rare in animals, self-splicing introns were only described in a few sponges, cnidarians, placozoans and one annelid species. In sponges, three types of mitochondrial Group I introns were previously described in two demosponge families (Tetillidae, and Aplysinellidae) and...

  9. Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.

  10. The ancestral retinoic acid receptor was a low-affinity sensor triggering neuronal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg-Thorsager, Mette; Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Arold, Stefan T.; Kumar Nadendla, Eswar; Bertucci, Paola Y.; Germain, Pierre; Tomançak, Pavel; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W.; Albalat, Ricard; Kane, Maureen A.; Bourguet, William; Laudet, Vincent; Arendt, Detlev; Schubert, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important intercellular signaling molecule in vertebrate development, with a well-established role in the regulation of hox genes during hindbrain patterning and in neurogenesis. However, the evolutionary origin of the RA signaling pathway remains elusive. To elucidate the evolution of the RA signaling system, we characterized RA metabolism and signaling in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, a powerful model for evolution, development, and neurobiology. Binding assays and crystal structure analyses show that the annelid retinoic acid receptor (RAR) binds RA and activates transcription just as vertebrate RARs, yet with a different ligand-binding pocket and lower binding affinity, suggesting a permissive rather than instructive role of RA signaling. RAR knockdown and RA treatment of swimming annelid larvae further reveal that the RA signal is locally received in the medial neuroectoderm, where it controls neurogenesis and axon outgrowth, whereas the spatial colinear hox gene expression in the neuroectoderm remains unaffected. These findings suggest that one early role of the new RAR in bilaterian evolution was to control the spatially restricted onset of motor and interneuron differentiation in the developing ventral nerve cord and to indicate that the regulation of hox-controlled anterior-posterior patterning arose only at the base of the chordates, concomitant with a high-affinity RAR needed for the interpretation of a complex RA gradient. PMID:29492455

  11. The ancestral retinoic acid receptor was a low-affinity sensor triggering neuronal differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Handberg-Thorsager, Mette

    2018-02-22

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important intercellular signaling molecule in vertebrate development, with a well-established role in the regulation of hox genes during hindbrain patterning and in neurogenesis. However, the evolutionary origin of the RA signaling pathway remains elusive. To elucidate the evolution of the RA signaling system, we characterized RA metabolism and signaling in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, a powerful model for evolution, development, and neurobiology. Binding assays and crystal structure analyses show that the annelid retinoic acid receptor (RAR) binds RA and activates transcription just as vertebrate RARs, yet with a different ligand-binding pocket and lower binding affinity, suggesting a permissive rather than instructive role of RA signaling. RAR knockdown and RA treatment of swimming annelid larvae further reveal that the RA signal is locally received in the medial neuroectoderm, where it controls neurogenesis and axon outgrowth, whereas the spatial colinear hox gene expression in the neuroectoderm remains unaffected. These findings suggest that one early role of the new RAR in bilaterian evolution was to control the spatially restricted onset of motor and interneuron differentiation in the developing ventral nerve cord and to indicate that the regulation of hox-controlled anterior-posterior patterning arose only at the base of the chordates, concomitant with a high-affinity RAR needed for the interpretation of a complex RA gradient.

  12. Whole-organism cellular gene-expression atlas reveals conserved cell types in the ventral nerve cord ofPlatynereis dumerilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Hernando Martínez; Bertucci, Paola Yanina; Hantz, Peter; Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Achim, Kaia; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

    2017-06-06

    The comparative study of cell types is a powerful approach toward deciphering animal evolution. To avoid selection biases, however, comparisons ideally involve all cell types present in a multicellular organism. Here, we use image registration and a newly developed "Profiling by Signal Probability Mapping" algorithm to generate a cellular resolution 3D expression atlas for an entire animal. We investigate three-segmented young worms of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii , with a rich diversity of differentiated cells present in relatively low number. Starting from whole-mount expression images for close to 100 neural specification and differentiation genes, our atlas identifies and molecularly characterizes 605 bilateral pairs of neurons at specific locations in the ventral nerve cord. Among these pairs, we identify sets of neurons expressing similar combinations of transcription factors, located at spatially coherent anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medial-lateral coordinates that we interpret as cell types. Comparison with motor and interneuron types in the vertebrate neural tube indicates conserved combinations, for example, of cell types cospecified by Gata1/2/3 and Tal transcription factors. These include V2b interneurons and the central spinal fluid-contacting Kolmer-Agduhr cells in the vertebrates, and several neuron types in the intermediate ventral ganglionic mass in the annelid. We propose that Kolmer-Agduhr cell-like mechanosensory neurons formed part of the mucociliary sole in protostome-deuterostome ancestors and diversified independently into several neuron types in annelid and vertebrate descendants.

  13. Primary structure of a constituent polypeptide chain (AIII) of the giant haemoglobin from the deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia. A possible H2S-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takagi, T; Ohta, S

    1990-02-15

    The deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia, belonging to the Phylum Vestimentifera, contains two giant extracellular haemoglobins, a 3000 kDa haemoglobin and a 440 kDa haemoglobin. The former consists of four haem-containing chains (AI-AIV) and two linker chains (AV and AVI) for the assembly of the haem-containing chains [Suzuki, Takagi & Ohta (1988) Biochem. J. 255, 541-545]. The tube-worm haemoglobins are believed to have a function of transporting sulphide (H2S) to internal bacterial symbionts, as well as of facilitating O2 transport [Arp & Childress (1983) Science 219, 295-297]. We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of Lamellibrachia chain AIII by automated or manual Edman sequencing. The chain is composed of 144 amino acid residues, has three cysteine residues at positions 3, 74 and 133, and has a molecular mass of 16,620 Da, including a haem group. The sequence showed significant homology (30-50% identity) with those of haem-containing chains of annelid giant haemoglobins. Two of the three cysteine residues are located at the positions where an intrachain disulphide bridge is formed in all annelid chains, but the remaining one (Cys-74) was located at a unique position, compared with annelid chains. Since the chain AIII was shown to have a reactive thiol group in the intact 3000 kDa molecule by preliminary experiments, the cysteine residue at position 74 appears to be one of the most probable candidates for the sulphide-binding sites. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from nine chains of annelid giant haemoglobins and one chain of vestimentiferan tube-worm haemoglobin now determined. The tree clearly showed that Lamellibrachia chain AIII belongs to the family of strain A of annelid giant haemoglobins, and that the two classes of Annelida, polychaete and oligochaete, and the vestimentiferan tube worm diverged at almost the same time. H.p.l.c. patterns of peptides (Figs. 4-7), amino acid compositions of peptides (Table 2) and amino acid sequences of

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  15. Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

    project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down...... the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø...

  16. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  17. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  18. Gene expression program of regeneration in Eisenia fetida: a transcriptomics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksheev Bhambri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Annelids form a connecting link between segmented and non-segmented organisms.  In other words, phylogenetically, the segmented body pattern starts from Annelida, a phylum that consists of thousands of species, including marine worms, freshwater leeches and earthworms that inhabit deep layers of soil to environmental niches in forests and cultivated land. We are using Eisenia fetida (Indian isolate a top dwelling, vermicomposting worm due to its ability to regenerate its posterior after damage, injury or complete removal. On average, Eisenia fetida has 100-110 segments. We separated the anterior (upto 55-60th segment and posterior of the worm, and allowed it to regenerate.  In this model, only the posterior could be regenerated after injury.  We isolated RNA from the regenerated tissue and the immediate adjacent old tissue at 15 days, 20 days and 30 days during regeneration. We carried out transcriptome sequencing and analysis. With the aim of identifying specific factors which promote nerve regeneration, we have annotated the differentially expressed genes. In all organisms which possess a segmented body, the expression pattern of the Hox cluster is conserved. Hox gene expression, a conserved developmental phenomenon in establishment of body plan has been studied by comparative genomics of other annelids like the marine worm Capitella telleta, the leech Helobdella robusta.  We have used a combination of high-throughput sequencing based techniques and validation through cell and molecular biology to identify key aspects of the gene expression program of regeneration in this worm. Besides the transcriptome, we have also done whole genome sequencing, miRnome and metagenome sequencing of this terrestrial annelid.

  19. New insights on the musculature of filospermoid Gnathostomulida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gąsiorowski, Ludwik; Bekkouche, Nicolas Tarik; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2017-01-01

    variation: H. simplex possesses a simple grid of thick longitudinal and thin circular muscles, whereas H. filum shows a very sparse body wall musculature devoid of circular fibers, a pattern similar to another interstitial worm, the enigmatic annelid Lobatocerebrum. The flexibility gained hereby may....... In addition to known pharyngeal muscles we found new apophyseal abductors not uncovered in bursovaginoid gnathostomulids, but which resemble certain muscles of the sister group (Micrognathozoa + Rotifera) and may present an autapomorphy of Gnathifera. The body wall musculature exhibits greater interspecific...

  20. A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlmann, J.; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Kloas, W.

    2009-01-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the biological effects of the most widely used plasticizers, including dibutyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate and bisphenol A (BPA), on wildlife, with a focus on annelids ( both aquatic and terrestrial...... environmental concentrations, and thus there is a very real potential for effects of these chemicals on some wildlife populations. The most striking gaps in our current knowledge on the impacts of plasticizers on wildlife are the lack of data for long-term exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations...

  1. Evolution of the 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase family in eukaryotes and bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Karina Hansen; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Reitamm, Tonu

    2009-01-01

    system. In view of these observations, we have pursued the idea that OAS genes could be present in other metazoans and in unicellular organisms as well. We have identified a number of OAS1 genes in annelids, mollusks, a cnidarian, chordates, and unicellular eukaryotes and also found a family of proteins......The 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) belongs to a nucleotidyl transferase family that includes poly(A) polymerases and CCA-adding enzymes. In mammals and birds, the OAS functions in the interferon system but it is also present in an active form in sponges, which are devoid of the interferon...

  2. Small angle x-ray scattering from proteins in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Souza, C.F.; Torriani, I.L.; Bonafe, C.F.S.; Merrelles, N.C.; Vachette, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this work the authors report experiments performed with giant respiratory proteins from annelids (erythrocruorins), known to have a molecular weight in the order of four million Daltons. Preliminary x-ray scattering data was obtained using a conventional rotating anode source. High resolution small angle scattering curves were obtained with synchrotron radiation from the DCI storage ring at LURE. Data from solutions with several protein concentrations were analyzed in order to determine low resolution dimensional parameters, using Guinier plots from the smeared scattering curves and the inverse transformation method

  3. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capowiez, Yvan; Dittbrenner, Nils; Rault, Magali; Triebskorn, Rita; Hedde, Mickael; Mazzia, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  4. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capowiez, Yvan, E-mail: capowiez@avignon.inra.f [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Dittbrenner, Nils [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Rault, Magali [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Hedde, Mickael [INRA, UR251 ' PESSAC' , RD10, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Mazzia, Christophe [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-02-15

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  5. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomaeus Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-16

    Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  7. Molecular evolution and phylogeny of sipunculan hemerythrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Stefano; Negrisolo, Enrico; Bailly, Xavier; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Salvato, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    We sequenced seven new hemerythrin (Hr) and myohemerythrin (myoHr) cDNAs from Sipunculus nudus and Golfingia vulgaris vulgaris, thus providing new comparative data that significantly increase the set of the known Hr and myoHr sequences. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses were performed to investigate the evolutionary relationships among the sipunculan and annelid Hr and myoHr sequences. Annelid myoHrs and sipunculan Hrs were resolved as monophyletic groups. Conversely sipunculan myoHrs did not form a clade. The Hrs having an octameric quaternary structure were resolved as a monophyletic group. The octameric cluster includes the Hr sequences of G. v. vulgaris, Themiste zostericola, Themiste discriptum, and Phascolopsis gouldii. Siphonosoma cumanense Hr, which has a trimeric quaternary structure, assumes a sister group position of the octameric clade. The S. nudus Hrs, having a quaternary structure that is not well resolved, assume an isolate position within the Hrs clade. Likelihood-based analyses reveal that purifying selection mainly characterized the evolution of Hr and myoHr. We suggest that starting from a common gene ancestor, two distinct quaternary structures evolved in the sipunculan Hrs and this differentiation was probably favored by the acquisition of distinct physiological advantages.

  8. Iodothyronine deiodinase gene analysis of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas reveals possible conservation of thyroid hormone feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-07-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinase catalyzes the initiation and termination of thyroid hormones (THs) effects, and plays a central role in the regulation of thyroid hormone level in vertebrates. In non-chordate invertebrates, only one deiodinase has been identified in the scallop Chlamys farreri. Here, two deiodinases were cloned in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ( CgDx and CgDy). The characteristic in-frame TGA codons and selenocysteine insertion sequence elements in the oyster deiodinase cDNAs supported the activity of them. Furthermore, seven orthologs of deiodinases were found by a tblastn search in the mollusk Lottia gigantea and the annelid Capitella teleta. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the deiodinase gene originated from an common ancestor and a clade-specific gene duplication occurred independently during the differentiation of the mollusk, annelid, and vertebrate lineages. The distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns implied functional divergence of the two deiodinases. The expression of CgDx and CgDy was influenced by L-thyroxine T4, and putative thyroid hormone responsive elements were found in their promoters, which suggested that the oyster deiodinases were feedback regulated by TH. Epinephrine stimulated the expression level of CgDx and CgDy, suggesting an interaction effect between different hormones. This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a conserved TH feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks, providing insights into TH evolution.

  9. Molecular Phylogeny of Echiuran Worms (Phylum: Annelida) Reveals Evolutionary Pattern of Feeding Mode and Sexual Dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms. PMID:23457618

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Urechis caupo, a representative of the phylum Echiura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although hundreds of these genome sequences have been reported, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, with many whole phyla remaining unstudied. This is the first description of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a representative of the phylum Echiura, that of the fat innkeeper worm, Urechis caupo. Results This mtDNA is 15,113 nts in length and 62% A+T. It contains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs in an arrangement somewhat similar to that of annelid worms. All genes are encoded by the same DNA strand which is rich in A and C relative to the opposite strand. Codons ending with the dinucleotide GG are more frequent than would be expected from apparent mutational biases. The largest non-coding region is only 282 nts long, is 71% A+T, and has potential for secondary structures. Conclusions Urechis caupo mtDNA shares many features with those of the few studied annelids, including the common usage of ATG start codons, unusual among animal mtDNAs, as well as gene arrangements, tRNA structures, and codon usage biases.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Urechis caupo, a representative of the phylum Echiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, Jeffrey L

    2004-09-15

    Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although hundreds of these genome sequences have been reported, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, with many whole phyla remaining unstudied. This is the first description of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a representative of the phylum Echiura, that of the fat innkeeper worm, Urechis caupo. This mtDNA is 15,113 nts in length and 62% A+T. It contains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs in an arrangement somewhat similar to that of annelid worms. All genes are encoded by the same DNA strand which is rich in A and C relative to the opposite strand. Codons ending with the dinucleotide GG are more frequent than would be expected from apparent mutational biases. The largest non-coding region is only 282 nts long, is 71% A+T, and has potential for secondary structures. Urechis caupo mtDNA shares many features with those of the few studied annelids, including the common usage of ATG start codons, unusual among animal mtDNAs, as well as gene arrangements, tRNA structures, and codon usage biases.

  12. Mouthparts of the Burgess Shale fossils Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia: implications for the ancestral molluscan radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin R

    2012-10-22

    The Middle Cambrian lophotrochozoans Odontogriphus omalus and Wiwaxia corrugata have been interpreted as stem-group members of either the Mollusca, the Annelida, or a group containing Mollusca + Annelida. The case for each classification rests on the organisms' unusual mouthparts, whose two to three tooth-rows resemble both the molluscan radula and the jaws of certain annelid worms. Despite their potential significance, these mouthparts have not previously been described in detail. This study examined the feeding apparatuses of over 300 specimens from the 505-million-year-old Burgess Shale, many of which were studied for the first time. Rather than denticulate plates, each tooth row comprises a single axial tooth that is flanked on each side by eight to 16 separate shoehorn-shaped teeth. Tooth rows sat on a grooved basal tongue, and two large lobes flanked the apparatus. New observations--the shape, distribution and articulation of the individual teeth, and the mouthparts' mode of growth--are incompatible with an annelid interpretation, instead supporting a classification in Mollusca. The ancestral molluscan radula is best reconstructed as unipartite with a symmetrical medial tooth, and Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia as grazing deposit-feeders.

  13. Cellular and muscular growth patterns during sipunculan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Maiorova, Anastassya S; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-05-15

    Sipuncula is a lophotrochozoan taxon with annelid affinities, albeit lacking segmentation of the adult body. Here, we present data on cell proliferation and myogenesis during development of three sipunculan species, Phascolosoma agassizii, Thysanocardia nigra, and Themiste pyroides. The first anlagen of the circular body wall muscles appear simultaneously and not subsequently as in the annelids. At the same time, the rudiments of four longitudinal retractor muscles appear. This supports the notion that four introvert retractors were part of the ancestral sipunculan bodyplan. The longitudinal muscle fibers form a pattern of densely arranged fibers around the retractor muscles, indicating that the latter evolved from modified longitudinal body wall muscles. For a short time interval, the distribution of S-phase mitotic cells shows a metameric pattern in the developing ventral nerve cord during the pelagosphera stage. This pattern disappears close to metamorphic competence. Our findings are congruent with data on sipunculan neurogenesis, as well as with recent molecular analyses that place Sipuncula within Annelida, and thus strongly support a segmental ancestry of Sipuncula. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Annotation of nerve cord transcriptome in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Ponesakki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In annelid worms, the nerve cord serves as a crucial organ to control the sensory and behavioral physiology. The inadequate genome resource of earthworms has prioritized the comprehensive analysis of their transcriptome dataset to monitor the genes express in the nerve cord and predict their role in the neurotransmission and sensory perception of the species. The present study focuses on identifying the potential transcripts and predicting their functional features by annotating the transcriptome dataset of nerve cord tissues prepared by Gong et al., 2010 from the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Totally 9762 transcripts were successfully annotated against the NCBI nr database using the BLASTX algorithm and among them 7680 transcripts were assigned to a total of 44,354 GO terms. The conserve domain analysis indicated the over representation of P-loop NTPase domain and calcium binding EF-hand domain. The COG functional annotation classified 5860 transcript sequences into 25 functional categories. Further, 4502 contig sequences were found to map with 124 KEGG pathways. The annotated contig dataset exhibited 22 crucial neuropeptides having considerable matches to the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, suggesting their possible role in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. In addition, 108 human stem cell marker homologs were identified including the crucial epigenetic regulators, transcriptional repressors and cell cycle regulators, which may contribute to the neuronal and segmental regeneration. The complete functional annotation of this nerve cord transcriptome can be further utilized to interpret genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with neuronal development, nervous system regeneration and nerve cord function.

  15. Benthic assemblages of a temperate estuarine system in South America: Transition from a freshwater to an estuarine zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Capítulo, Alberto Rodrigues; Boccardi, Lucía; Arocena, Rafael

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to describe the species composition, diversity and distribution of the zoobenthic assemblages, to estimate the abundance and biomass of the dominant species, and to identify the main environmental factors determining the distribution patterns of the invertebrates from a freshwater to an estuarine zone in a temperate estuary of South America. The Río de la Plata estuary is a microtidal system characterized by a high concentration of suspended solids. Fifty-three taxa of meso- and macro-invertebrates were identified in the samples collected during November and December 2001. Molluscs, annelids, crustaceans and nematodes were found at 90% of the sampling sites. Molluscs comprised up to about 90% of the total zoobenthos biomass: the remaining percentage corresponded mainly to annelids and less to nematodes and crustaceans. An ecocline along the salinity gradient could be observed for the benthic assemblages from the freshwater to the estuarine zone in Rio de la Plata. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis shows that results from sampling sites in the outer zone were strongly related to salinity, depth and pH and less to oxygen and percentage of clay. The results from stations in the inner zone, and part of the middle zone, were mainly related to the occurrence of sand and contents of NH 4+-N, NO 3--N, and PO 43--P.

  16. Stable-isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juveniles of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaslet, A; France, C; Phillips, D L; Feller, I C; Baldwin, C C

    2011-09-01

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, Florida) using gut-content and stable-isotope analyses of carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N). Four taxa were identified through analyses of gut contents, and the index of relative importance suggested that amphipods, microphytobenthos and annelids are the most important food sources in the fish's diet. To assess the feeding habits of the fish after their recruitment to the IRL, these food sources were collected from mangroves and nearby seagrass beds for isotope analyses. Stable isotopes constituted a powerful tool for discriminating fish prey items from mangroves (mean ± s.d.δ(13) C = -20·5 ± 0·6‰) and those from seagrass beds (mean ± s.d.δ(13) C = -16·9 ± 0·6‰), thus providing good evidence of food source origins. The 56 M. punctatus collected [10·0 zoobenthic diet. The concentration-dependent mixing Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) model revealed the importance of food sources from seagrass beds as carbon sources for all the fish collected, with a significant increase in mangrove prey contributions, such as annelids, in the diet of larger juveniles. This study highlights the importance of seagrass beds as feeding habitats for juveniles of M. punctatus after their recruitment to coastal waters. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Phylogenomic analyses of Crassiclitellata support major Northern and Southern Hemisphere clades and a Pangaean origin for earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank E; Williams, Bronwyn W; Horn, Kevin M; Erséus, Christer; Halanych, Kenneth M; Santos, Scott R; James, Samuel W

    2017-05-30

    Earthworms (Crassiclitellata) are a diverse group of annelids of substantial ecological and economic importance. Earthworms are primarily terrestrial infaunal animals, and as such are probably rather poor natural dispersers. Therefore, the near global distribution of earthworms reflects an old and likely complex evolutionary history. Despite a long-standing interest in Crassiclitellata, relationships among and within major clades remain unresolved. In this study, we evaluate crassiclitellate phylogenetic relationships using 38 new transcriptomes in combination with publicly available transcriptome data. Our data include representatives of nearly all extant earthworm families and a representative of Moniligastridae, another terrestrial annelid group thought to be closely related to Crassiclitellata. We use a series of differentially filtered data matrices and analyses to examine the effects of data partitioning, missing data, compositional and branch-length heterogeneity, and outgroup inclusion. We recover a consistent, strongly supported ingroup topology irrespective of differences in methodology. The topology supports two major earthworm clades, each of which consists of a Northern Hemisphere subclade and a Southern Hemisphere subclade. Divergence time analysis results are concordant with the hypothesis that these north-south splits are the result of the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. These results support several recently proposed revisions to the classical understanding of earthworm phylogeny, reveal two major clades that seem to reflect Pangaean distributions, and raise new questions about earthworm evolutionary relationships.

  18. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and

  19. The preliminary data on the Aeronian (Silurian) machaerids from Lithuania (Baltic Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzevičius, S.; Ekleris, A.

    2012-04-01

    Machaerids are stem-Lophotrochozoans, closely related to the Annelids, and known from the Early Ordovician to Middle Permian. Machaerids is a group of worm-like benthic marine, bilaterally symmetrical, armoured invertebrate. Their body is covered by an external scleritome. The scleritome is imbricated of longitudinally arranged series of plates or sclerites. Completely articulated specimens of machaeridians are very rare, yet the systematic position of machaerids is controversial. Machaeridians had been assigned to different groups, such as barnacles, mollusks, echinoderms and annelids. The latter is prevailing, however their exact place within the annelids still remains unresolved. New findings of disarticulated Silurian machaerids have been recorded in western Lithuania, Geniai-1 core. This well has been drilled with exploration purposes regarding the Cambrian oil reservoir; therefore the biggest part of the Silurian core has not been collected. The exceptions are some parts of the Llandovery and Ludlow, which have partially recovered well core, but the identification of the precise stratigraphical position is complicated. Disarticulated sclerites of machaeridians have been found at the 1756.4 m depth, in the argillite, together with some graptolites and brachiopods. Several rhabdosome fragments of Normalograptus scalaris (Hisinger) were found together with the machaenid sclerites as well. N. scalaris has wide biostratigraphical distribution from the Rhudanian to the lower part of Telychian, which comprises the convolutus - triangulates graptolite biozones, corresponding to the 1756.8 - 1756 m depth. Convolutus - triangulates biozones represent Aeronian, and the machaeridian sclerites come from this interval, together with the Jonsea grayi (Davidson) brachiopod shells, which are very common and correspond to the BA 5-6 benthic assemblage, as well as do the graptolites found together. In previous studies, two orders of machaerids have been recognized: the

  20. Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species...... and three out of five Aporrectodea species were densely colonized by a mono-species culture of Verminephrobacter, other earthworm species contained mixed bacterial populations with varying proportions of Verminephrobacter; four species did not contain Verminephrobacter at all. The Verminephrobacter...... symbionts could be grouped into earthworm species-specific sequence clusters based on their 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) genes. Closely related host species harboured more closely related symbionts than did distantly related hosts. Co-diversification of the symbiotic partners could...

  1. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of incorporation of elm leaves (Ulmus glabra) into an agricultural sandy loam soil by earthworms (Lumbricus festivus) on the bacterial and protozoan populations were investigated. Three model systems consisting of soil, soil with leaves, and soil with leaves and earthworms, respectively...... activity. In soil with elm leaves and earthworms, earthworm activity led to increased culturability of bacteria, activity of protozoa, number of nematodes, changed metabolic potentials of the bacteria, and decreased differences in metabolic potentials between bacterial populations in the soil fractions....... The effects of earthworms can be mediated by mechanical mixing of the soil constituents and incorporation of organic matter into the soil, but as the earthworms have only consumed a minor part of the soil, priming effects are believed partly to explain the increased microbial activity....

  2. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  3. Influence of earthworms on the sulfur turnover in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe, S; Schrader, S; Giesemann, A; Larink, O; Weigel, H J

    1996-08-01

    Abstract The effects of earthworm activity on the concentration and isotopic composition of total sulfur in soils was investigated using batch experiments. Two ecologically different lumbricid species, the anecic Lumbricus terrestris and the endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa, were used. The earthworms were fed birch leaves, beech leaves, cattle manure or mixed plant litter. All food sources differed isotopically (δ(34)S) from the soil (Parabraunerde). As a reference, one experiment was carried out without additional food. The experimental results show, that both earthworm species influence the total S-content and the δ(34)S-values in the soil by digestion of the different food sources. The differences in the total S-content of the earthworm tissues and in the S-isotopic composition of the casts can be attributed to the ecological differences between the earthworm species.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding fibrinolytic enzyme-3 from earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guo-Qing; Yuan, Xiao-Ling; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Chen, Jia-Pei; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2004-04-01

    The earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme-3 (EFE-3, GenBank accession No: AY438622), from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is a component of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes. In this study, cDNA encoding the EFE-3 was cloned by RT-PCR. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 741 nucleotides, which encoded a deduced protein of 247 amino acid residues, including signal sequences. EFE-3 showed a high degree of homology to earthworm (Lumbricus rebullus) proteases F-III-1, F-III-2, and bovine trypsin. The recombinant EFE-3 was expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies, and the gene encoding the native form of EFE-3 was expressed in COS-7 cells in the medium. Both the refolding product of inclusion bodies and the secreted protease could dissolve the artificial fibrin plate.

  5. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Natasha A.; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Anh, Nguyen; Beyer, W. Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Marya O.; Cantrell, Keri B.

    2014-01-01

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4′-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

  6. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G

    2015-08-05

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades.

  7. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  8. Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

    2003-01-01

    NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that ·O 2 - is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone

  9. Importância dos anelídeos poliquetas na alimentação da macrofauna demersal e epibentônica da região de Ubatuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cecília Z Amaral

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation is to evaluate the importance of the contribution of polychaetous annelids to the feeding habits of fishes, crustaceans and molluscs from an important fishing area to the northern coast of São Paulo. Many of the species of fishes caught by otter-trawl, along the first phase of the present work have shown a remarkable preference for the polychaetes, as food items. Among them Rhinobatos horkelli, Orthopristis ruber. Cynoscion striatus, Menticirrhus americanus, Micropogon furnieri, Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Umbrina canosai, Etropus intermedius and Symphurus trewavasae are the most representative in this respect. The taxonomic analysis of the worms revealed the presence of 32 species, from which the more frequent was Nothria stigmatis, Pherusa laevis, Pherusa parmata, Piromis arenosus, Pectinaria laelia and Thelepus setosus.

  10. A new Fridericia species (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae and the enchytraeid fauna of the Őrség National Park (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dózsa-Farkas, K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The enchytraeid fauna of the Őrség National Park (Western Hungary, hitherto unknown, was investigated in this study. 14 enchytraeid genera including 47 species and one other annelid worm (Hrabeiella periglandulata were identified. One enchytraeid species was found to be new to science and is described in this paper as Fridericia zicsii sp. nov. The new species is distinguishable based on both morphological characters and molecular data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences from similar species. The enchytraeid fauna of Őrség NP indicated well the subalpine nature of this area. The most species-rich site was the hay meadow (32 species and interestingly, the species number in the Sphagnum bog of Szőce was unusually high (19 species.

  11. Etude du transfert de quelques oligo-éléments dans les chaînes trophiques néritiques et estuariennes: Accumulation biologique chez les poissons omnivores et super-carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, C.; Amiard, J.-C.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Marchand, J.

    1980-06-01

    Five species of fishes (Dicentrarchus labrax, Gobius microps, Stizostedion lucioperca, Gadus luscus, Merlangius merlangus) and their major prey organisms were collected monthly from two stations in the Loire estuary (France). The levels of several trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in their tissues were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Cu were shown to decrease in the highest trophic levels: the relatively highest metal levels were determined in annelids, followed by crustaceans, the lowest levels being encountered in fishes. However, a preferential uptake of Cu was observed in crustaceans. There is no biomagnification for these three metals, the concentrations in preys being generally lower than in predators. For Zn, the highest concentrations were measured in worms and copepods but preys such as shrimps and mysids exhibit values of the same order of magnitude compared to predator fishes.

  12. Acquisition of dwarf male "harems" by recently settled females of Osedax roseus n. sp. (Siboglinidae; Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouse, G W; Worsaae, K; Johnson, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    After the deployment of several whale carcasses in Monterey Bay, California, a time-series analysis revealed the presence of a new species of Osedax, a genus of bone-eating siboglinid annelids. That species is described here as Osedax roseus n. sp. It is the fifth species described since...... the erection of this genus and, like its congeners, uses a ramifying network of "roots" to house symbiotic bacteria. In less than 2 months, Osedax roseus n. sp. colonized the exposed bones of a whale carcass deposited at 1018-m depth, and many of the females were fecund in about 3 months post......-deployment. As with other Osedax spp., the females have dwarf males in their tube lumens. The males accrue over time until the sex ratio is markedly male-biased. This pattern of initial female settlement followed by gradual male accumulation is consistent with the hypothesis that male sex may be environmentally determined...

  13. The combined effect of freeze thaw events and heavy metal pollution leads to distinct lethal synergy in Enchytraeus albidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Sara Wincentz; Slotsbo, Stine; Holmstrup, Martin

    . Bioaccumulation of copper was also quantified to expose any increase in body burden in freeze-thaw treated worms. Regardless of the physiological responses, it is evident that arctic organisms are negatively affected by the environmental impact of global warming and exploitation of mineral deposits through mining.......Many anthropogenic activities negatively affect the environment and stress the organisms living here in various ways. Due to global warming it is likely that freeze-thaw events will replace permanent freezing of soils in arctic regions. Metals are some of the most common contaminants in soil...... the Icelandic, freeze tolerant annelid worm, Enchytraeus albidus. Worms were exposed to one of three temperature treatments (constant +1.5⁰C, constant -6⁰C, or daily cycles between +1.5 and -6⁰C) in combination with one of several different copper (CuCl2) concentrations in soil. The results showed a distinct...

  14. Gene structure of the two-domain taurocyamine kinase from Paragonimus westermani: evidence for a distinct lineage of trematode phosphagen kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarilla, Blanca R; Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Acosta, Luz P; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-07-11

    Taurocyamine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate between ATP and taurocyamine. Annelid TKs were suggested to have evolved from a CK ancestor. However, TKs from the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani comprised another lineage. Construction of phylogenetic tree and comparison of exon/intron organization showed that P. westermani TK and other trematode TKs evolved from a molluscan arginine kinase (AK) gene. Exon shuffling probably caused the changes in amino acid sequence thereby changing the affinity from AK to TK. The present study provides new insights on the evolution of phosphagen kinases found in trematodes. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Host Matters: Medicinal Leech Digestive-Tract Symbionts and their Pathogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Marden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digestive-tract microbiota exert tremendous influence over host health. Host-symbiont model systems are studied to investigate how symbioses are initiated and maintained, as well as to identify host processes affected by resident microbiota. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, is an excellent model to address such questions owing to a microbiome that is consistently dominanted by two species, Aeromonas veronii and Mucinivorans hirudinis, both of which are cultivable and have sequenced genomes. This review outlines current knowledge about the dynamics of the H. verbana microbiome. We discuss in depth the factors required for A. veronii colonization and proliferation in the leech crop and summarize the current understanding of interactions between A. veronii and its annelid host. Lastly, we discuss leech usage in modern medicine and highlight how leech-therapy associated infections, often attributable to Aeromonas spp., are of growing clinical concern due in part to an increased prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant strains.

  16. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  17. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of phoronis architecta--Comparisons demonstrate that phoronids are lophotrochozoan protostomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    The proper reconstruction of the relationships among the animal phyla is central to interpreting patterns of animal evolution from the genomic level to the morphological level. This is true not only of the more speciose phyla, but also of smaller groups. We report here the nearly complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the phoronid Phoronis architecta, which has a gene arrangement remarkably similar to that of a protostome animal, the chiton Katharina tunicata. Evolutionary analysis of both gene arrangements and inferred amino acid sequences of these taxa, along with those of three brachiopods and other diverse animals, strongly supports the hypothesis that lophophorates are part of the large group that includes mollusks and annelids, i.e., the Lophotrochozoa, and solidly refutes the alternative of their being deuterostomes.

  19. Oxygen binding properties of non-mammalian nerve globins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen-binding globins occur in the nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates. While the function of invertebrate nerve haemoglobins as oxygen stores that extend neural excitability under hypoxia has been convincingly demonstrated, the physiological role of vertebrate neuroglobins...... is less well understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the oxygenation characteristics of nerve haemoglobins from an annelid (Aphrodite aculeata), a nemertean (Cerebratulus lacteus) and a bivalve (Spisula solidissima) and of neuroglobin from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The functional differences...... temperatures investigated and exhibited large enthalpies of oxygenation, the hexacoordinate globins showed reverse Bohr effects (at least at low temperature) and approximately twofold lower oxygenation enthalpies. Only S. solidissima nerve haemoglobin showed apparent cooperativity in oxygen binding, suggesting...

  20. Symbiosis insights through metagenomic analysis of a microbialconsortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman,Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-09-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut, and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model which describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments which it inhabits.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  2. Polychaetes of commercial interest from the Mediterranean East Coast of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. YOUNSI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of polychaetous annelids are commercially collected, as baits, from natural populations along the coast of Algeria. They are collected by semi-professional bait harvesters supplying a variety of local outlets and are used as bait by local fishermen. Bait harvesters commonly use bleaching liquid (10% in sea water or a KMnO4 (0.5 to 1% in sea water solution to force Perinereis cultrifera (Nereididae individuals out of their algal mat. Hediste diversicolor (Nereididae and Scolelepis squamata(Spionidae are dug from intertidal mudflats and sandy beaches. Commercial prices and ways of utilization are given for each species. The necessity for the legislative establishment of a regulatory management plan for worm angling is demonstrated.

  3. A new subdisarticulated machaeridian from the Middle Devonian of China: Insights into taphonomy and taxonomy using X-ray microtomography and 3D-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gügel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Machaeridians are an extinct group of armoured annelids, which are mainly known from isolated sclerites present from the Ordovician to the Permian. Based on articulated specimens with preserved soft-tissues and trace fossils, derived machaeridians are interpreted to have an infaunal burrowing mode of life. However, the taphonomy of sclerite associations is still largely unstudied. We herein investigated associated sclerites from the Middle Devonian of China using micro-computer tomography and 3D-analysis. These sclerites belong to a single individual and lie in close proximity. The absence of indications for current alignment, major bioturbation or other processes causing a disarticulation as reflected in the randomly arranged dacryoconarids suggest that the sclerites became disarticulated in the course of the normal decay processes, perhaps aided by scavenging and incomplete burial. The unique morphology of the sclerites indicates that the specimen presented here belongs to a previously undescribed species, which we describe herein as Lepidocoleus kuangguoduni sp. nov.

  4. Identification of two Nereis virens [Annelida: Polychaeta] cytochrome P450 enzymes and induction by xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Kjellerup, C; Jørgensen, A

    2004-01-01

    Nereis virens. These are the first CYP sequences reported in annelids. The deduced amino acid sequences both share highest identities to mammalian CYP4F enzymes (61% and 58%), indicating membership of the CYP4 family (accordingly, referred to as CYP41 and CYP42, respectively). The CYP42 gene expression......Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme catalysed metabolism of xenobiotics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to occur in polychaetes. Yet specific polychaete CYP enzymes have so far not been identified. Here, we report two partial CYP cDNA sequences, both of 453 bp, characterised from...... compounds such as fatty acids. Crude oil and benz(a)anthracene significantly induced CYP42 gene expression 2.6-fold, and because CYP enzymes often are induced by their own substrates, this induction may indicate involvement of N. virens CYP4 enzymes in the detoxification of environmental contaminants...

  5. Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Goedert, James L; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-05-11

    Osedax is a recently discovered group of siboglinid annelids that consume bones on the seafloor and whose evolutionary origins have been linked with Cretaceous marine reptiles or to the post-Cretaceous rise of whales. Here we present whale bones from early Oligocene bathyal sediments exposed in Washington State, which show traces similar to those made by Osedax today. The geologic age of these trace fossils ( approximately 30 million years) coincides with the first major radiation of whales, consistent with the hypothesis of an evolutionary link between Osedax and its main food source, although older fossils should certainly be studied. Osedax has been destroying bones for most of the evolutionary history of whales and the possible significance of this "Osedax effect" in relation to the quality and quantity of their fossils is only now recognized.

  6. Two betas or not two betas: regulation of asymmetric division by beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kota; Sawa, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    In various organisms, cells divide asymmetrically to produce distinct daughter cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, asymmetric division is controlled by the asymmetric activity of a Wnt signaling pathway (the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway). In this process, two specialized beta-catenin homologs have crucial roles in the transmission of Wnt signals to the asymmetric activity of a T-cell factor (TCF)-type transcription factor, POP-1, in the daughter cells. One beta-catenin homolog regulates the distinct nuclear level of POP-1, and the other functions as a coactivator of POP-1. Both beta-catenins localize asymmetrically in the daughter nuclei using different mechanisms. The recent discovery of reiterative nuclear asymmetries of a highly conserved beta-catenin in an annelid suggests that similar molecular mechanisms might regulate asymmetric cell divisions in other organisms.

  7. Sipunculans and segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups-Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages.

  8. Cellular resolution expression profiling using confocal detection of NBT/BCIP precipitate by reflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jékely, Gáspár; Arendt, Detlev

    2007-06-01

    The determination of gene expression patterns in three dimensions with cellular resolution is an important goal in developmental biology. However the most sensitive, efficient, and widely used staining technique for whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) precipitation by alkaline phosphatase, could not yet be combined with the most precise, high-resolution detection technique, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Here we report the efficient visualization of the NBT/BCIP precipitate using confocal reflection microscopy for WMISH samples of Drosophila, zebrafish, and the marine annelid worm, Platynereis dumerilii. In our simple WMISH protocol for reflection CLSM, NBT/BCIP staining can be combined with fluorescent WMISH, immunostainings, or transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker lines, allowing double labeling of cell types or of embryological structures of interest. Whole-mount reflection CLSM will thus greatly facilitate large-scale cellular resolution expression profiling in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms.

  9. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-01-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  10. Lethal and sub-lethal evaluation of Indigo Carmine dye and byproducts after TiO2 photocatalysis in the immune system of Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genázio Pereira, Patrícia Christina; Reimão, Roberta Valoura; Pavesi, Thelma; Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Moreira, Josino Costa; Veríssimo Correia, Fábio

    2017-09-01

    The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms. To this end, lethal (mortality) and sub-lethal (loss or gain of biomass, reproduction, behavior, morphological changes and immune system cells) effects caused by this substance and its degradation products in these annelids were evaluated. Morphological changes were observed even in organisms exposed to low concentrations, while mortality was the major effect observed in individuals exposed to high levels of indigo carmine dye. The organisms exposed to the IC during the contact test showed mortality after 72h of exposure (LC 50 = 75.79mgcm - 2 ), while those exposed to photoproducts showed mortality after 48h (LC 50 = 243min). In the chronic study, the organisms displayed a mortality rate of 14%, while those exposed to the photoproduct reached up to 32.7%. A negative influence of the dye on the reproduction rate was observed, while by-products affected juvenile survival. A loss of viability and alterations in the cellular proportion was verified during the chronic test. However, the compounds did not alter the behavior of the annelids in the leak test (RL ranged from 20% to 30%). Although photocatalysis has been presented as an alternative technology for the treatment of waste containing the indigo carmine dye, this process produced byproducts even more toxic than the original compounds to E. andrei. Copyright © 2017

  11. A Stable Thoracic Hox Code and Epimorphosis Characterize Posterior Regeneration in Capitella teleta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Danielle M.; Seaver, Elaine C.

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration, the ability to replace lost tissues and body parts following traumatic injury, occurs widely throughout the animal tree of life. Regeneration occurs either by remodeling of pre-existing tissues, through addition of new cells by cell division, or a combination of both. We describe a staging system for posterior regeneration in the annelid, Capitella teleta, and use the C. teleta Hox gene code as markers of regional identity for regenerating tissue along the anterior-posterior axis. Following amputation of different posterior regions of the animal, a blastema forms and by two days, proliferating cells are detected by EdU incorporation, demonstrating that epimorphosis occurs during posterior regeneration of C. teleta. Neurites rapidly extend into the blastema, and gradually become organized into discrete nerves before new ganglia appear approximately seven days after amputation. In situ hybridization shows that seven of the ten Hox genes examined are expressed in the blastema, suggesting roles in patterning the newly forming tissue, although neither spatial nor temporal co-linearity was detected. We hypothesized that following amputation, Hox gene expression in pre-existing segments would be re-organized to scale, and the remaining fragment would express the complete suite of Hox genes. Surprisingly, most Hox genes display stable expression patterns in the ganglia of pre-existing tissue following amputation at multiple axial positions, indicating general stability of segmental identity. However, the three Hox genes, CapI-lox4, CapI-lox2 and CapI-Post2, each shift its anterior expression boundary by one segment, and each shift includes a subset of cells in the ganglia. This expression shift depends upon the axial position of the amputation. In C. teleta, thoracic segments exhibit stable positional identity with limited morphallaxis, in contrast with the extensive body remodeling that occurs during regeneration of some other annelids, planarians and acoel

  12. A Stable Thoracic Hox Code and Epimorphosis Characterize Posterior Regeneration in Capitella teleta.

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    Danielle M de Jong

    Full Text Available Regeneration, the ability to replace lost tissues and body parts following traumatic injury, occurs widely throughout the animal tree of life. Regeneration occurs either by remodeling of pre-existing tissues, through addition of new cells by cell division, or a combination of both. We describe a staging system for posterior regeneration in the annelid, Capitella teleta, and use the C. teleta Hox gene code as markers of regional identity for regenerating tissue along the anterior-posterior axis. Following amputation of different posterior regions of the animal, a blastema forms and by two days, proliferating cells are detected by EdU incorporation, demonstrating that epimorphosis occurs during posterior regeneration of C. teleta. Neurites rapidly extend into the blastema, and gradually become organized into discrete nerves before new ganglia appear approximately seven days after amputation. In situ hybridization shows that seven of the ten Hox genes examined are expressed in the blastema, suggesting roles in patterning the newly forming tissue, although neither spatial nor temporal co-linearity was detected. We hypothesized that following amputation, Hox gene expression in pre-existing segments would be re-organized to scale, and the remaining fragment would express the complete suite of Hox genes. Surprisingly, most Hox genes display stable expression patterns in the ganglia of pre-existing tissue following amputation at multiple axial positions, indicating general stability of segmental identity. However, the three Hox genes, CapI-lox4, CapI-lox2 and CapI-Post2, each shift its anterior expression boundary by one segment, and each shift includes a subset of cells in the ganglia. This expression shift depends upon the axial position of the amputation. In C. teleta, thoracic segments exhibit stable positional identity with limited morphallaxis, in contrast with the extensive body remodeling that occurs during regeneration of some other annelids

  13. The European land leech: biology and DNA-based taxonomy of a rare species that is threatened by climate warming.

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    Kutschera, U; Pfeiffer, I; Ebermann, E

    2007-12-01

    The European land leech Xerobdella lecomtei was discovered in 1868 and is one of the rarest animals on Earth. During the 1960s, several individuals of these approx. 40 mm long, cold-adapted terrestrial annelids that inhabit the moist soils of birch forests around Graz, Austria, were investigated. Only one original research paper has been published on the biology of this species. Between 2001 and 2005, we re-investigated the morphology of preserved specimens and searched for living individuals in their natural habitat that appeared to be intact. We found only one juvenile individual (length approx. 10 mm), indicating that this local leech population became largely extinct over the past four decades. The feeding behaviour of our 'lonesome George of the annelids' was studied and is described here in detail. After its death, the Xerobdella individual was used for chemical extraction and molecular studies (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] barcoding, based on one gene, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). In addition, novel DNA barcodes for a land leech from Madagascar and a recently discovered species from Europe were obtained. Our phylogenetic tree shows that X. lecomtei is not a member of the tropical land leeches (family Haemadipsidae), as previously thought, but represents a separate line of descent (family Xerobdellidae). The decline of the local leech population around Graz correlates with a rise in average summer temperatures of +3 degrees C between 1961 and 2004. This warming led to a drastic reduction in the moisture content of the soil where X. lecomtei lives. We suggest that human-induced climate change without apparent habitat destruction can lead to the extinction of populations of cold-adapted species that have a low colonization ability.

  14. Capitellid connections: contributions from neuromuscular development of the maldanid polychaete Axiothella rubrocincta (Annelida

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    Wanninger Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous phylogenetic analyses on polychaete annelids suggest a taxon Capitellida that comprises the three families Maldanidae, Arenicolidae and Capitellidae. Recent molecular studies support the position of the Echiura, traditionally ranked as a separate phylum, within the capitellids. In order to test the robustness of this molecular-based hypothesis we take a different approach using comparative analyses of nervous and muscle system development in the maldanid Axiothella rubrocincta. Employing immunocytochemistry in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy, we broaden the database on capitellid organogenesis, thereby incorporating classical histological data in our analysis. Besides assessing possible shared features with the echiurans, we also discuss the variability of neural and muscular characters within the Capitellida. Results The scaffold of the adult central nervous system, which is already established in early developmental stages of Axiothella, consists of cerebral commissures that give rise to simple circumesophageal connectives with fused ventral and dorsal roots and a single ventral neurite bundle. From the latter arise segmental neurites that innervate the peripheral bodywall. Since there is no observable regular pattern, and individual neurites are lost during ontogeny, their exact arrangement remains elusive. The pharynx is encircled by a prominent stomatogastric nerve ring, with a pair of anterior and lateral proboscis neurites directly connecting it to the central nervous system. One pair of ventral and one pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles form the earliest rudiments of the bodywall musculature in late larval stages, while a continuous layer of circular muscles is lacking throughout ontogeny. Conclusions Comparative neurodevelopmental analysis of capitellid and echiuran species reveals several common characters, including simple circumesophageal connectives, a single fused ventral nerve

  15. Sensing deep extreme environments: the receptor cell types, brain centers, and multi-layer neural packaging of hydrothermal vent endemic worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ogura, Atsushi; Mori, Tsukasa; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Yoshida, Takao; Tsuchida, Shinji; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea alvinellid worm species endemic to hydrothermal vents, such as Alvinella and Paralvinella, are considered to be among the most thermotolerant animals known with their adaptability to toxic heavy metals, and tolerance of highly reductive and oxidative stressful environments. Despite the number of recent studies focused on their overall transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic stabilities, little is known regarding their sensory receptor cells and electrically active neuro-processing centers, and how these can tolerate and function in such harsh conditions. We examined the extra- and intracellular organizations of the epidermal ciliated sensory cells and their higher centers in the central nervous system through immunocytochemical, ultrastructural, and neurotracing analyses. We observed that these cells were rich in mitochondria and possessed many electron-dense granules, and identified specialized glial cells and serial myelin-like repeats in the head sensory systems of Paralvinella hessleri. Additionally, we identified the major epidermal sensory pathways, in which a pair of distinct mushroom bodies-like or small interneuron clusters was observed. These sensory learning and memory systems are commonly found in insects and annelids, but the alvinellid inputs are unlikely derived from the sensory ciliary cells of the dorsal head regions. Our evidence provides insight into the cellular and system-wide adaptive structure used to sense, process, and combat the deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. The alvinellid sensory cells exhibit characteristics of annelid ciliary types, and among the most unique features were the head sensory inputs and structure of the neural cell bodies of the brain, which were surrounded by multiple membranes. We speculated that such enhanced protection is required for the production of normal electrical signals, and to avoid the breakdown of the membrane surrounding metabolically fragile neurons from oxidative stress. Such pivotal

  16. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumler, Natalie; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2012-09-14

    Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems - including coelomic cavities as functional units - among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm). Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization) with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used as a homology criterion. Because of similarities in overall

  17. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J

    2015-12-19

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of 'evo-devo'. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters-the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids-a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Leeches of the genus Helobdella as model organisms for Evo-Devo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Weisblat, David A

    2015-12-01

    Model organisms are important tools in modern biology and have been used elucidate mechanism underlying processes, such as development, heredity, neuronal signaling, and phototropism, to name but a few. In this context, the use of model organisms is predicated on uncovering evolutionarily conserved features of biological processes in the expectation that the findings will be applicable to organisms that are either inaccessible or intractable for direct experimentation. For the most part, particular species have been adapted as model organisms because they can be easily reared and manipulated in the laboratory. In contrast, a major goal in the field of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) is to identify and elucidate the differences in developmental processes among species associated with the dramatic range of body plans among organisms, and how these differences have emerged over time in various branches of phylogeny. At first glance then, it would appear that the concept of model organisms for Evo-Devo is oxymoronic. In fact, however, laboratory-compatible, experimentally tractable species are of great use for Evo-Devo, subject to the condition that the ensemble of models investigated should reflect the range of taxonomic diversity, and for this purpose glossiphoniid leeches are useful. Four decades ago (1975), leeches of the species-rich genus Helobdella (Lophotrochozoa; Annelida; Clitellata; Hirudinida; Glossiphoniidae) were collected in Stow Lake, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA (USA). These and other Helobdella species may be taken as Evo-Devo models of leeches, clitellate annelids, and the super-phylum Lophotrochozoa. Here we depict/discuss the biology/taxonomy of these Evo-Devo systems, and the challenges of identifying species within Helobdella. In addition, we document that H. austinensis has been established as a new model organism that can easily be cultivated in the laboratory. Finally, we provide an updated scheme illustrating the unique

  19. Deciphering the onychophoran 'segmentation gene cascade': Gene expression reveals limited involvement of pair rule gene orthologs in segmentation, but a highly conserved segment polarity gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2013-10-01

    The hallmark of the arthropods is their segmented body, although origin of segmentation, however, is unresolved. In order to shed light on the origin of segmentation we investigated orthologs of pair rule genes (PRGs) and segment polarity genes (SPGs) in a member of the closest related sister-group to the arthropods, the onychophorans. Our gene expression data analysis suggests that most of the onychophoran PRGs do not play a role in segmentation. One possible exception is the even-skipped (eve) gene that is expressed in the posterior end of the onychophoran where new segments are likely patterned, and is also expressed in segmentation-gene typical transverse stripes in at least a number of newly formed segments. Other onychophoran PRGs such as runt (run), hairy/Hes (h/Hes) and odd-skipped (odd) do not appear to have a function in segmentation at all. Onychophoran PRGs that act low in the segmentation gene cascade in insects, however, are potentially involved in segment-patterning. Most obvious is that from the expression of the pairberry (pby) gene ortholog that is expressed in a typical SPG-pattern. Since this result suggested possible conservation of the SPG-network we further investigated SPGs (and associated factors) such as Notum in the onychophoran. We find that the expression patterns of SPGs in arthropods and the onychophoran are highly conserved, suggesting a conserved SPG-network in these two clades, and indeed also in an annelid. This may suggest that the common ancestor of lophotrochozoans and ecdysozoans was already segmented utilising the same SPG-network, or that the SPG-network was recruited independently in annelids and onychophorans/arthropods. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: heterochrony in polychaetes

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    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae. We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements.

  1. Structural basis for the heterotropic and homotropic interactions of invertebrate giant hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numoto, Nobutaka; Nakagawa, Taro; Kita, Akiko; Sasayama, Yuichi; Fukumori, Yoshihiro; Miki, Kunio

    2008-10-28

    The oxygen binding properties of extracellular giant hemoglobins (Hbs) in some annelids exhibit features significantly different from those of vertebrate tetrameric Hbs. Annelid giant Hbs show cooperative oxygen binding properties in the presence of inorganic cations, while the cooperativities of vertebrate Hbs are enhanced by small organic anions or chloride ions. To elucidate the structural basis for the cation-mediated cooperative mechanisms of these giant Hbs, we determined the crystal structures of Ca2+- and Mg2+-bound Hbs from Oligobrachia mashikoi at 1.6 and 1.7 A resolution, respectively. Both of the metal-bound structures were determined in the oxygenated state. Four Ca2+-binding sites and one Mg2+-binding site were identified in each tetramer subassembly. These cations are considered to stabilize the oxygenated form and increase affinity and cooperativity for oxygen binding, as almost all of the Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations were bound at the interface regions, forming either direct or hydrogen bond-mediated interactions with the neighboring subunits. A comparison of the structures of the oxygenated form and the partially unliganded form provides structural insight into proton-coupled cooperativity (Bohr effect) and ligand-induced transitions. Two histidine residues are assumed to be primarily associated with the Bohr effect. With regard to the ligand-induced cooperativity, a novel quaternary rotation mechanism is proposed to exist at the interface region of the dimer subassembly. Interactions among conserved residues Arg E10, His F3, Gln F7, and Val E11, together with the bending motion of the heme molecules, appear to be essential for quaternary rearrangement.

  2. Contribution of soil fauna to soil functioning in degraded environments: a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Mele, Giacomo; Moradi, Jabbar; Kukla, Jaroslav; Jandová, Kateřina; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The restoration of the soil functions is essential for the recovery of highly degraded sites and, consequently, the study of the soil fauna role in the soil development in such environments has great potential from a practical point of view. The soils of the post-mining sites represent unique models for the study of the natural ecological succession because mining creates similar environments characterized by the same substrate, but by different ages according to the year of closure of mines. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of different species of macrofauna on the evolution of soil structure and on the composition and activity of the microbial community in soil samples subjected to ecological restoration or characterized by spontaneous ecological succession. For this purpose, an experimental test was carried out in two sites characterized by different post-mining conditions: 1) natural succession, 2) reclamation with planting trees. These sites are located in the post-mining area of Sokolov (Czech Republic). For the experimental test repacked soil cores were prepared in laboratory with sieved soil sampled from the two sites. The soil cores were prepared maintaining the sequence of soil horizons present in the field. These samples were inoculated separately with two genera of earthworms (Lumbricus and Aporrectodea) and two of centipedes (Julida and Polydesmus). In particular, based on their body size, were inoculated for each cylinder 2 individuals of millipedes, 1 individual of Lumbricus and 4 individuals of Aporrectodea. For each treatment and for control samples 5 replicates were prepared and all samples were incubated in field for 1 month in the two original sampling sites. After the incubation the samples were removed from the field and transported in laboratory in order to perform the analysis of microbial respiration, of PLFA (phospholipid-derived fatty acids) and ergosterol contents and finally for the characterization of soil structure

  3. Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also

  4. Oogenesis in three species of Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata) is extraovarian of the Stylaria type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoń, Szymon; Wardas, Agata; Krodkiewska, Mariola; Świątek, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Older observations, which were based solely on light microscopy, suggested that the main stages of oogenesis such as yolk uptake, take place outside the ovary, i.e. in the body or the ovisac cavity in some groups of clitellate annelids. Such extraovarian oogenesis was observed in naidines (Naidinae). Because there are no current data about the ovary organization and the course of oogenesis in Naidinae, we analyzed female gametogenesis in three common representatives of this taxon - Stylaria lacustris, Chaetogaster diaphanus and Ripistes parasita - using light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy. We found paired and inconspicuous ovaries only in S. lacustris. These ovaries were made up of four to five syncytial cysts that are composed of oogonia and germ cells, which are synchronously entering meiotic prophase I. The cysts were enveloped by thin somatic cells. No growing oocytes were observed within the ovaries. However, as many as five freely floating germ-line cysts, each clustering about 30 germ cells surrounded by flat somatic cells, were observed within the ovisacs in all three of the species studied. The germ-line cysts that were found in all of the naidines studied had an architecture that is typical for clitellate annelids, i.e. each germ cell was connected to a common and anuclear cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via one intercellular bridge. Within these cysts, two morphologically different categories of germ cells arose. One cell usually continued meiosis, gathered nutrients and became the oocyte, whereas the rest of cells did not continue meiosis and did not gather a yolk - these cells appear to supply the oocyte with cytoplasm and cell organelles and are regarded as nurse cells. Generally, as in other microdriles, the species studied produced large, yolky oocytes. The details of oogenesis and oocyte organization are similar to other oligochaetous clitellates that have been studied. Interestingly, peculiar organelles, which are called

  5. Benthos of Adjacent Mangrove, Seagrass and Non-vegetated Habitats in Rookery Bay, Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, P.

    1997-04-01

    Benthic faunal abundances and biomasses in adjacent mangrove, seagrass and non-vegetated mud habitats were compared in Rookery Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Although all habitats were intertidal, mangroves received the shortest duration of flooding, and non-vegetated mud received the longest. Replicate cores were taken at high tide in each habitat in July, September and December 1988, and in April 1989. Seagrass substrates were low organic content sands, whereas mangrove and non-vegetated substrates were high organic content sandy clays. Over 300 taxa were recorded, most of them relatively rare, and only 32 taxa were considered dominant (averaging ≥636 individuals m -2or five core -1in any habitat at a given time). Seagrass and non-vegetated mud faunas were more diverse than those of mangrove substrates. Total densities were always higher in red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) peat than elsewhere, averaging 22 591 to 52 914 individuals m -2. Densities in mixed seagrasses ranged between 6347 and 23 545 individuals m -2, while those in non-vegetated mud ranged between 3611 and 22 465 individuals m -2. Biomasses, however, were always higher in either seagrasses (15·7-87·4 g wet weight m -2) or non-vegetated mud (11·9-26·2 g m -2) than in mangroves (3·6-8·2 g m -2). Tanaids and annelids were the numerical dominants, reaching maximum densities of 35 127 and 31 388 m -2, respectively, in mangroves. Annelids were also the dominant biomass in most habitats each month. Variation in densities of most of the 32 dominant taxa were related to habitat not time. Each habitat harboured four to eight taxa that were significantly more abundant there than in alternate habitats. Feeding guild analysis indicated few differences among habitats, as surface deposit feeders and carnivores were predominant. Red mangrove appear capable of functioning in a manner similar to intertidal marsh habitats by providing high densities of small prey items for mobile consumers able to exploit the

  6. The biogeochemistry of carbon in continental slope sediments: The North Carolina margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Levin, L.; DeMaster, D.; Plaia, G.; Martin, C.; Fornes, W.; Thomas, C.; Pope, R.

    1999-12-01

    The responses of the continental slope benthos to organic detritus deposition were studied with a multiple trace approach. Study sites were offshore of Cape Fear (I) and Cape Hatteras (III), N.C. (both 850 m water depth) and were characterized by different organic C deposition rates, macrofaunal densities (III>I in both cases) and taxa. Natural abundances of {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C in particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and macrofauna indicate that the reactive organic detritus is marine in origin. Natural abundance levels of {sup 14}C and uptake of {sup 13}C-labeled diatoms by benthic animals indicate that they incorporate a relatively young component of carbon into their biomass. {sup 13}C-labeled diatoms (Thalassiorsira pseudonana) tagged with {sup 210}Pb, slope sediment tagged with {sup 113}Sn and {sup 228}Th-labeled glass beads were emplaced in plots on the seafloor at both locations and the plots were sampled after 30 min., 1-1.5 d and 14 mo. At Site I, tracer diatom was intercepted at the surface primarily by protozoans and surface-feeding annelids. Little of the diatom C penetrated below 2 cm even after 14 months. Oxidation of organic carbon appeared to be largely aerobic. At Site III, annelids were primarily responsible for the initial uptake of tracer. On the time scale of days, diatom C was transported to a depth of 12 cm and was found in animals collected between 5-10 cm. The hoeing of tracer from the surface by the maldanid Praxillela sp. may have been responsible for some of the rapid nonlocal transport. Oxidation of the diatom organic carbon was evident to at least 10 cm depth. Anaerobic breakdown of organic matter is more important at Site III. Horizontal transport, which was probably biologically mediated, was an order of magnitude more rapid than vertical displacement over a year time scale. If the horizontal transport was associated with biochemical transformations of the organic matter, it may represent an

  7. Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ► Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ► Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ► Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ► Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

  8. Multi-species interactions impact the accumulation of weathered 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Jason W.; White, Jason C.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of interactions between the earthworms Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus terrestris and the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima on the uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil was determined. Although some combinations of earthworm and plant species caused significant changes in the p,p'-DDE burden in both organisms, the effects were species specific. Contaminant bioconcentration in C. pepo was increased slightly by E. foetida and by 3-fold when the plant was grown with L. terrestris. E. foetida had no effect on the contaminant BCF by C. maxima, but L. terrestris caused a 2-fold reduction in p,p'-DDE uptake by the plant. Contaminant levels in E. foetida and L. terrestris were unaffected by C. pepo. When grown with C. maxima, the concentration of p,p'-DDE decreased by approximately 4-fold and 7-fold in E. foetida and L. terrestris, respectively. The data suggest that the prediction of contaminant bioavailability should consider interactions among species. - Interactions between earthworms and plants affect both the phytoextraction and bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE in soil

  9. Sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jason W., E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.ed [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Peters, Richard D.; Melnick, Adam M. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil sterilization on the bioavailability of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene to the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Physical and chemical changes to soil organic matter (SOM) induced by sterilization were also studied. Uptake of both compounds added after soil was autoclaved or gamma irradiated increased for E. fetida. Sterilization had no effect on bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE by L. terrestris, and anthracene uptake increased only in gamma-irradiated soils. Analyses by FT-IR and DSC indicate sterilization alters SOM chemistry and may reduce pollutant sorption. Chemical changes to SOM were tentatively linked to changes in bioaccumulation, although the effects were compound and species specific. Artifacts produced by sterilization could lead to inaccurate risk assessments of contaminated sites if assumptions derived from studies carried out in sterilized soil are used. Ultimately, knowledge of SOM chemistry could aid predictions of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants. - Soil sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and pollutant bioaccumulation.

  10. Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Abundance and Biomass of Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Valchovski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of soil organic matter content on abundance and biomass of earthworm communities. The observation was carried out on three type of soils: PellicVertisols (very fine texture, Cromi-Vertic Luvisols (fine texture and Calcaric Fluvisols (mediumtexture from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. The field experiment was provided on uncultivatedplots. In the studied area earthworm fauna comprises of four species: Aporrectodea rosea,Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion lacteum. We found peregrine lumbricidtaxa, which are widely distributed in European soils. Our study demonstrated that soil organicmatter has a positive effect on lumbricid populations. It was revealed that augmentation of soilorganic matter favours characteristics of earthworm communities. The soil organic matter contentand earthworm abundance are in strong positive correlation (r > 0.981. The same relationship wasrevealed between the biomass of lumbricid fauna and amount of soil organic matter (r > 0.987. Insum, the soil organic matter could be used as an indicator for earthworm communities inuncultivated soils.

  11. Soil sterilization affects aging-related sequestration and bioavailability of p,p'-DDE and anthracene to earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slizovskiy, Ilya B. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Kelsey, Jason W., E-mail: Kelsey@muhlenberg.ed [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Laboratory experiments investigated the effects of soil sterilization and compound aging on the bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Declines in bioavailability occurred as pollutant residence time in both sterile and non-sterile soils increased from 3 to 203 d. Accumulation was generally higher in sterile soils during initial periods of aging (from 3-103 d). By 203 d, however, bioavailability of the compounds was unaffected by sterilization. Gamma irradiation and autoclaving may have altered bioavailability by inducing changes in the chemistry of soil organic matter (SOM). The results support a dual-mode partitioning sorption model in which the SOM components associated with short-term sorption (the 'soft' or 'rubbery' phases) are more affected than are the components associated with long-term sorption (the 'glassy' or microcrystalline phases). Risk assessments based on data from experiments in which sterile soil was used could overestimate exposure and bioaccumulation of pollutants. - Soil sterilization affects aging-related sequestration of organic contaminants.

  12. Influence of flooding and metal immobilising soil amendments on availability of metals for willows and earthworms in calcareous dredged sediment-derived soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Bart, E-mail: bart.vandecasteele@ilvo.vlaanderen.b [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tack, Filip M.G. [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Soil amendments previously shown to be effective in reducing metal bioavailability and/or mobility in calcareous metal-polluted soils were tested on a calcareous dredged sediment-derived soil with 26 mg Cd/kg dry soil, 2200 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 220 mg Pb/kg dry soil, and 3000 mg Zn/kg dry soil. The amendments were 5% modified aluminosilicate (AS), 10% w/w lignin, 1% w/w diammonium phosphate (DAP, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}), 1% w/w MnO, and 5% w/w CaSO{sub 4}. In an additional treatment, the contaminated soil was submerged. Endpoints were metal uptake in Salix cinerea and Lumbricus terrestris, and effect on oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in submerged soils. Results illustrated that the selected soil amendments were not effective in reducing ecological risk to vegetation or soil inhabiting invertebrates, as metal uptake in willows and earthworms did not significantly decrease following their application. Flooding the polluted soil resulted in metal uptake in S. cinerea comparable with concentrations for an uncontaminated soil. - Some soil amendments resulted in higher metal uptake by earthworms and willows than when the polluted soil was not amended but submersion of the polluted soil resulted in reduced Cd and Zn uptake in Salix cinerea.

  13. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  14. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative Bioresearch Group (BK21 Plus Program), College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Il [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  15. Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Prysor; Roberts, Paula; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

    2006-10-01

    Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected.

  16. Plastic Bag Derived-Microplastics as a Vector for Metal Exposure in Terrestrial Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Mark E; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A; Clark, Andy; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T; Thorpe, Karen L

    2017-04-18

    Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. one mm 2 in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics. Desorption of the Zn was minimal from both microplastics and soil in synthetic soil solution (0.01 M CaCl 2 ), but in synthetic earthworm guts desorption was higher from microplastics (40-60%) than soil (2-15%), suggesting microplastics could increase Zn bioavailability. Individual Lumbricus terrestris earthworms exposed for 28 days in mesocosms of 260 g moist soil containing 0.35 wt % of Zn-bearing microplastic (236-4505 mg kg -1 ) ingested the microplastics, but there was no evidence of Zn accumulation, mortality, or weight change. Digestion of the earthworms showed that they did not retain microplastics in their gut. These findings indicate that microplastics could act as vectors to increase metal exposure in earthworms, but that the associated risk is unlikely to be significant for essential metals such as Zn that are well regulated by metabolic processes.

  17. Metal concentrations in earthworms from sewage sludge-amended soils at a strip mine reclamation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietz, R.I.; Peterson, J.R.; Prater, J.E.; Zenz, D.R.

    A 3-yr study of earthworms was initiated in selected mine soil and nonmined fields at a Fulton County, IL land reclamation site. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, used to reclaim the site, on heavy metal accumulations in earthworms. Two species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata, were identified in the sludge-amended and nonamended, nonmined fields sampled. Only A. tuberculata was found in the sludge-amended and nonamended mine soil fields sampled. Earthworm metal concentrations generally increased with time in all the sampled fields. The decreasing order of metal accumulation by earthworms in all sludge-amended fields sampled was Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr > Pb > Zn. Sewage sludge applications to fields on both land types resulted in significant accumulations of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Land type (mine soil vs. nonmined) significantly affected earthworm Zn concentrations, with levels being higher in all nonmined fields sampled. Earthworm Cd and Cu accumulations in all fields sampled were significantly related to the current amounts of sludge-applied metals, the amount applied since the previous sampling. Concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in earthworms were not significantly related to sewage sludge applications during the 1975 to 1977 sampling period. The higher Cd and Cu concentrations in earthworms from sludge-amended fields may pose a potential hazard to predators.

  18. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH 2 -RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27 Kip1 protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27 Kip1 significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27 Kip1 degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin

  19. INVENTARISASI KEANEKARAGAMAN MAKROZOOBENTOS DI DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI BRANTAS KECAMATAN NGORO MOJOKERTO SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI SMA KELAS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Ratih

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif yang dilakukan untuk memperoleh fakta atau data tentang keanekaragaman jenis Makrozoobentos di DAS Brantas Kecamatan Ngoro Mojokerto. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan tiga stasiun dengan tiga kali ulangan untuk masing-masing stasiun. Parameter fisika yang diamati adalah kedalaman, kecerahan air, suhu air dan kecepatan arus. Parameter kimia yang diamati adalah pH, DO, BOD5, dan COD. Sedangkan parameter biologi yang diamati adalah kepadatan (D, kepadatan relatif (RD, kelimpahan (K, kelimpahan relatif (KR dan indeks keanekaragaman (H’. Keanekaragaman makrozoobentos yang ditemukan di daerah aliran sungai Brantas terdiri dari Terdapat 11 spesies yakni Anentome Helena, Hydrophilus ovatus, Berosus sp, Lumbricus sp, Macromia magnifica , Sulcospira schmidti, Parathelphusa convexa, Melanoides torulosa, Melanoides tuberculata, Corbicula fluminea, Corbicula largillierti. Indeks keanekaragaman tertinggi adalah Melanoides torulosa dan terendah adalah Berosus sp. Famili Buccinidae dengan kedalaman memiliki hubungan yang sangat kuat. Sedangkan famili Macromiidae dengan DO memiliki hubungan lemah. Hasil penelitian ini digunakan sebagai sumber belajar berupa handout materi invertebrata pada kelas X SMA IPA. Materi tersebut sesuai dengan penelitian yang memanfaatkan keanekaragaman invertebrata air di DAS Brantas untuk diidentifikasi dan dianalisis kegunaannya.

  20. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  1. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  2. Microplastic transport in soil by earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillig, Matthias C; Ziersch, Lisa; Hempel, Stefan

    2017-05-02

    Despite great general benefits derived from plastic use, accumulation of plastic material in ecosystems, and especially microplastic, is becoming an increasing environmental concern. Microplastic has been extensively studied in aquatic environments, with very few studies focusing on soils. We here tested the idea that microplastic particles (polyethylene beads) could be transported from the soil surface down the soil profile via earthworms. We used Lumbricus terrestris L., an anecic earthworm species, in a factorial greenhouse experiment with four different microplastic sizes. Presence of earthworms greatly increased the presence of microplastic particles at depth (we examined 3 soil layers, each 3.5 cm deep), with smaller PE microbeads having been transported downward to a greater extent. Our study clearly shows that earthworms can be significant transport agents of microplastics in soils, incorporating this material into soil, likely via casts, burrows (affecting soil hydraulics), egestion and adherence to the earthworm exterior. This movement has potential consequences for exposure of other soil biota to microplastics, for the residence times of microplastic at greater depth, and for the possible eventual arrival of microplastics in the groundwater.

  3. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  4. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  5. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  6. Toxicity of Flare and Crude Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. Cook

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of whole, saturate, and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures from flare pit and crude oil sources were evaluated using Lumbricus terrestris. Body burden analysis was used to analyze the intrinsic toxicity of the six hydrocarbon mixtures. The major fractions of the whole mixtures, the saturate, and aromatic fractions had different intrinsic toxicities; the aromatics were more toxic than the saturates. The toxicity of the saturate and aromatic fractions also differed between the mixtures. The flare saturate mixture was more toxic than the crude saturate mixture, while the crude aromatic mixture was more toxic than the flare aromatic mixture. The most dramatic difference in toxicity of the two sources was between the flare whole and crude whole mixtures. The crude whole mixture was very toxic; the toxicity of this mixture reflected the toxicity of the crude aromatic fraction. However, the flare whole mixture was not toxic, due to a lack of partitioning from the whole mixture into the lipid membrane of the exposed worms. This lack of partitioning appears to be related to the relatively high concentrations of asphaltenes and polar compounds in the flare pit whole mixture.

  7. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  8. The potential role of earthworms in toxicity assessment of terrestrial hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the toxic potential and mechanisms of action of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for assessing risk to public and environmental health. Current established protocols with earthworms focus primarily on defining the lethal effects of chemicals associated with soil contamination. Development of sublethal assays, until recently, has been largely ignored. Here the authors develop rationale for use of earthworms as a model organism for comprehensive assessment of risks to higher wildlife from contaminated soils and hazardous waste sites. They present a panel of lethal (LC/LD50`s) and sublethal measurement endpoint biomarkers, developed within the framework of the National Toxicology Program`s tiered immunotoxicity protocol for mice and according to published criteria for good measurement endpoints, that represent sensitive phylogenetically-conserved processes. Specifically the authors discuss immunosuppressive effects of terrestrial heavy metal and organic contamination on the innate, nonspecific and specific immune responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, coelomocytes in terms of total and differential cell counts, lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, phagocytic activity and secretary rosette formation. Findings indicate that sensitive phylogenetically conserved immune responses present in invertebrates can be used to assess or predict risk to wildlife from contaminated soils.

  9. Elevated CO2 and Tree Species Affect Microbial  Activity and Associated Aggregate Stability in Soil  Amended with Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwan M. J. Al‐Maliki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2 The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv and elevated (550 ppmv CO2 regimes over four growing seasons (2005–2008 under Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. Litter from the experiment (autumn 2008 and Lumbricus terrestris were added to mesocosm soils. Microbial properties and aggregate stability were investigated in soil and earthworm casts. Soils taken from the field experiment in spring 2009 were also investigated; (3 eCO2 litter had lower N and higher C:N ratios. F. sylvatica and B. pendula litter had lower N and P than A. glutinosa; F. sylvatica had higher cellulose. In mesocosms, eCO2 litter decreased respiration, mineralization constant (respired C:total organic C and soluble carbon in soil but not earthworm casts; microbial‐C and fungal hyphal length differed by species (A. glutinosa = B. pendula > F. sylvatica not CO2 regime. eCO2 increased respiration in field aggregates but increased stability only under F. sylvatica; (4 Lower litter quality under eCO2 may restrict its initial decomposition, affecting C stabilization in aggregates. Later resistant materials may support microbial activity and increase aggregate stability. In woodland, C and soil aggregation dynamics may alter under eCO2, but outcomes may be influenced by tree species and earthworm activity.

  10. The European lesser glow worm, Phosphaenus hemipterus (Goeze, in North America (Coleoptera, Lampyridae

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    Christopher Majka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphaenus hemipterus (Goeze is a Palaearctic glow worm (Coleoptera: Lampyridae, previously been reported in North America on the basis of two specimens; one collected in 1947 in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia; the other in 1989 in Montreal, Quebec. The present study newly records it from three sites in Halifax, Nova Scotia. One hundred and twenty six adult males and larvae were collected in 2009 in disturbed urban grassland areas, similar to habitats in England and Belgium where the species has been investigated. Experiments confirm that larvae feed on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris, consistent with observations in Europe. The habitat is described, including vegetation, potential predators, and prey. Although ballast-shipments have previously been proposed as a vector for the species’ introduction to North America, the present study suggests that the importation of agricultural and horticultural products, which has lead to the introduction of many earthworms to the continent, could also serve as a conduit for the introduction of obligate earthworm predators such as the larvae of P. hemipterus. Although an adventive species, possible conservation concerns are discussed for a species that is considered endangered in parts of its native range.

  11. Predicting macropores in space and time by earthworms and abiotic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Tobias Ludwig; Schneider, Anne-Kathrin; Zangerlé, Anne; Reck, Arne; Schröder, Boris; van Schaik, Loes

    2017-04-01

    Macropore flow increases infiltration and solute leaching. The macropore density and connectivity, and thereby the hydrological effectiveness, vary in space and time due to earthworms' burrowing activity and their ability to refill their burrows in order to survive drought periods. The aim of our study was to predict the spatiotemporal variability of macropore distributions by a set of potentially controlling abiotic variables and abundances of different earthworm species. We measured earthworm abundances and effective macropore distributions using tracer rainfall infiltration experiments in six measurement campaigns during one year at six field sites in Luxembourg. Hydrologically effective macropores were counted in three soil depths (3, 10, 30 cm) and distinguished into three diameter classes (6 mm). Earthworms were sampled and determined to species-level. In a generalized linear modelling framework, we related macropores to potential spatial and temporal controlling factors. Earthworm species such as Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea longa, local abiotic site conditions (land use, TWI, slope), temporally varying weather conditions (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and soil moisture affected the number of effective macropores. Main controlling factors and explanatory power of the models (uncertainty and model performance) varied depending on the depth and diameter class of macropores. We present spatiotemporal predictions of macropore density by daily-resolved, one year time series of macropore numbers and maps of macropore distributions at specific dates in a small-scale catchment with 5 m resolution.

  12. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Food preference of red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) in the Sermo Reservoir, Kulon Progo Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariasari, A.; Helmiati, S.; Setyobudi, E.

    2018-03-01

    Food preference is one of the important information that can be used to know the food chain in order to manage fisheries resources. This study aims to determine the food habits and preference of red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) in the Sermo Reservoir, Kulon Progo Regency. Samples were collected randomly each month from September 2013 to February 2014. Each sample collected was measured its total length, body weight, and determined sex, then dissected to measure the gut length and to observe gut contents. Results showed that red devil is omnivorous (relative gut length = 3.83) with food composition consisted of fish, crustaceans, detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton, plants, insects, insect’s larvae, Chironomus sp., and annelids. A change occurred in the food preference of red devil, i.e. the young fish prefers to feed Chironomus sp. larvae (86.02 %) whereas the adult fish prefers fish/fish chunk (81.82 %). Trophic level status of red devil showed as carnivorous and niche overlapping between male and female of the adult.

  14. The evolutionary origin of bilaterian smooth and striated myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Thibaut; Fischer, Antje HL; Steinmetz, Patrick RH; Lauri, Antonella; Bertucci, Paola; Arendt, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed and nervous control. Our data suggest that both visceral smooth and somatic striated myocytes were present in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor and that smooth myocytes later co-opted the striated contractile module repeatedly – for example, in vertebrate heart evolution. During these smooth-to-striated myocyte conversions, the core regulatory complex of transcription factors conveying myocyte identity remained unchanged, reflecting a general principle in cell type evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19607.001 PMID:27906129

  15. The cryptogenic bait worm Diopatra biscayensis Fauchald et al., 2012 (Annelida: Onuphidae) - Revisiting its history, biology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore

    2015-09-01

    The polychaetous annelid Diopatra biscayensis Fauchald et al., 2012 was recently described from the Atlantic coast of France. It has been the subject of a plethora of publications dealing with its importance in the field of ecology: from its role as an ecosystem engineer, being an indicative species of climate change in western Europe to questions of whether it was native or introduced to the old continent, spawning theories about its hypothetical routes of introduction and spreading. We have redescribed D. biscayensis, traced its biogeographical history in the Bay of Biscay through examination of old museum holdings and studied its ecology and reproductive biology throughout a one year period from a northern Spain estuary, showing for the first time that the species is a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. The annual spawning season is from early August to late September, when large numbers of oocytes of 260 μm diameter were deposited in gelatinous egg masses attached to the parental tubes. Early trochophores developed in the jelly mass by 4-6 h, 3-chaetiger metatrochophores after 48 h, and the jelly mass had totally disintegrated by 72 h, releasing the lecithotrophic larvae. Our studies have clarified the morphology and reproductive pattern of D. biscayensis, documented that the species has inhabited the European waters for more than a century and we hope that these findings will serve as a basis to robust ecological studies and hypotheses concerning this and the related species.

  16. From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Hiebert, Terra C

    2014-01-01

    Nemerteans, a phylum of marine lophotrochozoan worms, have a biphasic life history with benthic adults and planktonic larvae. Nemertean larval development is traditionally categorized into direct and indirect. Indirect development via a long-lived planktotrophic pilidium larva is thought to have evolved in one clade of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora, from an ancestor with a uniformly ciliated planuliform larva. Planuliform larvae in a member of a basal nemertean group, the Palaeonemertea, have been previously shown to possess a vestigial prototroch, homologous to the primary larval ciliated band in the trochophores of other spiralian phyla, such as annelids and mollusks. We review literature on nemertean larval development, and include our own unpublished observations. We highlight recent discoveries of numerous pilidiophoran species with lecithotrophic larvae. Some of these larvae superficially resemble uniformly ciliated planuliform larvae of other nemerteans. Others possess one or two transverse ciliary bands, which superficially resemble the prototroch and telotroch of some spiralian trochophores. We also summarize accumulating evidence for planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic. We suggest that 1) non-feeding pilidiophoran larval forms are derived from a feeding pilidium; 2) such forms have likely evolved many times independently within the Pilidiophora; 3) any resemblance of such larvae to the trochophores of other spiralians is a result of convergence and that 4) the possibility of planktotrophy in hoplonemertean larvae may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group.

  17. Transmission of nephridial bacteria of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common bacterial ancestor. Previous microscopy and culture studies revealed the presence of bacteria within the egg capsules and on the surface of embryos but did not demonstrate that the bacteria within the egg capsule were the same bacteria that colonized the nephridia. We present evidence, based on curing experiments, in situ hybridizations with Acidovorax-specific probes, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, that the egg capsules contain high numbers of the bacterial symbiont and that juveniles are colonized during development within the egg capsule. Studies exposing aposymbiotic hatchlings to colonized adults and their bedding material suggested that juvenile earthworms do not readily acquire bacteria from the soil after hatching but must be colonized during development by bacteria deposited in the egg capsule. Whether this is due to the developmental stage of the host or the physiological state of the symbiont remains to be investigated.

  18. C and N Stable Isotope Variability in Soft Tissue of Invasive Species Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cukrov, Neven; Cukrov, Marijana; Lojen, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Serpulidae Rafinesque, 1815 is a family of polychaete annelids with calcareous tubes found in worldwide from littoral to abyssal depths. Of more than 350 described species of serpulid polychaetes, Marifugia cavatica Absolon and Hrabe 1930 is the only known cave-dwelling stygobiotic and freshwater serpulid, five other serpulid species comprising the genus Ficopomatus are found in brackish water, otherwise serpulids are all marine organisms. Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel, 1923), previously known as Mercierella enigmatica, is a truly cosmopolitan with disjunct distribution. It has been found worldwide inhabiting coastal brackish waters, lagoons and estuaries of warm temperate areas of both hemispheres. This tubeworm builds calcareous tubes on any hard substrate. With distinctive collar-like rings at irregular intervals it is relatively easy to identify. It is an efficient suspension-feeder, very tolerant and physiologically well adapted to temperature and salinity variations, eutrophic conditions and low dissolved oxygen content. The fact that populations of F. enigmaticus appear near the ports suggests that the probable mechanism of introduction was ship fouling or ballast water. Generally, F. enigmaticus is considered as a fouling nuisance species which negatively affects ships, buoys and harbour structures.

  19. Associated fauna and effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani El Ayari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the impacts of biofouling on the biological processes of the basibiont, the effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 were assessed. A total of 1035 specimens were collected monthly for one year from Bizerta Channel (northern Tunisia. Endobiotic species comprised the lithophagous bivalves Lithophaga aristata and Rocellaria dubia of different sizes, communicating with the outside through tiny perforations. Intra-shell tunnels and galleries also sheltered annelids and sipunculids. Epibiotic species comprised algae and highly diversified invertebrates represented by crustaceans, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, ascidians, sponges, bryozoans and sipunculids, with barnacles being the most common group. Comparison of growth features between non-fouled and fouled S. haemastoma revealed higher growth in non-fouled specimens. Differences in reproductive condition indices were detected in few months, being mostly higher in non-fouled snails, but showed no asynchrony in the spawning period for either fouled or non-fouled gastropods hosts.

  20. Relationship between presynaptic membrane potential and acetylcholine release in synaptosomes from Torpedo electric organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, F M

    1984-01-01

    The membrane potential of purely cholinergic synaptosomes isolated from Torpedo electric organ was monitored with fluorescent carbocyanine dyes. An increased fluorescence was associated with depolarization and a quenching with hyperpolarization. Fluorescence data provided evidence that Torpedo synaptosomes have a membrane potential mainly driven by a K+ diffusion potential and a membrane potential of about -50 mV could be estimated after calibration of fluorescence signals with ionophore antibiotics. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) from Torpedo synaptosomes was monitored continuously by measuring the light emitted by a chemiluminescent method (Israël & Lesbats, 1981 a). Using fluorescence data, the release of ACh was expressed as a function of membrane potential. The relationship between presynaptic potential and transmitter release as determined by biochemical methods at cholinergic nerve endings showed striking similarities to that observed at the squid giant synapse. Several substances were also tested with regard to their depolarizing and releasing properties and it was found that the toxin isolated from the venom of the annelid Glycera convoluta, which induced a large increase in quantal release of transmitter (Manaranche, Thieffry, & Israël, 1980) promoted a depolarization of Torpedo synaptosomes in addition to ACh release. PMID:6207289

  1. Alien animals in South Africa – composition, introduction history, origins and distribution patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike D. Picker

    2017-03-01

    Results: Of the 571 alien animal species analysed, insects comprised the largest component (53%, 300 species, followed by molluscs (9%, 51 species, annelids (8%, 48 species, arachnids (7%, 41 species, vertebrates (7%, 41 species and crustaceans (6%, 36 species. Vertebrate introductions (88% were largely intentional, whereas 84% of invertebrate introductions were unintentional. Conclusions: Almost all marine and most terrestrial alien species were accidentally introduced, whereas freshwater introductions were almost entirely intentional. Some 13% had not spread significantly, 16% had spread significantly and 71% had become fully invasive. Vertebrate introductions virtually ceased after the 1950s, but rate of introduction of invertebrates remained linear. The overall rate of species accumulation was fairly low until 1880, but accelerated sharply thereafter. Most terrestrial alien species originated from Europe (28.6% and Asia (25.0% and the lowest proportion (6.1% from Africa. Freshwater introductions largely originated from the Americas, with few from Africa. The most invaded areas were around Cape Town, (up to 162 introduced species/half-degree grid cell, followed by Gauteng and Durban

  2. Diversity of Soil Macrofauna at Different Stages of the Age of Sengon’s Stand in Jatirejo, Kediri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna have important roles on increasing and maintaining soil productivity through it’s function on organic decomposition processes, and optimizing physics, chemist and biology of soil characters. The research was conducted to investigate structure of the community of soil macrofauna from different stages of the age of sengon’s (Paraserianthes falcataria stand in wet season of year 2000. Pit fall trap and hand-shorting methods were used to catch soil macrofauna. Sampling was done on 8 different age stages (year of sengon plant each with triplicate repetition. Twenty-seven macrofauna species in the soil and 26 macrofauna species in soil surface were found in this study. Those species belong to the phylum of Mollusc, Annelid and Arthropod. Pontoscolex sp and Lobopelta ocellifera were species that having high important value. Similarities analysis resulting in an index of 65% indicating low level of diversity differences among soil macrofauna from different ages of the sengon stand. Simple correlation analysis indicates that macrofauna diversity in the soil was closely related with soil organic content, domination of ground vegetation and soil humidity; while macrofauna diversity of soil surface was closely related with the level of light penetration.

  3. A new molecular logic for BMP-mediated dorsoventral patterning in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-08-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of experimental and natural invertebrate hosts of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens and its distribution and abundance in macroinvertebrates in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcogliese

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and natural invertebrate intermediate hosts of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens as well as transmission experiments of sealworm from invertebrates to fish are reviewed and summarized. Experimental hosts include copepods, mysids, cumaceans, isopods, amphipods, decapods, annelids, and molluscs. Invertebrates collected from eastern Canada between 1989 and 1995 were checked for nematode infections by microscopic examination of dissected animals or enzymatic digestion of bulk samples. Third-stage larval sealworm were found in mysids (Neomysis americana, Mysis stenolepis from Passamaquoddy Bay, the Bras d’Or Lakes, inshore Cape Breton, Sable Island and Sable Island Bank. Infected amphipods (Amphiporeia virginiana, Americorchestia megalophthalma, Gammarus spp. were found only on Sable Island. Typical infection rates in macroinvertebrates were 1-4/1000. No sealworm infections were found in approximately 18,000 amphipods examined from Sable Island Bank, the site of the most heavily infected fishes in eastern Canada. In Wallace Lake, a brackish pond on Sable Island, infection rates were much higher in mysids than in amphipods. Estimates of rates of transmission of sealworm from invertebrates to fish were derived from infection levels in Wallace Lake and feeding experiments involving sticklebacks and invertebrate prey. It is concluded that mysids may be much more important than amphipods in transmitting sealworm to fish hosts.

  5. Nuclear envelope remnants: fluid membranes enriched in sterols and polyphosphoinositides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Garnier-Lhomme

    Full Text Available The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a highly dynamic compartment where membranes readily undergo fission and fusion to reorganize the cytoplasmic architecture, and to import, export and transport various cargos within the cell. The double membrane of the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus, segregates the chromosomes from cytoplasm and regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport through pores. Many details of its formation are still unclear. At fertilization the sperm devoid of nuclear envelope pores enters the egg. Although most of the sperm nuclear envelope disassembles, remnants of the envelope at the acrosomal and centriolar fossae do not and are subsequently incorporated into the newly forming male pronuclear envelope. Remnants are conserved from annelid to mammalian sperm.Using lipid mass spectrometry and a new application of deuterium solid-state NMR spectroscopy we have characterized the lipid composition and membrane dynamics of the sperm nuclear envelope remnants in isolated sperm nuclei.We report nuclear envelope remnants are relatively fluid membranes rich in sterols, devoid of sphingomyelin, and highly enriched in polyphosphoinositides and polyunsaturated phospholipids. The localization of the polybasic effector domain of MARCKS illustrates the non-nuclear aspect of the polyphosphoinositides. Based on their atypical biophysical characteristics and phospholipid composition, we suggest a possible role for nuclear envelope remnants in membrane fusion leading to nuclear envelope assembly.

  6. Bioerosion and encrustation: Evidences from the Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hedeny, Magdy; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Al Farraj, Saleh

    2017-10-01

    The Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic hard substrates of central Saudi Arabia displayed considerable signs of bioerosion and encrustations. They include organic (oysters, other bivalves, gastropods, corals and brachiopods) and an inorganic carbonate hardground that marks the boundary between the Middle Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone and the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation. Traces of bioerosion in organic substrates include seven ichnotaxa produced by bivalves (Gastrochaenolites Leymerie, 1842), polychaete annelids (Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932; MaeandropolydoraVoigt, 1965 and CaulostrepsisClarke, 1908), sponges (Entobia Bronn, 1837), acrothoracican cirripedes (Rogerella Saint-Seine, 1951), gastropods (Oichnus Bromley, 1981) and probable ?Centrichnus cf. eccentricus. The encrusting epifauna on these substrates consist of several organisms, including oysters, serpulid worms, corals and foraminifera. In contrast, the carbonate hardground was only bioeroded by Gastrochaenolite, Trypanites and Entobia. Epibionts on this hardground include ;Liostrea Douvillé, 1904-type; oysters, Nanogyra nana Sowerby, 1822 and serpulids. In general, bioerosion and encrustation are less diversified in hardground than in organic substrates, indicating a long time of exposition of organic substrates with slow to moderate rate of deposition in a restricted marine environment. Both organic and inorganic commuinities are correlated with those of other equatorial, subtropical and temperate equivalents.

  7. Cell formation by myxozoan species is not explained by dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J

    2010-08-22

    Eukaryotes form new cells through the replication of nuclei followed by cytokinesis. A notable exception is reported from the class Myxosporea of the phylum Myxozoa. This assemblage of approximately 2310 species is regarded as either basal bilaterian or cnidarian, depending on the phylogenetic analysis employed. For myxosporeans, cells have long been regarded as forming within other cells by a process referred to as endogenous budding. This would involve a nucleus forming endoplasmic reticulum around it, which transforms into a new plasma membrane, thus enclosing and separating it from the surrounding cell. This remarkable process, unique within the Metazoa, is accepted as occurring within stages found in vertebrate hosts, but has only been inferred from those stages observed within invertebrate hosts. Therefore, I conducted an ultrastructural study to examine how internal cells are formed by a myxosporean parasitizing an annelid. In this case, actinospore parasite stages clearly internalized existing cells; a process with analogies to the acquisition of endosymbiotic algae by cnidarian species. A subsequent examination of the myxozoan literature did not support endogenous budding, indicating that this process, which has been a central tenet of myxozoan developmental biology for over a century, is dogma.

  8. Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Aerts, Andrea

    2012-01-07

    Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1, 2, 3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome.

  9. Meiobenthos and nematode assemblages from different deep-sea habitats of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea

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    R. SANDULLI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is currently devoted at upgrading our knowledge on biodiversity and functioning of deep water ecosystems. Information is constantly enriched by researchers, even from basins as the long-studied Mediterranean Sea. In such a perspective, we studied meiobenthic and nematode communities inhabiting muddy sediments from three different habitats at bathyal depths in the Strait of Sicily: a cold-water coral site (CS in the Maltese Coral Province, a muddy bottom in the same area (MS, and a hydrocarbon imprinted pockmark site (PS in the Gela Basin. The average meiofauna density at CS (1343 ind/10 cm2 and MS (1804 ind/10 cm2 is much higher than that reported in literature for similar habitats; it is also markedly more elevated than that recorded at PS (224 ind/10 cm2. Although nematodes of the three sites show different abundances, they share similar assemblage structure. Nematodes (avg. 86% and copepods (avg. 9.3% were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa at all sites followed by annelids, kinorhynchs and turbellarians. Nematodes were composed by 21 families and 46 genera, with Terschellingia, as most abundant genus (12.4%, followed by Microlaimus (11%, Daptonema (11%, Thalassomonhystera (10.8%, Acantholaimus (9.5% and Sabatieria (8.7%. The genera Thalassomonhystera, Terschellingia, Microlaimus, Daptonema, Chromadorita, Sabatieria, and Anticoma display a dominance in at least one station. The taxonomic structure of meiofaunal communities of the studied sites is rather similar but differences in relative abundance are evident.

  10. Tolerance and biomarkers as useful tools for assessing environmental quality in the Oued Souss estuary (Bay of Agadir, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Alla, A; Mouneyrac, C; Durou, C; Moukrim, A; Pellerin, J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess aquatic environmental quality of Oued Souss (Agadir, Morocco). This estuary has been subjected for a long time to large amounts of sewage discharges and industrial effluents. Since November 2002, no waste outlets have been discharged in this site due to their connection to a wastewater purification plant. Firstly, we have compared metal tolerance of the annelid polychaete (Nereis diversicolor) originating from Oued Souss and a relatively clean site (Oualidia, Morocco). Secondly, we have evaluated with a multi-marker approach (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], glutathione-S-transferases [GSTs], catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARs]) responses of worms to the pollution gradient. Results have shown that worms from Oued Souss have acquired tolerance to copper and zinc due to a long-term sub-lethal metal exposure and this metal tolerance was maintained in spite of the end of wastewater discharges in this site. Higher catalase, GSTs and TBARs values have been observed in worms from Oued Souss sampled before implantation of wastewater treatment. The multi-marker approach confirms that these worms have been submitted to various contaminants. In contrast, high inhibition in AChE activities measured in worms from Oued Souss could be explained by the continuous agricultural influence of nearest areas. The level of contamination was probably maintained since biomarker values were generally higher in worms from Oued Souss when compared to Oualidia.

  11. Bone-eating Osedax worms lived on Mesozoic marine reptile deadfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, Silvia; Higgs, Nicholas D

    2015-04-01

    We report fossil traces of Osedax, a genus of siboglinid annelids that consume the skeletons of sunken vertebrates on the ocean floor, from early-Late Cretaceous (approx. 100 Myr) plesiosaur and sea turtle bones. Although plesiosaurs went extinct at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (66 Myr), chelonioids survived the event and diversified, and thus provided sustenance for Osedax in the 20 Myr gap preceding the radiation of cetaceans, their main modern food source. This finding shows that marine reptile carcasses, before whales, played a key role in the evolution and dispersal of Osedax and confirms that its generalist ability of colonizing different vertebrate substrates, like fishes and marine birds, besides whale bones, is an ancestral trait. A Cretaceous age for unequivocal Osedax trace fossils also dates back to the Mesozoic the origin of the entire siboglinid family, which includes chemosynthetic tubeworms living at hydrothermal vents and seeps, contrary to phylogenetic estimations of a Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic origin (approx. 50-100 Myr). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Three Species of Placobdella (Rhynchobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) Confirms a Single Origin of Blood Feeding in Leeches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Mark E; Brugler, Mercer R; Kvist, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    One of the recalcitrant questions regarding the evolutionary history of clitellate annelids involves the feeding preference of the common ancestor of extant rhynchobdellid (proboscis bearing) and arhynchobdellid (jaw bearing) leeches. Whereas early evidence, based on morphological data, pointed towards independent acquisitions of blood feeding in the 2 orders, molecular-based phylogenetic data suggest that the ancestor of modern leeches was a sanguivore. Here, we use a comparative transcriptomic approach in order to increase our understanding of the diversity of anticoagulation factors for 3 species of the genus Placobdella, for which comparative data have been lacking, and inspect these in light of archetypal anticoagulant data for both arhynchobdellid and other rhynchobdellid species. Notwithstanding the varying levels of host specificity displayed by the 3 different species of Placobdella, transcriptomic profiles with respect to anticoagulation factors were largely similar -this despite the fact that Placobdella kwetlumye only retains a single pair of salivary glands, as opposed to the 2 pairs more common in the genus. Results show that 9 different anticoagulant proteins and an additional 5 putative antihemostasis proteins are expressed in salivary secretions of the 3 species. In particular, an ortholog of the archetypal, single-copy, anticoagulant hirudin (not previously available as comparative data for rhynchobdellids) is present in at least 2 of 3 species examined, corroborating the notion of a single origin of blood feeding in the ancestral leech.

  14. Motor patterns associated with crawling in a soft-bodied arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Fusillo, Steven J; Colman, Kara; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-07-01

    Soft-bodied animals lack distinct joints and levers, and so their locomotion is expected to be controlled differently from that of animals with stiff skeletons. Some invertebrates, such as the annelids, use functionally antagonistic muscles (circumferential and longitudinal) acting on constant-volume hydrostatics to produce extension and contraction. These processes form the basis for most theoretical considerations of hydrostatic locomotion in organisms including larval insects. However, caterpillars do not move in this way, and their powerful appendages provide grip independent of their dimensional changes. Here, we show that the anterograde wave of movement seen in the crawling tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is mediated by co-activation of dorsal and ventral muscles within a body segment, rather than by antiphasic activation, as previously believed. Furthermore, two or three abdominal segments are in swing phase simultaneously, and the activities of motor neurons controlling major longitudinal muscles overlap in more than four segments. Recordings of muscle activity during natural crawling show that some are activated during both their shortening and elongation. These results do not support the typical peristaltic model of crawling, but they do support a tension-based model of crawling, in which the substrate is utilized as an anchor to generate propulsion.

  15. Shape optimization of a sheet swimming over a thin liquid layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2008-12-10

    Motivated by the propulsion mechanisms adopted by gastropods, annelids and other invertebrates, we consider shape optimization of a flexible sheet that moves by propagating deformation waves along its body. The self-propelled sheet is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin layer of viscous Newtonian fluid. We use a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics and derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to simultaneously optimize swimming speed, efficiency and fluid loss. We find that as the parameters controlling these quantities approach critical values, the optimal solutions become singular in a self-similar fashion and sometimes leave the realm of validity of the lubrication model. We explore these singular limits by computing higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and find that wave profiles that develop cusp-like singularities are appropriately penalized, yielding non-singular optimal solutions. These corrections are themselves validated by comparison with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations, and, to the extent possible, using recent rigorous a-priori error bounds.

  16. Rapid neural circuit switching mediated by synaptic plasticity during neural morphallactic regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, Zane R; Zoran, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    The aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (Lumbriculidae), undergoes a rapid regenerative transformation of its neural circuits following body fragmentation. This type of nervous system plasticity, called neural morphallaxis, involves the remodeling of the giant fiber pathways that mediate rapid head and tail withdrawal behaviors. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that changes in cellular properties and synaptic connections underlie neurobehavioral plasticity during morphallaxis. Sensory-to-giant interneuron connections, undetectable prior to body injury, emerged within hours of segment amputation. The appearance of functional synaptic transmission was followed by interneuron activation, coupling of giant fiber spiking to motor outputs and overt segmental shortening. The onset of morphallactic plasticity varied along the body axis and emerged more rapidly in segments closer to regions of sensory field overlap between the two giant fiber pathways. The medial and lateral giant fibers were simultaneously activated during a transient phase of network remodeling. Thus, synaptic plasticity at sensory-to-giant interneuron connections mediates escape circuit morphallaxis in this regenerating annelid worm. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ecological innovations in the Cambrian and the origins of the crown group phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Graham E; Jackson, Illiam S C

    2016-01-05

    Simulation studies of the early origins of the modern phyla in the fossil record, and the rapid diversification that led to them, show that these are inevitable outcomes of rapid and long-lasting radiations. Recent advances in Cambrian stratigraphy have revealed a more precise picture of the early bilaterian radiation taking place during the earliest Terreneuvian Series, although several ambiguities remain. The early period is dominated by various tubes and a moderately diverse trace fossil record, with the classical 'Tommotian' small shelly biota beginning to appear some millions of years after the base of the Cambrian at ca 541 Ma. The body fossil record of the earliest period contains a few representatives of known groups, but most of the record is of uncertain affinity. Early trace fossils can be assigned to ecdysozoans, but deuterostome and even spiralian trace and body fossils are less clearly represented. One way of explaining the relative lack of clear spiralian fossils until about 536 Ma is to assign the various lowest Cambrian tubes to various stem-group lophotrochozoans, with the implication that the groundplan of the lophotrochozoans included a U-shaped gut and a sessile habit. The implication of this view would be that the vagrant lifestyle of annelids, nemerteans and molluscs would be independently derived from such a sessile ancestor, with potentially important implications for the homology of their sensory and nervous systems. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Dinosaur footprints and other ichnofauna from the cretaceous Kem Kem beds of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J; Sereno, Paul C; Wilson, Jeffery A; Wilson, Jeff A; Dutheil, Didier B; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age 'lower' and 'upper' units of the 'Kem Kem beds' in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous.

  19. Dinosaur footprints and other ichnofauna from the cretaceous Kem Kem beds of Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Ibrahim

    Full Text Available We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age 'lower' and 'upper' units of the 'Kem Kem beds' in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone, Scolicia (a gastropod trace, Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow, and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous.

  20. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.

  1. Unravelling the nature of Waiparaconus, a pennatulacean (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from the Late Mesozoic-Early Cainozoic of the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, John S; Campbell, Hamish J; Maurizot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Enigmatic calcareous conical fossils have been known from marine Paleocene-Eocene sequences of New Zealand since the early 1870s. More recently, similar fossils have been recorded from both Late Cretaceous marine sequences of Western Australia, New Caledonia and Antarctica, and possibly from the Eocene of South America. The present paper extends the record to the late Cretaceous of New Caledonia. These remains are unlike any living taxa, and have been variously interpreted as molluscs (rudistid bivalves), cirripedes (stalked barnacles), annelids and inorganic structures. Assignation to the Cirripedia has been refuted by Buckeridge (1983, 1993), who proposed that the material would be better placed within the Cnidaria. We investigate this hypothesis in light of the New Caledonian material and by comparison with living gorgonians and pennatulaceans, and demonstrate that Waiparaconus is best placed within the Pennatulacea. Waiparaconus zelandicus varies in form somewhat, with 3 morphotypes defined and reinforced by geography. Comment is provided on the imperative to fit organic remains into known groups, with reflection on what may happen if taxa are left in insertae sedis. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Neuroanatomy of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma provides insights into the evolution of the polychaete nervous system.

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    Norio Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Vestimentiferan tubeworms are marine invertebrates that inhabit chemosynthetic environments, and although recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested that vestimentiferan tubeworms are derived from polychaete annelids, they show some morphological features that are different from other polychaetes. For example, vestimentiferans lack a digestive tract and have less body segments and comparative neuroanatomy can provide essential insight into the vestimentiferan body plan and its evolution. In the present study, we investigated the adult nervous system in the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia satsuma using antibodies against synapsin, serotonin, FMRMamide and acetylated α-tubulin. We also examined the expressions of neural marker genes, elav and synaptotagmin to reveal the distribution of neuronal cell bodies. Brain anatomy shows simple organization in Lamellibrachia compared to other polychaetes. This simplification is probably due to the loss of the digestive tract, passing through the body between the brain and the subesophageal ganglion. In contrast, the ventral nerve cord shows a repeated organizational structure as in the other polychaetes, despite the absence of the multiple segmentation of the trunk. These results suggest that the brain anatomy is variable depending on the function and the condition of surrounding tissues, and that the formation of the rope ladder-like nervous system of the ventral nerve cord is independent from segmentation in polychaetes.

  3. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  4. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. [Diversity, abundance and distribution of benthic macrofauna on rocky shores from North Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Johanna; Jiménez, Mayré; Allen, Thays

    2014-09-01

    The rocky intertidal zone is among the most extreme physical environments on Earth. Organisms living in this area are constantly stricken by physico-chemical and biological factors. Due to the ecological importance of these areas, we studied the diversity, abundance and distribution of the rocky coastline benthic macrofauna, from the North coast of Sucre State, Venezuela. We performed bimonthly samplings from November 2008 to September 2009. The collection of biological material in the littoral zone (supra, mid and infralittoral) was done manually with a grid of 0.25m2. Organisms were preserved in 10% formalin for later identification and analysis (ecological parameters and Kruskal-Wallis test to the abundance and diversity). We found a total 19,020 organisms (86 spp.), in 8 phyla, 45 families and 47 genera. Mollusks were the most abundant and diverse (58 spp.), followed by arthropods (12 spp.), annelids (7 spp.), echinoderms (5 spp.), and the less represented cnidarians, sipunculids, nemertinids and urochordates (1 sp.). The zonation found coincided with the universal scheme of zonation. The towns of Rio Boca and Rio Caribe presented the highest values of ecological parameters, and the lowest were found in Playa Grande. Statistical significant differences were found in the abundance and diversity of macrofauna among the three zones. The little information on the composition and distribution of macrobenthic rocky coastline, prevents a better comparison, however the results contribute to the knowledge of the marine biodiversity in this region.

  6. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  7. The Histochemical Characterization of the Glycoconjugates in the Epidermal Mucous Cells of the Red Californian Earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Çinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the nature and regional distribution of the glycoconjugates secreted by epidermal mucous cells in Eisenia foetida (Annelida. Specimens were divided into six regions from anterior to posterior. The histochemistry was carried out by using standard histochemical methods. Histochemical staining properties of glycoconjugates in epidermal mucous cells were determined regionally. The epidermis of all regions contained strong to stronger PAS (+ cells in various degrees. The epidermis of the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth regions had strong to stronger AB pH 2.5 (+ cells. On the contrary, all regions contained weak to moderate AB pH 0.5 and AB pH 1.0 (+ cells. Most of mucous cells in epidermis of the first region contained both PAS (+ and AB (+ mucosubstances. All regions included weaker to weak AF (+ cells. All regions featured KOH/PAS (+ cells, with a slight reduction in reaction intensity in the epidermis of the last three regions. In this context, the different staining patterns observed in epidermal mucous cells hinted at their functional roles with respect to production of mucus with different physical properties. This study provided comprehensive information about the regional distribution patterns of the glycoconjugates and an opportunity to compare their distributional patterns in other annelids.

  8. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans are related to chitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Okusu, Akiko; Lindgren, Annie R.; Huff, Stephanie W.; Schrödl, Michael; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2006-01-01

    Monoplacophorans are among the rarest members of the phylum Mollusca. Previously only known from fossils since the Cambrian, the first living monoplacophoran was discovered during the famous second Galathea deep-sea expedition. The anatomy of these molluscs shocked the zoological community for presenting serially repeated gills, nephridia, and eight sets of dorsoventral pedal retractor muscles. Seriality of organs in supposedly independent molluscan lineages, i.e., in chitons and the deep-sea living fossil monoplacophorans, was assumed to be a relict of ancestral molluscan segmentation and was commonly accepted to support a direct relationship with annelids. We were able to obtain one specimen of a monoplacophoran Antarctic deep-sea species for molecular study. The first molecular data on monoplacophorans, analyzed together with the largest data set of molluscs ever assembled, clearly illustrate that monoplacophorans and chitons form a clade. This “Serialia” concept may revolutionize molluscan systematics and may have important implications for metazoan evolution as it allows for new interpretations for primitive segmentation in molluscs. PMID:16675549

  9. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ON SPRING ABUNDANCE OF AQUATIC MACRO-INVERTEBRATES INHABITING LAKE TIMSAH, EGYPT

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    Marwa Ibrahim Saad El-Din

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Timsah, Egypt receives several kinds of pollutants coming from domestic sewage of unconnected areas adjoining the shore and possibly marine pollution. During the last decades heavy metals have become common contaminants of aquatic and wetland environments throughout the world because of human activity and technological development. Increasing attention has been given during the last decade to the protection of marine and freshwater aquatic environment against pollution, both nationally and internationally. Macro-benthoses are the most commonly organisms used as bio-indicators water quality assessment. All of the aquatic macro-invertebrates that were collected from El-Taween station, Lake Timsah, Egypt fell into three major groups that were fairly easy to identify. They were annelids (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta, molluscs (Bivalvia and Gastropoda and arthropods (Crustacea. The small sized crustacean Sphaeroma. serratum are considered suitable species for aquatic bio-monitoring because they hold an important position in the aquatic food chain responds to many pollutants, easy to culture and has short life cycles. Iron was most important determinant; it appears in high concentrations in both water sample and the tissue of crustacean sample (S. serratum.

  10. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  11. Revelation and cloning of valinomycin synthetase genes in Streptomyces lavendulae ACR-DA1 and their expression analysis under different fermentation and elicitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Jamwal, Vijaylakshmi; Singh, Varun P; Wazir, Priya; Awasthi, Praveen; Singh, Deepika; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G; Chaubey, Asha

    2017-07-10

    Streptomyces species are amongst the most exploited microorganisms due to their ability to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites with bioactive potential, including several well known drugs. They are endowed with immense unexplored potential and substantial efforts are required for their isolation as well as characterization for their bioactive potential. Unexplored niches and extreme environments are host to diverse microbial species. In this study, we report Streptomyces lavendulae ACR-DA1, isolated from extreme cold deserts of the North Western Himalayas, which produces a macrolactone antibiotic, valinomycin. Valinomycin is a K + ionophoric non-ribosomal cyclodepsipeptide with a broad range of bioactivities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and cytotoxic/anticancer activities. Production of valinomycin by the strain S. lavendulae ACR-DA1 was studied under different fermentation conditions like fermentation medium, temperature and addition of biosynthetic precursors. Synthetic medium at 10°C in the presence of precursors i.e. valine and pyruvate showed enhanced valinomycin production. In order to assess the impact of various elicitors, expression of the two genes viz. vlm1 and vlm2 that encode components of heterodimeric valinomycin synthetase, was analyzed using RT-PCR and correlated with quantity of valinomycin using LC-MS/MS. Annelid, bacterial and yeast elicitors increased valinomycin production whereas addition of fungal and plant elicitors down regulated the biosynthetic genes and reduced valinomycin production. This study is also the first report of valinomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces lavendulae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interplay between a Wnt-dependent organiser and the Notch segmentation clock regulates posterior development in Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Chesebro

    2012-12-01

    Sequential addition of segments in the posteriorly growing end of the embryo is a developmental mechanism common to many bilaterians. However, posterior growth and patterning in most animals also entails the establishment of a ‘posterior organiser’ that expresses the Caudal and Wnt proteins and has been proposed to be an ancestral feature of animal development. We have studied the functional relationships between the Wnt-driven organiser and the segmentation mechanisms in a basal insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Here, posteriorly-expressed Wnt1 promotes caudal and Delta expression early in development to generate a growth zone from which segments will later bud off. caudal maintains the undifferentiated growth zone by dampening Delta expression, and hence Notch-mediated segmentation occurs just outside the caudal domain. In turn, Delta expression maintains Wnt1, maintaining this posterior gene network until all segments have formed. This feedback between caudal, Wnt and Notch-signalling in regulating growth and segmentation seems conserved in other arthropods, with some aspects found even in vertebrates. Thus our findings not only support an ancestral Wnt posterior organiser, but also impinge on the proposals for a common origin of segmentation in arthropods, annelids and vertebrates.

  13. Spiral cleavage and early embryology of a loxosomatid entoproct and the usefulness of spiralian apical cross patterns for phylogenetic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel Julia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the four major bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia, Acoelomorpha, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa, the latter shows an astonishing diversity of bodyplans. While the largest lophotrochozoan assemblage, the Spiralia, which at least comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Entoprocta, Platyhelminthes, and Nemertea, show a spiral cleavage pattern, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida (the Lophophorata cleave radially. Despite a vast amount of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, the interrelationships of lophotrochozoan phyla remain largely unresolved. Thereby, Entoprocta play a key role, because they have frequently been assigned to the Ectoprocta, despite their differently cleaving embryos. However, developmental data on entoprocts employing modern methods are virtually non-existent and the data available rely exclusively on sketch drawings, thus calling for thorough re-investigation. Results By applying fluorescence staining in combination with confocal microscopy and 3D-imaging techniques, we analyzed early embryonic development of a basal loxosomatid entoproct. We found that cleavage is asynchronous, equal, and spiral. An apical rosette, typical for most spiralian embryos, is formed. We also identified two cross-like cellular arrangements that bear similarities to both, a "molluscan-like" as well as an "annelid-like" cross, respectively. Conclusions A broad comparison of cleavage types and apical cross patterns across Lophotrochozoa shows high plasticity of these character sets and we therefore argue that these developmental traits should be treated and interpreted carefully when used for phylogenetic inferences.

  14. A novel report of hatching plasticity in the phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A Frances; Blackburn, Holly N; Allen, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    Hatching plasticity occurs in response to a wide range of stimuli across many animal taxa, including annelids, arthropods, mollusks, and chordates. Despite the prominence of echinoderms in developmental biology and more than 100 years of detailed examination of their development under a variety of conditions, environmentally cued hatching plasticity has never been reported in the phylum Echinodermata. Here we report plasticity in the timing and stage of hatching of embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma in response to reductions in salinity. Embryos of E. parma increased their time to hatching more than twofold in response to ecologically relevant salinity reductions, while maintaining an otherwise normal developmental schedule. Embryos that experienced the greatest delay in hatching time emerged from the fertilization envelope as four-arm pluteus larvae rather than hatching as blastulae or early gastrulae. Salinity manipulations across multiple male-female pairs indicated high variability in hatching time both within and among clutches, suggesting significant intraspecific variation in developmental responses to salinity.

  15. Age and paleoenvironmental significance of mega-invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Stevens, Dave

    2000-01-01

    The "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills contains an invertebrate fossil as-semblage of 184 taxa from 158 localities. The fauna consists of two annelids, 174 mollusks (80 bivalves, 94 gastropods, and three scaphopods), five arthropods, and three echinoids, along with other minor constituents recognized by not specifically identified during the present study. These fossils are divided into three assemblages; 1) a lower, Pliocene assemblage (which may not differ ecologically from the middle fauna), 2) a middle, cool water assemblage, and 3) an upper, temperate to warm water. These fossils suggest a probably late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age for outcrops of the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills. A fourth assemblage with a limited, restricted marine fauna occurs in the overlying Coyote Hills Formation. The occurrence of Solamen columbianum (Dall) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the "San Pedro" Formation of the Coyote Hills marks its first occurrence as a fossil. The oldest fossil occurrence of the gastropods Tegula pulligo (Gmelin), questionably Haliotis cracherodii Leach, and the crustacean Randallia ornata (Randell) occurs in the "San Pedroï" Formation in the Coyote Hills.

  16. Distributional patterns of shallow-water polychaetes in the Magellan region: a zoogeographical and ecological synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Montiel San Martín

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeography of polychaete annelids was described for the Magellan region. This work considered information available from 19 expeditions carried out in the last 124 years of polychaete taxonomic research around the southernmost tip of the South American continental shelf. The polychaete fauna of the Magellan region comprised a total of 431 species belonging to 108 genera and 41 families. MDS and ANOSIM analyses showed the Magellan region to be divided into two subregions, one on the Pacific side of the tip of South America and one on the Atlantic side. These subregions showed a low percentage of “endemic species” ( 70% of the species recorded for the whole Magellan region showed a wide distribution range, and there were especially high affinities with Antarctic and Subantarctic areas. We suggest that the opening of the Straits of Magellan created a new pathway for enhanced exchange of faunal elements between the Pacific and the Atlantic. Transport of larvae via easterly directed currents of the West Wind Drift plays an important role in current distribution patterns of polychaete fauna around the tip of South America.

  17. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-09-04

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  18. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

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    Wanninger Andreas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid systematics. Results By reconstructing the developmental neuroanatomy of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis cf. spirorbis (Spirorbinae, we found striking differences in the overall neural architecture, the innervation pattern, and the ontogenetic establishment of the nervous supply of the operculum and the radioles in this species. Accordingly, the spirorbin operculum might not be homologous to the radioles or to the opercula of other serpulid taxa such as Serpula and Pomatoceros and is thus probably not a part of the tentacular crown. Conclusion We demonstrate that common morphological traits such as the prostomial appendages may have evolved independently in respective serpulid sublineages and therefore require reassessment before being used in phylogenetic analyses. Our findings corroborate recent molecular studies that argue for a revision of serpulid systematics. In addition, our data on Spirorbis neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system.

  19. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Dinosaur Footprints and Other Ichnofauna from the Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J.; Sereno, Paul C.; Wilson, Jeff A.; Dutheil, Didier B.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age ‘lower’ and ‘upper’ units of the ‘Kem Kem beds’ in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous. PMID:24603467

  1. Group II introns break new boundaries: presence in a bilaterian's genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Vallès

    Full Text Available Group II introns are ribozymes, removing themselves from their primary transcripts, as well as mobile genetic elements, transposing via an RNA intermediate, and are thought to be the ancestors of spliceosomal introns. Although common in bacteria and most eukaryotic organelles, they have never been reported in any bilaterian animal genome, organellar or nuclear. Here we report the first group II intron found in the mitochondrial genome of a bilaterian worm. This location is especially surprising, since animal mitochondrial genomes are generally distinct from those of plants, fungi, and protists by being small and compact, and so are viewed as being highly streamlined, perhaps as a result of strong selective pressures for fast replication while establishing germ plasm during early development. This intron is found in the mtDNA of an annelid worm, (an undescribed species of Nephtys, where the complete sequence revealed a 1819 bp group II intron inside the cox1 gene. We infer that this intron is the result of a recent horizontal gene transfer event from a viral or bacterial vector into the mitochondrial genome of Nephtys sp. Our findings hold implications for understanding mechanisms, constraints, and selective pressures that account for patterns of animal mitochondrial genome evolution.

  2. Object-based representation and analysis of light and electron microscopic volume data using Blender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadulina, Albina; Conzelmann, Markus; Williams, Elizabeth A; Panzera, Aurora; Jékely, Gáspár

    2015-07-25

    Rapid improvements in light and electron microscopy imaging techniques and the development of 3D anatomical atlases necessitate new approaches for the visualization and analysis of image data. Pixel-based representations of raw light microscopy data suffer from limitations in the number of channels that can be visualized simultaneously. Complex electron microscopic reconstructions from large tissue volumes are also challenging to visualize and analyze. Here we exploit the advanced visualization capabilities and flexibility of the open-source platform Blender to visualize and analyze anatomical atlases. We use light-microscopy-based gene expression atlases and electron microscopy connectome volume data from larval stages of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We build object-based larval gene expression atlases in Blender and develop tools for annotation and coexpression analysis. We also represent and analyze connectome data including neuronal reconstructions and underlying synaptic connectivity. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of Blender for visualizing and exploring complex anatomical atlases. The resources we have developed for Platynereis will facilitate data sharing and the standardization of anatomical atlases for this species. The flexibility of Blender, particularly its embedded Python application programming interface, means that our methods can be easily extended to other organisms.

  3. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Döhren Jörn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  4. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. (Annelida, Syllidae, Autolytinae, the first known polychaete miner tunneling into the tunic of an ascidian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While studying organisms living in association with the solitary tunicate Phallusia nigra (Ascidiacea, Ascidiidae from a shallow fringing reef at Zeytouna Beach (Egyptian Red Sea, one of the collected ascidians showed peculiar perforations on its tunic. Once dissected, the perforations revealed to be the openings of a network of galleries excavated in the inner tunic (atrium by at least six individuals of a polychaetous annelid. The worms belonged to the Autolytinae (Syllidae, a subfamily that is well known to include specialized predators and/or symbionts, mostly associated with cnidarians. The Red Sea worms are here described as Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov., which are anatomically distinguished by the combination of simple chaetae only in anterior chaetigers, and a unique trepan with 33 teeth in one outer ring where one large tooth alternates with one medium-sized tricuspid tooth, and one inner ring with small teeth located just behind the large teeth. Male and female epitokes were found together with atokous individuals within galleries. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. constitutes the first known miner in the Autolytinae and the second species in this taxon known to live symbiotically with ascidians. The implications of finding this specialized parasite are discussed considering that Phallusia nigra has been introduced worldwide, in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, where it has the potential of becoming invasive.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the short term effects of fresh and stabilized textile sludges before application in forest soil restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Edson V.C.; Giuradelli, Thayse M.; Correa, Albertina X.R.; Roerig, Leonardo R.; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Resgalla, Charrid; Radetski, Claudemir M.

    2007-01-01

    The short term (eco)toxicity potential of fresh and stabilized textile sludges, as well as the short term (eco)toxicity of leachates obtained from both fresh and stabilized textile sludges, was evaluated by a battery of toxicity tests carried out with bacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, earthworms, and higher plants. The (eco)toxicological results showed that, after 120 d of stabilization, the experimental loading ratio of 25% sludge:75% soil (v/v) (equivalent to 64.4 ton/ha) did not significantly increase toxicity effects and increased significantly the biomass yield for earthworms and higher plants. The rank of biological sensitivity endpoints was: Algae ∼ Plant biomass > Plant germination ∼ Daphnids > Bacteria ∼ Fish > Annelids. The lack of short term toxicity effects and the stimulant effect observed with higher plants and earthworms are good indications of the fertilizer/conditioner potential of this industrial waste, which after stabilization can be used in the restoration of a non-productive forest soil. - Short term ecotoxicity evaluation of textile sludge showed that stabilized sludge can be used in the restoration of a non-productive forest soil

  6. Action of nereistoxin on recombinant neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Delpech, Valérie; Ihara, Makoto; Coddou, Claudio; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2003-11-01

    Nereistoxin (NTX), a natural neurotoxin from the salivary glands of the marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda, is highly toxic to insects. Its synthetic analogue, Cartap, was the first commercial insecticide based on a natural product. We have used voltage-clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of NTX on recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nicotinic AChRs) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following nuclear injection of cDNAs. The recombinant nicotinic AChRs investigated were chicken alpha7, chicken alpha4beta2 and the Drosophila melanogaster/chicken hybrid receptors SAD/beta2 and ALS/beta2. No agonist action of NTX (0.1-100 microM) was observed on chicken alpha7, chicken alpha4beta2 and the Drosophila/chicken hybrid nicotinic AChRs. Currents elicited by ACh were reduced in amplitude by NTX in a dose-dependent manner. The toxin was slightly more potent on recombinant Drosophila/vertebrate hybrid receptors than on vertebrate homomeric (alpha7) or heteromeric (alpha4beta2) nicotinic AChRs. Block by NTX of the chicken alpha7, chicken alpha4beta2 and the SAD/beta2 and ALS/beta2 Drosophila/chicken hybrid receptors is in all cases non-competitive. Thus, the site of action on nicotinic AChRs of NTX, to which the insecticide Cartap is metabolised in insects, differs from that of the major nicotinic AChR-active insecticide, imidacloprid.

  7. Advanced analytical method of nereistoxin using mixed-mode cationic exchange solid-phase extraction and GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Heesang; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Jung, Jee H

    2015-07-01

    Nereistoxin(NTX) was originated from a marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda and its analogue pesticides including cartap, bensultap, thiocyclam and thiobensultap have been commonly used in agriculture, because of their low toxicity and high insecticidal activity. However, NTX has been reported about its inhibitory neuro toxicity in human and animal body, by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and it cause significant neuromuscular toxicity, resulting in respiratory failure. We developed a new method to determine NTX in biological fluid. The method involves mixed-mode cationic exchange based solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for final identification and quantitative analysis. The limit of detection and recovery were substantially better than those of other methods using liquid-liquid extraction or headspace solid phase microextraction. The good recoveries (97±14%) in blood samples were obtained and calibration curves over the range 0.05-20 mg/L have R2 values greater than 0.99. The developed method was applied to a fatal case of cartap intoxication of 74 years old woman who ingested cartap hydrochloride for suicide. Cartap and NTX were detected from postmortem specimens and the cause of the death was ruled to be nereistoxin intoxication. The concentrations of NTX were 2.58 mg/L, 3.36 mg/L and 1479.7 mg/L in heart, femoral blood and stomach liquid content, respectively. The heart blood/femoral blood ratio of NTX was 0.76. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kergunteuil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests.

  9. Structure of dehaloperoxidase B at 1.58 Å resolution and structural characterization of the AB dimer from Amphitrite ornata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Vesna de; D’Antonio, Jennifer; Franzen, Stefan; Ghiladi, Reza A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzyme B from the terebellid polychaete A. ornata, which exhibits both hemoglobin and peroxidase functions, has been determined at 1.58 Å resolution. As members of the globin superfamily, dehaloperoxidase (DHP) isoenzymes A and B from the marine annelid Amphitrite ornata possess hemoglobin function, but they also exhibit a biologically relevant peroxidase activity that is capable of converting 2,4,6-trihalophenols to the corresponding 2,6-dihaloquinones in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Here, a comprehensive structural study of recombinant DHP B, both by itself and cocrystallized with isoenzyme A, using X-ray diffraction is presented. The structure of DHP B refined to 1.58 Å resolution exhibits the same distal histidine (His55) conformational flexibility as that observed in isoenzyme A, as well as additional changes to the distal and proximal hydrogen-bonding networks. Furthermore, preliminary characterization of the DHP AB heterodimer is presented, which exhibits differences in the AB interface that are not observed in the A-only or B-only homodimers. These structural investigations of DHP B provide insights that may relate to the mechanistic details of the H 2 O 2 -dependent oxidative dehalogenation reaction catalyzed by dehaloperoxidase, present a clearer description of the function of specific residues in DHP at the molecular level and lead to a better understanding of the paradigms of globin structure–function relationships

  10. Prey composition in the carnivorous plants Utricularia inflata and U. gibba (Lentibulariaceae) from Paria Peninsula, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth; Pacheco, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Carnivorous aquatic plants, genus Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae), capture small aquatic organisms, such as rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans, by means of anatomical structures named bladders. The present study aimed to determine prey size and composition in U. gibba and U inflata, which were collected from a small lake and an herbaceous wetland, respectively, located in Paria Peninsula (Sucre State, Venezuela). Water pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and salinity were measured in situ at each sampling location, and water samples were collected to determine N-Kjeldahl, total-P, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, and Cl-. Fifty bladders from each plant species were measured and their contents were analyzed. N-Kjeldahl and total-P values were similar in both sites, and were also similar to values reported for eutrophic ecosystems, although Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ concentrations and in situ water parameter values were higher in the herbaceous wetland. Bladder content showed the following zooplankton groups: rotifers, cladocerans, copepods, annelids, rhizopodeans, and insects; and the following phytoplankton divisions: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Euglenophyta. U. inflata presented smaller and fewer bladders, but higher abundance and total algal and animal morphospecies richness than U. gibba. Prey composition similarity at the taxon level between the two carnivorous species was low.

  11. Structural characterization of hemoglobins from Monilifera and Frenulata tubeworms (Siboglinids): first discovery of giant hexagonal-bilayer hemoglobin in the former "Pogonophora" group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Cédric; Andersen, Ann C; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Le Guen, Dominique; Terrier, Peran; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Zal, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Siboglinids are symbiotic polychete annelids having hemoglobins as essential oxygen- and sulfide-carriers for their endosymbiotic bacteria. We analyzed the structure of the hemoglobins from two species of siboglinids: the monilifera Sclerolinum contortum and the frenulata Oligobrachia webbi (i.e. haakonmosbiensis) from Norwegian cold seeps. Measured by Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS), Sclerolinum shows a 3190+/-50 kDa hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb) and a 461+/-46 kDa ring-Hb, just as vestimentifera, whereas Oligobrachia has a 409+/-3.7 kDa ring-Hb only. Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed Sclerolinum HBL-Hb composed of seven monomeric globins (15-16 kDa), three disulfide-bonded globin heterodimers and three linkers. The heterodimers always contain globin-b (15814.4+/-1.5 Da). Sclerolinum ring-Hb is composed of globins and dimers with identical masses as its HBL-Hb, but lacks linkers. Oligobrachia ring-Hb has three globin monomers (14-15 kDa) only, with no disulfide-bonded dimers. Comparison of Sclerolinum hemoglobins between Storegga and Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, using the normalized height of deconvoluted ESI-MS peaks, shows differences in globin monomers abundances that could reflect genetic differences or differential gene expression between distinct seep populations. The discovery of HBL-Hb in Sclerolinum is a new element supporting the hypothesis of monilifera being phylogenetically more closely related to vestimentifera, than to frenulata.

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE CONTAMINACIÓN POR METAMIDOFOS EN LA MICROCUENCA EL SALTO DEL MUNICIPIO DE EL SANTUARIO, ANTIOQUIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Horacio Ramírez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, que se desarrolló en la microcuenca El Salto del municipio de El Santuario, se estimó la presencia del Metamidofos, en plantas de repollo (Brassica oleraceae y en el suelo y su riesgo de contaminación en aguas para el consumo humano. En el repollo el nivel de concentración del Metamidofos sobrepasó los límites máximos permisibles establecidos para esta planta por el Codex Alimentarius; en el suelo no se encontraron residuos del producto, pero sí en el agua de escorrentía y en dos sitios del cauce de la quebrada El Salto localizados aguas arriba de la bocatoma del acueducto municipal; no se detectó Metamidofos en la muestra de agua de la bocatoma del acueducto ni en la red de distribución del acueducto municipal. En la estimación cualitativa del riesgo de contaminación se utilizaron como variables de vulnerabilidad y amenaza la precipitación, la escorrentía, el coeficiente de escorrentía, el tiempo de concentración, la erosión, algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo y la pendiente de los terrenos. Se observó que el riesgo se presenta por la alta cantidad de insecticida utilizado y su frecuencia de utilización, que se incrementa según la distribución e intensidad de las lluvias y del potencial de erosión y este, a su vez, por el uso y manejo no adecuado del suelo. En la parcela experimental y en un terreno aledaño sembrado con pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum, se calculó la población por unidad de área de la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris. La ausencia de este organismo en la parcela cultivada con repollo (Brassica oleraceae se puede considerar como indicador biológico por la contaminación de este insecticida en el suelo.This investigation was done in El Salto watershed basin located in the municipality of El Santuario. It was examined the presence of Metamidofos in plants of cabbage, in soils, with risk of contamination in waters for the human

  13. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  14. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  15. Earthworm impact on the global warming potential of a no-tillage arable soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-04-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15 week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32% higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13% higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18%, but only 6 and 2% of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-tillage soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  16. Electron microscope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-01-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the ''linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices

  17. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  18. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  19. Can plastic bag derived-microplastics act as vectors for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Hodson, Mark; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A.; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda; Thorpe, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics are widely reported contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems and studies have shown that they can be ingested by aquatic organisms and lead to potential negative effects on health. The effects can arise from the physical effects of the plastics (e.g. food displacement and blockages of the digestive tract) and from their potential to adsorb contaminants, primarily organic compounds, resulting in an increased exposure of the organism to toxic contaminants. Studies are beginning to emerge that also show a high abundance of microplastics in the terrestrial environment but there remains a lack of data on the impacts of these terrestrial microplastics or their interaction with other terrestrial pollutants. We conducted Zn adsorption experiments using HDPE microplastics, derived from plastic bags. Zinc adsorption to microplastics was similar to that observed in soils, but in the presence of both soil and microplastics, preferential adsorption onto the soil was observed. In desorption experiments, desorption of Zn from microplastics and soils was minimal (earthworm guts desorption of 40 - 60% was observed for the microplastics compared to 2 - 15 % for the soils. In earthworm exposure experiments Lumbricus terrestris earthworms cultivated in soils containing 0.35% by mass of Zn-bearing plastic (236 - 4505 mg kg-1) ingested the microplastics with no evidence for either preferential feeding or avoidance. There was no evidence for an accumulation of the microplastics in the earthworm gut or for signs of toxicity. Our experiments demonstrate that earthworms will ingest microplastics and that microplastics can adsorb metals and act as vectors for metal exposure in soil invertebrates. However, for Zn, the risk associated with this exposure appears to be minimal.

  20. Application of Synchrotron Methods to Assess the Uptake of Roadway-Derived Zn by Earthworms in an Urban Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, S.; Landa, E.; Szlavecz, K.; Casey, R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of human activities on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial environments is nowhere more apparent than in urban landscapes. Trace metals, collected on roadways and transported by storm water, may contaminate soils and sediments associated with storm water management systems. These systems will accumulate metals and associated sediments may reach toxic levels for terrestrial and aquatic organisms using the retention basins as habitat. The fate and bioavailability of these metals once deposited is poorly understood. Here we present results from a dose-response experiment that examines the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence methods (μ-SXRF) to test the hypothesis that earthworms will bio-accumulate Zn in a roadway-dust contaminated soil system providing a potential pathway for roadway contaminants into the terrestrial food web, and that the storage and distribution of Zn will change with the level of exposure reflecting the micronutrient status of Zn. Lumbricus friendi was exposed to Zn-bearing roadway dust amended to a field soil at six target concentrations ranging from background levels (45 mg/kg Zn) to highly contaminated levels (460 mg/kg Zn) designed to replicate the observed concentration range in storm-water retention basin soils. After a 30 day exposure, Zn storage in the intestine is positively correlated with dose and there is a change in the pattern of Zn storage within the intestine. This relationship is only clear when μ-SXRF Zn map data is coupled with a traditional toxicological approach, and suggests that the gut concentration in L. friendi is a better indicator of Zn bioaccumulation and storage than the total body burden.

  1. Composition of organic matter in earthworm casts depending on litter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, R. H.; Gerke, H. H.; Schrader, S.; Leue, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earthworms contribute to decomposition and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in soil. The digestion during intestinal passage inside worms may lead to a change in the composition of OM. It is largely unknown if and how the type of litter the earthworm is feeding on is affecting the OM composition in the casts. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used to determine the hydrophobic CH- (A) and the hydrophilic CO- (B) functional groups in OM. The objective was to compare the A/B- ratios of litter samples with that of (i) the corresponding casts of the primary decomposer Lumbricus terrestris and (ii) the water contact angles of ground cast samples and at intact cast surfaces. Litter from 10 different plant species including leaves of birch, beech, oak, spruce, pear, mustard and wheat straw (3 replicates) was offered separately to L. terrestris in microcosms containing a Luvisol soil. The OM composition of litter and that of casts, collected from the soil surface after 4-weeks was analyzed with FTIR (DRIFT technique). The A/B ratio of casts was generally increased as compared to that of the soil. For most litter types, the A/B ratio of cast was relatively similar except for casts from birch (Betula pendula) and pear (Pyrus communis) where the OM show a 3-times higher A/B ratio as compared to wheat (Triticum aestivum) or beech (Fagus sylvatica) casts. The higher A/B ratios seem to be related to the relative higher C/N ratios in the casts from Betula pendula and Pyrus communis feeding experiments. The results indicate that digestion of litter by the worm may change OM composition. The assumption that earthworm casts may enrich hydrophobic OM components could be verified only partly. However particulate and soluble OM fractions in the earthworm casts could have contributed to such differentiation.

  2. Metals content of Glossoscolex paulistus extracellular hemoglobin: Its peroxidase activity and the importance of these ions in the protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Celia S; Biazin, Ezer; Carvalho, Francisco A O; Tabak, Marcel; Bachega, José F R

    2016-08-01

    In this work we investigate the presence of divalent cations bound to the Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) hemoglobin and their effect over the protein stability and the peroxidase (POD) activity. Atomic absorption studies show that the HbGp iron content is consistent with the presence of 144 ions per protein. Moreover, using iron as a reference, the content of calcium was estimated as 30±4 ions per protein, independently of the EDTA pre-treatment or not prior to the acidic treatment performed in the protein digestion. The zinc content was 14±2 ions in the absence of EDTA pre-treatment, and 3±1 ions per protein in the presence of EDTA pre-treatment, implying the presence of one zinc ion per protomer (1/12 of the whole molecule). Finally, the copper concentration is negligible. Different from the vertebrate hemoglobins, where the effectors are usually organic anions, the hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins have as effectors inorganic cations that increase the oxygen affinity and stabilize the structure. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of divalent cations, such as copper and zinc, is related to the different types of antioxidant enzymatic activities as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity shown by giant hemoglobin from Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt). Recently, studies on HbGp crystal structure have confirmed the presence of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) binding sites. The Ca(2+) sites are similar as observed in the HbLt crystal structure. Otherwise, the Zn(2+) sites have no relation with those observed in Cu/Zn SODs. Our peroxidase assays with guaiacol confirm the POD activity and the effect of the zinc ions for HbGp. Our present results on HbGp metal content and their stability effects is the first step to understand the role of these cations in HbGp function in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  4. Electron microscope studies. Progress report, 1 July 1990--1 June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the ``linker`` subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  5. DOMESTICATION OF FRESHWATER PUFFER FISH OR BUNTAL (Tetraodon palembangensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Research Institute for Freshwater Ornamental Fish Culture has been conducting domestication research since 2004 on adult freshwater puffer fish or buntal broodstock in which the fish were reared in aquaria and fed with small feed fish teri (anchovy and earthworm (Lumbricus sp.. The domestication of freshwater puffer fish or buntal has resulted in successful environmental adaptation and reproductive ability of the fish and further rearing of its fry. The adaptive ability was indicated by its high survival rate, good growth and development, and the reproductive success in spawning, egg production, hatching as well as growing of the larvae to fry stages. The mature gonad stage of the fish was reached at an average body weight of 150 g with a reproductive period of 5 months. The spawning occurred naturally and the eggs were gradually released at interval periods of 14—18 days with egg production rates of 1,000—1,900 eggs per spawning. The highest egg fertilization rate was 96%, with the highest egg hatching rate of 78.6%. Hatching process took place on the 6th to 13th days after spawning process. The surviving larvae began feeding filtered natural foods Moina sp. on the 3rd day up to the 6th day, whereas unfiltered Moina sp. was given from the 7th to 14th days. The fish were fed the live feed Culex sp. from the 15th to 30th days. In the following period the fish was fed earthworm and small feed fish teri (anchovy.

  6. Kinetics and spatial distribution of enzymes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in earthworm biopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Thi Thu, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms boost microbial activities and consequently form hotspots in soil. The distribution of enzyme activities inside the earthworm biopores is completely unknown. For the first time, we analyzed enzyme kinetics and visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside biopores by in situ soil zymography. Kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of 6 enzymes β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) were determined in biopores formed by Lumbricus terrestris L.. The spatial distributions of GLU, NAG and APT become visible via zymograms in comparison between earthworm-inhabited and earthworm-free soil. Zymography showed heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in the rhizosphere and biopores. The hotspot areas were 2.4 to 14 times larger in the biopores than in soil without earthworms. The significantly higher Vmax values for GLU, CBH, XYL, NAG and APT in biopores confirmed the stimulation of enzyme activities by earthworms. For CBH, XYL and NAG, the 2- to 3-fold higher Km values in biopores indicated different enzyme systems with lower substrate affinity compared to control soil. The positive effects of earthworms on Vmax were cancelled by the Km increase for CBH, XYL and NAG at a substrate concentration below 20 μmol g-1 soil. The change of enzyme systems reflected a shift in dominant microbial populations toward species with lower affinity to holo-celluloses and to N-acetylglucosamine, and with higher affinity to proteins as compared to the biopores-free soil. We conclude that earthworm biopores are microbial hotspots with much higher and dense distribution of enzyme activities compared to bulk soil. References Spohn M, Kuzyakov Y. (2014) Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity in soil as affected by living and dead roots - a soil zymography analysis, Plant Soil 379: 67-77. Blagodatskaya, E., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Review paper: Active microorganisms in soil

  7. Distribution of enzyme activity hotspots induced by earthworms in top- and subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, D. T. T.

    2016-12-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) not only affect soil physics, but they also boost microbial activities and consequently create important hotspots of microbial mediated carbon and nutrient turnover through their burrowing activity. However, it is still unknown to which extend earthworms change the enzyme distribution and activity inside their burrows in top- and subsoil horizons. We hypothesized that earthworm burrows, which are enriched in available substrates, have higher percentage of enzyme activity hotspots than soil without earthworms, and that enzyme activities decreased with increasing depth because of the increasing recalcitrance of organic matter in subsoil. We visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside of worm burrows (biopores) by in situ soil zymography and measured enzyme kinetics of 6 enzymes - β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) - in pore and bulk soil material up to 105 cm. Zymography showed a heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in worm burrows. The hotspot areas was 2.4 to 14 times larger in the burrows than in soil without earthworms. However, the dispersion index of hotspot distribution showed more aggregated hotspots in soil without earthworms than in soil with earthworms and burrow wall. Enzyme activities decreased with depth, by a factor of 2 to 8 due to fresh C input from the soil surface. Compared to bulk soil, enzyme activities in topsoil biopores were up to 11 times higher for all enzymes, but in the subsoil activities of XYL, NAG and APT were lower in earthworm biopores than bulk soil. In conclusion, hotspots were twice as concentrated close to earthworm burrows as in surrounding soil. Earthworms exerted stronger effects on enzyme activities in biopores in the topsoil than in subsoil. Keywords: Earthworms, hotspots, enzyme activities, enzyme distribution, subsoil

  8. Rapid determination of soil quality and earthworm impacts on soil microbial communities using fluorescence-based respirometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T.; Thurston, Josh; Taylor, Joe; Helgason, Thorunn; Ashauer, Roman; Hodson, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    We applied a fluorescence-based respirometry method currently devised for aquatic ecotoxicology studies to rapidly measure soil microbial oxygen consumption as a function of soil quality. In this study, soil was collected from an arable wheat field and the field margin. These two soil habitats are known to differ in their soil quality due to differences in their use and management as well as plant, microbial and earthworm community. The earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was incubated in arable or margin soil for three weeks. After this initial phase, a transfer experiment was then conducted to test the hypothesis that earthworm 'migration' alters soil microbial community function and diversity. In this transfer experiment, earthworms incubated in margin soil were transferred to arable soil. The converse transfer (i.e. earthworms incubated in arable soil) was also conducted. Soils of each type with no earthworms were also incubated as controls. After a further four week incubation, the impact of earthworm migration on the soil microbial community was tested by measuring oxygen consumption. Replicated soil slurry subsamples were aliquoted into individual respirometer wells (600 μl volume) on a glass 24-well microplate (Loligo Systems, Denmark) fitted with non-invasive, reusable oxygen sensor spots. The sealed microplate was then attached to an oxygen fluorescence sensor (SDR SensorDish Reader, PreSens, Germany). Oxygen consumption was measured in real-time over a 2 hr period following standard operating procedures. Soil microbial activity was measured with and without an added carbon source (glucose or cellulose, 50 mg C L-1). Using this system, we were able to differentiate between soil type, earthworm treatment and C source. Earthworm-driven impacts on soil microbial oxygen consumption were also supported by changes in soil microbial community structure and diversity revealed using DNA-based sequencing techniques. This method provides a simple and rapid system for

  9. Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

  10. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH Abundance and species richness of earthworms was greatest in areas where soil pH > 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  11. Using species-specific enriched stable isotopes to study the effect of fresh mercury inputs in soil-earthworm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C Rodríguez; Jiménez-Moreno, M; Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Nevado, J J Berzas

    2018-01-01

    The fate of mercury (Hg) in the soil-earthworm system is still far from being fully understood, especially regarding recurrent and challenging questions about the importance of the reactivity of exogenous Hg species. Thus, to predict the potential effect of Hg inputs in terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to evaluate separately the reactivity of the endogenous and exogenous Hg species and, for this purpose, the use of enriched stable isotope tracers is a promising tool. In the present work, earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were exposed to historically Hg contaminated soils from the Almadén mining district, Spain. The soils were either non-spiked, which contain only endogenous or native Hg naturally occurring in the soil, or spiked with isotopically enriched inorganic Hg ( 199 IHg), representing exogenous or spiked Hg apart from the native one. The differential reactivity of endogenous and exogenous Hg in the soil conditioned the processes of methylation, mobilization, and assimilation of inorganic Hg by earthworms. Both endogenous and exogenous Hg species also behave distinctly regarding their bioaccumulation in earthworms, as suggested by the bioaccumulation factors, being the endogenous methylmercury (MeHg) the species more readily bioaccumulated by earthworms and in a higher extent. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the potential of enriched stable isotopes to study the effects of fresh Hg inputs in soil-earthworm systems. The findings of this work can be taken as a case study on the dynamics of Hg species in complex terrestrial systems and open a new door for future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pesticide seed dressings can affect the activity of various soil organisms and reduce decomposition of plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; König, Nina; Tiefenbacher, Alexandra; Muraoka, Yoko; Querner, Pascal; Ratzenböck, Andreas; Bonkowski, Michael; Koller, Robert

    2016-08-17

    Seed dressing with pesticides is widely used to protect crop seeds from pest insects and fungal diseases. While there is mounting evidence that especially neonicotinoid seed dressings detrimentally affect insect pollinators, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on soil biota. We hypothesized that soil organisms would be particularly susceptible to pesticide seed dressings as they get in direct contact with these chemicals. Using microcosms with field soil we investigated, whether seeds treated either with neonicotinoid insecticides or fungicides influence the activity and interaction of earthworms, collembola, protozoa and microorganisms. The full-factorial design consisted of the factor Seed dressing (control vs. insecticide vs. fungicide), Earthworm (no earthworms vs. addition Lumbricus terrestris L.) and collembola (no collembola vs. addition Sinella curviseta Brook). We used commercially available wheat seed material (Triticum aesticum L. cf. Lukullus) at a recommended seeding density of 367 m(-2). Seed dressings (particularly fungicides) increased collembola surface activity, increased the number of protozoa and reduced plant decomposition rate but did not affect earthworm activity. Seed dressings had no influence on wheat growth. Earthworms interactively affected the influence of seed dressings on collembola activity, whereas collembola increased earthworm surface activity but reduced soil basal respiration. Earthworms also decreased wheat growth, reduced soil basal respiration and microbial biomass but increased soil water content and electrical conductivity. The reported non-target effects of seed dressings and their interactions with soil organisms are remarkable because they were observed after a one-time application of only 18 pesticide treated seeds per experimental pot. Because of the increasing use of seed dressing in agriculture and the fundamental role of soil organisms in agroecosystems these ecological interactions should

  13. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  14. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermenters in earthworm gut content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm gut provides ideal in situ conditions for ingested heterotrophic soil bacteria capable of anaerobiosis. High amounts of mucus- and plant-derived saccharides such as glucose are abundant in the earthworm alimentary canal, and high concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) and organic acids in the alimentary canal are indicative of ongoing fermentations. Thus, the central objective of this study was to resolve potential links between fermentations and active fermenters in gut content of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing, with [(13)C]glucose as a model substrate. Glucose consumption in anoxic gut content microcosms was rapid and yielded soluble organic compounds (acetate, butyrate, formate, lactate, propionate, succinate and ethanol) and gases (carbon dioxide and H(2)), products indicative of diverse fermentations in the alimentary canal. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were users of glucose-derived carbon. On the basis of the detection of 16S rRNA, active phyla in gut contents included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia, taxa common to soils. On the basis of a 16S rRNA gene similarity cutoff of 87.5%, 82 families were detected, 17 of which were novel family-level groups. These findings (a) show the large diversity of soil taxa that might be active during gut passage, (b) show that Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fermentative subsets of these taxa) are selectively stimulated by glucose and might therefore be capable of consuming mucus- and plant-derived saccharides during gut passage and (c) indicate that ingested obligate anaerobes and facultative aerobes from soil can concomitantly metabolize the same source of carbon.

  15. Application of Synchrotron Methods to Assess the Uptake of Roadway-Derived Zn by Earthworms in an Urban Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev,S.; Landa, E.; Szlavecz, K.; Casey, R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of human activities on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial environments is nowhere more apparent than in urban landscapes. Trace metals, collected on roadways and transported by storm water, may contaminate soils and sediments associated with storm water management systems. These systems will accumulate metals and associated sediments may reach toxic levels for terrestrial and aquatic organisms using the retention basins as habitat. The fate and bioavailability of these metals once deposited is poorly understood. Here we present results from a dose-response experiment that examines the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence methods ({mu}-SXRF) to test the hypothesis that earthworms will bio-accumulate Zn in a roadway-dust contaminated soil system providing a potential pathway for roadway contaminants into the terrestrial food web, and that the storage and distribution of Zn will change with the level of exposure reflecting the micronutrient status of Zn. Lumbricus friendi was exposed to Zn-bearing roadway dust amended to a field soil at six target concentrations ranging from background levels (45 mg/kg Zn) to highly contaminated levels (460 mg/kg Zn) designed to replicate the observed concentration range in storm-water retention basin soils. After a 30 day exposure, Zn storage in the intestine is positively correlated with dose and there is a change in the pattern of Zn storage within the intestine. This relationship is only clear when {mu}-SXRF Zn map data is coupled with a traditional toxicological approach, and suggests that the gut concentration in L. friendi is a better indicator of Zn bioaccumulation and storage than the total body burden.

  16. Miscellaneous earthworm types in the Natural History Museum, London (Annelida: Oligochaet a: Megadrilacea: Eudrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Octochaetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blakemore

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently restored Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 neotype (NHM Register No. 1973.1.1 is described in greater detail. A lectotype is designated for Amynthas morrisi (Beddard, 1892 and an informal A. morrisi clonal speciescomplex is proposed. Once combined under A. gracilis (Kinberg, 1867, the nominal taxon is revised since its restoration and representation of A. morrisi species-group sensu Sims & Easton (1972, now unwieldy with forty or so members. A restricted A. morrisi sensu stricto is proposed with re-evaluation of its erstwhile synonyms based on types. Limited DNA COI barcode comparisons are appended. A lectotype for A. barbadensis (Beddard, 1892 now becomes a junior synonym of Amynthas gracilis removing it from nomenclatural consideration. Lectotypes of contenders, A. mauritianus (Beddard, 1892 itself closer to A. gracilis, and A. insulae (Beddard, 1896 appear separate from A. morrisi. Next, A. pallidus (Michaelsen, 1892 is restored with retention of some of its synonyms, but A. loveridgei (Gates, 1968 syntype is maintained. An exotic species from Queensland, Australia is a new member of A. morrisi species-group described as Amynthas talus sp. nov. Taxonomic ‘housekeeping’ of Queensland taxa requires re-allocation of Terrisswalkerius leichhardti Jamieson, McDonald et James, 2013 to prior Perionychella Michaelsen, 1907. New Zealand’s possibly extinct Tokea? orthostichon (Schmarda, 1861 and imperfectly known Anisochaeta antarctica (Baird, 1871 are revised in new combinations with slight revision of the genus Tokea Benham, 1904. Samples labelled as Hamburg syntypes of Japanese Metaphire hilgendorfi (Michaelsen, 1892 are briefly noted as are various other megadriles, such as divers pheretimoids and lumbricids, some also on loan, in the Museum’s collection.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of the giant haemoglobin from Glossoscolex paulistus at 3.2 Å

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachega, J. F. R.; Bleicher, L.; Horjales, E. R.; Santiago, P. S.; Garratt, R. C.; Tabak, M.

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction data to 3.2 Å from crystals of the 3.6 MDa erythrocruorin from a Brazilian earthworm represent the highest resolution reported to date for similar complexes. An unambiguous molecular replacement solution shows the particle to belong to the type I class. Glossoscolex paulistus is a free-living earthworm encountered in south-east Brazil. Its oxygen transport requirements are undertaken by a giant extracellular haemoglobin, or erythrocruorin (HbGp), which has an approximate molecular mass of 3.6 MDa and, by analogy with its homologue from Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt), is believed to be composed of a total of 180 polypeptide chains. In the present work the full 3.6 MDa particle in its cyanomet state was purified and crystallized using sodium citrate or PEG8000 as precipitant. The crystals contain one-quarter of the full particle in the asymmetric unit of the I222 cell and have parameters of a = 270.8 Å, b = 320.3 Å and c = 332.4 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 3.15 Å using synchrotron radiation on beamline X29A at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and represent the highest resolution data described to date for similar erythrocruorins. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using a search model corresponding to one-twelfth of its homologue from HbLt. This revealed that HbGp belongs to the type I class of erythrocruorins and provided an interpretable initial electron density map in which many features including the haem groups and disulfide bonds could be identified

  18. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  19. Conventional tillage decreases the abundance and biomass of earthworms and alters their community structure in a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, María Jesús I; Schmidt, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    The adoption of less intensive soil cultivation practices is expected to increase earthworm populations and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. However, conflicting results have been reported on the effects of tillage intensity on earthworm populations, attributed in narrative reviews to site-dependent differences in soil properties, climatic conditions and agronomic operations (e.g. fertilization, residue management and chemical crop protection). We present a quantitative review based on a global meta-analysis, using paired observations from 165 publications performed over 65 years (1950-2016) across 40 countries on five continents, to elucidate this long-standing unresolved issue. Results showed that disturbing the soil less (e.g. no-tillage and conservation agriculture [CA]) significantly increased earthworm abundance (mean increase of 137% and 127%, respectively) and biomass (196% and 101%, respectively) compared to when the soil is inverted by conventional ploughing. Earthworm population responses were more pronounced when the soil had been under reduced tillage (RT) for a long time (>10 years), in warm temperate zones with fine-textured soils, and in soils with higher clay contents (>35%) and low pH (earthworm population responses to RT. Additional meta-analyses confirmed that epigeic and, more importantly, the bigger-sized anecic earthworms were the most sensitive ecological groups to conventional tillage. In particular, the deep burrower Lumbricus terrestris exhibited the strongest positive response to RT, increasing in abundance by 124% more than the overall mean of all 13 species analysed individually. The restoration of these two important ecological groups of earthworms and their burrowing, feeding and casting activities under various forms of RT will ensure the provision of ecosystem functions such as soil structure maintenance and nutrient cycling by "nature's plough." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Levin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia (defined here as <1.42 ml L−1; 62.5 μM; 2 mg L−1, approx. 30% oxygen saturation develops seasonally in many estuaries, fjords, and along open coasts as a result of natural upwelling or from anthropogenic eutrophication induced by riverine nutrient inputs. Permanent hypoxia occurs naturally in some isolated seas and marine basins as well as in open slope oxygen minimum zones. Responses of benthos to hypoxia depend on the duration, predictability, and intensity of oxygen depletion and on whether H2S is formed. Under suboxic conditions, large mats of filamentous sulfide oxidizing bacteria cover the seabed and consume sulfide. They are hypothesized to provide a detoxified microhabitat for eukaryotic benthic communities. Calcareous foraminiferans and nematodes are particularly tolerant of low oxygen concentrations and may attain high densities and dominance, often in association with microbial mats. When oxygen is sufficient to support metazoans, small, soft-bodied invertebrates (typically annelids, often with short generation times and elaborate branchial structures, predominate. Large taxa are more sensitive than small taxa to hypoxia. Crustaceans and echinoderms are typically more sensitive to hypoxia, with lower oxygen thresholds, than annelids, sipunculans, molluscs and cnidarians. Mobile fish and shellfish will migrate away from low-oxygen areas. Within a species, early life stages may be more subject to oxygen stress than older life stages.

    Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally linked to eutrophication, and occurs adjacent to watersheds with large populations or agricultural activities. Many occurrences are seasonal, within estuaries, fjords or enclosed seas of the North Atlantic and the NW Pacific Oceans. Benthic faunal responses, elicited at oxygen levels below

  1. Importance of seagrass-mangrove continuum as feeding grounds for juvenile pink ear emperor Lethrinus lentjan in Setiu Lagoon, Malaysia: Stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Quang; Tanaka, Kentaro; Hii, Yii Siang; Sano, Yuji; Nanjo, Kusuto; Shirai, Kotaro

    2018-05-01

    The commercially important pink ear emperor fish, Lethrinus lentjan, often occurs as a juvenile in subtropical and tropical interlinked mangrove and seagrass ecosystems, but little is known about its feeding habits and habitat use. Here, we used gut contents and stable isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) ratios to determine temporal changes in food sources and foraging habits of juvenile and sub-adult fish collected in mangrove forests and seagrass beds in the Setiu Lagoon. Gut content examination identified the main food sources as crustaceans, gastropods, bivalves, and annelids. Stable isotope analysis of food sources showed marked differences between the mangroves (δ13C = -26.8 ± 2.0‰; δ15N = 4.3 ± 1.7‰) and the seagrasses (mean ± S.D. δ13C = -20.5 ± 5.5‰; δ15N = 5.8 ± 1.2‰). The isotopic composition of L. lentjan revealed that it mainly utilized seagrass-based food sources. Rainfall and the semi-diurnal tidal regimes may affect the foraging habitats of fish in the lagoon. A significant depletion of 13C related to body size was observed, suggesting that mangroves provided some benefits to sub-adult fish. In contrast, trophic position increased with fish growth, although this increase was negligible. A stable isotope mixing model confirmed that the seagrass bed constituted the main carbon source for the fish, but with an increasing contribution of mangrove prey, such as sesarmid crabs, related to fish growth. This study provided novel information on seasonal variations in feeding areas and flexible habitat use in L. lentjan in the Setiu Lagoon, which will help optimize management strategies for sustainable use and wildlife conservation.

  2. The Snakes of Osun Grove: a World Heritage Site in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola I Akinpelu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Osun Grove, Osogbo, Nigeria, is a protected area covered by riparian forest, dry high forest and derived savanna. In January and June 2000 a total of 25 of snake species were recorded with Afronatrix anoscopus and Calabaria reinhardti being prominent. The incidence of Philothamnus semivariegatus, a savanna species, may be the result of the invasive savanna produced by farming activities around the grove. Nine species, led by A. anoscopus, accounted for 69.7 % of the snake community. The dominant species are either aquatic or terrestrial, with the exception of Boiga blandingi and Dendroaspis viridis that can be both arboreal and terrestrial, and C. reinhardti that is fossorial. Arboreal species mostly preyed on tree frogs and birds including eggs and nestlings, and the aquatic forms preyed on fish and frogs. Mammals, reptiles and toads constitute the prey items of terrestrial species while fossorial species feed on annelids, molluscs, arachnids, myriapods, hexapods, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 717-721. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se registró un total de 25 especies de serpientes en la arboleda de Osun en Osogbo, Nigeria, incluyendo prominentemente dos especies consideradas escasas en el sudoeste de Nigeria: Afronatrix anoscopus y Calabaria reinhardti; Philothamnus semivariegatus, una especie de la sabana, es común posiblemente debido a las actividades de cultivo fuera de la reserva. Junto con las ocho especies abundantes siguientes, A. anoscopus, representó el 69.7 % de la comunidad de serpientes. Las especies dominantes son acuáticas o terrestres, con excepción de Boiga blandingi y Dendroaspis viridis que son arborícolas y terrestres, y C. reinhardti que es fosorial. Las especies fosoriales tienen mayor diversidad trófica.

  3. Acute toxicity, toxicokinetics, and tissue target of lead and uranium in the clam Corbicula fluminea and the worm Eisenia fetida: comparison with the fish Brachydanio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrot, F; Narbonne, J F; Ville, P; Saint Denis, M; Ribera, D

    1999-02-01

    The general objective of our work was to propose new reference material for chemical toxicity testing and new sentinel organisms for environmental quality survey programs (freshwater or soils). We also wanted to provide basic toxicological data on the environmental effects of uranium. Thus, we conducted a comparative study to establish the acute toxicity and toxicokinetics of lead (Pb) and uranium (U) to the bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea and the terrestrial annelid Eisenia fetida andrei and to compare these findings with those of the well-known teleost fish Brachydanio rerio. We then measured the concentration of these metals in various tissues of the clam and the worm after two periods of exposure (4 and 11 days) to identify the affinities of these tissues for Pb and U. Our results have shown that Pb and U are very toxic to Eisenia and relatively nontoxic to Corbicula. By comparison, Pb was relatively nontoxic and U appeared to be very toxic to the fish. The toxicokinetic studies indicated that the three species are able to accumulate Pb and U, the rate and level of accumulation depending both on the species and the metal. We also found that fish and clams depurate the two metals. Data collected for the worm were conflicting: Pb was not depurated whereas tissue concentrations of U declined after the eighth day of exposure. Our study has also shown that the tissue distribution of Pb in the mollusc and in the earthworm differs significantly from that of U, both after 4 and 11 days exposure. In conclusion, these three species showed potential as bioindicators of environmental contamination by metals. Indeed, they could be used in conjunction to test different compartments of an ecosystem: worms for soils, fish for the water column, and clams for the water/sediment interface.

  4. Development and embryonic pattern of body wall musculature in the crassiclitellate Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Clitellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Bergter, Annette; Purschke, Günter; Paululat, Achim

    2009-09-01

    During early development of Eisenia andrei (Crassiclitellata), a loose arrangement of primary circular and longitudinal muscles encloses the whole embryo. Circular muscles differentiate in an anterior-posterior progression creating a segmental pattern. Primary circular muscles emerge at the segmental borders while later in development the central part of each segment is filled with circular strands. Longitudinal muscles develop in an anterio-posterior manner as well, but by continuous lengthening. Muscle growth is not restricted by segmental boundaries. The development begins with one pair of prominent longitudinal muscles differentiating ventrally along the right and the left germ band. These first muscles provide a guiding structure for the parallel organization of the afterwards differentiating longitudinal musculature. Additional primary longitudinal muscles emerge and form, together with the initial circular muscles, the primary muscle grid of the embryo. During the following development, secondary longitudinal muscle strands develop and integrate themselves into the primary grid. Meanwhile the primary circular muscles split into thin strands in a ventral to dorsal progression. Thus, a fine structured mesh of circular and longitudinal muscles is generated. Compared to other "Oligochaeta", embryonic muscle patterns in E. andrei are adapted to the development of a lecithotrophic embryo. Nevertheless, two general characteristics of annelid muscle development become evident. The first is the segmental development of the circular muscles from a set of initial muscles situated at the segment borders. Second, there is a continuous development of primary longitudinal muscles starting at the anterior pole. At least one pair of main primary longitudinal strands is characteristic in Annelida. The space between all primary strands is filled with secondary longitudinal strands during further development. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

  6. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: I. Bioluminescence at 500-1000 m depth in the Bahamian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Sönke; Frank, Tamara M; Haddock, Steven H D; Widder, Edith A; Messing, Charles G

    2012-10-01

    Bioluminescence is common and well studied in mesopelagic species. However, the extent of bioluminescence in benthic sites of similar depths is far less studied, although the relatively large eyes of benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods at bathyal depths suggest the presence of significant biogenic light. Using the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, we collected numerous species of cnidarians, echinoderms, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges, as well as one annelid from three sites in the northern Bahamas (500-1000 m depth). Using mechanical and chemical stimulation, we tested the collected species for light emission, and photographed and measured the spectra of the emitted light. In addition, in situ intensified video and still photos were taken of different benthic habitats. Surprisingly, bioluminescence in benthic animals at these sites was far less common than in mesopelagic animals from similar depths, with less than 20% of the collected species emitting light. Bioluminescent taxa comprised two species of anemone (Actinaria), a new genus and species of flabellate Parazoanthidae (formerly Gerardia sp.) (Zoanthidea), three sea pens (Pennatulacea), three bamboo corals (Alcyonacea), the chrysogorgiid coral Chrysogorgia desbonni (Alcyonacea), the caridean shrimp Parapandalus sp. and Heterocarpus ensifer (Decapoda), two holothuroids (Elasipodida and Aspidochirota) and the ophiuroid Ophiochiton ternispinus (Ophiurida). Except for the ophiuroid and the two shrimp, which emitted blue light (peak wavelengths 470 and 455 nm), all the species produced greener light than that measured in most mesopelagic taxa, with the emissions of the pennatulaceans being strongly shifted towards longer wavelengths. In situ observations suggested that bioluminescence associated with these sites was due primarily to light emitted by bioluminescent planktonic species as they struck filter feeders that extended into the water column.

  7. Lophotrochozoan neuroanatomy: An analysis of the brain and nervous system of Lineus viridis(Nemertea using different staining techniques

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    Loesel Rudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The now thriving field of neurophylogeny that links the morphology of the nervous system to early evolutionary events relies heavily on detailed descriptions of the neuronal architecture of taxa under scrutiny. While recent accounts on the nervous system of a number of animal clades such as arthropods, annelids, and molluscs are abundant, in depth studies of the neuroanatomy of nemerteans are still wanting. In this study, we used different staining techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal the architecture of the nervous system of Lineus viridis with high anatomical resolution. Results In L. viridis, the peripheral nervous system comprises four distinct but interconnected nerve plexus. The central nervous system consists of a pair of medullary cords and a brain. The brain surrounds the proboscis and is subdivided into four voluminous lobes and a ring of commissural tracts. The brain is well developed and contains thousands of neurons. It does not reveal compartmentalized neuropils found in other animal groups with elaborate cerebral ganglia. Conclusions The detailed analysis of the nemertean nervous system presented in this study does not support any hypothesis on the phylogenetic position of Nemertea within Lophotrochozoa. Neuroanatomical characters that are described here are either common in other lophotrochozoan taxa or are seemingly restricted to nemerteans. Since detailed descriptions of the nervous system of adults in other nemertean species have not been available so far, this study may serve as a basis for future studies that might add data to the unsettled question of the nemertean ground pattern and the position of this taxon within the phylogenetic tree.

  8. Shared gene structures and clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons within the metazoan muscle myosin heavy chain genes.

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    Martin Kollmar

    Full Text Available Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs. The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both have independently been developed

  9. Children's perceptions of rainforest biodiversity: which animals have the lion's share of environmental awareness?

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    Jake L Snaddon

    Full Text Available Globally, natural ecosystems are being lost to agricultural land at an unprecedented rate. This land-use often results in significant reductions in abundance and diversity of the flora and fauna as well as alterations in their composition. Despite this, there is little public perception of which taxa are most important in terms of their total biomass, biodiversity or the ecosystem services they perform. Such awareness is important for conservation, as without appreciation of their value and conservation status, species are unlikely to receive adequate conservation protection. We investigated children's perceptions of rainforest biodiversity by asking primary-age children, visiting the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge to draw their ideal rainforest. By recording the frequency at which children drew different climatic, structural, vegetative and faunal components of the rainforest, we were able to quantify children's understanding of a rainforest environment. We investigated children's perceptions of rainforest biodiversity by comparing the relative numbers of the taxa drawn with the actual contributions made by these taxa to total rainforest biomass and global biodiversity. We found that children have a sophisticated view of the rainforest, incorporating many habitat features and a diverse range of animals. However, some taxa were over-represented (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles and others under-represented (particularly insects and annelids relative to their contribution to total biomass and species richness. Scientists and naturalists must continue to emphasise the diversity and functional importance of lesser-known taxa through public communication and outdoor events to aid invertebrate conservation and to ensure that future generations are inspired to become naturalists themselves.

  10. Diet reconstruction and resource partitioning of a Caribbean marine mesopredator using stable isotope bayesian modelling.

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    Alexander Tilley

    Full Text Available The trophic ecology of epibenthic mesopredators is not well understood in terms of prey partitioning with sympatric elasmobranchs or their effects on prey communities, yet the importance of omnivores in community trophic dynamics is being increasingly realised. This study used stable isotope analysis of (15N and (13C to model diet composition of wild southern stingrays Dasyatis americana and compare trophic niche space to nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum and Caribbean reef sharks Carcharhinus perezi on Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models were used to investigate prey choice as well as viable Diet-Tissue Discrimination Factors for use with stingrays. Stingray δ(15N values showed the greatest variation and a positive relationship with size, with an isotopic niche width approximately twice that of sympatric species. Shark species exhibited comparatively restricted δ(15N values and greater δ(13C variation, with very little overlap of stingray niche space. Mixing models suggest bivalves and annelids are proportionally more important prey in the stingray diet than crustaceans and teleosts at Glovers Reef, in contrast to all but one published diet study using stomach contents from other locations. Incorporating gut contents information from the literature, we suggest diet-tissue discrimination factors values of Δ(15N ≈ 2.7‰ and Δ(13C ≈ 0.9‰ for stingrays in the absence of validation experiments. The wide trophic niche and lower trophic level exhibited by stingrays compared to sympatric sharks supports their putative role as important base stabilisers in benthic systems, with the potential to absorb trophic perturbations through numerous opportunistic prey interactions.

  11. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960 (Annelida, Serpulidae in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

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    Catalina Arteaga-Florez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  12. Aspects on gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis of two deep-sea polychaetes from Eastern Atlantic cold seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudron, S. M.; Hourdez, S.; Olu, K.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated two gonochoristic species of annelid polychaetes (one siboglinid and one polynoid) from cold seeps that ranged from 525 m to 3300 m in depth (Guiness, Worm Hole and Regab pockmarks) on the Gabon and Congo continental margins (Gulf of Guinea). Different aspects of gametogenesis (oocyte diameter, presence of ovisac, spermatozoa shape, and fecundity), fertilization (in vitro fertilization experiments: IVF) and embryogenesis (cleavage rate) were studied. The sampled siboglinid was a new species of Lamellibrachia and the second population of this genus in the Eastern Atlantic. Mean oocyte diameter was about 100 μm and fully-grown primary oocytes were stored in an ovisac, as in other studied siboglinids. The presence of a single spermatozoon was noted within an oviduct, indicating a possible internal fertilization. The rate of cell division at 6 °C was one cleavage every 20 h. Embryos developed normally to the blastula stage after 5-d post-fertilization at atmospheric pressure suggesting some pressure tolerance. The second polychaete was the scale-worm Branchipolynoe cf. seepensis that lives in commensalism in the mantle cavity of Bathymodiolus aff. boomerang. Anatomical reproductive features were similar to those described in B. seepensis from hydrothermal vents on Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with lecithotrophic larval development and continuous gametogenesis. We performed the first IVF carried out on gametes for any deep-sea polynoid species. Fertilization and development occurred but a number of abnormalities were observed demonstrating a limitation to embryogenesis at atmospheric pressure. The rate of cell division was three times faster at 8 °C than at 4 °C with a maximum stage of 8-cells reached after 72 h post-fertilization. We surprisingly observed some oocytes from the negative seawater control during IVF experiments cleaved to the 2-cell stage, demonstrating the possible occurrence of internal fertilization prior to IVF experiment or the accidental

  13. Benthic Community Structure and Sediment Geochemical Properties at Hydrocarbon Seeps Along the Continental Slope of the Western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, A. W.; Bourque, J. R.; Brooke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon seeps support distinct benthic communities capable of utilizing reduced chemical compounds for nutrition. In recent years, methane seepage has been increasingly documented along the continental slope of the U.S. Atlantic margin. In 2012 and 2013, two seeps were investigated in this region: a shallow site near Baltimore Canyon (410-450 m) and a deep site near Norfolk Canyon (1600 m). Both sites contain extensive mussel beds and microbial mats. Sediment cores and grab samples were collected to quantify the abundance, diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna (>300 mm) in relationship to the associated sediment environment (organic carbon and nitrogen, stable isotopes 13C and 15N, grain size, and depth) of mussel beds, mats, and slope habitats. Macrofaunal densities in microbial mats were four times greater than those present in mussel beds and slope sediments. Macrofaunal communities were distinctly different both between depths and among habitat types. Specifically, microbial mat sediments were dominated by the annelid families Dorvilleidae, Capitellidae, and Tubificidae, while mussel habitats had higher proportions of crustaceans. Diversity was lower in Baltimore microbial mat habitats, but higher in mussel and slope sediments compared to Norfolk seep habitats found at deeper depths. Multivariate statistical analysis identified sediment carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios and 13C values as important variables for structuring the macrofaunal communities. Higher C:N ratios were present within microbial mat habitats and depleted 13C values occurred in sediments adjacent to mussel beds found in Norfolk Canyon seeps. Differences in the quality and source of organic matter present in the seep habitats are known to be important drivers in macrofaunal community structure and associated food webs. The multivariate analysis provides new insight into the relative importance of the seep sediment quality in supporting dense macrofaunal communities compared

  14. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Gillian A; Johansen, Mathew P; Carpenter, Julia G; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife concentration ratios for 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR wo-media ) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRs wo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CR wo-media values originate. When compared, the Australian and non-Australian CRs are significantly different for some wildlife categories (e.g. grasses, mammals) but not others (e.g. shrubs). Where differences exist, the Australian values were higher, suggesting that site-, or region-specific CRs wo-media should be used in detailed Australian assessments. However, in screening studies, use of the international mean values in the Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD) appears to be appropriate, as long as the values used encompass the Australian 95th percentile values. Gaps in the Australian datasets include a lack of marine parameters, and no CR data are available for freshwater phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, insect larvae or amphibians; for terrestrial environments, there are no data for amphibians, annelids, ferns, fungi or lichens & bryophytes. The new Australian specific parameters will aide in evaluating remediation plans and ongoing operations at mining and waste sites within Australia. They have also substantially bolstered the body of U- and Th-series CR wo-media data for use internationally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiversity of Macrofauna Associated with Sponges across Ecological Gradients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kandler, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Between 33 and 91 percent of marine species are currently undescribed, with the majority occurring in tropical and offshore environments. Sponges act as important microhabitats and promote biodiversity by harboring a wide variety of macrofauna and microbiota, but little is known about the relationships between the sponges and their symbionts. This study uses DNA barcoding to examine the macrofaunal communities associated with sponges of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea, a drastically understudied ecosystem with high biodiversity and endemism. In total, 185 epifaunal and infaunal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distinguished from the 1399 successfully-sequenced macrofauna individuals from 129 sponges representing seven sponge species, one of which (Stylissa carteri) was intensively studied. A significant difference was found in the macrofaunal community composition of Stylissa carteri along a cross-shelf gradient using relative OTU abundance (Bray-Curtis diversity index). The abundance of S. carteri also follows a cross-shelf gradient, increasing with proximity to shore. The difference in macrofaunal communities of several species of sponges at one location was found to be significant as well, using OTU presence (binary Jaccard diversity index). Four of the seven sponge species collected were dominated by a single annelid OTU, each unique to one sponge species. A fifth was dominated by four arthropod OTUs, all species-specific as well. Region-based diversity differences may be attributed to environmental factors such as reef morphology, water flow, and sedimentation, whereas species-based differences may be caused by sponge morphology, microbial abundances, and chemical defenses. As climate change and ocean acidification continue to modify coral reef ecosystems, understanding the ecology of sponges and their role as microhabitats may become more important. This thesis also includes a supplemental document in the form of a spreadsheet showing the number of

  16. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  17. The potential of paleozoic nonmarine trace fossils for paleoecological interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, C.G.; Archer, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Many Late Paleozoic environments have been interpreted as marine because of the co-occurrence of supposedly exclusively marine trace fossils. Beginning in the Late Ordovician, however, nonmarine trace-fossil diversity increased throughout the Paleozoic. This diversification of nonmarine organisms and nonmarine trace fossils was especially prevalent in Devonian and later times. Diversification of freshwater organisms is indicated by the large number of freshwater fish, arthropods, annelids and molluscs that had developed by the Carboniferous. In addition to diverse freshwater assemblages, entirely terrestrial vertebrate and invertebrate ecosystems had developed by the Devonian. This rapid diversification of freshwater and terrestrial organisms is inherently linked to development and diversification of land plants and subsequent shedding of large quantities of organic detritus in nonmarine and marginal-marine areas. Nearshore marine organisms and their larvae that are able to tolerate relatively short periods of lowered salinities will follow salt-water wedges inland during times of reduced freshwater discharge. Similarly, amphidromous marine organisms will migrate periodically inland into nonmarine environments. Undoubtedly, both of these processes were active in the Paleozoic. However, both processes are restricted to stream/distributary channels, interdistributary bays, or estuaries. Therefore, the presence of diverse trace-fossil assemblages in association with floodplain deposits is interpreted to reflect true nonmarine adaptation and diversity. Conversely, diverse trace-fossil assemblages in association with stream/distributary channel deposits, interdistributary-bay deposits, or estuarine deposits may reflect migration of salt-water wedges inland, or migration of marine organisms into freshwater environments (amphidromy), or both. ?? 1989.

  18. Distribution and behaviour of transuranic elements in the physical and biological compartments of the Channel French shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Miramand, P.; Camus, H.; Grenaut, C.

    1983-09-01

    Biological samples (algae, suspension-feeder mollusks living in contact with sediments, annelids), sediments and sea water were taken at 5 stations along the Channel shore from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm levels. In Northern Cotentin, radioactivity levels for 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am, were respectively about 1-10, 0.5-7 and 1-19 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples; 24-90, 11-28 and 24-31 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments; 1-7, 5-40 and 2-15 fCi l -1 in sea water. For stations far from the La Hague outlet (Seine river and Mont Saint-Michel bays) levels for 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were respectively about 0.3-5, 0.1-2 and 0.2-3 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples; 30-80, 5-26 and 14-40 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments and 1-3, 3-4 and 3-8 fCi l -1 in sea water. Labelling of industrial wastes was demonstrated by the values of the 238 Pu/ 239 + 240 Pu ratios. The evolution of plutonium isotopes in sea water and in the other environmental compartments and the bioavailability of americium are discussed. Sediment-animal transfers are quantified and their processes specified. An assessment of plutonium and americium hazards from ingestion of mollusks shows that the ingested activity represents 1.1 10 -4 only of the ALI (ingestion) recommended by ICRP for members of the public [fr

  19. Colorful seashells: Identification of haem pathway genes associated with the synthesis of porphyrin shell color in marine snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T; Lockyer, Anne E; Dyal, Patricia; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Churchill, Celia K C; Speiser, Daniel I

    2017-12-01

    Very little is known about the evolution of molluskan shell pigments, although Mollusca is a highly diverse, species rich, and ecologically important group of animals comprised of many brightly colored taxa. The marine snail genus Clanculus was chosen as an exceptional model for studying the evolution of shell color, first, because in Clanculus margaritarius and Clanculus pharaonius both shell and foot share similar colors and patterns; and second, because recent studies have identified the pigments, trochopuniceus (pink-red), and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown), both comprised of uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III, in both shell and colored foot tissue of these species. These unusual characteristics provide a rare opportunity to identify the genes involved in color production because, as the same pigments occur in the shell and colored foot tissue, the same color-related genes may be simultaneously expressed in both mantle (which produces the shell) and foot tissue. In this study, the transcriptomes of these two Clanculus species along with a third species, Calliostoma zizyphinum , were sequenced to identify genes associated with the synthesis of porphyrins. Calliostoma zizyphinum was selected as a negative control as trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found to occur in this species. As expected, genes necessary for the production of uroporphyrin I and III were found in all three species, but gene expression levels were consistent with synthesis of uroporphyrins in mantle and colored foot tissue only in Clanculus . These results are relevant not only to understanding the evolution of shell pigmentation in Clanculus but also to understanding the evolution of color in other species with uroporphyrin pigmentation, including (mainly marine) mollusks soft tissues and shells, annelid and platyhelminth worms, and some bird feathers.

  20. Comparative Effects of Ingested PVC Micro Particles With and Without Adsorbed Benzo(apyrene vs. Spiked Sediments on the Cellular and Sub Cellular Processes of the Benthic Organism Hediste diversicolor

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    Alessio Gomiero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic micro litter represents an emerging contaminant as well as a multiple stress agent in aquatic environments. Microplastics are found even in the remote areas of the world. Together with their occurrence in all environmental compartments, there is a growing concern about their potential to adsorb pollutants co-occurring in the environment. At present, little is known about this source of exposure for aquatic organisms in the benthic environment. Exposure conditions were set up to mimick the contribution of microplastics through different exposure routes. Potential biological effects resulting from these exposures were investigated in the model organism Hediste diversicolor, an annelid worm. Cellular effects including alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment changes, mitochondrial activity, oxyradical production and onset of genotoxicity were assessed in coelomocytes while temporary and permanent effects of oxidative stress were also performed at tissue level. In this study polyvinylchloride (PVC microparticles were shown to adsorb benzo(apyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. The elevated bioavailability of the model pollutant after ingestion induced a clear pattern of biological responses. Toxicity mainly targeted impairment of cellular functioning and genotoxicity in H. diversicolor coelomocytes, while permanent effects of oxidative stress were observed at tissue level. Coelomocytes responded fast and with a higher degree of sensitivity to the adverse stimuli. The results showed that microplastic particles in sediments may play a significant role as vectors for organic pollutants. The highest adverse responses were observed in those H. diversicolor exposed to sediments spiked with PVC particles pre-incubated with B[a]P when compared against sediments spiked with B[a]P and plastic microparticles separately.