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Sample records for ankle-brachial pressure index

  1. [Measurement ofthe ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisić, Sandra Marinović

    2012-10-01

    Measurement of the ankle-brachial pressure index, also known as ankle-brachial index or ankle-arm index is a ratio of the ankle blood pressure and brachial blood pressure. It is easy to perform and allows for diagnosis and further definition of the severity of peripheral arterial disease with sensitivity 90% and specificity 98%. The test is not appropriate for mild arterial changes as in case of comorbidity. Its further objectives are to identify patients at an higher risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:23193828

  2. Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI): An update for practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qaisi, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King2, Sam Kaddoura11Imperial College, London, UK; 2Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, UKAbstract: Peripheral vascular disease affects some 12%–14% of the general population, and the majority of people with the disease are asymptomatic. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) test is widely used by a diverse range of practitioners (in the community and hospital setting) in order to screen asymptomatic patients, diagnose patients with clinic...

  3. Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI: An update for practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Al-Qaisi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King2, Sam Kaddoura11Imperial College, London, UK; 2Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, UKAbstract: Peripheral vascular disease affects some 12%–14% of the general population, and the majority of people with the disease are asymptomatic. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI test is widely used by a diverse range of practitioners (in the community and hospital setting in order to screen asymptomatic patients, diagnose patients with clinical symptoms, and to monitor patients who have had radiological or surgical intervention. This paper explains the theoretical basis of the ABPI test, as well as the relevance of the common modifications of the test. It explores the background to the quoted normal ranges for the ABPI test. It reviews the large body of literature that has developed on the association between ABPI and cardiovascular risk, as well as ABPI as a predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, highlighting the evidence that can inform practice. The review looks critically at the limitations of the ABPI test, providing practitioners with an evidence-based update on the importance and challenges of standardizing ABPI methodology. This paper highlights the influence of the key technical aspects of the ABPI test that all practitioners need to consider in order to be able to make more reliable and informed management decisions based on ABPI findings.Keywords: ankle, brachial, pressure, index, ABPI, update

  4. Resting Doppler ankle brachial pressure index measurement: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihlangu, Dorcus; Bliss, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is under-diagnosed in primary and acute settings. The use of Doppler ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) is effective in diagnosing PVD , aid in determining aetiology of leg ulcers and is cost efficient in reducing the effects of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The aim of this literature review was to review practitioners' experience in using Doppler ABPI, different skills used to measure ABPI and to examine practitioners' confidence in ABPI. The findings identified variation in method for Doppler measurement: including position of the artery, arm measurement, resting period and type of equipment for measuring blood pressure, variations in practitioners' training and experience have demonstrated variability in ABPI results. Although limited in number, the studies have demonstrated knowledge gap, and the need for training among health professionals. PMID:22875182

  5. Ankle brachial pressure index of normal, healthy, younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblo, Jane; Coull, Alison

    Doppler ultrasound and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) calculations are used in the assessment of lower limb vascularity, specifically to determine arterial deficiency. ABPI is important as it is used as an indicator when deciding management options for the treatment of leg ulceration. This study aimed to investigate the range of ABPI measurement, using Doppler ultrasound and sphygmomanometry in 36 young healthy adults aged 18-55 years. The findings show a mean ABPI in the left leg of 1.19 and a mean ABPI of 1.17 in the right leg which, while within the normal range, are consistently in the upper range and significantly higher than the acknowledged 'normal' midpoint of 1.0. It would appear that younger people will have ABPIs within the upper aspect of the normal range and well above the established norm of 1.0. PMID:24151719

  6. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  7. [Ankle-brachial pressure index as a predictor of future cardiovascular outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalusić, Iva; Valpotić, Ina; Marković, Asja Stipić

    2012-10-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is very common in the general population and it is mostly of atherosclerotic origin. About 50%-75% of patients are asymptomatic. Many studies have shown the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) to be a simple and reliable test with high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (98%) in the diagnosis of hemodynamically relevant stenosis of an arterial segment and also in detection of asymptomatic patients. The values of ABPI ABPI > 1.40 is associated with arterial calcification and wall stiffening. This test is highly specific (92.7%) in predicting future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk and could provide a tool for more focused prevention strategies. PMID:23814974

  8. A correlation study between ankle brachial pressure index and the severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyakorn, Thoetphum; Kuanprasert, Sarun; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that there was a correlation between low ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and the presence of the coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have investigated the correlation between ABPI and the severity of CAD by using a scoring system. The authors aimed to investigate this correlation by using ABPI and CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography (CAG). A total of 213 consecutive patients awaiting CAG in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from July 2009 to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. The ABPI was measured before CAG. The severity of CAD was graded on CAG by using SYNTAX scores. The authors found a significantly negative correlation between ABPI and SYNTAX scores (correlation coefficient = -.172, P = .01). The authors concluded that ABPI appeared to correlate negatively with the severity of CAD in the Thai population. PMID:22561522

  9. Atypical leg symptoms: does routine measurement of the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) in primary care benefit patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Oesterling, Christine; Kalia, Amun; Chetcuti, Thomas; Walker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background : Managing patients with atypical leg symptoms in primary care can be problematic. Determining the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) may be readily performed to help diagnose peripheral arterial disease, but is often omitted where signs and symptoms are unclear. Question : Does routine measurement of ABPI in patients with atypical leg symptoms aid management increase satisfaction and safely reduce hospital referral? Methodology : Patients with atypical leg symptoms but ...

  10. The Relationship among Pulse Wave Velocity, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index and Heart Rate Variability in Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jeong-Hwan; Kong, Mihee

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) are non-invasive tools to measure atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Heart rate variability (HRV) has proven to be a non-invasive powerful tool in the investigation of the autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among PWV, ABI, and HRV parameters in adult males. Methods The study was carried out with 117 males who visited a health care center from ...

  11. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Miguel Ayzin Rosoky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a suitable predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has already been investigated. Its relevance as a predictor of the appearance and worsening of coronary arterial disease is also well known. However, the same is not true regarding peripheral arterial disease. METHOD: Eighty-five consecutive patients with an ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI < 0.9 and the presence of either intermittent claudication or critical lower leg ischemia were included. The plasma level of IgG autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein was evaluated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were categorized into quartiles according to the ankle-brachial pressure index (a marker of peripheral arterial disease severity, and significant differences were investigated with the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the quartiles for this population (p = 0.33. No correlation was found between the ankle-brachial pressure index and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in subjects with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is not a good predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity.

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index: Any Association?

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    Asso Fraidoon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies tried to assess the influence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA on peripheral arteries and found an association with later development of intimal thickness and atherosclerosis. We tried to uncover the prevalence of subclinical peripheral vascular disease (PVD in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Materials and Methods: This case control-study had involved sixty patients who were diagnosed with rheumatoid. Forty age, gender, and body mass index-matched healthy individuals were selected as the control group. All participants were non-smokers, non-hypertensive, and non-diabetics and had a normal lipid profile. The presence of peripheral arterial disease was evaluated by measuring the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI at the level of each artery of the lower limbs. An index of ≤0.9 was considered abnormal and a possible reflection of an underlying PVD. Results: Twenty three (38% out of the 60 RA patients demonstrated one or more abnormal arteries while only 3 (7.5% out of the 40 control individuals had abnormal results (p-value <0.001. A statistically significant association was noted between abnormal ABPI and RA disease severity as indicated by C-reactive protein (P-value <0.003, ESR (P-value <0.002, and positive serum rheumatoid factor (P-value <0.01. However, age, gender, and disease duration showed no link with abnormal ABPI. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of abnormal ABPI, and hence a possible higher incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis, was found in patients with RA. Further analytic studies are required to assess the relationship of RA with PVD.

  13. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  14. Genetic determinants of the ankle-brachial index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassel, Christina L; Lamina, Claudia; Nambi, Vijay;

    2012-01-01

    Candidate gene association studies for peripheral artery disease (PAD), including subclinical disease assessed with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), have been limited by the modest number of genes examined. We conducted a two stage meta-analysis of ∼50,000 SNPs across ∼2100 candidate genes to iden...

  15. Ankle-brachial pressure index estimated by laser Doppler in patients suffering from peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Tomasz; Kuczmik, Waclaw B; Kazibudzki, Marek; Nowakowski, Przemyslaw; Orawczyk, Tomasz; Glanowski, Michal; Kucharzewski, Marcin; Ziaja, Damion; Szaniewski, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2007-07-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements are widely used for evaluating the functional state of circulation in the lower limbs. However, there is some evidence that the value of ABI does not accurately reflect the degree of walking impairment in symptomatic patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD). We investigated the diagnostic value of ABI estimated by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (IT) for evaluating limb ischemia. We wanted to know whether laser Doppler could be more sensitive than the Doppler method in predicting walking capacity in patients with stable intermittent claudication. We analyzed a group of 30 patients with intermittent claudication (Fontain II, II/III) who were admitted for reconstructive treatment. There were 21 men and 9 women, aged 46-74 (mean 61) years. All patients underwent the treadmill test, and pain-free walking distances were measured. In each patient, we measured ABI using the two different methods: Doppler ultrasound device (ABI-Doppler) and laser Doppler (ABI-laser Doppler). The claudication distances were 25-200 m (mean 73 +/- 50.2 m). ABI-Doppler was 0.2-0.7 (0.582 +/- 0.195). ABI-laser Doppler measurements were 0.581 (+/-0.218). A correlation was found between ABI-Doppler and claudication distance (r = 0.46, P = 0.009). Also, ABI-laser Doppler values significantly correlated with claudication distances (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). The ABI evaluated by laser Doppler correlated well with claudication distances in patients with PAOD. Comparison of Doppler and laser Doppler measurements used for determining ABI showed that both methods have similar predictive power for walking capacity; however, higher correlation was observed between claudication distances and ABI measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. ABI-laser Doppler measurements are easier, are quicker, and seem to be better suited for noncompliant patients. Further investigation should be undertaken to determine whether laser Doppler is superior to the Doppler

  16. Ankle-brachial blood pressure index predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis.

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    Yoshitomi, Ryota; Nakayama, Masaru; Ura, Yoriko; Kuma, Kazuyoshi; Nishimoto, Hitomi; Fukui, Akiko; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-12-01

    The ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABPI) has been recognized to have a predictive value for cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in general or dialysis populations. However, the associations between ABPI and those outcomes have not been fully investigated in predialysis patients. The present study aimed to clarify the relationships between ABPI and both CV events and mortality in Japanese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not on dialysis. In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 320 patients with CKD stages 3-5 who were not on dialysis. At baseline, ABPI was examined and a low ABPI was defined as ABPI were risk factors for CV events. It was demonstrated that age, a history of cerebrovascular disease and low ABPI were determined as independent risk factors for CV mortality. In addition, age, body mass index and low ABPI were independently associated with all-cause mortality. In patients with CKD, low ABPI during the predialysis period is independently associated with poor survival and CV events, suggesting the usefulness of measuring ABPI for predicting CV events and patient survival in CKD. PMID:25056682

  17. Transcutaneous oximetry but not arterial toe blood pressure or ankle-brachial index is related to macular thickness in patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers

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    Per Katzman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes related vascular complications of the lower extremity could be classified as micro- and macrovascular. Ankle-brachial index (ABI and toe blood pressure (TBP measurements evaluate macro-circulation, whereas transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO2 is considered to be a composite measure of vascular function, thereby also reflecting microcirculation. Microvascular disease in the eye involves abnormal capillary permeability and possibly thereby increased macular thickness. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate if microvascular disease in the eye was related to measures of foot ischemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with diabetes and chronic full-thickness foot ulcers were included. Peripheral ischemia was diagnosed using TcPO2, TBP and ABI. Macular thickness was measured with optical coherence tomography technique. Results: Based on TcPO2, TBP and ABI measurements 14, 13 and 13 patients, respectively, were classified as ischemic. Patients with ischemic TcPO2 levels at the dorsum of the foot had significantly higher macular thicknesses. This was not the case in patients with ischemic TBP or ABI levels. Conclusion: TcPO2, unlike TBP and ABI, seems to be a clinically relevant measure of peripheral microvascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus and may, if low, indicate an increased risk of macular edema. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 81-85

  18. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ≥15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Badaruddoza Doza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  20. Ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein, and central augmentation index to identify individuals with severe atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Sillesen, Henrik; Prescott, Eva;

    2006-01-01

    We examined the ability of ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein and central augmentation index to identify individuals in the general population with severe atherosclerosis, diagnosed as those with ischaemic cardiovascular disease.......We examined the ability of ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein and central augmentation index to identify individuals in the general population with severe atherosclerosis, diagnosed as those with ischaemic cardiovascular disease....

  1. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  2. Ankle-Brachial Index: Nurses Strategy To Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Identification

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    Daniela Luisa Maggi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events is associated with high prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, with assessment through the ankle-brachial index (ABI. This study aimed to demonstrate that the ABI and the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire are tools to be used by nurses in prevention and/or treatment of CVD (cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional study was carried out with patients from a cardiovascular clinic. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was applied and the ABI was measured with the formula (ABI= Blood Pressure Ankle/Blood Pressure Brachial. A total of 115 patients were included, most were females (57.4%, aged 60.6 ± 12.5 years. The most prevalent risk factors were hypertension (64.3%, physical inactivity (48.7% and family history (58.3%. The study showed that abnormal ABI was frequently found and 42.6% of the patients with abnormal ABI showed intermittent claudication. The method to evaluate the ABI associated to the Edinburg Claudication Questionnaire, can be easily used by nurses in the clinical evaluation of asymptomatic and symptomatic CVD patients.

  3. Association of Polymorphisms in NOS3 with the Ankle-Brachial Index in Hypertensive Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Greene, M. Todd; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chu, Jian; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L.R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the association of 14 polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) with ankle brachial index (ABI) in non-Hispanic white hypertensives belonging to hypertensive sibships. Subjects (n = 659, mean age 61±9 y, 54% women) underwent measurement of ABI using a standard protocol, and the lowest of 4 ABI values was used in the analyses. Non-synonymous SNPs with a minor allele frequency > 0.02 and tag SNPs selected based on a measure of linkage disequilibrium (r2)...

  4. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

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    Jonathan R Weir-McCall

    Full Text Available Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA.50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR. The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated.The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045, however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01 with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012, which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45, while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005.ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is

  5. ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX AND LDL-RECEPTOR GENE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SEVERE HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

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    L. Vladimirova-Kitova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue with the different levels of ankle-brachial index, as screening for LDL-receptor defective gene in newly detected asymptomatic severe hypercholesterolemia is less studied, but quite interesting. There have not been any studies on ankle-brachial index in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia in Bulgaria. Aim: To examine the difference between patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, who are carriers and non-carriers of LDL-R defective gene, with respect to their structural (ankle-brachial index characteristics of arterial wall. Methods and materials: 60 patients with documented severe hypercholesterolemia >7.5 mmol/l satisfying the Simon-Broom criteria for clinically established and probable Familial Hypercholesterolemia were studied. All of the patients had a negative stress echocardiography and not known coronary artery disease. The laboratory used was the Clinical Laboratory at the Medical University Plovdiv. The total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured with enzyme-colorimetry and cholesterol in high density lipoprotein and cholesterol in low density lipoprotein with direct automatic analyses. Apolipoproteins were calculated by immunoturbodimetric method. The biochemical analyzer Konelab 60i was used in all the measurements. Results: According to whether there were or were not molecular defects, patients were assigned to two groups: carriers (11 patients, 18 % and non-carriers (49 patients, 82 %.There was a statistically significant difference (p 0.05. We found no statistically significant difference between non-carriers and carriers with respect to body mass index (25.30 ± 0.40 vs 24.63 ± 0.45, respectively, t = 0.50; p > 0.05. There was not a statistically significant difference in levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol between carries (p>0.05. The cholesterol x years. score was significantly higher in the carries (440.36 ± 0.25 mmol-y/L, than in the non-carries (390.30 ± 0

  6. 三氧包裹治疗糖尿病足的踝肱压及趾肱压指数研究分析%Study on the ankle brachial pressure and toe brachial pressure index in the treatment of diabetic foot with three oxygen therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴华; 邓跃生; 张遵峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the ankle brachial pressure and toe brachial pressure index in the treatment of diabetic foot with three oxygen therapy. Methods From our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015, 100 cases of diabetic foot patients,all patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was treated with conventional therapy, and the observation group was treated with three oxygen therapy,50 patients in each group, the clinical efficacy of the two groups of patients and the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and toe brachial pressure index (TBPI) were statistically analyzed and compared. Results The ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and toe brachial pressure index (TBPI) were performed in the control group treated by conventional therapy,there was no significant difference in the treatment before and after treatment, no significant difference (P > 0.05);the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and toe brachial pressure index (TBPI) were used in the observation group treated with three oxygen therapy,before and after treatment were compared, the treatment was significantly better than before treatment, the difference was obvious, the curative effect was significant, and it was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Three oxygen therapy for diabetic foot, the effect is remarkable, for promoting the early recovery of diabetic foot patients, save the limb, improve the quality of life of patients with positive significance, it is worth widely used in clinical practice.%目的:对三氧包裹治疗糖尿病足的踝肱压及趾肱压指数进行研究分析。方法选取本院2014年9月~2015年9月收治的糖尿病足患者100例,按照随机数字表法将所有患者分为两组,分别为采用常规治疗方法进行治疗的对照组,和采用三氧包裹治疗的观察组,每组50例患者,对两组患者的临床疗效及踝肱压指数(ABPI)及趾肱压指数(TBPI)进行统计学分析和比较。结

  7. The Relationship Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Number of Involved Coronaries in Patients with Stable Angina

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tavasoli, Aliakbar; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vascular disease which can involve peripheral and/or cardiac vessels. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible link between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and coronary vessel involvement in patients with stable angina. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 on 120 individuals who were hospitalized in Chamran Heart Center and underwent coronary angiography. A questionnaire was completed to obtain demographic informatio...

  8. Avaliação da circulação arterial pela medida do índice tornozelo/braço em doentes de úlcera venosa crônica Evaluation of arterial circulation using the ankle/brachial blood pressure index in patients with chronic venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Noronha Bergonse

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As úlceras venosas dos membros inferiores são freqüentes e têm grande impacto na qualidade de vida e produtividade do indivíduo, além de alto custo para a saúde pública. OBJETIVOS: Detecção de alterações arteriais em pacientes de úlcera venosa crônica dos membros inferiores com emprego de método não invasivo, de modo a discriminar aqueles em que estaria contra-indicado o tratamento compressivo. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 40 doentes portadores de úlcera venosa crônica, com o intuito de se avaliar a presença de doença arterial periférica pela medida do índice tornozelo/braço por doppler-ultra-som. RESULTADOS: O índice tornozelo/braço mostrou-se alterado (menor que 1 em 9/22 (40,9% doentes com úlcera venosa crônica e hipertensão arterial concomitante, e apenas em 1/13 (7,7% doentes de úlcera venosa crônica sem hipertensão arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Doentes de úlcera venosa crônica e hipertensão arterial concomitantes devem ser submetidos rotineiramente à medida do índice tornozelo/braço para detecção de possível insuficiência arterial periférica associada.BACKGROUND: Chronic venous ulcers are extremely frequent and have a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity of individuals, in addition to high costs to public health. OBJECTIVES: Detection of arterial circulation alterations in chronic venous ulcer legs using a non-invasive method to discriminate patients not indicated to have compressive treatment. METHODS: Forty patients with chronic venous ulcers were investigated for the presence of peripheral arterial disease with measurement of the ankle/brachial index by Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: The resting ankle/brachial pressure index was abnormal (lower than 1 in 9/22 (40.9% patients with concomitant chronic venous ulcers and hypertension and only in one out of 13 (7.7% patients with chronic venous ulcers and no hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with concomitant chronic venous

  9. Índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes hemodialíticos Ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Torres Uchôa

    2012-12-01

    . The ankle-brachial index was calculated for each artery of the lower limb. It was considered normal ankle-brachial index from 0.9 to 1.3. RESULTS: We diagnosed peripheral arterial disease and poorly compressible arteries in 26.9 and 30.8% of hemodialysis patients and in 33 and 22.7% of the Control Group. In hemodialysis patients, we found abnormal ankle-brachial index in 75% of symptomatic patients (p=0.005, in 67.3% of men and 31% of women (p<0.005, in 78.6% of the elderly, 34.8% of young adults (p<0.01, and 76.9% of diabetics (p<0.005 versus nondiabetic. These patients had a higher prevalence of severe peripheral arterial disease than the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal ankle-brachial index was very prevalent in the groups studied; however, hemodialysis patients had more severe changes, when compared to the Control Group. Diabetes mellitus, male gender, and advanced age were important risk factors for abnormal ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients. The ankle-brachial index was a good method of screening for the studied changes; therefore, we suggest the routine use in the management of hemodialysis patients.

  10. Training to measure ankle-brachial index at the undergraduate level: can it be successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Papadaki, Evaggelia; Vamvakerou, Vasileia; Lytras, Dimitrios; Tsiokani, Afroditi; Tsolakaki, Olympia; Chlimpou, Dimitra; Papanas, Nikolaos

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effectiveness of teaching ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement to medical students. ABI was estimated in 28 lower limbs by an experienced vascular surgeon. After a 2-week training course, 5 fourth-year students repeated the estimations and their results were compared with that of the trainer's. There was no difference in ABI values between trainees and trainer for subjects with mild-to-moderate peripheral arterial disease (PAD; 0.77 ± 0.22 vs 0.77 ± 0.19, respectively, P = .95). In the 4 normal limbs, ABI was 1.37 ± 0.12 and 1.16 ± 0.11, as measured by the trainer and the trainees, respectively (P < .00001). In subjects with severe PAD, trainees tended to overestimate ABI (P = .0002) in the beginning of the educational process, but this was no longer the case at a later stage of the training with no difference in ABI values between the 2 examiner groups (P = .09). In conclusion, training of medical students in ABI measurement can be helpful toward accurate estimation of PAD and merits further practice. PMID:23667100

  11. Association of polymorphisms in NOS3 with the ankle-brachial index in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Greene, M Todd; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chu, Jian; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the association of 14 polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) with ankle brachial index (ABI) in non-Hispanic white hypertensives belonging to hypertensive sibships. Subjects (n=659, mean age 61+/-9 years, 54% women) underwent measurement of ABI using a standard protocol, and the lowest of 4 ABI values was used in the analyses. Non-synonymous SNPs with a minor allele frequency >0.02 and tag SNPs selected based on a measure of linkage disequilibrium (r(2)) were genotyped. We reduced the chance of false positives by testing for replication, randomly selecting 1 hypertensive sib from each sibship to create Subset 1 (n=330) and Subset 2 (n=329). Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations of single NOS3 polymorphisms and haplotypes with ABI after adjustment for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes). Two specific SNPs in significant LD with each other (rs891512 and rs1808593) were significantly associated with ABI in both subsets. Based on a sliding window approach with a window size of 2, estimated haplotypes from 2 SNP pairs (rs2070744-rs3918226 and rs1808593-rs7830) were also significantly associated with ABI in both subsets. In conclusion, specific NOS3 SNPs and haplotypes were associated with inter-individual variation in ABI, a non-invasive marker of peripheral arterial disease, in replicate subsets of hypertensive subjects. These findings motivate further investigation of the role of NOS3 variants in determining susceptibility to peripheral arterial disease.

  12. Ankle-Brachial Index and cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation. The ARAPACIS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violi, Francesco; Davì, Giovanni; Proietti, Marco; Pastori, Daniele; Hiatt, William R; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Perticone, Francesco; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Farcomeni, Alessio; Vestri, Anna Rita; Lip, Gregory Y H; Basili, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients are at high risk for thrombotic and vascular events related to their cardiac arrhythmia and underlying systemic atherosclerosis. Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool in evaluating systemic atherosclerosis, useful in predicting cardiovascular events in general population; no data are available in AF patients. ARAPACIS is a prospective multicentre observational study performed by the Italian Society of Internal Medicine, analysing association between low ABI (≤ 0.90) and vascular events in NVAF out- or in-patients, enrolled in 136 Italian centres. A total of 2,027 non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients aged > 18 years from both sexes followed for a median time of 34.7 (interquartile range: 22.0-36.0) months, yielding a total of 4,614 patient-years of observation. Mean age was 73 ± 10 years old with 55 % male patients. A total of 176 patients (8.7 %) experienced a vascular event, with a cumulative incidence of 3.81 %/patient-year. ABI≤ 0.90 was more prevalent in patients with a vascular event compared with patients free of vascular events (32.2 vs 20.2 %, p5.083; p=0.001). This latter association was also confirmed after excluding patients with previous MI (HR: 2.901, 95 % CI: 1.408-5.990, p=0.004). No association was observed between low ABI and stroke/transient ischaemic attack (p=0.91). In conclusion, low ABI is useful to predict MI and vascular death in NVAF patients and may independently facilitate cardiovascular risk assessment in NVAF patients.

  13. Risk factors and ankle brachial indexes in cerebral infarction combined with peripheral arterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huihua Liu; Jun Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ankle brachial index(ABI)is widely involved in researches and clinical application of peripheral vascular injury of patients with diabetes (DM);however ,the application in cerebral infarction(CI)is rare.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible risk factor of cerebral infarction plus peripheral arterial disease(PAD),compare metabolic characteristics of patients who having CI plus PAD or only having CI,and understand the significance of ABI on screening and diagnosing CI plus PAD of lower limb.DESIGN: Contrast observation based on CI patients.SETTING: Deparment of Neurology,Nanxishan Hospital of Guangxi Zhang Autonomous Region.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 124 CI patients were selected from Department of Neurology.Nanxishan Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from July 2005 to April 2006,including 72 males and 52 females aged from 45 to 88 years.All patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebrovascular disease established by National Academic Conference of Cerebrovascular Diseases in 1995 and determined as cerebral infarction with MRI or CT examination.All patients provided informed consent.There were 46 cases(37.2%)with CI plus PAD and 78 cases(62.8%)only with CI.METHODS: Blood pressure of bilateral ankles and upper extremities was measured at plain clinostatism with DINAMAP blood pressure monitor(GE Company).The ratio between average systolic pressure of lateral ankle and average systolic pressure of both upper extremities was regarded as ABI.The normal ABI was equal to or more than 0.9.If ABI<0.9 occurred at one side,patients were diagnosed as PAD.On the second morning after hospitalization,blood was collected to measure fasting blood glucose(FBG),2-hour postprandial blood glucose(PBG2h),glycosylated hemoglobin(HbAlc),triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C).Among them,blood glucose.lipid and other biochemical markers were measured with enzyme chemistry assay

  14. Perceptions of the ankle brachial index amongst podiatrists registered in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pamela Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle brachial index (ABI is an objective diagnostic tool that is widely used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. Despite its usefulness, it is evident within the literature that many practitioners forgo using this screening tool due to limiting factors such as time. There is also no recommended technique for ABI measurement. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of the use of ABI clinically among Western Australian podiatrists. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey which evaluated the perceptions of the ABI amongst registered podiatrists in Western Australia. The study sample was obtained from the register of podiatrists listed with the Podiatrists Registration Board of Western Australia. Podiatrists were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire. Chi-square tests were performed to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between use of the ABI and podiatrists’ profile which included: sector of employment; geographical location; and length of time in practice. Results There is a statistically significant relationship (p=0.004 between podiatrists’ profile and the use of ABI, with higher usage in the tertiary hospital setting than in private practice. Length of time spent in practice had no significant impact on ABI usage (p=0.098. Time constraints and lack of equipment were key limiting factors to performing the ABI, and no preferred technique was indicated. Conclusion Western Australian podiatrists agree that the ABI is a useful tool for lower limb vascular assessment, however, various factors influence uptake in the clinical setting. This study suggests that a podiatrists’ profile has a significant influence on the use of the ABI, which may be attributed to different patient types across the various settings. The influence of time spent in practice on ABI usage may be attributed to differences in clinical

  15. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murabito, Joanne M.; White, Charles C.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sun, Yan V.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Nambi, Vijay; Lamina, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Coassin, Stefan; Bis, Joshua C.; Broer, Linda; Crawford, Dana C.; Franceschini, Nora; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Haun, Margot; Holewijn, Suzanne; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kiechl, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Montasser, May E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Rudock, Megan E.; Senft, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; van der Harst, Pim; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wood, Andrew R.; Wassel, Christina L.; Absher, Devin M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Arnold, Alice; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbalic, Maja; Boban, Mladen; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Couper, David J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dehghan, Abbas; den Heijer, Martin; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Ding, Jingzhong; Doerr, Marcus; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fraedrich, Gustav; Gibson, Quince; Goodloe, Robert; Gunjaca, Grgo; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Kieback, Arne; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Lackner, Karl J.; Li, Xiaohui; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lohman, Kurt; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Mohler, Emile R.; Mudnic, Ivana; Mueller, Thomas; Navis, Gerjan; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Olin, Jeffrey W.; O'Connell, Jeff; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Petersmann, Astrid; Polasek, Ozren; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rantner, Barbara; Rice, Ken; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Stadler, Marietta; Summerer, Monika; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Wild, Sarah H.; Wild, Philipp S.; Willeit, Johann; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Campbell, Harry; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cooke, John P.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Herrington, David; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Anna; Muenzel, Thomas; Newman, Anne B.; Oostra, Ben A.; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Snieder, Harold; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Voelker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Liu, Yongmei; Hayward, Caroline; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Ziegler, Andreas; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kronenberg, Florian; Dorr, M.; Munzel, T.; Volker, U.

    2012-01-01

    Background-Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts.

  16. Ankle-brachial index as indicator of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities and renal artery stenosis CT/DS angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim is to validate the measurements of ankle -brachial index (ABI), as part of routine examination algorithm in conducting CTA/DSA of the extremities in patients suffering from PAD. Correlations between ABI values and renal artery stenosis. The present study includes 200 patients (138 men and 62 women, aged between 60 and 75 years). 130 of them were examined by a computer- tomography angiography - 95 men and 32 women. 70 patients were examined by digital subtraction angiography - 50 men and 20 women. Measurements of ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed on all patients by measuring the systolic blood pressure on both brachial arteries and determine the peak pressure in both aa. dorsalis pedis. Statistical data processing. There are no patients in the study with ABI values above 0.7 that have established renal artery stenosis. All patients with severe atherosclerotic changes have values of the ABI below 0.7, and those with the most severe changes below 0.5. This fully corresponds to global data showing that values below 0.9 ABI show mild engagement, below 0.7 average, and below 0.5 severe involvement. According to the results of this survey sensitivity of ABI for renal arteries below 0.7 equals 100% and its specificity = 67.5%. For values of ABI below 0.5: Sensitivity =100%; Specificity = 83.85%. By determining ABI values both symptomatic and asymptomatic form of a PAD can be diagnosed. the method is fast, non-invasive, inexpensive and applicable everywhere. No special preparation of the patient is needed. The method can be used not only to assess the degree of commitment of the vessels of the lower limbs, but also as an indicator for the state of renal arteries in those patients

  17. Association of the Cardioankle Vascular Index and Ankle-Brachial Index with Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Gohda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are (1 to compare the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI, ankle-brachial index (ABI, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT between HD patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D or prevalence of cardiovascular (CV disease and (2 also to evaluate the relationship of these indices with CA-IMT in these patients according to ABI levels. This study consisted of 132 HD patients with T2D and the same number of patients without T2D. The patients with diabetes or prevalence of CV disease had significantly higher CA-IMT and lower ABI values than those without diabetes or prevalence of CV disease, respectively. Although diabetic patients had higher CAVI than those without diabetes, CAVI did not differ between patients with or without prevalence of CV disease. In univariate analysis, CA-IMT was more strongly correlated with ABI than CAVI. However, the opposite was true in patients with an ABI value of more than 0.95. Both indices were significantly correlated with CA-IMT although ABI was a powerful determinant than CAVI. It appears that both indices are associated with CA-IMT in HD patients, especially with an ABI value of more than 0.95.

  18. El índice tobillo-brazo como predictor de mortalidad vascular Ankle brachial index as indicator for vascular mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Arévalo Manso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El índice tobillo-brazo (ITB es un parámetro que muestra la relación entre la tensión arterial sistólica de la extremidad superior y la extremidad inferior. Este indicador, ampliamente estudiado y presente en la bibliografía, se ha mostrado como excelente predictor de mortalidad tanto vascular como por causas generales cuando presenta valores fuera del rango establecido como normal (0,90-1,30. En dichas situaciones la utilidad del ITB reside en detectar precozmente la existencia de enfermedad arterial periférica (EAP durante su fase asintomática y servir como parámetro de corte para el establecimiento de medidas preventivas más contundentes antes de que el daño vascular existente se haga sintomático. Para el profesional de enfermería este parámetro constituye una potente herramienta de valoración, objetiva y cuantitativa, que permite seleccionar aquellos pacientes en los que es preciso potenciar al máximo los cuidados preventivos.The ankle-brachial index (ABI is a simple test showing the relationship between systolic blood pressure in the upper and the lower limbs. This parameter widely studied in literature has been reported as an excellent vascular and all-cause death predictor when exceeds the normal values (0.90-1.30. In such situation the ABI can early detect periferic arterial disease (PAD in asymptomatic phase and be a cutoff parameter to consider more aggressive preventive interventions before the existing vascular damage becomes symptomatic. This test is a powerful assessment tool for nurses to select those patients needing to maximize preventive cares. The nursing staff training for ABI measurement, the provision of suitable equipment by the Health Institutions and the development of reliable and more simple measurement methods are key issues that would facilitate its routinely and systematically use to improve the preventive strategy in vascular diseases.

  19. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murabito, Joanne M; White, Charles C; Kavousi, Maryam;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based coh......BACKGROUND: -Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population...... additive genetic models. Study-specific data were combined using fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses. There were a total of 41,692 participants of European ancestry (~60% women, mean ABI 1.02 to 1.19), including 3,409 participants with PAD and with GWAS data available. In the discovery...

  20. Association of Ankle-Brachial Index and Aortic Arch Calcification with Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Shih, Ming-Chen Paul; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery occlusive disease and vascular calcification are highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients, however the association of the combination of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing HD is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of ABI and AoAC is independently associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients. The median follow-up period was 5.7 years. Calcification of the aortic arch was assessed by chest X-ray. Forty-seven patients died including 24 due to cardiovascular causes during the follow-up period. The study patients were stratified into four groups according to an ABI 4 or ≤4 according to receiver operating characteristic curve. Those with an ABI  4 (vs. ABI ≥ 0.95 and AoAC score ≤ 4) were associated with overall (hazard ratio [HR], 4.913; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.932 to 12.497; p = 0.001) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.531; 95% CI, 1.070 to 11.652; p = 0.038) mortality in multivariable analysis. The combination of a low ABI and increased AoAC was associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing HD. PMID:27608939

  1. Ankle-Brachial Index Is a Powerful Predictor of Renal Outcome and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-An Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle-brachial index (ABI is an accurate tool to diagnose peripheral arterial disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ABI is also a good predictor of renal outcome and cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We enrolled 436 patients with stage 3–5 CKD who had not been undergoing dialysis. Patients were stratified into two groups according to the ABI value with a cut point of 0.9. The composite renal outcome, including doubling of serum creatinine level and commencement of dialysis, and the incidence of cardiovascular events were compared between the two groups. After a median follow-up period of 13 months, the lower ABI group had a poorer composite renal outcome (OR=2.719, P=0.015 and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events (OR=3.260, P=0.001. Our findings illustrated that ABI is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events and renal outcome in patients with CKD.

  2. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  3. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Gon Je

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in quality of life (QoL is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ and ankle-brachial index (ABI, and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001. PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001. As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001. ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15. Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  4. Clinical applications of transcutaneous oxygen pressure combined with ankle-brachial index in Type 2 diabetics with peripheral arterial disease%经皮氧分压联合踝臂指数在2型糖尿病合并下肢动脉病变中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦娟; 李素梅; 汝燕; 王芳; 王菊梅; 荆春艳; 王东; 董林; 任安

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较经皮氧分压(transcutaneous oxygen pressure,TcPO2)与踝臂指数(ankle--brachial index,ABI)在2型糖尿病(Type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)合并下肢动脉病变(peripheral arterial disease,PAD)中的应用价值,探讨TcPO2与ABI在PAD诊断及治疗中的意义.方法:368例T2DM患者(男性188例,女性180例),采用多通道经皮氧分压检测仪测定足背TcPO2.依据TcPO2水平分为无受损组、轻度受损组、重度受损组.同时,采用彩色双功能超声诊断仪测定踝动脉压/肱动脉压比值即ABI,依据ABI水平分为无病变组(ABI≥0.9)和PAD组(ABI <0.9).结果:PAD组与无病变组相比,年龄增大,病程延长,合并冠心痛者增多,空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、尿肌酐均升高,TcPO2减低(p<0.05).相关分析显示:年龄、病程、空腹血糖、三酰甘油、糖化血红蛋白Alc、体质量指数与TcPO2水平呈负相关(P<0.05),高密度脂蛋白、ABI与TcPO2水平呈正相关(P<0.05);TcPO2与ABI检测结果的符合率为93.9%,敏感度为90.2%,特异度约为95.2%.结论:随着年龄、病程的延长以及尿白蛋白肌酐比值的增加,糖尿病患者PAD程度越严重,PAD程度随着ABI和TcPO2减低而加重;TcPO2联合ABI对早期诊断糖尿病PAD具有较高的临床价值.%Objective To compare the clinical application in diagnosis and therapy for Type 2 diabetes patients with perpheral arterial diease ( PAD) between transcutaneous oxygen pressure ( TcPO2 ) determination and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Methods A total of 368 Type 2 diabetics (188 males and 180 females) were recruited into the study. TcPO2 of the acrotarsium was detected by multiple-channel transcutaneous tissue oxygen tension survey meter. According to die TcPO2 level, diese patients were divided into a non-injury group, a mild injury group, and a severe injury group. Moreover,the ankle artery pressure and brachial artery pressure were determined by Doppler color ultrasonography

  5. Ankle-Brachial Index as a Prognostic Factor and Screening Tool in Coronary Artery Disease: Does it Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Nadia-Hatmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the lack of consistency in the literature regarding the reliability of the ankle-brachial index (ABI as a valid screening tool and an independent risk indicator of cardiovascular events and mortality, we compared it with angiography as a reference standard test.Methods: This case-control study, conducted between 2010 and 2011 in Tehran Heart Center, recruited 362 angiographically confirmed cases of coronary artery disease (CAD and 337 controls. A standard protocol was used to measure the ABI and different CAD risk factors.Results: A low ABI had specificity of 99.7%, positive predictive value of 95.8%, negative predictive value of 49.8%, sensitivity of 64%, likelihood ratio of 24.07, and odds ratio (OR of 22.79 (95%CI: 3.06-69.76. The role of the associated risk factors was evaluated with OR (95%CI, with the variables including gender 3.15 (2.30-4.30, cigarette smoking 2.72 (1.86-3.99, family history 1.72 (1.17-2.51, diabetes 1.66 (1.15-2.4, and dyslipidemia 1.38 (1.02-1.88. In a multivariate model, the following variables remained statistically significantly correlated with CAD [OR (95%CI]: ABI 13.86 (1.78-17.62; gender 3.69 (2.43- 5.58; family history of CAD 2.18 (1.41-3.37; smoking 1.69 (1.08-2.64; age 1.04 (1.02-1.06.Conclusions: A low ABI had specificity of 99.7%; however, because of its low sensitivity (64%, we should consider CAD risk factors associated with a low ABI in order to use it as a first-line screening test.

  6. The risk factors for abnormal ankle-brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients and clinical predictive value for diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张净

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic foot (DF) and the normal,high and low ankle brachial index (ABI) in type 2 diabetic patients and explore the risk factor for abnormal ABI and the clinical predictive value for DF.Methods A total of 2 681 type 2 diabetic patients who visited our hospital between January,2007and December,2009 were enrolled in the study.The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by logistic regression analysis.Results ABI was normal (0.9-<1.3) in 2 362 cases

  7. PREVALENCE OF PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN TYPE - 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE USING ANKLE - BRACHIAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basawaraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Peripheral vascular disease is one of the macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to examine the peripheral arterial disease (PAD complicating type 2 diabetes, in particular the influence of PAD on the risk of coronary artery disease. METHODS: Randomly selected T2DM pat ients admitted to Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital were included. In addition to a detailed history and physical examination, anthropometric parameters like body mass index was measured. Relevant laboratory investigations were performed. Modified Rose questionnaire was used to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD. Colour Doppler examination of the arteries of the lower limbs was performed. A cut off of 7% were significant predictors of PAD. Older age, higher HbA1c levels microalbuminuria and deranged lipid profile were found to be significant predictors of CAD. CONCLUSION: We found evidence of PAD in 16% of type 2 dia betics using ankle brachial index. The prevalence of CAD was higher in patients with PAD. So there is definite and strong correlation between PAD and CAD. Thus the early diagnosis of PAD should alert the clinician to a high probability of underlying CAD. KEYWORDS: D i abetes mellitus; Coronary artery disease; Peripheral artery disease; Ankle - brachial index.

  8. The reliability of the ankle-brachial index in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catellier Diane J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low ankle-brachial index (ABI is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and death. Regression model parameter estimates may be biased due to measurement error when the ABI is included as a predictor in regression models, but may be corrected if the reliability coefficient, R, is known. The R for the ABI computed from DINAMAP™ readings of the ankle and brachial SBP is not known. Methods A total of 119 participants in both the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS had repeat ABIs taken within 1 year, using a common protocol, automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices, and technician pool. Results The estimated reliability coefficient for the ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.77 and for the brachial SBP was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.83. The reliability for the ABI based on single ankle and arm SBPs was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.70 and the reliability of the ABI computed as the ratio of the average of two ankle SBPs to two arm SBPs was estimated from simulated data as 0.70. Conclusion These reliability estimates may be used to obtain unbiased parameter estimates if the ABI is included in regression models. Our results suggest the need for repeated measures of the ABI in clinical practice, preferably within visits and also over time, before diagnosing peripheral artery disease and before making therapeutic decisions.

  9. Combination of pulse volume recording (PVR) parameters and ankle-brachial index (ABI) improves diagnostic accuracy for peripheral arterial disease compared with ABI alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo; Iwakoshi, Shinichi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-06-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement is widely used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With the advent of the oscillometric ABI device incorporating a system for the measurement of pulse volume recording (PVR), not only ABI but also other parameters, such as the percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP) and the upstroke time (UT), can be obtained automatically. The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for PAD with ABI alone with that of a combination of ABI, %MAP and UT. This study included 108 consecutive patients on whom 216 limb measurements were performed. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of ABI, %MAP, UT and their combination were evaluated and compared with CT angiography that was used as a gold standard for the detection of PAD. The diagnostic accuracy as well as the optimal cutoff values of %MAP and UT were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT achieved higher sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than ABI alone, particularly for mild stenosis. The areas under the ROC curve for the detection of 50% stenosis with UT and %MAP were 0.798 and 0.916, respectively. The optimal UT and %MAP values to detect ≧50% stenosis artery were 183 ms and 45%, respectively. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy for PAD. Consideration of the values of %MAP and UT in addition to ABI may have a significant impact on the detection of early PAD lesions.

  10. Comparison of ankle-brachial index measured by an automated oscillometric apparatus with that by standard Doppler technique in vascular patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korno, M.; Eldrup, N.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the determination of ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) using a simple automated ankle pressure measurement device in comparison with the Doppler technique. DESIGN: ABI was measured in 61 patients (122 legs) admitted to the department of vascular surgery, Rigshospitalet. ABI...... was calculated twice using both the methods on both legs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the automated oscillometric blood pressure device, CASMED 740, for measuring ankle and arm blood pressure and compared it with the current gold standard, the hand-held Doppler technique, by the Bland-Altman analysis....... RESULTS: Using the Doppler-derived ABI as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the oscillometric method for determining an ABI Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  11. What Is the Clinical Utility of the Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Radiographic Arterial Calcification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; García-Morales, Esther; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines-Barroso, Raúl Juan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of radiographic arterial calcification (RAC) on the clinical interpretation of ankle-brachial index (ABI) values in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We analyzed a retrospective clinical database of 60 patients with diabetic foot ulcers from the Diabetic Foot Unit (Complutense University, Madrid, Spain) between January 2012 and March 2014. For each patient, anteroposterior XR-plains were evaluated, and the ABI and toe-brachial index (TBI) were assessed by an experienced clinician. To analyze the correlation among quantitative variables, we applied the Pearson correlation coefficient. Fifty percent (n = 9/18) of our patients with a normal ABI and RAC had a TBI diabetic foot ulcers, or RAC.

  12. 脉压增大的高血压患者脉搏波传导速度、颈动脉内膜中层厚度和踝臂指数的检测现状%Examination status of pulse wave velocity, carotid artery intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index in hypertensive patients with increased pulse pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋辉; 马丽媛; 刘明波; 王文

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解脉压增大(脉压≥50 mmHg,1mmHg=0.133kPa)的高血压患者脉搏波传导速度(PWV)、颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)和踝臂指数的检测现状。方法2011年4月至2012年9月,选取中国北部、南部和西部的96个大、中、小城市的709家医院进行的大型横断面调查。入选脉压增大(脉压≥50 mmHg)的高血压患者36259例。根据患者的血压水平、危险因素数量、靶器官损害和心血管疾患分为低危、中危、高危和很高危。根据脉压分为50~60 mmHg,60~70 mmHg和≥70 mmHg三层。询问病史(心血管病、脑血管病、肾脏病和糖尿病史)、吸烟史;记录PWV、IMT和踝臂指数的检查情况。现场测量血压、身高、体重、腰围。结果患者IMT、PWV和踝臂指数的检查率分别为20.7%、8.8%和7.8%,即未做IMT、PWV和踝臂指数检查的患者分别为79.3%、91.2%和92.2%。进一步分析,在检查的患者中, IMT(≥0.9 mm和粥样斑块)、PWV(>12 ms)和踝臂指数(≤0.9)异常的检出率分别为65.7%、40.9%和47.4%。IMT、PWV和踝臂指数异常的检出率在高危患者中分别为86.8%、68.5%和22.9%,在很高危患者中分别为66.1%、40.2%和48.2%。脉压50~60 mmHg,60~70 mmHg和≥70 mmHg组的IMT异常的检出率分别是39.3%,66.6%和80.7%;PWV异常的检出率分别是24.6%,43.0%和59.0%。结论我国城市中,脉压增大(≥50 mmHg)的高血压患者血管病变相关项目的检测率低。%Objective To get to know the examination status of pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) in hypertensive patients with increased pulse pressure (≥50 mmHg).Methods A large-scale cross-sectional survey was carried out in 709 hospitals in 96 large, medium and small cities in North, South and West China from Apr. 2011 to Sept. 2012. The patients (n=36259) were chosen and divided into low risk group, mid

  13. 2型糖尿病足高危患者的踝肱指数与糖尿病足的关系%Relationship between ankle brachial index and diabetic foot in patients at high risk of type 2 diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成宗

    2014-01-01

    clinical examination data of two groups and the difference in the number of diabetic patients with the different ankle brachial index were compared.Results Contraction of two group patients with ankle brachial index, pressure, course of disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy were positive, the incidence of retinopathy(P all<0.01),different ankle brachial index and the prevalence of diabetic foot group comparison, ankle brachial index and diabetic foot group the prevalence of similar "U" type of division, ankle brachial index greater than 1.31 in patients with diabetic foot group the incidence rate was 18.1%;the incidence of 0.9ankle brachial index≤0.5 in the group of patients with diabetic foot disease incidence rate reached 64.29%,the prevalence rate were significantly different. Conclusion Ankle brachial index is negatively related to diabetic foot, ankle brachial index decrease or abnormal rise in early diabetic foot is predicted to occur, patients at high risk for diabetic foot ankle brachial index anomaly to adopt active and effective intervention measures.

  14. 缺血性卒中患者踝臂指数与颅内动脉狭窄数量的关系%Relationship between Ankle Brachial Index and Number of Intracerebral Artery Stenosis in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶; 孙海欣; 董可辉; 王拥军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨缺血性脑卒中患者踝臂指数(ABI)与颅内动脉狭窄支数的相关性.方法 测量314例行脑血管造影的缺血性卒中患者的ABI值,并收集其相关临床资料.结果 ABI异常、年龄与缺血性卒中患者颅内动脉狭窄数量有关.ABI值与患者具备的危险因素(高血压、糖尿病、冠心病及缺血性卒中史)数量之间存在负相关性,两者之间存在线性趋势(x2=36.35,P<0.001).ABI值与狭窄血管数量之间存在负相关性,两者之间存在线性趋势.结论 缺血性脑卒中患者ABI值与颅内动脉狭窄数量具有相关性.%Objective To investigate the relationship of ankle brachial index and the number of intracranial artery stenosis. Methods Ankle brachial index were measured in 314 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease received cerebral angiograpathy. Their data including general information and medical history were collected. Results Abnormality of ankle brachial index and age were associated with the number of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with ischemic stroke. Ankle brachial index was negative correlation with the number of risk factors( hyperten-tion/diabetes/coronary heart disease/ischemic stroke history) (r, = -0. 292,P <0. 001). Linear trend analysis showed linear trend between them(x2 =36. 35 ,P<0.001). Ankle brachial index was negative correlation with the number of intracranial artery stenosis(r, = -0. 161 ,P = 0.004). Trend analysis showed linear trend between them(x2 = 6. 53,P = 0. 01). Conclusion Ankle brachial index was associated with the number of intracerebral artery stenosis.

  15. 健康体检人群踝臂指数与血尿酸关系的分析%Analysis of the relationship between ankle-brachial index and uric acid in health checkup participants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 杨溢; 陈海; 熊焰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解踝臂指数(ABI)与血尿酸的关系.方法 对300例体检人群检测血尿酸、收缩压、舒张压,研究不同性别的ABI水平及不同ABI分组条件下各组的血尿酸水平.结果 男性和女性在不同ABI组中的分布差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.22,P>0.05).按ABI分组,3组中血尿酸水平的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并随着ABI的减低而逐渐增高.结论 ABI与血尿酸水平关系密切,有利于心血管病的预测和监控.%Objective To assess the relationship between ankle brachial index(ABI) and uric acid. Methods A total of 300 health checkup participants were screened for uric acid,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure. To discuss the level of ABI in different gender and the level of uric acid in each group which divided by different level of ABI. Results Gender distribution difference in ABI groups were not significant(γ2=1. 22,P>0. 05). Significant differences of the level of uric acid were found in three ABI groups(P<0.05) ,and the level of uric acid appeared an increasing trend with lowering ABI. Conclusion ABI has a close relationship with the level of uric acid. ABI may be conductive to the prediction and monitoring of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Predictive Value of Combining the Ankle-Brachial Index and SYNTAX Score for the Prediction of Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the SHINANO Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Motoki, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hikaru; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Sato, Toshio; Hotta, Shoji; Kamiyoshi, Yuichi; Maruyama, Takuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Eisawa, Takayuki; Aso, Shinichi; Uchikawa, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Naoto; Sekimura, Noriyuki; Morita, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-01-15

    The Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score is effective in predicting clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its prediction ability is low because it reflects only the coronary characterization. We assessed the predictive value of combining the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and SYNTAX score to predict clinical outcomes after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated for 1,197 patients recruited from the Shinshu Prospective Multi-center Analysis for Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SHINANO) registry, a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study in Japan. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in the first year after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated by categorizing and summing up the ABI and SYNTAX scores. ABI ≤ 0.49 was defined as 4, 0.5 to 0.69 as 3, 0.7 to 0.89 as 2, 0.9 to 1.09 as 1, and 1.1 to 1.5 as 0; an SYNTAX score ≤ 22 was defined as 0, 23 to 32 as 1, and ≥ 33 as 2. Patients were divided into low (0), moderate (1 to 2), and high (3 to 6) groups. The MACE rate was significantly higher in the high ABI-SYNTAX score group than in the lower 2 groups (low: 4.6% vs moderate: 7.0% vs high: 13.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis found that ABI-SYNTAX score independently predicted MACE (hazards ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52, p = 0.029). The respective C-statistic for the ABI-SYNTAX and SYNTAX score for 1-year MACE was 0.60 and 0.55, respectively. In conclusion, combining the ABI and SYNTAX scores improved the prediction of 1-year adverse ischemic events compared with the SYNTAX score alone.

  17. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabito, Joanne M.; White, Charles C.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sun, Yan V.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Nambi, Vijay; Lamina, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Coassin, Stefan; Bis, Joshua C.; Broer, Linda; Crawford, Dana C.; Franceschini, Nora; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Haun, Margot; Holewijn, Suzanne; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kiechl, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Montasser, May E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Rudock, Megan E.; Senft, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; van der Harst, Pim; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wood, Andrew R.; Wassel, Christina L.; Absher, Devin M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Arnold, Alice; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbalic, Maja; Boban, Mladen; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Couper, David J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dehghan, Abbas; Heijer, Martin den; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Ding, Jingzhong; Dörr, Marcus; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fraedrich, Gustav; Gibson, Quince; Goodloe, Robert; Gunjaca, Grgo; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Kieback, Arne; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Lackner, Karl J.; Li, Xiaohui; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lohman, Kurt; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Mohler, Emile R; Mudnic, Ivana; Mueller, Thomas; Navis, Gerjan; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Olin, Jeffrey W.; O’Connell, Jeff; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Petersmann, Astrid; Polasek, Ozren; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rantner, Barbara; Rice, Ken; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Stadler, Marietta; Summerer, Monika; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Wild, Sarah H.; Wild, Philipp S.; Willeit, Johann; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Campbell, Harry; Cooke, John P.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Herrington, David; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Anna; Münzel, Thomas; Newman, Anne; Oostra, Ben A.; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Snieder, Harold; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Völker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Liu, Yongmei; Hayward, Caroline; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Ziegler, Andreas; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kronenberg, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts. Methods and Results Continuous ABI and PAD (ABI≤0.9) phenotypes adjusted for age and sex were examined. Each study conducted genotyping and imputed data to the ~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test each SNP for association with ABI and PAD using additive genetic models. Study-specific data were combined using fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses. There were a total of 41,692 participants of European ancestry (~60% women, mean ABI 1.02 to 1.19), including 3,409 participants with PAD and with GWAS data available. In the discovery meta-analysis, rs10757269 on chromosome 9 near CDKN2B had the strongest association with ABI (β= −0.006, p=2.46x10−8). We sought replication of the 6 strongest SNP associations in 5 population-based studies and 3 clinical samples (n=16,717). The association for rs10757269 strengthened in the combined discovery and replication analysis (p=2.65x10−9). No other SNP associations for ABI or PAD achieved genome-wide significance. However, two previously reported candidate genes for PAD and one SNP associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) were associated with ABI : DAB21P (rs13290547, p=3.6x10−5); CYBA (rs3794624, p=6.3x10−5); and rs1122608 (LDLR, p=0.0026). Conclusions GWAS in more than 40,000 individuals identified one genome-wide significant association on chromosome 9p21 with ABI. Two candidate genes for PAD and 1 SNP for CAD are associated with ABI. PMID:22199011

  18. 基于四肢同步检测踝臂指数的方法和临床研究%Detection Method and Clinical Research on Ankle Brachial Index Based on Synchronous Measurements of Four Limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全晓莉; 周南权; 古良玲; 李双

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find a new algorithm for detecting ankle brachial index (ABI) non-invasively by synchronous acquisition of four limbs pulse wave signals and cuff pressure wave signals basing on waveform characteristic method and amplitude coefficient method with priority rule. Methods The turning point was judged in certain range by calculating the difference of adjoining pulse waves and their relative ratio under priority rules. Results The method provided a solution to misjudgment problem of the turning point before systolic blood pressure and around average pressure. Many cases analyses and lots of clinical tests proved the algorithm effective and reliable. Conclusion ABI is a handy and dependable predictor of atherosclerosis, it is associated with conventional risk factors such as age, blood pressure, etc.%目的 利用优选法在波形特征法和幅度系数法的基础上提出1种同步采集四肢脉搏波信号和袖套压力波信号无创检测踝臂指数的新方法.方法 计算出相邻脉搏波的幅度差值和它们的相对比值,并利用优选法在一定范围内进行突变点的判断.结果 该方法能够解决将收缩压以前的点和平均压附近的点误判为突变点的问题,大量的病例分析和临床测试证实了该算法的有效性和可靠性.结论 踝臂指数是动脉硬化的一个简便可靠的预测因素,它与传统的动脉硬化危险因素如年龄、血压等有相关性.

  19. Doença arterial obstrutiva periférica e índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes submetidos à angiografia coronariana Peripheral arterial occlusive disease and ankle-brachial index in patients who had coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthefano Atique Gabriel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de doença arterial obstrutiva periférica (DAOP em coronariopatas. Avaliar a relação entre Índice Tornozelo-Braço (ITB e doença coronariana, e sua correlação com fatores de risco cardiovascular. MÉTODO: ITB investigado com ultra-sonografia Doppler. Características clínicas pesquisadas: idade, sexo, diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, etilismo, tabagismo e obesidade. População: 113 pacientes submetidos à angiografia coronariana. Primeira análise: 2 grupos - ausência e presença de coronariopatia. Segunda análise: 3 grupos - Grupo 1 - ausência de lesão coronariana; Grupo 2 - estenose 70%. Terceira análise: 2 grupos - ausência e presença de DAOP. RESULTADOS: 90,76% dos coronariopatas apresentaram DAOP. Houve diferença significante quanto à faixa etária (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD in patients with coronary arterial disease. To evaluate the relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI and coronary arterial disease, and its correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. METHOD: ABI investigated with Doppler ultrasonic device. Clinical characteristics researched: age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, alcoholism, smoking and obesity. Population: 113 patients who had coronary angiography. First analyses: 2 groups - absence and presence of coronary arterial disease. Second analyses: 3 groups - Group 1 - absence of coronary lesion; Group 2 - stenosis 70%. Third analyses: 2 groups - absence and presence of PAD. RESULTS: 90.76% of patients with coronary arterial disease presented PAD. There were significant difference including age (p<0.001, hypertension (p<0.001. smoking (p<0.001, body mass index (BMI (p<0.001, systolic blood pressure (SBP (p<0.001, diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p<0.001 and pulse pressure (PP (p<0.001 and ABI (p<0.001 between patients with and without coronary lesion. There were significant difference including age (p<0

  20. Correlation between changes of coronary heart disease and cardio-ankle vascular index and ankle-brachial index%冠心病患者CAVI与ABI改变的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈保见; 程自平; 胡华青; 张建平; 郑林林; 徐晓; 陆琨; 韩卫星

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the research value of changes of arteriosclerosis cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The patients ( n= 269 ) were randomly selected who had coronary angiography examination and treatment in the Department of Cardiovasology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. Among them 217 with CHD confirmed by angiography enclosed in the CHD group ( with proportion of stenosis≥50% ) ,and other 52 enclosed in the non-CHD group ( with proportion of stenosis < 50% ). The CHD group was divided again into the corresponding sub-group according to the number of diseased branches. The differences of CAVI and ABI were compared between two groups. Results ① With the aggravation of coronary stenosis, CAVI increased progressively. The difference between two groups was significant statistically (P < 0. 01 ). ②ABI was in normal range in two groups but lower in the CHD group than that in the non-CHD group (P <0. 01 ). ABI was lower in the multiple-branch disease group than that in the non-CHD group and single-branch disease group (P < 0.05 ). ③CAVI ( + ) was sensitive to predict CHD (66.4%) but the specificity was poor (32.7%). ABI was not sensitive to predict CHD ( 18.0% ) but the specificity was high (96.2%). Conclusion CAVI ( - ) may be an independent and significant predicting factor for non-CHD,and CAVI ( + ) can help to find atherosclerosis early. The decrease of ABI is an independent and risk factor, which can be taken as one of indexes for CHD diagnosis.%目的 探讨冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(CHD,冠心病)患者在动脉硬化及僵硬度指标心踝血管指数(cardio-ankle vascular index,CAVI)与踝臂指数(ankle-brachial index,ABI)改变的临床价值.方法 随机选取在安徽医科大学第一附属医院心血管内科行选择性冠状动脉造影检查及治疗的患者269例,其中经冠脉造影证

  1. Effect of kidney damage indicators on ankle-brachial index of patients with chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病患者肾脏损伤指标对踝臂指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛福坤; 阎磊; 邵凤民

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者肾脏损伤指标对踝臂指数(ABI)的影响.方法:收集295例CKD患者及体检中心170例无CKD的对照人群的资料,对2组尿白蛋白/肌酐比值(ACR)、估计肾小球滤过率(eGFR)与ABI进行logistic回归分析.结果:对CKD患者进行的多变量logistic回归分析显示,在校正了传统的心血管危险因素后,ACR与eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73m2)均是低ABI的独立危险因素,OR(95%CI)分别为1.065(1.022~1.105)和1.122(1.032~2.577).结论:高ACR与低 eGFR可能导致CKD患者ABI降低.%Aim:To explore the effect of kidney damage indicators on abnormal ankle-brachial index( ABI ) of patients with chronic kidney disease( CKD ). Methods:A total of 295 patients with CKD and 170 non-CKD participants were enrolled. Association between kidney damage indicators, including estimated glomerular filtration rate ( eGFR ) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio( ACR ) and abnormal ABI were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression model. Results: After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CKD, ACR and eGFR were both independently associated with low ABI,OR( 95% CI) was 1.065( 1.022 ~ 1. 105 ) and 1. 122( 1.032~2.577 ),respectively. Conclusion: High ACR and low eGFR may induce low ABI of CKD patients.

  2. Diagnosis value of ankle brachial index and cardio-ankle vascular index on coronary artery disease%踝臂指数及心踝血管指数对冠状动脉病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 陈明

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价踝臂指数(ankle brachial index,ABI)与心踝血管指数(cardio-ankle vascular index,CAVI)对冠状动脉病变的诊断价值.方法 选择2012年6月至2012年11月在重庆医科大学附属第一医院心血管内科住院,因拟诊为冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)而行冠状动脉造影的127例患者,根据冠状动脉造影结果,88例冠状动脉狭窄患者列入冠状动脉病变组(D组):根据狭窄程度,将患者分为轻度病变亚组(A组,31例),中重度病变亚组(B组,57例);依累及血管支数,分为单支病变亚组(22例),双支病变亚组(26例),三支病变亚组(40例).对照组为39例冠状动脉造影阴性患者.入选患者接受ABI及CAVI检测,比较分析各组间ABI及CAVI.结果 对照组、A组、B组3组比较,ABI依次降低,且对照组、A组、B组两两比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).CAVI在对照组、A组、B组3组数值依次增高,但两两比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但D组与对照组比较CAVI明显升高,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组、单支病变组、双支病变组、三支病变组4组ABI值依次降低,对照组与各病变组ABI值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但各病变组之间两两比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在各组中随病变范围增大,CAVI数值并未依次增高,且各病变组两两比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 ABI值能很好地反映病变狭窄程度,ABI数值越低,冠状动脉狭窄程度越重,但无法反映病变范围;CAVI既不能反映冠心病的病变程度,也无法反映病变范围.

  3. The effection of smoking on ankle-brachial indexes in asymptomatic men%吸烟对男性无症状人群踝臂指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓春; 师常喜; 陈洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To ivestigate the; effection of smoke; on ankle-brachial indexes ( ABI) and smoking in asymptomatic people. Methods ABI were detected in 539 asymptomatic volunteers according to smoking dosage every day,smoking history and smoking inder. Results The value of ABI was lower in smoking group than that in no-smoking group ( with the same age, P0.05 ) . When the volunteers were divided into groups according to smoking index, ABI decreased as smoking index increased. Conclusion smoking cause the decrease of ABI,the higher of smoking dosage every day,or the longer of smoking history.or the increased of smoking index,the ABI increased.%目的 研究吸烟对无症状人群踝臂指数(ABI)的影响.方法 将539例健康体检者按有无吸烟分为吸烟组(n=332)和非吸烟组(n=207);吸烟组再依照吸烟时间长短、吸烟数量进行对比,分析吸烟对ABI的影响.结果 吸烟组ABI值均低于同年龄段不吸烟组(P<0.05).按每日吸烟量分组,吸烟量大ABI值低,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);按烟龄分组,烟龄长者ABI值较低,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);按吸烟指数分组,ABI测量值随吸烟指数的增大而降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 吸烟可致无症状人群ABI降低;每日吸烟量越大,烟龄越长,吸烟指数越高,ABI值越低.

  4. Relação entre índice tornozelo-braquial e doença aterosclerótica carotídea Association between ankle-brachial index and carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cezar Lacerda Brasileiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A associação do índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB com a medida do complexo médio intimal das artérias carótidas (MCMI não está amplamente estudada. OBJETIVO: Objetivamos avaliar se pacientes com ITB 0,9. MÉTODOS: No período de janeiro a dezembro de 2011, recrutamos 118 pacientes (48 homens e 70 mulheres que tiveram seus ITB e MCMI mensurados. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupo 1 (ITB 0,9. Utilizamos os testes de Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e Fischer para comparações entre os grupos. Para avaliar correlação entre ITB e MCMI empregamos a correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de ITB 1,5 mm de 34,7%. Não houve diferença de características clínicas entre os grupos 1 e 2: idade média (64 ± 9 vs. 62 ± 7,2 anos, p = 0,1, homens (40% vs. 41%, p = 0,9, hipertensão (74% vs. 59%, p = 0,1, diabetes melito (54% vs. 35%, p = 0,051, dislipidemia 26% vs. 24%, p = 0,8, tabagismo (57% vs. 65%, p = 0,4. A prevalência de placa carotídea foi maior no grupo 1 (48,6% vs. 28,9%, p = 0,04. A correlação de Pearson entre o ITB e a MCMI foi de - 0,235, com valor de p = 0,01. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes com ITB BACKGROUND: The association between the ankle brachial index (ABI and the measurement of intimal medial thickness (IMT has not been fully studied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was higher in patients with ABI 0.9. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2011, 118 patients (48 men and 70 women were enrolled. ABI and IMT Measurements were performed in all patients. Patients were divided in Group 1 (ABI 0.9 according to ABI values. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Fischer tests were used for comparison among the groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess correlation between ABI and IMT. RESULTS: The prevalence of ABI 1.5 mm was 34.7 %. Clinical characteristics were similar between groups 1 and 2: mean age (64 ± 9 vs. 62 ± 7.2 years, p = 0.1, male gender (40% vs. 41%, p

  5. 冠心病及等危症患者中踝臂指数异常的临床研究%Abnormal ankle brachial index in patients with equal-risk to coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 孙振学; 吕豪; 邸茹杰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the proportion of the peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with equal-risk to coronary heart disease and to explore the clinical value of ankle brachial index(ABI). Methods Six hundred and twenty-one cases with equal-risk to coronary heart disease were recruited to the study. Their clinical data and biochemical indicators were collected for further analysis. The value of ABI, which was popularly used in screening PAD, was measured by Oscillometric measurement. All data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results There were 169 cases had PAD,the proportion of it was 27.2%. The proportion of PAD in male and female were 34.6% and 16.1% respectively,which had significant difference(P <0.01). Compared with NonPAD group,the average age (65 ± 10 years vs. 60 ± 10 years,P <0.01) and total cholesterol level (5.4 ± 1.1 mmol/L vs. (5.1 ± 1.1) mtool/L, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in PAD group. Logistic regression analysis showed that gender,age and total cholesterol were major risk factors of PAD in patients with equal-risk to coronary heart disease. Proportion of PAD was up to 50.0% in patients with combined coronary heart disease,ischemic stroke and diabetes. Conclusions ABI is a feasible and reliable index for screening PAD in patients with equal-risk to coronary heart disease. Gender,age and total cholesterol are major risk factors of low ABI in patients with equal-risk to coronary heart disease.%目的 观察冠心病及等危症患者合并外周动脉疾病(PAD)的发病情况,探讨踝臂指数(ABI)在临床上的应用价值.方法 选取621例冠心病及等危症患者,收集相关临床资料并检测相关生化指标,采用科林动脉硬化检测仪测量受试者的ABI值,应用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行数据分析和处理.结果 冠心病及等危症患者中合并PAD者为169例,总的患病率为27.2%,女性PAD的患病率[34.6%(129/373)]明显高于男性[16.1%(40/248),P<0.01].PAD组年龄

  6. 老年高血压患者踝肱指数及其与冠心病、脑卒中相关性的研究%Association of ankle-brachial index with clinical coronary heart disease, stroke in aged Chinese hypertensive men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一妹; 王玉; 李燕; 杨培; 刘敏艳; 刘亮; 朱平; 李小鹰

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解老年高血压患者外周动脉性疾病(PAD)患病率及其特点,重点研究踝肱指数(ABI)与冠心病、脑卒中相关性的临床意义.方法:入选我院和安贞医院门诊及住院老年男性高血压患者,无损伤周围血管检查仪测定患者踝肱指数、标准问卷调查及各项指标测量确定患者身体基线状况;任一侧肢体ABI≤0.9诊断为PAD,1.01-1.30为临界PAD.结果:244名坚持服用降压药物的老年男性高血压患者,15例除年龄、ABI外部分基线资料不全,平均年龄(76.47±9.75)岁,平均ABI值0.941±0.258,ABI分布频率最高的区间为1.01-1.30.其中85名为PAD患者,22名为临界PAD患者,135名为正常ABI高血压患者,2名ABI>1.3.PAD和临界PAD患者的ABI值、高血压控制率明显低于正常ABI患者(P0.05).PAD、临界PAD、冠心病和脑卒中患病率分别为35.1%、9.1%、64.0%、40.5%,不同年龄组PAD、临界PAD、冠心病和脑卒中的发生率有明显差异(P<0.05),且随着年龄的增加均同步大幅升高.进一步采用logistic回归分析对年龄、体重指数、高血压病程、收缩压、舒张压、高血压控制率、吸烟、饮酒、糖尿病、血脂异常等因素调校后,发现不同ABI水平与冠心病、脑卒中患病率有关(P<0.05),其患病率的OR值表明,ABI水平与冠心痛、脑卒中患病呈明显负相关.结论:老年高血压患者PAD患病率高,ABI降低与冠心痛、脑卒中患病明显相关.%Objective: To assess the clinical significance of ankle-brachial index(ABI) in aged Chinese hypertensive men and to determine the association of ABI with clinical coronary heart disease, stroke. Methods: Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured by means of peripheral vascular lab in aged hypertensive men from 301 Hospital and Anzhen Hospital while the clinical characteristics of the study population were investigated and collected. ABI≤0.9 was defined as peripheral arterial disease (PAD), 1.01 ~ 1 .30 as borderline

  7. Intensive Health Education for Patients with Diabetic Foot Based on Ankle-brachial Index and Vibration Perception Threshold%根据踝臂指数和感觉阈值实施糖尿病足强化健康教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽琴; 胡朝晖; 陈育群

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察对糖尿病患者根据踝臂指数和感觉阈值实施糖尿病足强化健康教育的效果.方法 对60例糖尿病患者实施踝臂指数和感觉阈值测定、足部评估,根据测定值和评估结果,对患者进行知识宣教和强化;对足部问题及时进行处理;给予糖尿病足部知识指导和生活方式指导.结果 干预后(出院时)60例糖尿病患者的足部皮肤干燥、皲裂、甲沟炎、皮肤损伤较干预前明显改善(P<0.05);干预后(出院3个月)患者对糖尿病足的重视程度提高,足部自护行为改善(P<0.05).结论 对糖尿病患者进行踝臂指数、感觉阈值测定和足部评估,并根据结果进行健康指导和干预,能明显提高健康教育效果;对于糖尿病足高危患者,在出院后给予进一步的电话随访,能强化其足部知识和改善生活方式,预防或减少糖尿病足的发生.%Objective To observe the effect of intensive health education for diabetic foot patients based on ankle-brae hi al index and vibration perception threshold.Methods After the determination of ankle-brachial index and vibration perception threshold and the evaluation of feet conditions,patients were received intensive health education and guidance for diabetic foot and life style.Results There existed less feet rhagadia,paronychia and skin damage after the education and patients' skin become less dehydrated as well (P<0,05),Three months after discharge,patients attached more importance to diabetic foot and conduct more self-care to their feet (P<0.05).Conclusion Health education based on ankle-brachial index and vibration perception threshold is beneficial to the improvement of patients' life style and their knowledge of feet conditions.

  8. 心踝血管指数、踝臂指数与颈动脉超声检查在体检中的相关性分析%Relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index,ankle brachial index and carotid artery ultrasonography in physical examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 田利源; 卢丽琨; 高镇北

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究心踝血管指数(CAVI)、踝臂指数(ABI)与颈动脉超声检查结果的相关性及这些指标在体检筛查动脉硬化上的应用。方法对481例体检人员进行CAVI、ABI、颈动脉超声检查,对结果的相关性进行统计学分析。结果相对于ABI,CAVI与颈动脉内中膜厚度(IMT)相关度更高(r=0.437,P=0.001),超声检出颈动脉斑块与未检出斑块的人群CAVI、ABI均有显著性差异(P<0.05);CAVI正常与异常人群比较, ABI无显著性差异,而IMT、颈动脉斑块阳性率均有显著性差异。结论 CAVI和ABI与颈动脉超声检查结果均有相关性,针对不同性别、年龄、身高、体重给出CAVI的正常值范围对于早期诊断动脉硬化更为敏感,但各个指标之间不能相互替代,需要进行综合判断。%Objective To investigate the relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI),ankle brachial index (ABI) and carotid ultrasonic examination results and their application in physical examination for screening arteriosclerosis. Methods Cardio ankle vascular index,ankle brachial index were measured and carotid artery ultrasonography was checked in 481 people. Correlation of the results was statistically analyzed. Results Compared with ABI,CAVI was more relevant to the carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMT), r=0.437,P=0.001. CAVI and ABI had significant differences between carotid artery plaque and no plaque group tested by ultrasound (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ABI between normal CAVI group compared with the abnormal group,while IMT and the positive rate of carotid artery plaque were significantly different(P<0.05). Conclusion CAVI and ABI are relevant with the result of carotid artery ultrasound test. CAVI normal ranges given according to different gender,age,height,weight are more sensitive for early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. But all the indexes can not replace each other. The results should be

  9. The clinical value of cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and ankle brachial index (ABI) in evaluation on therapeutic efficacy to lower limbs arterial occlusive disease%心踝血管指数和踝肱指数在下肢动脉闭塞介入治疗的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹波; 黄光明; 张红霞; 张娟; 刘伟峰; 张卉; 张秀明; 王军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨心踝血管指数(Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index,CAVI)和踝肱指数(Ankle-Brachial Index,ABI)在下肢动脉闭塞性病变(lower limbs arterial occlusive disease,LAOD)介入治疗前评估和治疗后疗效评价中的应用价值及指标间的相关性.方法 2010年1~12月在我院行介入治疗的LAOD患者35例,所有患者均符合《下肢动脉粥样硬化性疾病诊治中国专家建议(2007)》对LAOD的诊断标准,应用血压脉搏测量装置检测CAVI和ABI作为治疗前评估和治疗后疗效的评价及随访的指标.结果 CAVI和ABI在介入治疗后和治疗前分别为(5.20±2.85)、(6.65±2.78)(P<0.05);(0.35±0.18)、(0.85±0.13)(P< 0.05).介入治疗前CAVI与ABI相关分析显示呈正相关(r=0.648,P<0.05),介入治疗后CAVI与ABI无明显相关性.结论 CAVI和ABI测定在LAOD介入治疗前评估和治疗后疗效评价中有较高的应用价值.

  10. Efeito da terapia antirretroviral e dos níveis de carga viral no complexo médio-intimal e no índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes infectados pelo HIV Antirretroviral therapy effect in the intima-medio complex and ankle-brachial index in patients infected by HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tenório Albuquerque Madruga Godoi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar precocemente a prevalência de aterosclerose, por causa do espessamento do complexo médio-intimal das carótidas comuns e do índice tornozelo-braço. Essas medidas foram relacionadas com os fatores de risco clássicos de aterosclerose e os específicos dos infectados pelo HIV (tempo de doença, tempo de tratamento, tipo de tratamento, tipo de terapia antirretroviral utilizada, CD4 e carga viral. MÉTODOS: Setenta casos infectados com o HIV foram avaliados pela medida automática do complexo médio-intimal nas carótidas e do índice tornozelo-braço. Consideraram-se os fatores de risco clássicos de aterosclerose (idade, sexo, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, tabagismo, hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia, obesidade e história familiar de evento cardiovascular, as medidas antropométricas e as variáveis relacionadas ao HIV. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de diagnóstico do HIV foi de 104,9 meses e de tratamento foi de 97,9 meses. Quanto ao tipo de tratamento, 47 (67,1% fizeram uso de inibidor de protease por mais de seis meses e 36 (51,4% estão em uso atualmente. O índice tornozelo-braço estava aumentado em um único paciente (0,7% e não se evidenciou espessamento do complexo médio-intimal em nenhum indivíduo. Não existiu associação significante da medida do complexo médio-intimal da carótida comum direita com nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. CONCLUSÕES: Indivíduos jovens, sob o uso de terapia antirretroviral por cinco anos ou mais, não apresentaram espessamento do complexo médio-intimal ou aumento do índice tornozelo-braço. Não houve diferença do espessamento do complexo médio-intimal associada ao tipo de esquema antirretroviral utilizado ou nível de carga viral.OBJECTIVES: To precociously identify the prevalence of atherosclerosis caused by thickening of the intima-media complex of the common carotid arteries and of the ankle brachial index

  11. Clinical significance of ankle brachial index in the prediction of chronic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus%探讨踝肱指数对预测2型糖尿病慢性并发症的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杨; 邓挺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of ankle brachial index (ABI) in the prediction of vascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to gain cognition of the differences between different range values in prediction.Methods The ABI of 298 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus were analyzed, and these cases were divided into three groups. The normal group had 0.9pressure, postprandial 2 h blood glucose, 24 h microalbuminuria and serum creatinine. The incidences of cranial vascular disease, kidney disease, and diabetic foot were obviously increased. The incidences of diabetic foot in PAD group and atherosclerosis group were significantly higher than that of the normal group (P<0.05), and the distribution was U-form.Conclusion ABI is closely related to vascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The abnormal increase or decrease of ABI can predict and prevent diabetic foot early.%目的:探讨踝肱指数(ABI)对预测2型糖尿病血管并发症的临床意义,并了解踝肱指数不同范围值对预测合并症的差异。方法分析298例2型糖尿病患者的踝肱指数测量值,并按常规标准分组,0.9

  12. 踝肱指数与趾肱指数在下肢动脉疾病诊断中的临床价值%Diagnostic value of ankle-brachial index and toe-brachial index in arterial disease of lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 刘道燕; 祝之明; 赵志钢; 闫振成; 倪银星; 孙芳; 孙靖; 徐兴森; 于浩; 李英莎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application and its influencing factors of ankle-brachial index (ABl) and toe-brachial index (TBI) in the diagnosis of arterial disease of lower extremity. Methods ABI and TBI were measured in 800 limbs of 402 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension hospitalized from July 2010 to February 2011 The patients were divided into narrow group (ABI<0.9), normal group (0.9≤ABI<1.3), and calcification group (ABI≤ 1.3) according to the value of ABI, and also into narrow group (TBI<0.7) and normal group (TBI≥ 0.7) according to the value of TBL The correlation of ABI with TBI was analyzed, and the differences in age, obesity parameters, biochemical indicators and other factors were compared between the groups. Influence of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on ABI and TBI was further analyzed. Results Only when ABI<0.9, ABI and TBI have significant correlation (r=0.826, p<0.0l). When the group comparison based on ABI values, it was shown that the age and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the narrow group than in the normal group and calcification group (P<0.0l). The comparison between groups based on TBI values indicated that the age, systolic blood pressure and hs-CRP in the narrow group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), ABI and TBI in the normal hs-CRP group were significantly higher than those in high hs-CRP group (P<0.05). Conclusion Hs-CRP may play an important role in the development and progression in peripheral arterial atherosclerosis. Therefore, ABI and TBI measurements in combination with hs-CRP level can improve early diagnosis of arterial disease of lower extremity%目的 探讨踝肱指数(ABI)、趾肱指数(TBI)在下肢动脉疾病诊断中的应用价值及其影响因素.方法 对2010年7月-2011年2月收治的402例糖尿病和(或)高血压患者的800条下肢行ABI和TBI检查,根据ABI结果分为狭窄组(ABI<0.9),正常组(0.9≤ABI< 1.3)

  13. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  14. 踝臂指数对老年高血压合并下肢动脉病变患者发生心脑血管病风险的预测价值%Assessment of peripheral arterial disease in elderly hypertensive patients and risk prediction of cardio-cerebral vascular disease by ankle-brachial index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丹; 曹萍; 王桦; 刘珍丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨踝臂指数(ABI)对老年高血压合并下肢动脉病变(PAD)患者发生心脑血管病变风险的预测价值.方法 回顾性分析老年高血压病患者285例,按照ABI值分为高血压合并PAD组(PAD组,55例)和高血压未合并PAD组(非PAD组,230例),比较2组间臂踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)及各种心脑血管病危险因素的差异.结果 与非PAD组比较,PAD组收缩压(SBP)、脉压(PP)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、脂蛋白(a)[Lp(a)]、血尿酸(UA)、C反应蛋白(CRP)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)以及baPWV值均明显增加(P<0.05,或P<0.01);且发生冠心病、脑梗死的风险分别增高3.17倍(95%CI 1.29~7.76)和5.57倍(95%CI 2.15~14.44);相关分析显示,ABI与年龄(r=-0.273,P=0.025)、PP(r=-0.230,P=0.034)、Lp(a)(r=-0.361,P=0.002)、UA(r=-0.210,P=0.046)、CRP(r=-0.311,P=0.030)、HbA1c(r=-0.272,P=0.017)、baPWV(r=-0.291,P=0.018)均呈负相关.Logistic回归分析提示,年龄、SBP、PP及Lp(a)是PAD的独立危险因素.结论 ABI可评估老年高血压患者下肢动脉病变的严重程度,并预测其心脑血管疾病的发生风险.%Objective To investigate whether the ankle-brachial index ( ABI ) can assess peripheral arterial disease ( PAD ) in elderly hypertensive patients and predict the risk of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. Methods The data of 285 elderly hypertensive patients was retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. They were diagnosed as hypertension with PAD ( n = 55 ) or without PAD ( none-PAD, n = 230 ) according to ABI criteria. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity ( baPWV ) and various cardiovascular risk factors were compared between the two groups. Results The prevalence of PAD in elderly hypertensive patients was 19. 3% . Compared with patients without PAD, the levels of systolic blood pressure ( SBP ), pulse pressure ( PP ), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( LDL-C ), lipoprotein (a)[Lp(a)], uric acid ( UA ), C-reactive protein ( CRP ), HbAl c and ba

  15. 糖尿病合并高血压患者下肢动脉粥样硬化与大血管并发症的相关性研究%Correlation Study between Lower Extremity Atherosclerosis, Ankle Brachial Index and Macrovascular Complications in Diabetic Patients with Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁慧娟; 田睿; 朱好辉; 刘岷; 赵志刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the characteristics of lower extremity atherosclerosis in diabetic patients and hypertension patients by Lower extremity vascular ultrasound and ankle brachial index(ABl), and to understand the relationship between the incidence and progression of lower extremity atherosclerosis and macrovascular complications. Methods We chose color Doppler ultrasound and ABI to monitor the incidence and characteristics of lower extremity atherosclerosis in diabctic patients(DM), hypertension patients(HT), diabetic patients with hypertension(DM-HT) and patients without diabetes(N-DM) and hypertension(N-HT). Then we collected the data of macrovasular complications in each group. Results The incidence of lower extremity atherosclerosis in DM group and HT group are significantly higher than that in non-diabetes mellitus-non-hypertension group(P<0.01). And the incidence of Lower extremity atherosclerosis in DM group is even higher than that in HT group, particularly in moderate to severe stenosis(82.06%). The incidence of marcovascular complications is closely related to the severity of lower extremity atherosclerosis. Conclusions The severity of lower extremity atherosclerosis is more severe in diabetic patients and hypertension patients. Color Doppler ultrasound and ABI are the easy and efficient ways to monitor the severity of lower extremity atherosclerosis; both of them are closely related to the incidence of macrovascular complincations.%目的 通过下肢血管彩超,踝-肱指数(ankle brachial index,ABI)监测,探讨糖尿病、高血压及糖尿病合并高血压患者下肢动脉粥样硬化病变的特征,并了解下肢动脉粥样硬化与大血管并发症的发病及进展的关系.方法 采用彩色多普勒超声技术及多普勒血流探测仪分别监测双下肢动脉血管粥样硬化情况及踝动脉与肱动脉收缩压的比值,通过卡方检验对糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)组、高血压(hypertension,HT)组

  16. Predictive value of ankle brachial index combined with serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein for extent of coronary artery disease%踝臂指数联合超敏C反应蛋白对冠状动脉病变的判定价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 牛楠; 曲鹏; 王红艳

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨踝臂指数(ABI)联合超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)对冠状动脉病变的判定价值.方法:选择2010-09-12期间住院并行冠状动脉造影的120例患者,收集行冠状动脉造影前ABI及hs-CRP的数值,根据冠状动脉病变狭窄程度(Gensini积分评价)及病变血管数量进行分组.结果:以ABI<0.9及hs-CRP>3 mg/L为截断值,二者联合检测判定冠状动脉严重狭窄及多支病变的敏感度分别为85%和92%,特异度分别为69%和61%,与单用ABI或hs-CRP的方法比较,其敏感度均显著提高(均P<0.05),特异度有所下降.结论:ABI、hs-CRP的水平变化与冠状动脉的病变程度密切相关,对于冠状动脉严重狭窄及3支病变的判定,二者联合检测具有更高的实用价值.%Objective: To investigate whether the combination of ankle brachial index (ABI) and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) could improve their diagnosis value for extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients. Method: The study population consisted of 120 patients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac catheterization for suspected CAD (from September 2010 to December). Collected data included ABI and hs-CRP before underwent coronary angiography. According to the degree of coronary stenosis (estimated by Gensini score) and the number of coronary artery stenosis, all subjects were divided into different groups. Result: With ABI 3 mg/L as the cutoff value, combined the 2 methods to predict serious stenosis and multi-vessel CAD, the sensitivity was respectively 85%, 92%, and the specificity was respectively 69%, 61%. Compared with using ABI or hs-CRP alone, the sensitivity of the 2 joint detection for predicting CAD increased significantly (P<0. 05); the specificity decreased, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: ABI and hs-CRP are closely related to the extent of coronary artery disease, and the combination of ABI and hs-CRP may have higher practical value for

  17. The reliability of toe systolic pressure and the toe brachial index in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Byron M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ankle Brachial Index is a useful clinical test for establishing blood supply to the foot. However, there are limitations to this method when conducted on people with diabetes. As an alternative to the Ankle Brachial Index, measuring Toe Systolic Pressures and the Toe Brachial Index have been recommended to assess the arterial blood supply to the foot. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-rater reliability of the measurement of Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in patients with diabetes using a manual measurement system. Methods This was a repeated measures, reliability study. Three raters measured Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in thirty participants with diabetes. Measurement sessions occurred on two occasions, one week apart, using a manual photoplethysmography unit (Hadeco Smartdop 45 and a standardised measurement protocol. Results The mean intra-class correlation for intra-rater reliability for toe systolic pressures was 0.87 (95% LOA: -25.97 to 26.06 mmHg and the mean intra-class correlation for Toe Brachial Indices was 0.75 (95% LOA: -0.22 to 0.28. The intra-class correlation for inter-rater reliability was 0.88 for toe systolic pressures (95% LOA: -22.91 to 29.17.mmHg and 0.77 for Toe Brachial Indices (95% LOA: -0.21 to 0.22. Conclusion Despite the reasonable intra-class correlation results, the range of error (95% LOA was broad. This raises questions regarding the reliability of using a manual sphygmomanometer and PPG for the Toe Systolic Pressure and Toe Brachial Indice.

  18. Ankle Brachial Index Compared With Different Lipid Ratios to Predict Coronary Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Nadia Hatmi

    2014-02-01

    Multivariable adjusted relations revealed that HDL-C and #8804;34 Mg/dl significantly increased the risk of future UA, HDL-C and #8804;53 Mg/dl and sedentary life style increased the risk of MI. CONCLUSION: Multivariate adjusted relationships revealed that HDL-C and #8804;34 Mg/dl was a strong predictor of unstable angina pectoris after 15 months of follow up period. HDL-C and #8804;53 Mg/dl and physical inactivity were associated with increased risk of MI after 15 months. Of the lipid ratios the strongest predictors for developing future MI and unstable angina were TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 29-36

  19. Evaluation of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease by Ankle-brachial Index in Patients with Concomitant Coronary Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vakili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. As such, it is found that screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD improves risk assessment. Thus, intensive risk factor modification and medical treatment in these patients are necessary. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with concomitant coronary arterial disease. Methods: Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease was investigated in 400 patients (60% males, 40% females, aged 59.7± 11.3 with a documented coronary arterial disease. Results: Among patients with documented CAD, 12% had asymptomatic PAD with the ABI ratio of less than 0.9. Conclusions: It is advisable to screen for PAD not only as a disease but also as a risk assessment method for atherosclerosis.

  20. Interrater and intrarater reliability of photoplethysmography for measuring toe blood pressure and toe-brachial index in people with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable tool to measure arterial flow to the feet in people with diabetes is required given that they are particularly prone to peripheral arterial disease. Traditionally, the ankle brachial index (ABI has been used to measure arterial circulation, but its application is limited due to calcification of larger arteries. More recently, toe pressure and the toe brachial index (TBI has been suggested as superior to ABI measurements because they assess smaller digital arteries less prone to arterial calcification. However, reliability studies for the clinical use of photoplethysmography (PPG in people with diabetes are lacking. Methods Sixty people with diabetes mellitus (35 males and 25 females, mean age 59.6 yrs consented to take part in the study. The majority (92% had type 2 diabetes and 8% had type 1 diabetes. Forty-three percent were diagnosed as having peripheral neuropathy when tested using a biothesiometer and 15% were current smokers (10 – 40/day. A podiatrist and a diabetes educator measured toe and brachial blood pressure independently and in a random order using PPG. These measurements were repeated again seven days later, and subsequently analysed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, 95% confidence intervals (CI and standard error of measurement (SEM. Results The intrarater reliability of measuring toe pressures was excellent (ICC3,1 =0.78-0.79, SEM 8 mmHg and interrater reliability was also excellent (ICC2,2 = 0.93, SEM 4 mmHg. The intrarater reliability for measuring brachial pressures was generally poor (ICC3,1 = 0.40 – 0.42, SEM 19 mmHg and interrater reliability was fair-good (ICC2,2. 0.65, SEM 14 mmHg. The TBI intrarater reliability was fair-good (ICC3,1 = 0.51-0.72, SEM 0.08, whilst the interrater reliability of TBI was excellent (ICC2,2 = 0.85, SEM 0.07. Conclusions Based on these results, interrater and intrarater reliability of PPG is excellent for measuring toe

  1. Aortic augmentation index in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Antoniazzi, Valeria; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) is used to investigate arterial stiffness. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate a higher AIx and also evaluated several related factors. In 97 patients with PAD, identified by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI ≤ 0.9), and 97 controls (ABPI ≥ 0.91< 1.4), AIx (%) was determined using tonometry of the radial artery. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in characteristics of age, sex, height, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and heart rate. AIx was higher in patients with PAD (32 ± 9 vs 28 ± 9; P = .001). In multivariate regression analysis, AIx was independently associated with heart rate (β = -0.40, P = .0005). This study showed that AIx increased in patients with PAD and that heart rate is a determinant of AIx. Further studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological and clinical importance of AIx in patients with PAD. PMID:25228305

  2. Ankle blood pressure as a predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomaa Veikko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle blood pressure is commonly used as a ratio to the brachial blood pressure, called ankle-brachial index (ABI. Very few studies have considered the independent value of the ankle blood pressure without indexing it to the brachial blood pressure. We examined the value of ankle blood pressure, together with the exercise blood pressure, as a predictor of cardiovascular (CVD and total mortality. Methods A prospective follow-up study of 3,858 consecutive ambulatory patients (mean age 51 years, 65,9% male referred to a symptom-limited exercise test between August 1989 and December 1995. The cohort was followed up for all-cause and CVD mortality until December 31, 2004, by record linkage with the National Causes-of-Death Register. The independent value of ankle blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular and total mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results The average follow-up time was 14 years, during which 346 persons died, 108 of them due to CVD. Persons with normal ( Conclusion These results suggest that the ankle blood pressure has an independent value as a marker of arterial stiffness or subclinical atherosclerosis and a risk of future mortality in middle-aged, asymptomatic persons.

  3. PREVALENCE OF PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS AS MEASURED BY ANKLE TO BRACHIAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ankle - brachial pressure index (ABI, which is the ratio of ankle to brachial systolic blood pressure, is the golden standard for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD and is a highly specific method for the assessment of vascular risk in otherwise asymptomatic patients . ABI value of individual with daily alcohol level >60g/d was significantly lower consumption of less than 60g/d had an inverse association with peripheral atherosclerosis whereas consumption of 60 g/d or more had a positive association. Studies have shown the sensitivity of ABPI is 90% with a corresponding 98% specificity for detecting hemodynamically significant (Serious stenosis >50% in major leg arteries, defined by angiogram. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To determine the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in chronic alcoholics using ankle to brachial index and to compare the values of ankle brachial index in chronic alcoholics with age and sex matched healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In the present study, 50 cases consuming more than 60gm of absolute alcohol per day for more than 12 months attending out p atient department and admitted were enrolled. 50 age and sex matched healthy controls who have never consumed alcohol (never drinkers were also enrolled . After taking detailed history using Doppler ultrasound blood flow detector mean systolic pressure in upper limb and lower limb was calculated and then the mean ABI was calculated. This value was then compared with variables like LDL levels, Triglycerides levels, age, clinical symptoms of PVD, alcohol consumption amount and duration. RESULTS: It was observed that mean ABI was significantly lower (<0.9 in 11(22% cases and majority of them were between age group of 41 - 50 years. Of these only 7(14% showed clinical symptoms of PVD. The prevalence of PVD was 66% in those who consumed 61 - 70 grams alcohol per day for around 6 - 10 years. Results were found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION

  4. Surface‐enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cluff, Kim; Kelly, Abby M.; Koutakis, Panagiotis; He, Xiang N.; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yong Feng; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Casale, George P.; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by atherosclerotic blockages of the arteries supplying the lower extremities, which cause a progressive accumulation of ischemic injury to the skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. This injury includes altered metabolic processes, damaged organelles, and compromised bioenergetics in the affected muscles. The objective of this study was to explore the association of Raman spectral signatures of muscle biochemistry with the severity of ...

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Older People with Intellectual Disability in The Netherlands Using the Ankle-Brachial Index: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Kranendonk, S. E.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Older people with an intellectual disability (ID) have been shown to have similar to increased cardiovascular risks as compared to the general population. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), atherosclerosis distal from the aortic bifurcation, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PAD has not been…

  6. Peripheral and central arterial pressure and its relationship to vascular target organ damage in carotid artery, retina and arterial stiffness. Development and validation of a tool. The Vaso risk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patino-Alonso Maria C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. Tools have been developed that allow estimation of the retinal arteriovenous index but not all studies coincide and there are contradictory results in relation to the evolution of the arteriosclerotic lesions and the caliber of the retinal vessels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between peripheral and central arterial pressure (clinic and ambulatory and vascular structure and function as evaluated by the carotid artery intima-media thickness, retina arteriovenous index, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle-brachial index in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. In turn, software is developed and validated for measuring retinal vessel thickness and automatically estimating the arteriovenous index. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study involving a control group will be made, with a posterior 4-year follow-up period in primary care. The study patients will be type 2 diabetics, with a control group of non-diabetic individuals. Consecutive sampling will be used to include 300 patients between 34-75 years of age and no previous cardiovascular disease, one-half being assigned to each group. Main measurements: age, gender, height, weight and abdominal circumference. Lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose, HbA1c, blood insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial dysfunction markers. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid ultrasound to evaluate IMT, and retinography to evaluate the arteriovenous index. ECG to assess left ventricle hypertrophy, ankle-brachial index, and pulse wave analysis (PWA and pulse wave velocity (PWV with the Sphigmocor

  7. Patologisk ankel-arm indeks hos dialysepasienter

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Pathological ankle-brachial index in dialysispatients Background. Patients in dialysis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pathologic ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a hemodialysis population at Oslo University Hospital Ullevål. Material and methods. For measurement of the ankle- and brachial-blood pressure, we used a Doppler probe and a blood pressure cuff. The measurements were done 1-2 hours into th...

  8. NAO Index: An Extreme Pressure Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major mode of atmospheric winter variability over the North Atlantic. Its current state has long been described by the station‐based NAO Index. This index has been shown to represent winter temperature anomalies over Northern Europe well. Nonetheless, its positions of measurement are stationary and may not catch the moving NAO-pattern’s characteristics sufficiently well to best represent the Scandinavian winter temperature anomalies. A new index bas...

  9. A Novel Index Using Ankle Hemodynamic Parameters to Assess the Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Jun; Gatate, Yodo; Kasai, Takatoshi; Nakano, Shintaro; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Sato, Osamu; Ichioka, Shigeru; Kuro-o, Makoto; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities, the presence of flow-limiting stenoses can be objectively detected by the ankle-brachial index (ABI). However, the severity of ischemic symptoms is not necessarily associated with the ABI value. Atherosclerotic plaque in lower extremity PAD induces ankle arterial stiffness and reduces ankle vascular resistance, which may decrease ankle blood flow and cause ischemic symptoms. We hypothesized that the ankle hemodynamic index (AHI), defined as the ratio of ankle arterial stiffness to ankle vascular resistance, could be used to assess the blood supply deficiency in a diseased lower limb in patients with PAD. The 85 consecutive patients with PAD who were retrospectively analyzed in this study had Rutherford grade 1 to grade 6 ischemia diagnosed as PAD and significant stenotic lesions (>50% diameter stenosis) of the lower extremity on contrast angiography. The AHI was calculated as the product of the ankle pulse pressure and the ratio of heart rate to ankle mean arterial pressure (ankle pulse pressure × heart rate/ankle mean arterial pressure). The Rutherford grade was significantly correlated with the AHI (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), but not with the ABI (r = 0.07, P = 0.52). Multiple ordinal regression analysis showed that anemia (odds ratio 0.66, P = 0.002) and AHI (odds ratio 1.04, P = 0.02) were independently associated with Rutherford grade. Our study shows that AHI, a novel parameter based on the ABI measurement, is well correlated with ischemic symptoms, and may be a useful means to assess the arterial blood supply of the lower extremities of patients with PAD. PMID:27760183

  10. Index Driven Price Pressure in Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    Inclusion and exclusion of bonds from major indices are information-free, monthly events. At these events, liquidity providers get a significant abnormal return by trading against index trackers. The return is highest for bonds that are excluded because of a recent downgrade with a one-day return...... of 356.2 bps (T-stat 2.82). Liquidity provision at exclusions is more profitable than at inclusions because index trackers follow a sampling strategy and returns also increase when liquidity provision becomes more expensive. Furthermore, price reactions following index changes are reversed shortly after...

  11. Ankle blood pressure as a predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Heikki; Pääkkönen, Rauni; Salomaa, Veikko

    2008-01-01

    Background The ankle blood pressure is commonly used as a ratio to the brachial blood pressure, called ankle-brachial index (ABI). Very few studies have considered the independent value of the ankle blood pressure without indexing it to the brachial blood pressure. We examined the value of ankle blood pressure, together with the exercise blood pressure, as a predictor of cardiovascular (CVD) and total mortality. Methods A prospective follow-up study of 3,858 consecutive ambulatory patients (mean age 51 years, 65,9% male) referred to a symptom-limited exercise test between August 1989 and December 1995. The cohort was followed up for all-cause and CVD mortality until December 31, 2004, by record linkage with the National Causes-of-Death Register. The independent value of ankle blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular and total mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results The average follow-up time was 14 years, during which 346 persons died, 108 of them due to CVD. Persons with normal (<140 mmHg) resting brachial blood pressure, ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg and exercise blood pressure at moderate exercise level ≤215 mmHg at baseline investigation, had the best prognosis and were taken as the reference category. Among persons with elevated ankle blood pressure (≥175 mmHg) but normal or borderline resting brachial pressure and normal exercise blood pressure (≤215 mmHg) at moderate exercise level the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval) for CVD and total mortality were 2.70 (1.52 – 4.80) and 2.13 (1.58 – 2.85), respectively. Similar and equally significant HRs were observed in persons with both elevated ankle blood pressure and elevated exercise blood pressure, as well as in those persons with elevated exercise blood pressure but ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg. Conclusion These results suggest that the ankle blood pressure has an independent value as a marker of arterial stiffness or

  12. Phenomenon of declining blood pressure in elderly - high systolic levels are undervalued with Korotkoff method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmståhl Sölve

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systolic blood pressure (SBP decline has been reported in octogenarians. The aim was to study if it could be observed while measuring SBP with two methods: Korotkoff (K-BP and Strain-Gauge-Finger-Pletysmography (SG-BP, and which of them were more reliable in expressing vascular burden. Methods A cohort of 703 men from a population of Malmö, Sweden, were included in "Men born in 1914-study" and followed-up at ages: 68 and 81 years. 176 survivors were examined with K-BP and SG-BP at both ages, and 104 of them with Ambulatory Blood Pressure at age 81/82. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI was measured on both occasions, and Carotid Ultrasound at age 81. Results From age 68 to 81, mean K-BP decreased in the cohort with mean 8.3 mmHg, while SG-BP increased with 13.4 mmHg. K-BP decreased in 55% and SG-BP in 31% of the subjects. At age 81, K-BP was lower than SG-BP in 72% of subjects, and correlated to high K-BP at age 68 (r = --.22; p Conclusion In contrast to K-BP, values of SG-BP in octogenarians strongly correlated with Ambulatory Blood Pressure. The SG-BP decline in the last decade was rare, and increasing SG-BP better than K-BP reflected advanced atherosclerosis. It should be aware, that K-BP underdetected 46% of subjects with SG-BP equal/higher than 140 mmHg at age 81, which may lead to biased associations with risk factors due to differential misclassification by age.

  13. Radiation Pressure and Photon Momentum in Negative-Index Media

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Radiation pressure and photon momentum in negative-index media are no different than their counterparts in ordinary (positive-index) materials. This is because the parameters responsible for these properties are the admittance, sqrt(epsilon/mu), and the group refractive index n_g of the material (both positive entities), and not the phase refractive index, n=sqrt(epsilon*mu), which is negative in negative-index media. One approach to investigating the exchange of momentum between electromagnetic waves and material media is via the Doppler shift phenomenon. In this paper we use the Doppler shift to arrive at an expression for the radiation pressure on a mirror submerged in a negative-index medium. In preparation for the analysis, we investigate the phenomenon of Doppler shift in various settings, and show the conditions under which a so-called "inverse" Doppler shift could occur. We also argue that a recent observation of the inverse Doppler shift upon reflection from a negative-index medium cannot be correct,...

  14. Pulse pressure and michigan neuropathy screening instrument are independently associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease among type 2 diabetes community residents: A community-based screening program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chi Fan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the major manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis and plays an important role in low-extremity amputation in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic PAD in type 2 diabetic community residents. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 552 type 2 diabetic adults (232 men and 320 women without subjective symptoms of intermittent claudication. We defined the PAD group as an ankle-brachial index (ABI ≤ 0.90, and the normal group as an ABI 0.91-1.30. Their clinical characteristics, Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI scores and blood pressure were compared. Results: We discovered that 51 patients have asymptomatic PAD. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, history of stroke, longer duration of diabetes (> 10 years, unemployment or retirement, pulse pressure, systolic blood pressure, and high MNSI score (> 2 were risk factors for PAD. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, pulse pressure, high MNSI score, age, and history of stroke were independent risk factors with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, CI of 1.032 (1.012-1.053, 2.359 (1.274-4.370, 1.050 (1.010-1.091, and 5.152 (1.985-13.368, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of PAD increased significantly with increment in the pulse pressure and MNSI. Conclusions: In summary, the overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the type 2 diabetic adults was 9.2%. Age, history of stroke, pulse pressure and MNSI score may provide important clinical information. Primary care physicians should be aware of asymptomatic patients with high pulse pressure and MNSI scores.

  15. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI as an indicator of arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun CK

    2013-04-01

    an increased vascular tone brought about by smooth muscle contraction. Moreover, certain patient populations, such as those with an ankle-brachial index < 0.9, may give falsely low CAVI and are suggested to be excluded from study. Keywords: cardio-ankle vascular index, stiffness parameter, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, pulse wave velocity

  16. A Proposed New Index for Clinical Evaluation of Interproximal Soft Tissues: The Interdental Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checchi Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interdental pressure index (IPI is introduced to specifically evaluate clinical interproximal-tissue conditions and assess the effect of interproximal hygiene stimulation. This index scores clinical responses of periodontal tissues to the apical pressure of a horizontally placed periodontal probe. It is negative when gingival tissues are firm, bleeding-free, and slightly ischemic by the stimulation; otherwise it is positive. The clinical validation showed high intraoperator agreement (0.92; 95% CI: 0.82–0.96; P=0.0001 and excellent interoperator agreement (0.76; 95% CI: 0.14–1.38; P=0.02. High internal consistency with bleeding on probing (κ=0.88 and gingival index (Cronbach’s α=0.81 was obtained. Histological validation obtained high sensitivity (100% and specificity (80% for IPI+ toward inflammatory active form. The same results were recorded for IPI− toward chronic inactive form. IPI results as a simple and noninvasive method with low error probability and good reflection of histological condition that can be applied for oral hygiene motivation. Patient compliance to oral hygiene instructions is essential in periodontal therapy and IPI index can be a practical and intuitive tool to check and reinforce this important aspect.

  17. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  18. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  19. Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Lost Point Trying to Explain a S-Index Function Line Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eugênio Silva, João Luiz Quaglioti Durigan, Gerson Cipriano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Minahan et al. (2015 recently published a study that examined respiratory strength using a new device, POWERbreathe K5, before and after a strenuous exercise, in comparison with an well-established maneuver to evaluate the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP. In this study, authors have compared a dynamic evaluation of the inspiratory muscles (S-Index with a quasi-isometric evaluation (MIP including a scientific rational about an isokinetic and isometric limb muscles evaluation, even considering that the S-index is not an isokinetic parameter. The authors did not find respiratory muscle fatigue evaluated by these two different parameters before and after whole body exercise protocol. However, the present results may have been influenced by two confounders: 1 The exercise protocol used to induce respiratory muscle fatigue and 2 The learning effect of the test.

  20. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda eKhalaf; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Caroline eRobinson; Cornforth, David J.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Hayder eAl-Aubaidy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated ...

  1. Plantar Pressure Changes and Correlating Risk Factors in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary 2-year Results of a Prospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Qiu; De-Hu Tian; Chang-Ling Han; Wei Chen; Zhan-Jian Wang; Zhen-Yun Mu; Kuan-Zhi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plantar pressure serves as a key factor for predicting ulceration in the feet of diabetes patients.We designed this study to analyze plantar pressure changes and correlating risk factors in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: We recruited 65 patients with type 2 diabetes.They were invited to participate in the second wave 2 years later.The patients completed identical examinations at the baseline point and 2 years later.We obtained maximum force, maximum pressure, impulse, pressure-time integral, and loading rate values from 10 foot regions.We collected data on six history-based variables, six anthropometric variables, and four metabolic variables of the patients.Results: Over the course of the study, significant plantar pressure increases in some forefoot portions were identified (P < 0.05), especially in the second to forth metatarsal heads.Decreases in heel impulse and pressure-time integral levels were also found (P < 0.05).Plantar pressure parameters increased with body mass index (BMI) levels.Hemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) changes were positively correlated with maximum force (β =0.364, P =0.001) and maximum pressure (β =0.366, P =0.002) changes in the first metatarsal head.Cholesterol changes were positively correlated with impulse changes in the lateral portion of the heel (β =0.179, P =0.072) and pressure-time integral changes in the second metatarsal head (β =0.236, P =0.020).Ankle-brachial index (ABI) changes were positively correlated with maximum force changes in the first metatarsal head (β =0.137, P =0.048).Neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and common peroneal nerve sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV) changes were positively correlated with some plantar pressure changes.In addition, plantar pressure changes had a correlation with the appearance of infections, blisters (β =0.244, P =0.014), and calluses over the course of the study.Conclusions: We should pay attention to the BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, ABI, SCV, and NSS

  2. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang;

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions...... multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low-moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24-0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there...

  3. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland–Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (RSpearman = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = −0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: −0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity

  4. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, M; Schmidt, E; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2010-09-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R(Spearman) = 0.92, p agreement: -0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity. PMID:20664157

  5. Indian monsoon variability in relation to Regional Pressure Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Dugam; S B Kakade

    2003-12-01

    In this paper Regional Pressure Index (RPI) over the Indian region (20°N-40°N and 70°E-85°E) has been constructed for 101 years (1899-1999) on a monthly scale. The relationship of these indices was carried out with the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (June-September) (ISMR) over the various homogeneous regions, for all the time scales. From the analysis it has been seen that RPI in the month of May is significantly associated with ISMR over various regions on all the scales. The relationship is statistically significant at 1% level. The study reveals that RPI in the month of May and January will be a new precursor for the long range forecasting of ISMR on the smaller spatial scale. On the decadal and climatological scale, winter and spring time RPI show a significant inverse relationship with the rainfall over the regions Peninsular India (PI) and North West India (NWI), while the association is direct with Central North East India (CNEI) and North East India (NEI). The relationship is significant at 0.1 and 1% level respectively.

  6. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chao Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA. An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Methods: Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR] were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Results: Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%. The area under the curve (AUC of receiver operating characteristic: AUC VBI = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC VR = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  7. Prolonged high-pressure balloon angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions:Impact on stent implantation rate and mid-term outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Mariano Palena; Paolo Cardaioli; Fabio dellAvvocata; Massimo Giordan; Dobrin Vassilev; Marco Manzi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact on stent implantation rate and mid-term outcomes of prolonged high pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 620 consecutive patients from January 2011 to December 2011 (75.6 ±12.3 years, 355 males, 76.5%in Rutherford class 5-6), referred for critical limb ischemia and submitted to prolonged high-pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions. The definition of prolonged high-pressure angioplasty includes dilation to at least 18 atm for at least 120 s. Proce-dural data, and clinical and instrumental follow-up were analyzed to assess stent implantation rate and mid-term outcomes. Results The preferred approach was ipsilateral femoral antegrade in 433/620 patients (69.7%) and contralateral cross-over in 164/620 (26.4%) and pop-liteal retrograde+femoral antegrade in 23/620 (3.7%). Techniques included subintimal angioplasty in 427/620 patients (68.8%) and endolu-minal angioplasty in 193/620 patients (31.2%). The prolonged high pressure balloon angioplasty procedure was successful in 86.2%(minor intra-procedural complications rate 15.7%), stent implantation was performed in 74 patients (11.9%), with a significant improvement of ankle-brachial index (0.29 ±0.6 vs. 0.88 ±0.3, P<00.1) and Rutherford class (5.3 ±0.8 vs. 0.7 ±1.9, P<0.01), a primary patency rate of 86.7%, restenosis of 18.6%on Doppler ultrasound and a target lesion revascularization of 14.8%at a mean follow-up of 18.1 ±6.4 months (range 1-24 months). Secondary patency rate was 87.7%. Conclusions Prolonged high pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions appears to be safe and effective allowing for an acceptable patency and restenosis rates on mid-term.

  8. Refraction index of shock compressed water in the megabar pressure range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batani, D.; Jakubowska, K.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Cavazzoni, C.; Danson, C.; Hall, T.; Kimpel, M.; Neely, D.; Pasley, J.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M.; Telaro, B.

    2015-11-01

    We compressed water to megabar pressures by laser-driven shock waves and evidenced transparent, opaque and reflecting phases as pressure increases. The refraction index of water in the first two states was measured using a VISAR system. At high compression a sharp increase of the real and imaginary part of the refraction index is observed. Experiments were performed at the LULI and RAL laboratories.

  9. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño-Sánchez Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. Methods/Design Design: This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. Setting: The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Study population: Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Measurements: Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The

  10. Pressure dependence of the refractive index in wurtzite and rocksalt indium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, R. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Científiques (CSIC), Lluís Solé i Sabarís s.n., 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); MALTA-Consolider Team, Departament de Física Aplicada, ICMUV, Universitat de València, c/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, València (Spain); Segura, A. [MALTA-Consolider Team, Departament de Física Aplicada, ICMUV, Universitat de València, c/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, València (Spain); Ibáñez, J., E-mail: jibanez@ictja.csic.es; Artús, L. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Científiques (CSIC), Lluís Solé i Sabarís s.n., 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2014-12-08

    We have performed high-pressure Fourier transform infrared reflectance measurements on a freestanding InN thin film to determine the refractive index of wurtzite InN and its high-pressure rocksalt phase as a function of hydrostatic pressure. From a fit to the experimental refractive-index curves including the effect of the high-energy optical gaps, phonons, free carriers, and the direct (fundamental) band-gap in the case of wurtzite InN, we obtain pressure coefficients for the low-frequency (electronic) dielectric constant ε{sub ∞}. Negative pressure coefficients of −8.8 × 10{sup −2 }GPa{sup −1} and −14.8 × 10{sup −2 }GPa{sup −1} are obtained for the wurtzite and rocksalt phases, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the electronic band structure and the compressibility of both phases.

  11. Physiological Correlation of Airway Pressure and Transpulmonary Pressure Stress Index on Respiratory Mechanics in Acute Respiratory Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Pan; Lu Chen; Yun-Hang Zhang; Wei Liu; Rosario Urbino; V Marco Ranieri; Hai-Bo Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Stress index at post-recruitment maneuvers could be a method of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients.However,airway pressure (Paw) stress index may not reflect lung mechanics in the patients with high chest wall elastance.This study was to evaluate the Paw stress index on lung mechanics and the correlation between Paw stress index and transpulmonary pressure (PL) stress index in acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients.Methods:Twenty-four ARF patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively recruited from July 2011 to April 2013 in Zhongda Hospital,Nanjing,China and Ospedale S.Giovanni Battista-Molinette Hospital,Turin,Italy.All patients underwent MV with volume control (tidal volume 6 ml/kg) for 20 min.PEEP was set according to the ARDSnet study protocol.The patients were divided into two groups according to the chest wall elastance/respiratory system elastance ratio.The high elastance group (H group,n =14) had a ratio ≥30%,and the low elastance group (L group,n =10) had a ratio <30%.Respiratory elastance,gas-exchange,Paw stress index,and PL stress index were measured.Student's t-test,regression analysis,and Bland-Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis.Results:Pneumonia was the major cause of respiratory failure (71.0%).Compared with the L group,PEEP was lower in the H group (5.7 ± 1.7 cmH2O vs.9.0 ± 2.3 cm2O,P < 0.01).Compared with the H group,lung elastance was higher (20.0 ± 7.8 cmH2O/L vs.11.6 ± 3.6 cmH2O/L,P < 0.01),and stress was higher in the L group (7.0 ± 1.9 vs.4.9 ± 1.9,P =0.02).A linear relationship was observed between the Paw stress index and the PL stress index in H group (R2 =0.56,P < 0.01) and L group (R2 =0.85,P < 0.01).Conclusion:In the ARF patients with MV,Paw stress index can substitute for PL to guide ventilator settings.

  12. Sex Differences in Peripheral Augmentation Index and Arterial Reservoir Pressure during Upper Limb Postural Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Heffernan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the peripheral hemodynamic response to passive arm postural changes in young men and women. Radial artery pulse waveforms were captured using applanation tonometry in 20 men (age 27 ± 2 yrs, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2 and 20 women (age 27 ± 2 yrs, BMI 23±1 kg/m2. Arm position was maintained at either heart level or supported 14 cm above/below heart level in a randomized fashion. Systolic augmentation index (sAIx and diastolic augmentation index (dAIx were used as estimates of pressure from wave reflections arriving in systole and diastole, respectively. A novel reservoir-wave separation technique was used to obtain arterial reservoir pressure (pressure generated by arterial capacitance. Women showed a significant reduction in radial diastolic pressure-time integral (DPTI (P0.05 or dAIx (P>0.05 when moving the arm from below to above heart level. Conversely, men showed an attenuated change in radial DPTI (P>0.05 concomitant with significant increases in reservoir pressure (P<0.05, sAIx (P<0.05, and dAIx (P<0.05. Gravity-mediated changes in regional hemodynamics produced by passive arm postural shifts are sex specific. Men demonstrate less change in regional diastolic pressure concomitant with increased augmentation index and arterial reservoir pressure.

  13. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Fuglsang, Stefan; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40...... predictors of SV/PP (P index seems to reflect abnormalities in the arterial compliance of these patients....

  14. Expansion duroplasty improves intraspinal pressure, spinal cord perfusion pressure, and vascular pressure reactivity index in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury: injured spinal cord pressure evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Isaac; Werndle, Melissa C; Saadoun, Samira; Varsos, Georgios; Czosnyka, Marek; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2015-06-15

    We recently showed that, after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), laminectomy does not improve intraspinal pressure (ISP), spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP), or the vascular pressure reactivity index (sPRx) at the injury site sufficiently because of dural compression. This is an open label, prospective trial comparing combined bony and dural decompression versus laminectomy. Twenty-one patients with acute severe TSCI had re-alignment of the fracture and surgical fixation; 11 had laminectomy alone (laminectomy group) and 10 had laminectomy and duroplasty (laminectomy+duroplasty group). Primary outcomes were magnetic resonance imaging evidence of spinal cord decompression (increase in intradural space, cerebrospinal fluid around the injured cord) and spinal cord physiology (ISP, SCPP, sPRx). The laminectomy and laminectomy+duroplasty groups were well matched. Compared with the laminectomy group, the laminectomy+duroplasty group had greater increase in intradural space at the injury site and more effective decompression of the injured cord. In the laminectomy+duroplasty group, ISP was lower, SCPP higher, and sPRx lower, (i.e., improved vascular pressure reactivity), compared with the laminectomy group. Laminectomy+duroplasty caused cerebrospinal fluid leak that settled with lumbar drain in one patient and pseudomeningocele that resolved completely in five patients. We conclude that, after TSCI, laminectomy+duroplasty improves spinal cord radiological and physiological parameters more effectively than laminectomy alone.

  15. Can patterns in benthic communities be explained by an environmental pressure index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oigman-Pszczol, Simone S; Creed, Joel C

    2011-10-01

    Many studies have assessed in unison specific biological attributes and certain environmental impacts but few studies have analyzed multiple biological variables and pressures from multiple sites at the same time. Our study's goal was to quantify the major potential human pressures in the shallow subtidal rocky reefs along a tropical Atlantic coast; propose a relative environmental pressure index and investigate the relationships between environmental pressures, the benthic community and coral population attributes. The analysis of human pressures suggests that one-third of sites were under high or very high proportional stress. Sites with high human pressure had lower live cover, higher percent of recent mortality and density of Siderastrea stellata. These relations were species specific. The coral species S. stellata seemed to be the best indicator of present environmental stress. These findings demonstrate the need to include multiple species and stressors in monitoring programs designed to contribute to coastal management initiatives. PMID:21794878

  16. 老年糖尿病糖化血红蛋白与趾臂指数及踝臂指数的关系%Relationship between HbA1c, toe brachial index and ankle brachial index in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍妍

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨老年2型糖尿病患者糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)与趾臂指数(TBI)及踝臂指数(ABI)的关系.方法:将56例老年2型糖尿病患者按照HbA1c的不同,分为两组:A组28例(HbA1c≤6.5%),B组28例(HbA1c>6.5%),分别测定TBI、ABI.结果:A组的1BI、ABI明显高于B组,(P<0.05).结论:TBI、ABI与HbA1c有密切关系,降低HbA1c,强化降糖可改善大动脉顺应性并防治老年2型糖尿病患者微血管病变.

  17. Analysis on influencing factors of cardio-ankle vascular index and ankle brachial index in population of physical examination%体检人群心踝血管指数和踝臂血管指数影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许长瑛; 王永红

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析体检人群中心踝血管指数(CAVI)及踝臂血管指数(ABI)的影响因素.方法 2014年1~12月对纳入研究的11 353例体检对象进行血压、腰围、体质量指数(BMI)、血脂、血糖、白细胞计数、CAVI及ABI的检测.根据CAVI的检测结果分为CAVI正常组(CAVI<9.0 m/s)和CAVI升高组(CAVI≥9.0 m/s),根据ABI的检测结果分为ABI>0.9 m/s组和ABI≤0.9 m/s组.对以上检测项目进行一般因素和二项logistic统计学分析.结果 (1)CAVI正常组和CAVI升高组性别、年龄、BMI、腰围、收缩压、舒张压、白细胞计数、总胆固醇、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、血糖水平比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).(2)ABI>0.9m/s组和ABI≤0.9 m/s组性别、年龄、BMI、腰围、收缩压、舒张压、白细胞计数比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).(3)年龄、腰围、收缩压、白细胞计数、TG、血糖是CAVI的独立危险因素;性别、BMI与CAVI呈负相关(P<0.01).(4)性别、收缩压、白细胞计数是ABI的独立危险因素;年龄、BMI、舒张压与ABI呈负相关(P<0.01).结论 性别、年龄、腰围、收缩压、白细胞计数、TG、血糖是动脉硬化的危险因素,但这些因素在CAVI与ABI的机制中可能不同.

  18. 不同类型冠心病患者的脉搏波传导速度、踝臂指数、趾臂指数与SYNTAX评分的临床研究%Clinical research on pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index,toe brachial index and SYNTAX score in patients with different types of coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿松; 徐洪增; 王琦; 金元哲

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨脉搏波传导速度(PWV)、踝臂指数(ABI)、趾臂指数(TBI)在不同类型冠心病患者中的差异以及与SYNTAX评分的关系,分析其在冠心病诊断中的价值.方法 纳人402例经介入治疗的冠心病患者,分为稳定型心绞痛组、不稳定型心绞痛组、急性心肌梗死组,体检正常的81人作为正常对照组.依据SYNTAX评分,将冠心病患者又分为SYNTAX评分轻度、中度、重度组.比较不同类型冠心病组与正常对照组的PWV、ABI、TBI的差异,比较冠心病不同SYNTAX评分组的PWV、ABI、TBI的差异并分析与SYNTAX评分的相关性.结果 与正常对照组比较,不同类型冠心病PWV值均升高,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义;急性心肌梗死组TBI、ABI值低于正常对照组,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义.PWV与SYNTAX评分呈正相关(r=0.187,P<0.05),TBI与SYNTAX评分呈负相关(r=-0.084,P<0.05),TBI与SYNTAX评分呈负相关(r=-0.193,P<0.01).急性心肌梗死患者SYNTAX评分重度组和中度组PWV值高于轻度组(P<0.05):SYNTAX评分重度组TBI、ABI值高于中度组和轻度组(P<0.05).不稳定型心绞痛患者SYNTAX评分重度组PWV值高于中度组和轻度组,中度组PWV值高于轻度组(均P<0.05);SYNTAX评分重度组TBI、ABI低于轻度组(P<0.05).稳定型心绞痛患者SYNTAX评分重度组PWV值高于轻度组和中度组(均P<0.05);SYNTAX评分重度组ABI值低于轻度组(P<0.05).结论 PWV对不同类型冠心病的SYNTAX评分的预测(即冠状动脉病变的解剖及严重的程度判断)具有一定的临床价值;ABI、TBI对冠心病的诊断无临床价值,对不同类型冠心病患者的病变解剖及病变程度的临床指导价值不如PWV.

  19. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E;

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40....../PP on one side and age, sex, body weight, portal pressure, systemic hemodynamics, biochemical variables, and severity of disease on the other. In the multiple-regression analysis, sex, age, mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and biochemical variables were significant independent...

  20. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  1. Estimation of Pressure Index and Temperature Sensitivity Coefficient of Solid Rocket Propellants by Static Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shekhar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Burning rate of a solid rocket propellant depends on pressure and temperature. Conventional strand burner and Crawford bomb test on propellant strands was conducted to assess these dependent parameters. However, behaviour of propellant in rocket motor is different from its behaviour in strand form. To overcome this anomaly, data from static evaluation of rocket motor was directly used for assessment of these burningrate controlling parameters. The conventional empirical power law (r=aoexp[p{T-To}]Pn was considered and a method was evolved for determination of pressure index (n and temperature sensitivity coefficient (p of burning rate for solid rocket propellants from static evaluation data. Effect of pressure index and temperature sensitivity coefficient on firing curve is also depicted. Propellant grain was fired in progressive mode to cover a very wide pressure range of 50 kg/cm2 to 250 kg/cm2 and propellant burning rate index was calculated to be 0.32 in the given pressure range. Propellant grain was fired at +35 °C and –20 °C temperatures and temperature sensitivity coefficient of burning rate was calculated to be 0.27 % per °C. Since both the values were evaluated from realised static evaluation curves, these are more realistic and accurate compared to data generated by conventional methods.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6, pp.666-669, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1573

  2. Daily liquorice consumption for two weeks increases augmentation index and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia H Leskinen

    Full Text Available Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively.Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290-370 mg with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls.Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P<0.05, and increased extracellular volume by 0.5 litres (P<0.05 versus controls. Also augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 7% to 11%, 95% CI for change 0.3-7.5, P<0.05 and aortic pulse pressure (by 4 mmHg, 95% CI 1-7, P<0.05 were elevated indicating increased wave reflection from the periphery. In contrast, peripheral (-3/-0.3 mmHg and central blood pressure (-2/-0.5 mmHg, aortic pulse pressure (-1 mmHg, and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 9% to 7% decreased numerically but not statistically significantly without changes in extracellular volume in the control group. Heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and pulse wave velocity did not differ between the groups.Two weeks of daily liquorice consumption increased extracellular volume, amplified pressure wave reflection from the periphery, and elevated central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2006-002065-39 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702.

  3. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  4. Studies on Composite Extrudable Propellant with varied Burning Rate Pressure Index 'n'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Varghese

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of composite propellantextrusion technique and the study of burning rate pressure indices nwith respect to compositional variations. The n is found to vary from0.35 to plateau and plateau to mesa by suitable compositionalmodifications. Compositional influence on burning rate with specificreference to plateau and mesaburning additives is described. Detailsof the process parameters like fluidity of the slurry, extrusion pressure,extrusion rate and die-swell are presented. This propellant is based onISRO-CTPB binder using ISRO-AP as oxidizer. Ammonium perchlorate (AP particle size variation and inclusion of additives likePVC, lead stearate, ammonium sulphate, lithium fluoride etc. are foundto influence the burning rate pressure index n.

  5. Efeito da terapia antirretroviral e dos níveis de carga viral no complexo médio-intimal e no índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes infectados pelo HIV Antirretroviral therapy effect in the intima-medio complex and ankle-brachial index in patients infected by HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Tenório Albuquerque Madruga Godoi; Carlos Teixeira Brandt; Jocelene Tenório Albuquerque Madruga Godoi; Heloísa Ramos de Lacerda; Valéria Maria Gonçalves de Albuquerque; Josefina Cláudia Zirpoli; Juannicelle Tenório Albuquerque Madruga Godoi; Camila Sarteschi

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Identificar precocemente a prevalência de aterosclerose, por causa do espessamento do complexo médio-intimal das carótidas comuns e do índice tornozelo-braço. Essas medidas foram relacionadas com os fatores de risco clássicos de aterosclerose e os específicos dos infectados pelo HIV (tempo de doença, tempo de tratamento, tipo de tratamento, tipo de terapia antirretroviral utilizada, CD4 e carga viral). MÉTODOS: Setenta casos infectados com o HIV foram avaliados pela medida automáti...

  6. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  7. Effect of Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy on blood gas indexes and serum indexes of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Xin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze effect of Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy on blood gas indexes and serum indexes of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients. Methods: 116 cases of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients treated in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group (58 cases) who received Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy, and control group (58 cases) who received plain noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy. Then differences of blood gas indexes, serum inflammatory factor levels and serum prognosis-related factor levels of both groups were compared. Results: 1) after treatment, artery blood PaO2 and PH level of observation group were higher than those of control group; PaCO2 level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); 2) after treatment, serum factor levels of IL-13, IL-18, sICAM-1, PGE2 and hs-CRP, etc of observation group were all significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); 3) after treatment, serum α1-AT, D-Dimer and BNP levels of observation group were lower than those of control group; FT3 level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy helps to improve ventilation and oxygenation levels of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients, reduce systemic inflammatory response and optimize prognosis-related indexes.

  8. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  9. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-01-01

    Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, body mass index (BMI) and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observation...

  10. Methodology for Calculating a Complex Index for Assessing the Pressure of Regional Indicators on Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the correlations between regional employment in public administration and several major phenomena, starting from the case of Romania’s regions trying to find a territorial statistical solution for measuring the process itself. In this article, especially in its own methodology and methods, the territorial index is estimated as a result of the pressure of other major regional factors, synthesized by specific indicators and indices. The first section describes some conceptual and legal aspects of the regional employment level in public administration and contemporary statistical delimitation of regions in Romania. The second section underlines the originality of the methods and methodology, and the third section defines the three characteristics of the new solutions: the relative temporal, spatial and structural proportionality, the relative trends of an adequate econometric model, and the limits of regional concentration and diversification using the Gini-Struck coefficient in an ABC curve. The analysis of the complexity and impact of the new statistical instruments on regional employment in public administration, its characteristic Romanian limits and the final conclusion show that only an original methodology, some innovative methods and new statistical instruments lead to a better and adequate solution for an optimum level of employment.

  11. Intramuscular pressure and electromyography as indexes of force during isokinetic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratow, M.; Ballard, R. E.; Grenshaw, A. G.; Styf, J.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    A direct method for measuring force production of specific muscles during dynamic exercise is presently unavailable. Previous studies indicate that both intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) correlate linearly with muscle contraction force during isometric exercise. The objective of this study was to compare IMP and EMG as linear assessors of muscle contraction force during dynamic exercise. IMP and surface EMG activity were recorded during concentric and eccentric isokinetic plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of nine male volunteers. Ankle torque was measured using a dynamometer, and IMP was measured via catheterization. IMP exhibited better linear correlation than EMG with ankle joint torque during concentric contractions of the SOL and the TA, as well as during eccentric contractions. IMP provides a better index of muscle contraction force than EMG during concentric and eccentric exercise through the entire range of torque. IMP reflects intrinsic mechanical properties of individual muscles, such as length-tension relationships, which EMG is unable to assess.

  12. Mean transit time as an index of cerebral perfusion pressure in experimental systemic hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease requires the accurate identification of brain regions with compromised cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Current clinical measures of CPP are invasive and lack regional information. Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging provides a means of looking at regional cerebral hemodynamics. The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the parameters associated with dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging could be used as an index for CPP under graded systemic hypotension in a rabbit model. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) were measured using Computed Tomography Perfusion in three groups: normotensive (n = 14), mild hypotensive (n = 9), and moderate hypotensive (n = 6). MTT demonstrated the strongest correlation with CPP (ρ = −0.642, P < 0.05). CBF was the only other parameter to demonstrate a statistically significant correlation (ρ = 0.575, P < 0.05). CVR is gaining momentum for diagnosing cerebrovascular disease; however, the technique requires patients to be given a hemodynamic challenge, which could aggravate symptoms and even trigger stroke. The results of this study suggest that the use of MTT, not requiring hemodynamic manipulation, is more sensitive to subtle changes in CPP, as would occur in the early stages of cerebrovascular disease

  13. Quantitative Doppler ultrasound evaluation of occlusive arterial disease in the lower limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Sillesen, H; Hansen, H J

    1988-01-01

    duration of PRT was used for comparison with ankle/brachial pressure index (A/B index) and angiography. A highly significant correlation was found between PRT and A/B index (r = -0.75, P less than 0.001). Based on receiver operating characteristic curves an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90% in diagnosing......Forty consecutive patients with lower limb arterial disease were evaluated using a multi-gated pulsed Doppler system. Doppler signals were sampled at 4 sites in each limb, and following spectral analysis, the pulse rise time (PRT) was measured. The value obtained at the location giving the longest...

  14. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Combine with Salvia Injection Cura the Below Knee Vascular Lesion of Diabetic By Pressurize Injection%长球囊联合丹参注射液加压注射治疗糖尿病膝下血管病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路延平; 张健; 张孟增; 王瑞锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察长球囊血管腔内成形术(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,PTA)联合丹参注射液,腔内加压注射治疗糖尿病膝下血管病变的疗效.方法 19例糖尿病患者共23条膝下动脉硬化闭塞肢体,首先采用长球囊开通狭窄、闭塞的血管,再联合丹参注射液腔内加压注射治疗.术后观察踝/肱指数、通畅率、溃疡愈合时间及临床症状的改善.结果 21条患肢得到成功治疗,技术成功率91.3%(21/23).踝/肱指数(ankle brachial index,ABI)由术前的0.31±0.14上升为术后的0.71±0.18,与术前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).术后随访3~10个月,13条患肢(61.9%)间歇性跛行、患肢静息痛等临床症状基本消失,足背或胫后动脉搏动恢复;8条(38.1%)患肢明显缓解.6条肢体术前伴足趾溃疡者,术后创面均愈合;1条足趾坏疽肢体清创换药23天后行截趾术,术后切口愈合良好.术后1、3、6个月通畅率分别为95.2%、85.7%、61.9%.结论 腔内加压注射丹参注射液作为长球囊PTA微创治疗糖尿病合并膝下血管病变的补充,可促进动脉侧支血管生成,改善血供,改善微循环,促进糖尿病足溃疡面愈合,近期疗效好、通畅率高,值得推广.%Objective Review the curative effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty ( PTA) combined with salvia injection to the below knee vascular lesion of diabetic. Methods Collect 19 diabetics with together 23 inferior genicular artery blunting. First, remove obstacles from angusty or obliterative blood vessel by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) , then begin intracavitary pressurize injection used the salvia miltiorrhiza, and observe the ankle brachial index (ABI) ,patency rate, the time of anabrosis healing and the amelioration of clinical symptom. Results The 21 affected limb of them were Curat successfully,the achievement ratio of technique was 91.3% (21/23). ABI ascensus from 0. 31 ± 0. 14 of preoperative to 0. 71

  15. Exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement has good sensitivity and specificity to detect lower extremity arterial stenosis assessed by computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Caroline; Chauve, Emmanuel; Chaudru, Ségolène; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Jaquinandi, Vincent; Mahé, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent disease diagnosed by the use of ankle-brachial index (ABI) at rest. In some clinical conditions (diabetes, renal insufficiency, advanced age), ABI can be falsely normal and other tests are required for the PAD diagnosis (American Heart Association statement). This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (exercise-TcPo2) in detection of arterial stenosis ≥50% using computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the gold standard.We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients referred to our vascular unit (University Hospital, Rennes, France) for exercise-TcPo2 testing from 2014 to 2015. All included patients had a CTA performed within 3 months of the exercise-TcPo2 test. Exercise-TcPo2 was performed on treadmill (10% slope; 2 mph speed). We calculated the Delta from Resting Oxygen Pressure (DROP) index (expressed in mm Hg) at the proximal and distal levels. Two blinded physicians performed stenosis quantification on CTA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define a cutoff point to detect arterial stenosis ≥50%, stenosis ≥60%, and stenosis ≥70%.A total of 34 patients (mean age 64 ± 2 years old; 74% men) were analyzed. The highest areas under the curve (AUC) were found for 60% stenosis at both proximal and distal levels. For stenosis ≥50%, sensitivity and specificity of proximal minimal DROP were 80.9% [67.1-89.7], 81.0% [59.3-92.7] respectively. For stenosis ≥50%, sensitivity and specificity of distal minimal DROP were 73.2% [60.3-83.1], 83.3% [53.8-96.2], respectively. For stenosis ≥60%, sensitivity and specificity of proximal minimal DROP were 82.5% [67.6-91.5] and 85.7% [67.7-94.8] respectively. For stenosis ≥60%, sensitivity and specificity of distal minimal DROP were 80.4% [67.3-89.1] and 88.2% [64.2-97.7], respectively. For stenosis ≥70%, sensitivity and specificity of proximal minimal DROP were 85

  16. Design and methodology for calculating the environmental pressure index as a tool for environmental land planning: the case of Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to provide a practical tool to carry out environmental planning and management processes regarding the use of space, in a complex way including not only biophysical but socioeconomic criteria. In the context of river basin management the Environmental Social Pressure Index was created. This paper presents an Environmental Planning and Management definition, based on the Ecological Supporting Structure, as well as one of sustainability, worked out of several authors. This work offers the methodological sequence to design and calculate a customized Environmental Social Pressure Index according to the specific features of any given territory, using the conceptual framework developed earlier and the multivariate analysis and power laws tools. Finally we present an exercise to illustrate this process, developed for Cundinamarca for 1995

  17. Markers of inflammation and hemodynamic measurements in obesity: Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla; Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Jensen, Jan S;

    2009-01-01

    ) > or =30 kg/m2, free of major cardiovascular diseases, not taking BP-lowering or lipid-lowering drugs (n = 487; women = 51.1%; median (5th to 95th percentile) age = 62 years (36-80)). The cardiovascular study included measurements of traditional and new risk factors, including ankle brachial BP index...... was to investigate the relationship between two markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and blood pressure (BP) and other hemodynamic variables in obese subjects. METHODS: From a large cardiovascular study based in the general population, we selected subjects with a body mass index (BMI...

  18. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on estuarine fish nurseries along the Portuguese coast: a multi-metric index and conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R P; Reis-Santos, P; Fonseca, V; Maia, A; Ruano, M; França, S; Vinagre, C; Costa, M J; Cabral, H

    2007-03-15

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems and simultaneously among the most threatened by conflicting human activities which damage their ecological functions, namely their nursery role for many fish species. A thorough assessment of the anthropogenic pressures in Portuguese estuarine systems (Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) was made applying an aggregating multi-metric index, which quantitatively evaluates influences from key components: dams, population and industry, port activities and resource exploitation. Estuaries were ranked from most (Tejo) to least pressured (Mira), and the most influential types of pressure identified. In most estuaries overall pressure was generated by a dominant group of pressure components, with several systems being afflicted by similar problematic sources. An evaluation of the influence of anthropogenic pressures on the most important sparidae, soleidae, pleuronectidae, moronidae and clupeidae species that use these estuaries as nurseries was also performed. To consolidate information and promote management an ecological conceptual model was built to identify potential problems for the nursery function played by these estuaries, identifying pressure agents, ecological impacts and endpoints for the anthropogenic sources quantified in the assessment. This will be important baseline information to safeguard these vital areas, articulating information and forecasting the potential efficacy of future management options.

  19. The Women’s Health Initiative: the Food Environment, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Dubowitz, T.; Ghosh-Dastidar, B; Eibner, C; Slaughter, M.E.; Fernandes, M; Whitsel, E.A.; Bird, C E; Jewell, A; Margolis, K L.; Li, W.; Michael, Y.; Shih, R; Manson, J.; Escarce, J J

    2011-01-01

    Using data (n=60,775 women) from the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)— a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years — we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman’s residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP).

  20. The area of the pressure-flow loop for assessment of arterial stenosis: a new index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava; Einav, Shmuel; Zaretsky, Uri; Castel, David; Toledo, Eran; Eldar, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This study describes a novel method for assessing stenotic severity, based on simultaneous pressure and flow wave measurements. Pressure and flow measurements were performed in latex and rubber tubes, and in a clinically-used vascular graft. Pressure waves were recorded at several degrees of stenosis and at different distances proximal to the stenosis. Pressure wave versus flow wave was plotted. Internal pressure-flow loop area (PFLA), loop slope and pressure-axis intercept were calculated. Values of these three indices significantly increased with increasing degrees of stenosis P sensor and stenosis (R2 > 0.96). In addition, tube compliance was measured and found to correlate with the polynomial coefficients (/R/ > 0.9). This innovative approach could significantly contribute to detecting and evaluating arterial stenoses, and to characterize the elasticity of the artery. PMID:11847447

  1. Pressure Sensing in High-Refractive-Index Liquids Using Long-Period Gratings Nanocoated with Silicon Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon nitride (SiNx nanocoated long-period grating (LPG. The high-temperature, radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited (RF PECVD SiNx nanocoating was applied to tune the sensitivity of the LPG to the external refractive index. The technique allows for deposition of good quality, hard and wear-resistant nanofilms as required for optical sensors. Thanks to the SiNx nanocoating it is possible to overcome a limitation of working in the external-refractive-index range, which for a bare fiber cannot be close to that of the cladding. The nanocoated LPG-based sensing structure we developed is functional in high-refractive-index liquids (nD > 1.46 such as oil or gasoline, with pressure sensitivity as high as when water is used as a working liquid. The nanocoating developed for this experiment not only has the highest refractive index ever achieved in LPGs (n > 2.2 at λ = 1,550 nm, but is also the thinnest (

  2. Postoperative noninvasive evaluation of femorotibial bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates the value of conducting frequent postoperative examinations that include recordings of the Doppler velocity tracings and measurements of the ankle brachial index (ABI) of systolic pressure. In a study conducted in the authors' laboratory, these measurements revealed significant decreases in the ABIs of 11 patients, signaling the need for arteriograms and corrective surgery. Obstructive changes in the Doppler velocity tracings, which may occur before significant decreases in ankle pressure, were also noted. Because the laboratory criteria are more sensitive than the history or physical examination, the authors recommend systematic postoperative examination of patients in the vascular laboratory

  3. Nitroglycerin reduces augmentation index and central blood pressure independent of effects on cardiac preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-min Liu; Xiao-lin Niu; Ben-yu Jiang; Mike Saddon; Karen McNeil; Philip Chowienczyk

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reduction In central pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by nitroglycerine (NTG) results from effects on pre-lead or is due to arterial dilation. Methods We compared effects of NTG with these of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Hemodyunmic measurements were made at rest, during LBNP (10, 20 and 30 mmHg, each for 15 min) and after NTG (10, 30 and 100μg/min, each dose for 15 min) in ten healthy volunteers. Cardiac pre-lead, stroke volume and cardiac output were assessed by echacardiography. Central pressure an mnentation and central systolic pressure were obtained by radial tonometry using a transfer function. Results LBNP (20 mmHg) and NTG (30μg/min) reduced pre-lead (as measured by the peak velocity of the S wave in the superior vena eava) to a similar degree [by (26. 8 ± 3.8) % and (23.9 ± 3. 4) %, respectively]. Compared to LBNP, NTG reduced systemic vascular resistance [by (32. 9 ± 7.5) %, p< 0. 01], decreased peripheral and central pressure augmentation [by (20. 8 ± 3. 4)% units and (12. 9±2. 9)% units, respectively, each P< 0. 01]. Conclusion These results suggest that a reduction in pre-load does not explain reduction in pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by NTG and that these effects are mediated through arterial dilation.

  4. Yearly evolution of organ damage markers in diabetes or metabolic syndrome: data from the LOD-DIABETES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez Emiliano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease morbidity-mortality is greater in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the yearly evolution of organ damage markers in diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and to analyze the associated factors. Methods An observational prospective study was carried out in the primary care setting, involving 112 patients: 68 diabetics and 44 subjects with metabolic syndrome, subjected to 12 months of follow-up. Measurements: traditional cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, smoking, body mass index (BMI and and non-traditional risk factors (waist circumference, hsC Reactive Protein and fibrinogen; subclinical vascular (carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity and ankle/brachial index, cardiac (Cornell voltage-duration product, renal organ damage (creatinine, glomerular filtration and albumin/creatinine index, and antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs. Results At baseline, the diabetics presented a mean age of 59.9 years, versus 55.2 years in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.03. Diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were lower among the patients with diabetes, while blood glucose and HbA1c, as well as antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug use, were greater. At evaluation after one year, the diabetics showed a decrease in BMI (-0.39, diastolic blood pressure (-3.59, and an increase in fibrinogen (30.23 mg/dL, ankle/brachial index (0.07 and the number of patients with ankle/brachial index pathologic decreased in 6. In turn, the patients with metabolic syndrome showed an increase in HDL-cholesterol (1-91 mg/dL, fibrinogen (25.54 mg/dL, Cornell voltage-duration product (184.22 mm/ms, ankle/brachial index (0.05 and the use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs, and a reduction in serum glucose (3.74 mg/dL, HOMA, systolic (-6.76 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (-3.29 mmHg, and

  5. Nitroglycerin reduces augmentation index and central blood pressure independent of effects on cardiac preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike; Saddon; Karen; McNeil; Philip; Chowienczyk

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reduction in central pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by nitroglycerine (NTG) results from effects on pre-load or is due to arterial dilation. Methods We compared effects of NTG with those of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Hemodynamic measurements were made at rest,during LBNP (10,20 and 30 mmHg,each for 15 min) and after NTG (10,30 and 100 μg/min,each dose for 15 min) in ten healthy volunteers. Cardiac pre-load,stroke volume and cardiac output w...

  6. Daily Liquorice Consumption for Two Weeks Increases Augmentation Index and Central Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Miia H.; Hautaniemi, Elina J.; Tahvanainen, Anna M.; Koskela, Jenni K.; Päällysaho, Marika; Tikkakoski, Antti J.; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively. Methods Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290–370 mg) with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls. Results Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702 PMID:25153328

  7. Change in pulse pressure/stroke index in response to sustained blood pressure reduction and its impact on left ventricular mass and geometry changes: the life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmieri, V.; Bella, J.N.; Gerdts, E.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In cross-sectional data in hypertensive subjects, brachial pulse pressure (PP)/Doppler stroke index (SVi), (PP/SVi) correlates weakly but significantly with left ventricular (LV) mass and relative wall thickness (RWT). METHODS: In the Losartan Intervention For End-point reduction...... in hypertension (LIFE) study, we evaluated the impact of antihypertensive treatment on change of PP/SVi as raw indicator of systemic arterial stiffness, and further explored the impact of the change in PP/SVi on the change in LV mass and RWT. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, mean PP/SVi reduction was -13% at year 1...... and not statistically significant at year 2 follow-up. Losartan- or atenolol-based treatments were associated with comparable reduction of PP/SVi. At year 2 follow-up, reduced PP/SVi was associated with greater reductions in mean blood pressure (BP) and heart rate and greater increase in SVi, but not with lower LV mass...

  8. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, body mass index (BMI and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observational study done in medical undergraduate students. 25 students were included in the study group (offsprings of diabetic parents-cases and 23 students in the control group (offsprings without diabetic history in parents. Height, weight, blood pressure and intraocular pressure were recorded in both the groups and these were compared. Statistical analysis was done by student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation. Results: Cases exhibited a lower IOP, BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but not SBP, as compared to controls. These differences, however, were not statistically significant except DBP. There was a negative correlation found between IOP and BMI and also between IOP and MAP in cases, whereas in controls, there was a positive correlation found between BMI and IOP and no correlation between IOP and MAP. Conclusion: Offsprings of diabetic patients may be less prone for primary open angle glaucoma. Limitations: The limitations of the present study include a smaller sample size, study of the results in relation to paternal or maternal diabetic status and also of grandparents, so that the inheritance of diabetes and also of IOP can be studied.

  9. Prospective comparison of noninvasive techniques for amputation level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study prospectively compared the following tests for their accuracy in amputation level selection: transcutaneous oxygen, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, transcutaneous oxygen-to-transcutaneous carbon dioxide, foot-to-chest transcutaneous oxygen, intradermal xenon-133, ankle-brachial index, and absolute popliteal artery Doppler systolic pressure. All metabolic parameters had a high degree of statistical accuracy in predicting amputation healing whereas none of the other tests had statistical reliability. Amputation site healing was not affected by the presence of diabetes mellitus nor were the test results for any of the metabolic parameters

  10. Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Dong-gu Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su-Hyun; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, few studies have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore aimed to investigate whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with increased risk of PAD in the Korean population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,960 subjects aged 50 years or older without known myocardial infarction or stroke. PAD was defined by an ankle brachial blood pressure index vitamin D levels may contribute to PAD in the Korean population.

  11. An uncommon clinical presentation of acute limb ischemia: underscoring the role of perigenicular collaterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Kapoulas, Konstantinos; Koukoumtzis, Dimitris; Mantatzis, Michalis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of atypical acute limb ischemia in a non-diabetic patient, with ankle-brachial pressure index of 0.6 and rest pain localized exclusively over the gastrocnemius muscle, sparing the foot. This uncommon presentation was attributed to an impaired perigenicular collateral network. Thrombolysis restored adequate perfusion only temporarily and was followed by thromboembolectomy. The ischemia presentation in our case underscores the importance of the adequacy of the perigeniculate collateral network for the perfusion of the tibial muscles and, especially, the gastrocnemius muscle. PMID:22416262

  12. High risk of peripheral arterial disease in the United Kingdom: 2-year results of a prospective registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansby, Gerard; Mister, Rebecca; Fowkes, Gerry; Roughton, Michael; Nugara, Fiona; Brittenden, Julie; Bradbury, Andrew; Ashley, Simon; Shearman, Cliff; Hannon, Ray; Flather, Marcus

    2011-02-01

    We report a prospective 2-year, multicenter study of patients presenting with intermittent claudication (IC; ankle brachial blood pressure index, ABPI ≤ 0.9). Mean age of the 473 patients enrolled was 68 years, 20% were diabetics, 30% had prior symptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD), 7% had prior stroke, and 39% were current smokers. At baseline, 26.2% of patients had BP ≤ 140/85 mm Hg or lower and at 2 years this figure was 32.5% (P = .01). Current smokers had fallen to 27% (from 39%) at 2 years (P ABPI. PMID:21220371

  13. Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Dong-gu Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su-Hyun; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Shin, Min-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, few studies have evaluated the association between vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore aimed to investigate whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with increased risk of PAD in the Korean population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,960 subjects aged 50 years or older without known myocardial infarction or stroke. PAD was defined by an ankle brachial blood pressure index vitamin D levels may contribute to PAD in the Korean population. PMID:27689032

  14. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A; Dargis, V; Thomsen, J K;

    2005-01-01

    was conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 months. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time or wound area reduction...... between the two treatment protocols. The test dressing (Alione Hydrocapillary) had better absorption capacity and was more comfortable for the patients than the comparator dressings (Tielle/Tielle Plus) and adhered less to the wound bed.Also, more patients preferred the test dressing to their previous...

  15. Instability of development and fractal architecture in dryland plants as an index of grazing pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.; Wachocki, B.; Freeman, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental instability has been used to monitor the well-being of natural populations exposed to physical, chemical and biological stressors. Here, we use developmental instability to assess the impact of grazing on Chrysothamnus greenii and Seriphidium novumshrubs, and Oryzopsis hymenoidesgrass, common in the arid intermountain west of the U.S.A. Statistical noise in allometric relations was used as an indicator of developmental instability arising from grazing-induced stress. Unpalatable species that are not grazed (Chrysothamnus greenii) or species that are dormant during the winter–spring grazing period (Oryzopsis hymenoides) show lower allometric variability under high grazing pressure. Palatable species (Seriphidium novum) exhibit high developmental instability under low and high grazing pressure. Grazing pressure imposed by presumably co-adapted wild herbivores enhances developmental stability in species habituated to moderate grazing, likeOryzopsis hymenoides, but stresses plants such as Chrysothamnus greenii that prefer disturbed environments. These grazing effects are probably due to the impact grazing has on competitive relationships and not to the direct action of the herbivore on the plants.

  16. ASSOCIATION OF BODY MASS INDEX WITH INTERARM BLOOD PRESSURE DIFFERENCE: A COMPARATIVE AND CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namala Surya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The major health problem faced by the 13% of world population is obesity and this obesity and overweight may lead to many health consequences such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some cancers to mention a few. Objective of present study is to find the relation between the increased BMI and the interarm blood pressure difference. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 180 subjects with age ranging from 18 to 50 years. They were divided into two groups based on the BMI. Subjects with normal BMI (25Kg/M2. The study was conducted in the GSL Medical College and General Hospital, Rajahmundry. RESULTS On comparing the results in overweight subjects in the age group of 40-50 were found to have interarm difference in the mean systolic blood pressure of more than 10mmHg, i.e. Mean value of 13.04+ 2.34(<0.001. CONCLUSION The overweight individuals with age more than 40 years, there is interarm difference in the mean systolic blood pressure, which is an indicator of peripheral vascular disease.

  17. Emission Characteristics of High Color Rendering Index Low-Pressure Xe and CO ICP's Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Ahmad; Kondo, Akira; Motomura, Hideki; Jinno, Masafumi

    High color rendering index (CRI) has been obtained from mercury-free ICP’s lamp. Due to the strong demand on the development of mercury-free light sources, the authors investigated xenon and CO as an alternative element. These rare (Xe) and molecule (CO) gases have been used as a substitute for mercury as the environmental problems related necessitate the development of new type of light sources. The target of this study is to develop a new type of mercury-free lamp without using a phosphor where the authors concentrate on how to obtain a strong visible light instead of UV. In this paper, the colors, luminance and emission characteristics of these types of mercury-free ICP’s lamp is discussed. Without the use of phosphor, the authors obtained a good color rendering from xenon and CO ICP’s lamp where their CRI’s above 90. A strong continuum emission in visible region is obtained where luminance are ranged from 2000 to 25000 cd/m2 at 100 W of input power. Spectral distribution shows the continuum emissions are similar to the daylight distribution and chromaticity diagrams shows they are close to white region in color coordinates and color temperatures bringing a high index of the lamp’s color rendering.

  18. Quantitative analysis of replication-related mutation and selection pressures in bacterial chromosomes and plasmids using generalised GC skew index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Haruo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their bi-directional replication machinery starting from a single finite origin, bacterial genomes show characteristic nucleotide compositional bias between the two replichores, which can be visualised through GC skew or (C-G/(C+G. Although this polarisation is used for computational prediction of replication origins in many bacterial genomes, the degree of GC skew visibility varies widely among different species, necessitating a quantitative measurement of GC skew strength in order to provide confidence measures for GC skew-based predictions of replication origins. Results Here we discuss a quantitative index for the measurement of GC skew strength, named the generalised GC skew index (gGCSI, which is applicable to genomes of any length, including bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. We demonstrate that gGCSI is independent of the window size and can thus be used to compare genomes with different sizes, such as bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. It can suggest the existence of different replication mechanisms in archaea and of rolling-circle replication in plasmids. Correlation of gGCSI values between plasmids and their corresponding host chromosomes suggests that within the same strain, these replicons have reproduced using the same replication machinery and thus exhibit similar strengths of replication strand skew. Conclusions gGCSI can be applied to genomes of any length and thus allows comparative study of replication-related mutation and selection pressures in genomes of different lengths such as bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. Using gGCSI, we showed that replication-related mutation or selection pressure is similar for replicons with similar machinery.

  19. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  20. [A novel approach of using fouling index to evaluate NOM fouling behavior during low pressure ultrafiltration process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Jing-Hui; Qin, Tong; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Jin-Rong; Xu, Guang

    2012-12-01

    In this study, fouling index (FI) was introduced as a novel approach to investigate NOM fouling behavior during low pressure membrane ultrafiltration process. Three kinds of typical NOMs, humic acid (HA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sodium alginate (NaAlg), were used in the experiments. The results indicated that the fouling caused by NOM can be considered as two steps with different FI values. One is the fast fouling phase, and the other is the slow phase. Apparently, the total fouling index of the fast phase (TFI(F)) was much greater than that of the slow phase (TFI(S)), which means the initial interaction between NOM and membrane would play a significant role in the whole fouling process. A higher TFI(F) could lead to a faster fouling and the flux would decline more rapidly. After hydraulic washing, the flux was recovered and the resistance was reduced, indicating that physical cleaning could remove a part of foulants. Additionally, the results also represented that the sequences of NOM causing irreversible fouling and chemical clean irreversible fouling were BSA > HA > NaAlg and NaAlg > BSA > HA, respectively. Humic acid and protein tended to cause irreversible fouling and were easily removed by alkaline cleaning, while irreversible fouling caused by polysaccharide was difficult to remove by alkaline. The main cause of membrane fouling may be the interaction between foulants and membrane, which needs further research. Generally speaking, FI with a simple expression would play a significant role to describe the membrane fouling. PMID:23379159

  1. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  2. Oportunidades Program Participation and Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBA, Xiaohui Hou, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionGovernments around the world are seeking to address the increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an incentive-based development program (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa on body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, and self-reported health.MethodsAn intervention group of low-income (below the 20th percentile nationally, rural, Mexican adults (aged 30–65 years (n = 5280 received program benefits (cash transfers contingent on positive changes in health behavior such as regular health checkups for 3.5 to 5.0 years. They were compared with a newly recruited control group of adults (n = 1063 who had not yet begun receiving benefits. Analyses were adjusted for almost 50 social and economic covariates.ResultsAge- and sex-adjusted BMI was lower in adults from intervention communities than in those from control communities (26.57 kg/m2 vs 27.16 kg/m2, P < .001, as was the prevalence of obesity (20.28% vs 25.31%, P < .001 and overweight (59.24% vs 63.04%, P = .03; these results were attenuated after covariates were included. Adults in intervention communities had a lower combined prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension (33.80% vs 34.52%, P = .008 when adjusting for all covariates. Mean systolic (β = –2.60, P < .001 and diastolic (β = –2.84, P < .001 blood pressures were significantly lower in the intervention communities after all covariates were included, and self-reported health outcomes were better.ConclusionsParticipation in Oportunidades, a large-scale cash-transfer program, was associated with lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension and better self-reported health in adults in rural Mexico.

  3. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  4. Bispectral index in dogs with high intracranial pressure, anesthetized with propofol and submitted to two levels of FiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.F. Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 of 1 and 0.6 on bispectral index (BIS in dogs with high intracranial pressure, submitted to a continuous rate infusion of propofol were evaluated. Eight dogs were anesthetized on two occasions, receiving, during controlled ventilation, an FiO2 = 1 (G100 or an FiO2 = 0.6 (G60. Propofol was used for induction (10mg.kg-1, IV, followed by a continuous rate infusion (0.6mg.kg-1.minute-1. After 20 minutes, a fiber-optic catheter was implanted on the surface of the right cerebral cortex to monitor the intracranial pressure, the baseline measurements of BIS values, signal quality index, suppression ratio number, electromyogram indicator, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure, mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure were taken. Then, the blood flow from the right jugular vein was interrupted in order to increase intracranial pressure and after 20 minutes additional recordings were performed at 15-minute intervals (T0, T15, T30, T45 and T60. The arterial oxygen partial pressure varied according to the changes in oxygen. For the other parameters, no significant differences were recorded. The BIS monitoring was not influenced by different FiO2.

  5. [Monitoring myocardial performance after open heart surgery by calculation of diastolic and systolic pressure time index (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold-Epting, W; Fenchel, G; Stunkat, R; Seboldt, H; Hoffmeister, H E

    1978-10-01

    In order to determine the incidence of subendocardial ischemia after open heart surgery, subendocardial blood flow was monitored in 171 patients subjected to mitral and/or aortic valve replacement or coronary revascularization by on-line calculation of Diastolic (DPTI) and Systolic Pressure Time Index (TTI). Body hypothermia with an esophageal temperature of 25 degrees C and magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia were applied for myocardial protection. Ten patients developed low cardiac output state with two early deaths. In the two patients with fatal low cardiac output DPTI/TTI remained below 0.8. In the remaining 8 patients DPTI/TTI rose to 1.4 after a mean recovery time of 36 hours. In 161 patients (94%) no low cardiac output state evolved and DPTI/TTI rose to 1.3 within 60 min. after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results indicate that body hypothermia of 25 degrees C combined with magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia can reduce the incidence of subendocardial ischemia, but does not prevent this complication completely after anoxic times beyond 60-70 minutes.

  6. Dynamic analysis of the changes of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with CAVI and ABI and its correlation with hypertension%高血压合并Ⅱ型糖尿病患者动态血压与CAVI和ABI变化及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凤英; 张莉莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析探讨高血压病(eH)及合并Ⅱ型糖尿病(t2dM)患者24 h动态血压水平及与心踝血管指数(caVi)、踝臂指数(aBi)的相关性。方法选取2009年3月至2012年3月在我院心内科住院的所有高血压病患者,共269例,男158例,女111例。按有无Ⅱ型糖尿病分为高血压组130例(观察组),高血压伴糖尿病组139例(对照组),所有入选者进行24 h动态血压监测,caVi、aBi指标检查。对观察组和对照组指标进行比较,并对动态血压与caVi、aBi进行直线相关分析。结果观察组和对照组患者比较,对照组患者各时段的平均收缩压(sBP)、脉压(PP)、caVi呈增高趋势,而aBi和夜间血压下降率降低,两组比较统计学有显著性差异(P均<0.05)。观察组患者杓型血压占43.5%,对照组杓型血压占23.3%,两组比较统计学有显著性差异(P<0.05)。caVi与24 h平均收缩压、24 h平均脉压差、日间平均脉压差、夜间平均脉压差呈正相关,aBi与24 hsBP、日间平均收缩压、日间平均脉压差等指标呈负相关。结论合并2型糖尿病可增加高血压患者收缩压、脉压及收缩压负荷水平,并加速动脉硬化的进展。caVi,aBi指数可较好的预测高血压病(eH)合并Ⅱ型糖尿病(t2dM)患者心、脑血管疾病的发生,对有caVi ,aBi异常的患者采取积极有效的干预措施意义重大。%AObjective analysis of essential hypertension (eH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dM) patients and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure levels and vascular and cardiac ankle index (caVi), ankle brachial index (aBi) correlation.Methods from 2009 March to 2012 March in all hypertensive patients hospitalized in the department of cardiology in our hospital, a total of 269 cases, male 158 cases, female 111 cases. according to whether the type 2 diabetes were divided into hypertension group (observation group), 130 patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus group

  7. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, E M

    2007-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic patients and in different ethnic groups at a primary care setting, and to evaluate risk factors associated with PAD in these diabetic patients. A cross sectional study of 200 diabetic patients over 18 years old who attended a primary care clinic at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires for demographic characteristics and risk factors evaluation. Blood pressure measurements, assessment of peripheral neuropathy and ankle brachial pressures were performed. PAD was diagnosed by an ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) of <0.9 on either leg. The overall prevalence of PAD was 16% in this diabetic population. The prevalence of PAD was 5.8% in Malays, 19.4% in Chinese and 19.8% in Indians. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 41%, foot ulcer 9.5%, and gangrene 3.0%. The presence of foot ulcer was weakly associated with PAD (P=0.052). No significant relationships were found between age, gender, smoking status, duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and PAD. PAD is common in the diabetic population of this study. PMID:18705445

  8. Investigation of Peak Pressure Index Parameters for People with Spinal Cord Injury Using Wheelchair Tilt-in-Space and Recline: Methodology and Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wen Lung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the sensel window’s location and size when calculating the peak pressure index (PPI of pressure mapping with varying degrees of wheelchair tilt-in-space (tilt and recline in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. Thirteen power wheelchair users were recruited into this study. Six combinations of wheelchair tilt (15°, 25°, and 35° and recline (10° and 30° were used by the participants in random order. Displacements of peak pressure and center of pressure were extracted from the left side of the mapping system. Normalized PPI was computed for three sensel window dimensions (3 sensels × 3 sensels, 5 × 5, and 7 × 7. At least 3.33 cm of Euclidean displacement of peak pressures was observed in the tilt and recline. For every tilt angle, peak pressure displacement was not significantly different between 10° and 30° recline, while center of pressure displacement was significantly different (P<.05. For each recline angle, peak pressure displacement was not significantly different between pairs of 15°, 25°, and 35° tilt, while center of pressure displacement was significantly different between 15° versus 35° and 25° versus 35°. Our study showed that peak pressure displacement occurs in response to wheelchair tilt and recline, suggesting that the selected sensel window locations used to calculate PPI should be adjusted during changes in wheelchair configuration.

  9. The best marker for guiding the clinical management of patients with raised intracranial pressure-the RAP index or the mean pulse amplitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allan; O'Kane, Roddy

    2016-10-01

    Raised intracranial pressure is a common problem in a variety of neurosurgical conditions including traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus and intracranial haemorrhage. The clinical management of these patients is guided by a variety of haemodynamic, biochemical and clinical factors. However to date there is no single parameter that is used to guide clinical management of patients with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). However, the role of ICP indices, specifically the mean pulse amplitude (AMP) and RAP index [correlation coefficient (R) between AMP amplitude (A) and mean ICP pressure (P); index of compensatory reserve], as an indicator of true ICP has been investigated. Whilst the RAP index has been used both as a descriptor of neurological deterioration in TBI patients and as a way of characterising the compensatory reserve in hydrocephalus, more recent studies have highlighted the limitation of the RAP index due to the influence that baseline effect errors have on the mean ICP, which is used in the calculation of the RAP index. These studies have suggested that the ICP mean pulse amplitude may be a more accurate marker of true intracranial pressure due to the fact that it is uninfluenced by the mean ICP and, therefore, the AMP may be a more reliable marker than the RAP index for guiding the clinical management of patients with raised ICP. Although further investigation needs to be undertaken in order to fully assess the role of ICP indices in guiding the clinical management of patients with raised ICP, the studies undertaken to date provide an insight into the potential role of ICP indices to treat raised ICP proactively rather than reactively and therefore help prevent or minimise secondary brain injury. PMID:27567609

  10. Multi-index method using offshore ocean-bottom pressure data for real-time tsunami forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naotaka; Aoi, Shin; Hirata, Kenji; Suzuki, Wataru; Kunugi, Takashi; Nakamura, Hiromitsu

    2016-07-01

    We developed a real-time tsunami forecast method using only pressure data collected from the bottom of the ocean via a dense offshore observation network. The key feature of the method is rapid matching between offshore tsunami observations and pre-calculated offshore tsunami spatial distributions. We first calculate the tsunami waveforms at offshore stations and the maximum coastal tsunami heights from any possible tsunami source model and register them in the proposed Tsunami Scenario Bank (TSB). When a tsunami occurs, we use multiple indices to quickly select dozens of appropriate tsunami scenarios that can explain the offshore observations. At the same time, the maximum coastal tsunami heights coupled with the selected tsunami scenarios are forecast. We apply three indices, which are the correlation coefficient and two kinds of variance reductions normalized by the L2-norm of either the observation or calculation, to match the observed spatial distributions with the pre-calculated spatial distributions in the TSB. We examine the ability of our method to select appropriate tsunami scenarios by conducting synthetic tests using a scenario based on "pseudo-observations." For these tests, we construct a tentative TSB, which contains tsunami waveforms at locations in the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench and maximum coastal tsunami heights, using about 2000 tsunami source models along the Japan Trench. Based on the test results, we confirm that the method can select appropriate tsunami scenarios within a certain precision by using the two kinds of variance reductions, which are sensitive to the tsunami size, and the correlation coefficient, which is sensitive to the tsunami source location. In this paper, we present the results and discuss the characteristics and behavior of the multi-index method. The addition of tsunami inundation components to the TSB is expected to enable the application of this method to real

  11. BiSpectral Index (BIS) monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS) value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical i...

  12. Comparison of knee-high Mediven ulcer kit and Mediven Plus compression stockings: measurement of leg volume, interface pressure and static stiffness index changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győző Szolnoky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer stockings are produced to have higher interface pressure and easier application compared to those of classic medical compression stockings. We aimed to compare volume decrease, pressure loss and stiffness index of a classical medical compression stocking and an ulcer stocking of the same interface pressure range in 10 patients with bilateral venous and 10 persons with lymphatic insufficiency. Interface pressure measurement in supine and standing positions and optoelectronic volumetry served for primary outcome variables. Both stockings were capable of inducing remarkable gradual volume reductions in different time points except classic stocking at 2 h in phleboedema care. Ulcer stocking pressures in lymph- and phleboedema were highly superior. In lymphedema a gradual interface pressure loss was attributed to both stockings regardless of body positions. Static stiffness indices did not differ statistically except classic stocking at baseline (P=0.0312 and 2 h (P=0.0082 comprising venous edema patients. Both stockings acted similarly but ulcer stocking had considerably higher interface pressures in each measurement and raised stiffness indices initially and the two-layer system facilitates donning therefore ulcer stocking could serve an alternative of classic medical compression stocking even in the treatment of leg edema.

  13. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  14. Cocoa intake and arterial stiffness in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodríguez José

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the relationship of cocoa intake to central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with some cardiovascular risk factor. Findings Design: A cross-sectional study of 351 subjects (mean age 54.76 years, 62.4% males. Measurements: Intake of cocoa and other foods using a food frequency questionnaire, central and peripheral (ambulatory and office blood pressure, central and peripheral augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. Results: Higher pulse wave velocity and greater cardiovascular risk were found in non-cocoa consumers as compared to high consumers (p Conclusions In subjects with some cardiovascular risk factors, cocoa consumption does not imply improvement in the arterial stiffness values. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064.

  15. Relationship between body mass index and exercise blood pressure%人体质量指数与运动血压的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露; 胡伟国; 任颖; 陈逸

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study changes of exercise blood pressure of patients with different body mass index (BMI) when undergoing treadmill stress test. Methods: A total of 224 patients with normal BMI (normal control group) and 109 obese patients (obesity group) underwent treadmill stress test. Exercise blood pressure was compared between the two groups, and relationship between BMI and exercise blood pressure was also analyzed. Results: Compared with normal control group, resting blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)], peak blood pressure (SBP, DBP) during exercise, blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and pulse pressure during recovery period significantly increased in obesity group (P<0. 05 all). Incidence rate of exercise hypertension in o-besity group was significantly higher than that of normal control group (9. 2% vs. 3. 6% , P<0. 05). Linear correlation analysis showed that BMI was significantly positive correlation with exercise blood pressure ( r - 0. 123 ~ 0.205, P<0. 05). Conclusion: Change of exercise blood pressure is abnormal in obese patients, suggesting that vas-omotor dysfunction and cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction exist in obese patients.%目的:观察人体质量指数(BMI)不同的患者行平板运动试验时运动血压的变化.方法:BMI正常患者224例(正常对照组),肥胖患者109例(肥胖组),行平板运动实验检查,比较两组之间运动血压的差别,并分析BMI和运动血压之间的相关性.结果:肥胖组患者静息血压(收缩压、舒张压),运动峰值血压(收缩压、舒张压),恢复期血压(收缩压、舒张压)和恢复期脉压均明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05).肥胖组患者运动高血压的发生率明显高于正常对照组(9.2比3.6%,P<0.05),且BMI与运动血压呈明显正相关(r=0.123~0.205,P<0.05).结论:肥胖患者运动中血压变化异常,提示肥胖患者有血管舒缩功能障碍和心脏自主神经功能紊乱.

  16. Diurnal blood pressure changes one year after kidney transplantation: relationship to allograft function, histology, and resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadei, Hani M; Amer, Hatem; Taler, Sandra J; Cosio, Fernando G; Griffin, Matthew D; Grande, Joseph P; Larson, Timothy S; Schwab, Thomas R; Stegall, Mark D; Textor, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Loss of circadian BP change has been linked to target organ damage and accelerated kidney function loss in hypertensive patients with and without chronic kidney disease. Ambulatory BP-derived data from 119 consecutive kidney transplant recipients who presented for the first annual evaluation were examined in relation to allograft function, histology, and ultrasound findings. A total of 101 (85%) patients were receiving antihypertensive medications (median 2), and 85 (71%) achieved target awake average systolic BP (SBP) of histology and in those with pathologic findings on surveillance biopsy. On multivariate analysis, percentage of nocturnal fall in SBP and elevated resistive index independently correlated with GFR. This study indicates that lack of nocturnal fall in SBP is related to poor allograft function, high chronic vascular score, and high resistive index irrespective of allograft fibrosis. Further studies are needed to determine whether restoration of normal BP pattern will confer better allograft outcome.

  17. Kan Doppler-ultralyd erstatte strain gauge til måling af systolisk ankelblodtryk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T L; Perner, A; Hansen, L;

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, strain gauge technique is used in Denmark to measure ankle blood pressure, a method requiring both time and well-trained personnel. In a study involving 90 limbs in 45 patients, this method was compared with ultrasonic technique using a portable 5 MHz Doppler. The reproducibility...... of Doppler ankle pressure measurement was similar to that found in strain gauge based studies. Two consecutive measurements may differ by 20 mmHg or in terms of ankle-brachial index by 0.15 before this is considered significant. No systematic variation was found between the two methods. Increasing...... difficulties were encountered with the Doppler technique at pressures below 50 mmHg. It is concluded that Doppler is a good alternative to strain gauge for measurement of ankle blood pressure....

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and body mass index in Han Chinese : a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; Li, Liming; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Lv, Jun; Gao, Wenjing; Wang, Xiaoling; Ding, Xiuhua; Hu, Yonghua

    2011-01-01

    The familial aggregation of blood pressure (BP) may be partly due to the familial aggregation of obesity, caused by genetic and/or environmental factors that influence both. Gene-obesity interactions are expected to result in different heritability estimates for BP at different obesity levels. Howev

  19. The Danish Cardiovascular Screening Trial (DANCAVAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Søgaard, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    to cardiovascular seven-faceted screening examinations at one of four locations. The screening will include: (1) low-dose non-contrast CT scan to detect coronary artery calcification and aortic/iliac aneurysms, (2) brachial and ankle blood pressure index to detect peripheral arterial disease and hypertension, (3...... numbered 67+ will be offered screening; the others will act as a control group. BLINDING: Only those randomized to the screening will be invited to the examination;the remaining participants will not. Numbers randomized: A total of 45,000 men will be randomized 1:2. Recruitment: Enrollment started October....../iliac aneurysms) and measurements of the ankle brachial blood pressure index (ABI) as part of a multifocal screening and intervention program for CVD in men aged 65-74. Attendance rate and compliance to initiated preventive actions must be expected to become of major importance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current...

  20. Assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment compliance - Guide nr 8 - Index 1, Release of 31/03/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the modalities according to which the compliance assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment must be performed by inspecting organisations according to a decree of December 1999 and an order of December 2005. After an indication of reference documents and some technical definitions, this guide describes the equipment classification and the principles of intervention. These principles concern the assessment request and the various assessment tasks to be performed by the inspecting organisation

  1. The nonlinear optical absorption and corrections to the refractive index in a GaAs n-type delta-doped field effect transistor under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-01-15

    The theoretical study of linear and nonlinear optical absorption, and the nonlinear corrections to the refractive index in a GaAs n-type delta-doped field effect transistor is preformed taking into account the effects of applied hydrostatic pressure on the quantum well energy states, the size of the system and the Schottky barrier height. The potential well model includes Hartree and exchange effects via a Thomas-Fermi-based local density approximation. The allowed levels are calculated within the effective mass and envelope function approximations by means of an expansion over an orthogonal set of infinite well eigenfunctions. The results for the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption, as well that those corresponding to the relative corrections of the host material refractive index in first and third order of the susceptibility, are reported for several values of the hydrostatic pressure. For P around 5 kbar, an enhancement in the linear and nonlinear contributions is detected. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. [Effect of estradiol valerate and chlormadinone acetate in hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause on Kupperman index, body weight, blood pressure, lipids, enzymes and electrolytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göretzlehner, G; Nikschick, S; Zimmermann, T

    1996-01-01

    Kupperman-index, weight, blood pressure, serum lipids, blood count, thrombocytes, fibrinogen, thrombine time, electrolytes, enzymes, serum proteins, bilirubine and other parameters were studied in 16 healthy post-menopausal women treated for 18 months with 2 mgs estradiol valerate continuously sequentially combined with the antiandrogenic progestogen chlormadinone acetate (CMA) 2 mgs from 1st to 12th every month of treatment. The women were examined after the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 18th month during the last 3 days of the progestogen phase, where the CMA had been added to the estradiol valerate for at least 12 days. The combined estradiol-CMA therapy resulted in a significantly reduced Kupperman-index. The total serum cholesterol- and LDLC-levels were also reduced and the HDL-cholesterol and HDLC-cholesterol-quotient increased. Triglycerides, weight, blood pressure, enzymes, and other parameters were unchanged. The positively metabolic effects of estradiol valerate were not altered after the chlormadinone acetate in a sequential regime.

  3. The relationship between toe-brachial index and body fat and its role in diabetic lower extremity vascular disease risk assessment%趾臂指数与体脂在糖尿病下肢血管病变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石静琳; 史琳涛; 张美; 刘彦君; 范明

    2016-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the correlation between toe-brachial index ( TBI) and body fat in type 2 dia-betic patients ( DM) , to understand the impact of body fat on TBI in DM, and explore significance of TBI and body fat in evaluating diabetic lower extremity vascular disease. Methods 123 cases of DM whose ankle-brachial index ( ABI) and TBI were both within normal ranges,collected demographic characteristics, clincal and biochamical in-dicators were measured,the main components of the quantitative of different body parts were measured by BCA-2 type a body composition analyzer. TBI was divided into two groups by persantage 50, higher TBI group:0. 82≤TBI<1. 12, lower TBI group:0. 60pressure ( SBP) of supine, pulse pressure of supine, percentage of body fat ( PBF) , physical age, visceral fat/trunk muscles, fat/muscle of upper limbs, fat/muscle of lower limbs were sig-nificantly increased in higher TBI group. Multiple regression analysis showed that physical age, pulse pressure of orthostatic, percentage of body fat were independent risk factors for lowering TBI. Conclusion Our study finds that the lower the TBI, the more body fat content, physical age and pulse pressure in DM with normal ABI. In-creased body fat content, body age and pulse pressure are independent risk factors for TBI reduced. The result sug-gests that it is important to check TBI and body fat for detection and intervention earlier in the risk of lower extremi

  4. [Multiparameter analysis of the ergometric test. Significance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during recovery phase as an index of coronary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, G; Scaccianoce, G; Artale, S; Francaviglia, B; Platania, F; Circo, A

    1990-10-01

    Ergometric tests were performed in 27 patients who had previously undergone coronarography following instrumental findings and/or symptoms which seemed highly indicative of ischemic cardiopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic importance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during the third minute of the recovery phase of the test as an index of coronary disease. In particular, as reported by other studies, the ratio between systolic blood pressure at the third minute of recovery and maximum systolic blood pressure during the test was also assessed values above 0.7 were considered pathological. Sixteen out the 27 patients examined showed lesions which were hemodynamically significant, whereas 11 patients were free of lesions and 9 had previous myocardial necrosis. The level of the above ratio in subjects without significant coronary lesions was 0.66 +/- 0.05, whereas it was 0.85 +/- 0.04 (p less than 0.01) in patients with coronary disease. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative prognostic values were respectively 91.6%, 62%, 64.7% and 90.9%. In patients with lesions to the three main arteries both the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. In the same patients, the ST criteria were 85.7%, 50%, 81.8% and 74.3%. PMID:2074932

  5. 血压正常高值人群动脉血管功能和结构变化的研究%The change of artery elastic function and structure in persons with high-normal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明昕; 高金颖

    2014-01-01

    目的:利用无创方法探讨血压正常高值人群动脉血管功能和结构的变化。方法应用博时全自动动脉硬化检测系统及超声诊断仪对349例血压正常高值人群进行踝臂指数(ABI)、臂-踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)、颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)的检测,并与同期受检的201例血压正常人群、303例原发性高血压1级患者及77例原发性高血压2级患者的检测结果进行对比研究。结果正常高值血压组受检人群脉搏波传导速度、颈动脉内膜中层厚度的异常检出率较正常血压组明显增高,而低于原发性高血压1、2级组,且正常高值血压组、原发性高血压1、2级组分别与正常血压组相比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.0083);而踝臂指数异常的检出率均较低,正常血压组、正常高值血压组、原发性高血压1级组之间无统计学差异(P>0.0083),但以上三组分别与原发性高血压2级组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.0083)。结论血压正常高值人群尚未发展至高血压阶段时已经开始出现动脉血管功能和结构的损害,表现为血管顺应性下降,僵硬度增加,动脉内膜增厚,斑块形成,甚至出现管腔狭窄及堵塞等一系列病理改变。%ObjectiveTo explore the artery elastic function and structure changes in high-normal blood pressure persons by non-invasive examination.MethodsThe Intima-media thickness (IMT) were detected, meanwhile, the Ankle-Brachial Index(ABI) and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) were measured in 349 prehypertensive people using Boso(BOSCH+SONH) automatic arteriosclerosis measurement system, and were compared with normotensive group(n=201), hypertension grade 1 group(n=303) and hypertension grade 2 group(n=77).Results The level of PWV and IMT in the high-normal blood pressure group were significantly higher than those of the normal blood pressure group and lower than hypertension grade 1 and 2

  6. Association between altered lipid profile, body mass index, low plasma adiponectin and varied blood pressure in trinidadian type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda B Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity and hypertension have become the causes for the development type 2 diabetes. There is a limited study done on the contribution of body mass index (BMI to blood pressure (BP in the Caribbean population. Aim of our study was to determine the associations between lipid profile, BMI, adiponectin, and BP in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic patients with regards to age and ethnicity. Materials and Methods: This was a cohort study comprised of 266 subjects (85 males and 181 females attending primary and tertiary healthcare settings in central Trinidad. Of which, 126 diabetic subjects were matched with 140 non-diabetic subjects. Along with clinical history and anthropometry, adiponectin and lipid profile were measured in fasting blood samples. Results: The diabetic group had higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and BP values which were statistically significant (P < 0.05 when compared to non-diabetic subjects. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and adiponectin were lower in diabetic subjects. HDL-c showed significant changes for ethnicity (P = 0.013 and gender (P = 0.043. The mean adiponectin concentrations were found to be significantly different among the ethnic groups (P = 0.001. Systolic pressure varied significantly with age (P = 0.018. As age increased, BP also increased. Ethnic groups had a significant difference in diastolic pressure (P = 0.027. East Indians had the highest mean diastolic pressure (80.74 ± 10.29 when compared to all other ethnic groups. Conclusion: HDL-cholesterol, low levels of adiponectin, and varied BP are associated in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic subjects with regards to age, gender, and ethnicity.

  7. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  8. Dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk in medical students of a government medical college of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of major risk factors including dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and physical activity in medical students of government teaching hospitals of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on students of Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan through a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Non-probability purposive sampling was used. Smoking, hypertension, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), overweight and low physical activity levels are risk factors the presence of which can lead to development of CVD. Prevalence of these risk factors was determined by asking appropriate questions and through measurement of BMI and blood pressure for overweight and hypertension respectively. Awareness of risk factors was determined through knowledge of the effect of various food substances on development of CVD and of adoption of dietary changes keeping in mind the risk of developing CVD. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 medical students were included in the study of which 57 (43.2%) and 75 (56.8%) were male and female respectively with mean age of 20.85 +- 1.21 years. About 15.9% of students had elevated blood pressure i.e. > 140/90 mmHg. Twenty eight percent of the total students were found to be underweight and 17.4% were overweight, 5% had some history of CVD, 56.8% had family history of CVD, 9.4% were smokers and 29.5% had high physical activity level. About 87.1% had modified their diet for preventing CVD. Most of the students had adequate knowledge about the cardiovascular risk factors Conclusion: Majority of students were not overweight. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; family history and elevated blood pressure was present. Awareness in terms of knowledge was satisfactory but implementation in terms of diet modification and adequate physical activity was lacking. (author)

  9. Lower limb ischaemia in patients with diabetic foot ulcers and gangrene: recognition, anatomic patterns and revascularization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    The confluence of several chronic conditions--in particular ageing, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease--has created a global wave of lower limbs at risk for major amputation. While frequently asymptomatic or not lifestyle limiting, at least 1% of the population has peripheral artery disease of sufficient severity to be limb threatening. To avoid the critical error of failing to diagnose ischaemia, all patients with diabetic foot ulcers and gangrene should routinely undergo physiologic evaluation of foot perfusion. Ankle brachial index is useful when measurable, but may be falsely elevated or not obtainable in as many as 30% of patients with diabetic foot ulcers primarily because of medial calcinosis. Toe pressures and skin perfusion pressures are applicable to such patients.

  10. Can long-term antibiotic treatment prevent progression of peripheral arterial occlusive disease? A large, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, J B; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E;

    2007-01-01

    diagnosis of PAD. Their mean age was 66 years (36-85), and 59% were males. Patients were randomized to Roxithromycin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Baseline investigations were ankle blood pressure, ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABPI), walking distance, C. pneumoniae serology, cholesterol and medical.......06-5.1 years). In the placebo group, 26 died and 80 primary events occurred in total. In the treatment group, 28 died and 74 primary events were observed. The hazard ratio of death was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.90), and of primary events 0.92 (95% CI: 0.67; 1.26). Also on secondary events and ABPI changes...

  11. Non-invasive diagnostic modality for peripheral arterial occlusive disease in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) has impacts on mortality and quality of life of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Although ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) is widely used to detect PAOD as screening measurement, it yields false negative results due to calcified lesions of vascular walls. Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) was performed in 36 HD patients. Then, we compared these two non-invasive methods: ABPI or skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and MDCT by calculating the sensitivity and specificity to detect PAOD. The sensitivity of ABPI was only 29.9%, while SPP was more accurate with the sensitivity of 84.9% and the specificity of 76.9%. Our findings suggest that SPP is a useful tool to detect PAOD even in HD patients. (author)

  12. Intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a graded quantum well under intense laser field: Effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungan, F., E-mail: fungan@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Restrepo, R.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-02-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and electric field on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transition in a typical GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the graded quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation and envelope wave function approach. The analytical expressions of the optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method. The numerical results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties depend strongly on the intense laser field and electric field but weakly on the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Additionally, it has been found that the electronic and optical properties in a GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As graded quantum well under the intense laser field can be tuned by changing these external inputs. Thus, these results give a new degree of freedom in the devices applications.

  13. Risk factors for development of critical limb ischemia -- a survey of diabetic vs. nondiabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevski, M; Meskovska, S; Tosev, S; Peovska, I; Asikov, I; Georgievska-Ismail, L J

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for development of chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). 127 patients (pts) with PAD (63 with type 2 diabetes and 64 nondiabetic) were randomly included in a cross sectional study. Out of them 17 were with CLI. Population was investigated for age, height, weight, sex, duration of PAD and diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity, systolic blood pressure, value of ankle-brachial index, previous claudicating distance and peripheral intervention, amputation, medical treatment with prostanoids, insulin and antiplatelet drugs and histories of cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease and other concomitant diseases. After adjudging linear correlation between mentioned variables and presence of CLI, logistic regression model was built. There were no significant differences in demographic data between both populations. Hyperlipidemia was more frequent in nondiabetic population. Multiple regression model show ankle-brachial index < 0,5, measured in previous 1-3 years (OR 3.39 CI 95% 0.28-40.78), microvascular complication retinopathy (OR 12.98 CI 95% 1.76-95.58), heart failure (OR 1.91 CI 95% 0.29-2.72) and previous prostanoids treatment (OR 15.92 CI 95% 0.53-476.58) as predictors of development of CLI in diabetic population with PAD. After heart failure exclusion of model of nondiabetic pts, previous surgery (OR 3.14 CI 95% 0.61-16.09) and smoking (OR 0.35 CI 95% 0.78-1.62) were presented as prognostic factors for CLI's onset. Our results indicate differences between predictors of CLI's onset in diabetic and nondiabetic population with PAD. Presence of retinopathy, previous measured ankle-brachial index and prostanoids treatment are predictors of development of CLI in diabetic population. Previous surgery is independent predictor for CLI'onset in nondiabetics. Treating concomitant heart failure for both populations

  14. Correlation of non - invasive central aortic blood pressure with other arterial function measures in healthy people%健康人无创中心动脉压水平与常规血管功能测量指标的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于凯; 白小涓; 韩璐璐

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To evaluate the correlation of central aortic blood pressure with age, peripheral blood pressure,maximal carotid artery intima -media thickness (IMTmax), brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle brachial index ( ABI), and the risk score of estimation of 10 - year risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in both male and female Chinese healthy adults. [ Methods] A community- based cross- sectional study was conducted in Shenyang. There were 128 healthy adults divided into two groups by gender (53 men and 75 women). Central systolic blood pressure (CSBP),central pulse pressure (SPP), peripheral systolic blood pressure (PSBP), peripheral diastolic blood pressure (PDBP),peripheral pulse pressure (PPP), IMTmax, baPWV, ABI and risk score were examined. The trigalloylglycerol (TG) ,total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density hpoprotein (LDL) and fast blood glucose also were tested at the same time. [Results] There were significant differences, between men and women, in waste -hip rate (WHR),PSBP, PDBP, CSBP, baPWV, TC, HDL and Glu (P <0.05). CSBP and CPP were significantly correlated with age,PSBP, PPP, IMTmax, baPWV and risk score in both groups, but were not correlated with ABI, TG, TC, HDL, LDL and fast blood glucose. [ Conclusions ] The central blood pressures are well correlated with other non - invasive arterial function exams, and can be used as a tool to evaluate the arterial function in healthy population.%[目的]研究健康男性和女性中心动脉压与年龄、周围动脉压、常规无创血管功能检测指标:最大颈动脉内-中膜厚度(IMTmax)、臂踝脉搏波速度(baPWV)和踝臂指数(ABI)以及中国人简易心血管疾病危险评分(简称危险评分)的相关性.[方法]以沈阳社区为基础的横断面研究,将128名健康研究对象按性别分为男性和女性两组(其中男性53人,女性75人),分别测量中心动脉收缩压(CSBP)和脉压(CPP),周围动脉收缩压(PSBP)、

  15. Usefulness of the Sum of Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure and Right Atrial Pressure as a Congestion Index that Prognosticates Heart Failure Survival (from the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tony S; Paniagua, David; Denktas, Ali E; Jneid, Hani; Kar, Biswajit; Chan, Wenyaw; Bozkurt, Biykem

    2016-09-15

    In the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial, use of a pulmonary artery catheter did not significantly affect advanced heart failure outcomes. However, the success of achieving the targeted hemodynamic goals of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of 15 mm Hg and right atrial pressure (RAP) of 8 mm Hg and the association of these goals with clinical outcomes were not addressed. Furthermore, goals with 2 independent variables, PCWP and RAP, left room for uncertainties. We assessed the ability of a single hemodynamic target to achieve a threshold sum of PCWP and RAP as a predictor of all-cause mortality, death-or-transplantation (DT), or death-or-rehospitalization (DR) at 6 months in the pulmonary artery catheter-guided treatment arm of ESCAPE (n = 206). Patients with a posttreatment PCWP + RAP of <30 mm Hg had characteristics similar to those of the population who achieved the ESCAPE hemodynamic goals. This group had 8.7% mortality, 13.0% DT, and 58.7% DR at 6 months. The contrasting cohort with PCWP + RAP of ≥30 mm Hg had 45.3% mortality, 54.7% DT, and 84.9% DR at 6 months, with greater relative risk (RR) of death (RR 5.76), DT (RR 4.92), and DR (RR 1.80) and higher prevalence of jugular venous pulsation, edema, hepatomegaly, and ascites at admission and discharge. In conclusion, PCWP + RAP of 30 mm Hg posttreatment, obtained early in the index hospitalization, may represent as a simple congestion index that has prognostic value for heart failure survival and readmission rates at 6 months and as a warning signal for more aggressive intervention, thus warranting further validation.

  16. The StethoDop: a Doppler stethoscope attachment for investigation of arterial and venous insufficiency of the lower extremities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.C. van de; Bredie, S.J.H.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Holewijn, S.; Thien, Th.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the StethoDop can serve as a valid and reproducible instrument for measuring the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and assessing venous reflux, even when used by inexperienced investigators, in comparison with the classic Doppler. METHODS:

  17. The use of intravascular ultrasound for intraoperative assessment during semiclosed thromboendarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    1998-01-01

    in the artery proximal to the endarterectomized area were measured and, along with any remaining material, related to patency. Patency was evaluated at clinical controls after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with duplex scanning and ankle-brachial index. In 10 cases (50%), material left behind from the endarterectomy...

  18. Predictive value of updating framingham risk scores with novel risk markers in the U.S. general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.S. Ferket (Bart); B.J.H. van Kempen (Bob); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); I. Agarwal (Isha); M. Kavousi (Maryam); O.H. Franco (Oscar); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); W. Max (Wendy); K.E. Fleischmann (Kirsten)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: According to population-based cohort studies CT coronary calcium score (CTCS), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are promising novel risk markers for improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Thei

  19. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Adourian, Aram;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease....

  20. Association between peripheral arterial disease and creactive protein in the japanese-brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Garofolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between peripheral arterial disease and elevated levels of C-reactive protein in the Japanese-Brazilian population of high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from a population-based study on the prevalence of diabetes and associated diseases in the Japanese-Brazilian population. One thousand, three hundred and thirty individuals aged e" 30 underwent clinical and laboratory examination, including measurement of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. The diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease was performed by calculating the ankle-brachial index. We considered with peripheral arterial disease patients who had ankle-brachial index d" 0.9. After applying the exclusion criteria, 1,038 subjects completed the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 56.8 years; 46% were male. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 21%, with no difference between genders. Data analysis showed no association between peripheral arterial disease and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Patients with ankle-brachial index d" 0.70 showed higher values of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and worse cardiometabolic profile. We found a positive independent association of peripheral arterial disease with hypertension and smoking. CONCLUSION: The association between low levels of ankle-brachial index and elevated levels of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein may suggest a relationship of gravity, aiding in the mapping of high-risk patients.

  1. Perceived spatial stigma, body mass index and blood pressure: a global positioning system study among low-income housing residents in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has highlighted the salience of spatial stigma on the lives of low-income residents, but has been theoretical in nature and/or has predominantly utilised qualitative methods with limited generalisability and ability to draw associations between spatial stigma and measured cardiovascular health outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between perceived spatial stigma, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure among a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City (NYC. Data come from the community-based NYC Low-income Housing, Neighborhoods and Health Study. We completed a crosssectional analysis with survey data, which included the four items on spatial stigma, as well objectively measured BMI and blood pressure data (analytic n=116; 96.7% of the total sample. Global positioning systems (GPS tracking of the sample was conducted for a week. In multivariable models (controlling for individual-level age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, total household income, neighborhood percent non-Hispanic Black and neighborhood median household income we found that participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had higher BMI (B=4.2, 95%CI: -0.01, 8.3, P=0.051, as well as higher systolic blood pressure (B=13.2, 95%CI: 3.2, 23.1, P=0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (B=8.5, 95%CI: 2.8, 14.3, P=0.004. In addition, participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had increased risk of obesity/overweight [relative risk (RR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.4, P=0.02 and hypertension/pre-hypertension (RR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.2, 2.4, P=0.007. However, we found no differences in spatial mobility (based GPS data among participants who reported living in neighborhoods with and without spatial stigma (P>0.05. Further research is needed to investigate how placebased stigma may be associated with impaired cardiovascular health among individuals

  2. Continuous crossover femoropopliteal bypass in a 68-year-old gentleman with rest pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    Patients who have had multiple previous attempts at limb salvaging surgery frequently go on to have an amputation. This, however, results both in psychological perturbation for the patient and high rehabilitation costs for the community. Successful limb salvage surgery therefore has an important role in vascular surgery. We describe the management of a patient with critical limb ischemia that had previously undergone multiple limb salvage procedures and whose limb was saved by the use of a continuous femoropopliteal crossover bypass graft. The patient, who may have been deemed by some as a candidate for amputation, has full use of his limb 6 months after surgery with ankle brachial pressure index readings of 0.6. Continuous femoropopliteal crossover bypass grafting is a poorly described surgical technique that may be appropriate in a subgroup of patients and may allow salvage of a limb that otherwise may have been deemed fit for amputation.

  3. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РАННЕГО РЕМОДЕЛИРОВАНИЯ (СТАРЕНИЯ СОСУДОВ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Милягин

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 428 practically healthy individuals and 301 patients with arterial hypertension have been examined by using a volumetric sphygmograph VaSera-1000 (Japan. In young individuals elevated stiffness of elastic arteries is associated with elevation of predominantly systolic blood pressure (BP and elevated stiffness of muscular arteries is associated with elevation of diastolic BP. CAVI stiffness index > 7,6, ankle-brachial PWV > 11,9 m/s and heart-brachial PWV > 6,4 m/s are the criteria of early vascular aging in young people. Early remodeling of elastic arteries was observed in 47,1% patients with isolated systolic hypertension, in 31% patients with systole-diastolic hypertension and in 12,3% healthy subjects. Early remodeling of predominantly muscular type of arteries was observed in 54,4% patients with systole-diastolic hypertension, in 15,5% patients with isolated systolic hypertension and in 14,5% practically healthy subjects.

  4. Does knee replacement surgery lead to chronic limb ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alan G; Bachoo, Paul; Sutherland, Alasdair G

    2010-12-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) may be associated with chronic limb ischemia (CLI) due to arterial injury intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of CLI after TKR surgery. Patients who received a unilateral TKR in 2003-2004 were identified from our database. Patients with diabetes mellitus and preexisting peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Patient assessment was by collection of demographic details, completion of the Oxford Knee Score, Short Form-12 Health Survey, and King's College Hospital's Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire, and measurement of the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI). Of the 209 eligible patients, 86 (41%) participated (median age, 73 years; 50% male). Five (5.8%) patients had a reduced ABPI compared with population norms of 4.6 to 7%. Patients with reduced ABPI measurements had higher Oxford Knee Scores, but no relationships between other variables were demonstrated. TKR surgery does not appear to increase the risk of CLI. PMID:21446628

  5. An introduction and guide to effective Doppler assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of leg ulceration is an essential factor in making evidence-based, effective decisions regarding patient management with the aim of swift wound healing and/or referral to the appropriate specialty. Nurses are professionally responsible for ensuring that patients receive the appropriate assessment and evidence-based management. This article examines the most up-to-date guidance on Doppler ultrasound as a key element of this assessment. Approaches to assessment will be explored, with emphasis on the need to include a Doppler ultrasound as one key element of a larger, holistic assessment. An introduction to the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) will be given, followed by a step-by-step guide to standard procedures for carrying out a full Doppler ultrasound. Alternative options for measuring ABPI are also provided. PMID:25478852

  6. Diagnosing and managing venous leg ulcers in patients in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are a chronic condition affecting between 0.1% and 0.3% of the population in the UK. Healing rates are variable and recurrence rates are high. The diagnosis, assessment, and management of this patient group is primarily carried out in the community. Assessment of this patient group requires skill and competence to ensure a correct diagnosis is made. When carrying out the assessment, it is important to consider the patient's past medical history, medication, and allergies, as well as to record the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), pain level, palpation of pulses, and ankle joint movement, among other aspects of the assessment. VLUs heal with compression therapy, and practitioners should be knowledgeable about the various compression systems available in order to offer patients the most suitable and informed choices. PMID:26639070

  7. Peripheral artery disease in korean patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: prevalence and association with coronary artery disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Song, Pil Sang; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Duk-kyung; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important marker for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CAD and the relationship between ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and CAD severity. A total of 711 patients undergoing PCI for CAD from August 2009 to August 2011 were enrolled. PAD diagnosis was made using the ABPI. The prevalence of PAD was 12.8%. In PAD patients, mean values of right and left ABPI were 0.71 ± 0.15 and 0.73 ± 0.15. Patients with PAD had a higher prevalence of left main coronary disease (14.3% vs 5.8%, P = 0.003), more frequently had multivessel lesions (74.9% vs 52.1%, P ABPI-based PAD screening should be implemented in all patients undergoing PCI with CAD, especially in severe cases. PMID:23341717

  8. Recommended frequency of ABPI review for patients wearing compression hosiery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Winnie

    2015-11-11

    This paper is a sequel to the article 'How often should patients in compression have ABPI recorded?' ( Furlong, 2013 ). Monitoring ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) is essential, especially in those patients wearing compression hosiery, as it can change over time ( Simon et al, 1994 ; Pankhurst, 2004 ), particularly in the presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Leg ulceration caused by venous disease requires graduated compression ( Wounds UK, 2002 ; Anderson, 2008). Once healed, compression hosiery is required to help prevent ulcer recurrence ( Vandongen and Stacey, 2000 ). The Royal College of Nursing ( RCN, 2006 ) guidelines suggest 3-monthly reviews, including ABPI, with no further guidance. Wounds UK (2002) suggests that patients who have ABPI<0.9, diabetes, reduced mobility or symptoms of claudication should have at least 3/12 Doppler, and that those in compression hosiery without complications who are able to report should have vascular assessment yearly. PMID:26559232

  9. Associations between variation in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, body mass index and blood pressure in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Kaakinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster on 15q25 has consistently been associated with smoking quantity, nicotine dependence and lung cancer. Recent research also points towards its involvement in cardiovascular homeostasis, but studies in large human samples are lacking, especially on the role of the gene cluster in blood pressure regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the associations between 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 and systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and body mass index (BMI in 5402 young adults from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We observed some evidence for associations between two SNPs and SBP and between six SNPs and BMI; the evidence for associations with DBP was weaker. The associations with the three phenotypes were driven by different loci with low linkage disequilibrium with each other. The associations appeared more pronounced in smokers, such that the smoking-increasing alleles would predict lower SBP and BMI. Each additional copy of the rs1948 G-allele and the rs950776 A-allele reduced SBP on average by -1.21 (95% CI -2.01, -0.40 mmHg in smokers. The variants associated with BMI included rs2036534, rs6495309, rs1996371, rs6495314, rs4887077 and rs11638372 and had an average effect size of -0.38 (-0.68, -0.08 kg/m(2 per an additional copy of the risk allele in smokers. Formal assessments of interactions provided weaker support for these findings, especially after adjustment for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Variation at 15q25 appears to interact with smoking status in influencing SBP and BMI. The genetic loci associated with SBP were in low linkage disequilibrium with those associated with BMI suggesting that the gene cluster might regulate SBP through biological mechanisms that partly differ from those regulating BMI. Further studies in larger samples are needed for more precise evaluation of the possible interactions, and to

  10. Relationship between body mass index changes and blood pressure changes from childhood to adulthood in a general Chinese population: a 26 year cohort follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Chu, Chao; Mu, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in a Chinese population with 26 year follow-up. The study included 4211 schoolchildren aged 6-17 years in Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province, China. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and BP were measured in 1987, 1989, 1992, 1995 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards model were fitted to examine the effect of BMI on BP. At the 26 year follow-up, 6.93% of male and 3.43% of female subjects had high SBP, and 12.8% of male and 4.56% of female had high DBP. The average age of subjects with high SBP was 40.3 years in males and 41.4 years in females; while the average age with high DBP was 38.1 years in males and 38.9 years in females. Obese subjects were 2.96 times and 2.88 times more likely to have high SBP and high DBP than normal weight counterparts, respectively; while overweight subjects were 1.81 times and 2.03 times more likely to have high SBP and high DBP, respectively. These findings underscore the urgent need to prevent increasing body weight. Targeting intervention in adolescence may be a critical method for preventing high BP in later life. PMID:27138219

  11. Cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of survival and response to revascularization in cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Batric; Fay, Renaud; Cravoisy-Popovic, Aurelie; Levy, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Short-term prognostic factors in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) have previously been established using only hemodynamic parameters without taking into account classic intensive care unit (ICU) severity score or organ failure/support. The aim of this study was to assess early predictors of in-hospital mortality of a monocentric cohort of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by early CS. We retrospectively studied 85 consecutive patients with CS complicating acute myocardial infarction and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 after percutaneous coronary revascularization. All patients were managed according to the following algorithm: initial resuscitation by a mobile medical unit or in-hospital critical care physician unit followed by percutaneous coronary revascularization and CS management in the ICU. Prehospital CS was diagnosed in 69% of cases, initially complicated by an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 64% of cases. All patients were treated with vasopressors, 82% were ventilated, and 22% underwent extrarenal epuration. The 28-day mortality rate was 39%. Under multivariate analysis, initial cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mmHg at hour 6 of ICU management, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II were independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, parameters directly related to cardiac performance and vascular response to vasopressors and admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  12. Correlation among ambulatory blood pressure,CAVI and ABI in patients with hypertension complicating type 2 diabetes mellitus%高血压病合并2型糖尿病患者动态血压与CAVI及ABI相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学明; 胡华青; 陆琨; 韩卫星

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高血压病(EH)及合并2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者24 h动态血压水平及与心踝血管指数(CAVI)、踝臂指数(ABI)的相关性.方法 随机入选90例高血压病患者,分为单纯高血压病组(EH组,n=47),高血压病伴糖尿病组(EH+T2DM组,n=43).所有入选者进行24 h动态血压监测,CAVI、ABI指标及颈动脉超声检查.对两组上述指标进行比较,并对动态血压与CAVI、ABI进行直线相关分析.结果 与EH组患者比较,EH+T2DM组患者各时段的平均收缩压(SBP)、脉压(PP)、收缩压负荷(SBP-L)及CAVI呈增高趋势,而ABI和夜间血压下降率降低,两组比较均有统计学差异(P均<0.05).EH组患者杓型血压占42.5%,EH+T2DM杓型血压占23.3%,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).CAVI与24 h平均收缩压(24 hSBP)、夜间平均收缩压(nSBP)、24 h平均脉压差(24 hPP)、日间平均脉压差(dPP)、夜间平均脉压差(nPP)、夜间收缩压负荷(nSBP-L)、夜间舒张压负荷(nDBP-L)呈正相关,ABI与24 hSBP、白天平均收缩压(dSBP)、dPP、白天收缩压负荷(dSBP-L)、nSBP-L等指标呈负相关.结论 合并T2DM可增加EH患者收缩压、脉压及收缩压负荷水平,并加速动脉硬化的进展.%Objective To investigate the correlation among 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure ( BP ), cardio-ankle vascular index ( CAVI ) and ankle-brachial index ( ABI ) in the patients with essential hypertension ( EH ) complicating type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ). Methods All EH patients ( n = 90 ) were randomly divided into simple hypertension group ( EH group, n = 47 ) and hypertension complicating T2DM group ( EH + T2DM group, n = 43 ), and they were all given detections of 24-hour ambulatory BP, CAVI and ABI and carotid ultrasonography. All indexes were compared in two groups,and the changes of ambulatory BP,CAVI and ABI were given linear correlation analysis. Results Compared with EH group, mean systolic BP ( SBP ), pulse pressure ( PP ), systolic BP-load ( SBP

  13. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic subjects in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji O. Oyelade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is rarely sought for and generally underdiagnosed even in diabetics in developing countries like Nigeria. PAD is easily detected and diagnosed by the ankle-brachial index, a simple and reliable test. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of PAD in diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years and the value of ankle-brachial index measurement in the detection of PAD.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 219 diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years was carried out. The participants were administered a pre-tested questionnaire and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI was done. The ankle-brachial index < 0.90 was considered equivalent to peripheral arterial disease.Results: The overall prevalence of PAD was 52.5%. The prevalence of symptomatic PAD was 28.7% whilst that of asymptomatic PAD was 71.3%. There were a number of associations with PAD which included, age (p < 0.05, sex (p < 0.05, and marital status (p < 0.05. The use of the ankle-brachial index in the detection of PAD was clearly more reliable than the clinical methods like history of intermittent claudication and absence or presence of pedal pulses.Conclusion: The prevalence of PAD is relatively high in diabetic subjects in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Notable is the fact that a higher proportion was asymptomatic. Also the use of ABI is of great value in the detection of PAD as evidenced by a clearly more objective assessment of PAD compared to both intermittent claudication and absent pedal pulses.

  14. The value of the different indexes of electrocardiogram in diagnosing high blood pressure with left ventricular hypertrophy%心电图不同指标对高血压病左室肥厚的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严国平; 颜玉芳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨心电图(ECG)各指标对诊断高血压病左室肥厚(LVH)的价值.方法 根据超声心动图(UCG)报告,确定观察组(A组)高血压病伴LVH 55例及对照组(B组)高血压病不伴LVH 50例;测定ECG各指标数据并计算其敏感性.结果 ECG不同指标对诊断高血压病LVH的价值存在较大差异,其中QRS波群电压指标敏感性最高,肢体导联室壁激动时间(VAT)次之,余指标敏感性较低.结论 ECG不同指标在诊断高血压病LVH时的价值不同.%Objective To investigate the value of the different indexes of electrocardiogram (ECG) in diagnosing high blood pressure with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods 55 cases of high blood pressure with left ventricular hy-pertrophy and 50 cases of high blood pressure without left ventricular hypertrophy by the investigation of ultrasonic cardio-gram(UCG) were studied. The figure and sensitivity of the different indexes of ECG were determined. Results There was obvious difference among each ECG index in the diagnosing value of high blood pressure with left ventricular hypertro-phy, QRS wave amplitude had the most sensitive value compared with others. Conclusion It was different for each ECG index in the value of diagnosing high blood pressure with left ventricular hypertrophy. In order to improve the diagnosing ac-curacy, it is important to understand the different diagnosing value of each ECG index.

  15. Transitory increased blood pressure after upper airway surgery for snoring and sleep apnea correlates with the apnea-hypopnea respiratory disturbance index

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    Araújo M.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A transitory increase in blood pressure (BP is observed following upper airway surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome but the mechanisms implicated are not yet well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in BP and heart rate (HR and putative factors after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and septoplasty in normotensive snorers. Patients (N = 10 were instrumented for 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, nocturnal respiratory monitoring and urinary catecholamine level evaluation one day before surgery and on the day of surgery. The influence of postsurgery pain was prevented by analgesic therapy as confirmed using a visual analog scale of pain. Compared with preoperative values, there was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in nighttime but not daytime systolic BP (119 ± 5 vs 107 ± 3 mmHg, diastolic BP (72 ± 4 vs 67 ± 2 mmHg, HR (67 ± 4 vs 57 ± 2 bpm, respiratory disturbance index (RDI characterized by apnea-hypopnea (30 ± 10 vs 13 ± 4 events/h of sleep and norepinephrine levels (22.0 ± 4.7 vs 11.0 ± 1.3 µg l-1 12 h-1 after surgery. A positive correlation was found between individual variations of BP and individual variations of RDI (r = 0.81, P < 0.01 but not between BP or RDI and catecholamines. The visual analog scale of pain showed similar stress levels on the day before and after surgery (6.0 ± 0.8 vs 5.0 ± 0.9 cm, respectively. These data strongly suggest that the cardiovascular changes observed in patients who underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and septoplasty were due to the increased postoperative RDI.

  16. Time trends in blood pressure, body mass index and smoking in the Vietnamese population: a meta-analysis from multiple cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Ngoc Nguyen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data for trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are needed to set priorities and evaluate intervention programmes in the community. We estimated time trends in blood pressure (BP, anthropometric variables and smoking in the Vietnamese population and highlighted the differences between men and women or between rural and urban areas. METHODS: A dataset of 23,563 adults aged 25-74 from 5 cross-sectional surveys undertaken within Vietnam from 2001 to 2009 by the Vietnam National Heart Institute was used to estimate mean BP, weight, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, the prevalence of hypertension, adiposity or smoking, which were standardised to the national age structure of 2009. Multilevel mixed linear models were used to estimate annual changes in the variables of interest, adjusted by age, sex, residential area, with random variations for age and surveyed provinces. FINDINGS: Among the adult population, the age-standardised mean systolic and diastolic BP increased by 0.8 and 0.3 mmHg in women, 1.1 and 0.4 mmHg in men, while the mean BMI increased by 0.1 kgm(-2 in women, 0.2 kgm(-2 in men per year. Consequently, the prevalence of hypertension and adiposity increased by 0.9 and 0.3% in women, 1.1 and 0.9% in men with similar time trends in both rural and urban areas, while smoking prevalence only increased in women by 0.3% per year. A U-shaped association was found between age-adjusted BP and BMI in both sexes and in both areas. CONCLUSIONS: From 2001 to 2009, mean BP, weight and WC significantly increased in the Vietnamese population, leading to an increased prevalence of hypertension and adiposity, suggesting the need for the development of multi-sectoral cost-effective population-based interventions to improve CVD management and prevention. The U-shaped relationship between BP and BMI highlighted the hypertension burden in the underweight population, which is usually neglected in CVD interventions.

  17. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  18. Relationship of blood pressure variability and ambulatory arterial stiffness index with coronary artery lesions%血压变异性及动态动脉硬化指数与冠状动脉病变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡战友; 茶春喜; 罗仁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血压变异性(blood pressure variability,BPV)、动态动脉硬化指数(ambulatory arterial stiffness index,AASI)与冠状动脉病变程度的关系.方法 可疑冠心病患者258例,根据冠状动脉造影结果分为冠状动脉病变组187例与冠状动脉正常组71例,术后1周内监测24 h动态血压,分析观察动态血压及动态AASI与冠状动脉病变程度的相关性.结果 冠状动脉双支及3支病变组动态AASI数、24 h收缩压变异、白昼收缩压变异、夜间收缩压变异、夜间舒张压变异明显高于冠状动脉正常组(P<0.05),BPV及动态AASI数随冠状动脉血管病变支数的增加而逐渐增大;动态AASI与24h收缩压变异、白昼收缩压变异呈正相关;年龄、合并高血压病、合并糖尿病、24 h收缩压变异、白昼收缩压变异、夜间收缩压变异、夜间舒张压变异及动态AASI与冠心病的发生呈正相关;多因素Logistic逐步回归分析显示24 h收缩压变异、夜间收缩压变异及动态AASI是冠心病独立危险因素.结论 收缩压变异性和动态AASI对冠状动脉病变程度有较好的预测价值.%Objective To explore the relationship of blood pressure variability (BPV) and ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AAS1) with coronary artery lesion. Methods A total of 258 patients with suspected coronary heart disease were divided into coronary artery lesions group (n=187) and normal coronary artery group (n=71) according to the coronary angiography results. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was monitored in one week after operation to observe the relationship of BPV and AASI with coronary artery lesion. Results AASI, 24-hour systolic blood pressure standard deviation, day systolic blood pressure standard deviation, night systolic blood pressure standard deviation and night diastolic blood pressure standard deviation were significantly higher in double and triple vessel lesion group than those in normal coronary artery group

  19. 中日两国女性血压及心踝血管指数水平的比较研究%Comparative study of blood pressure and cardio-ankle vascular index between Chinese and Japanese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; Kohji Shirai; 芦娜; 赵红薇; 刘金波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood pressure and cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI)berween Chinese and Japanese women and explore the factors influencing CAVI in healthy women. Methods 3 301 healthy women [1 590 Chinese women and 1 711 Japanese women ] were recruited into the study. CAVI and blood pressure were measured by a validated automatic device. CAVI was used as an index of large arterial stiffness. Results Systolic blood pressure and dias-tolic blood pressure of Chinese women were significantly higher than that of Japanese women at the same age group (all p < 0.001). However,CAVI of Chinese women was significantly lower than that of Japanese women (all p <0.001). In the entire study group,CAVI was related to age, systolic blood pressure,body mass index, without significant relationship with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions CAVI can be used to evaluate arterial stiffness. Blood pressure of Chinese women was higher than that of Japanese women. In healthy people,CAVI was related to age,systolic blood pressure and body mass index.%目的 探讨中日两国健康女性血压和心踝血管指数(CAVI)的水平及其影响因素.方法 中日两国参加健康体检的女性共3 301例(中国籍1 590例,日本籍1 711例),应用动脉僵硬度自动检测装置测定CAVI作为反映动脉僵硬度的指标.结果 中国女性的收缩压和舒张压均显著高于同年龄段的日本女性(P均<0.001),31~70岁年龄段的中国女性CAVI显著低于同年龄的日本女性(P均<0.001).两国健康女性CAVI主要与年龄、收缩压、体质指数(BMI)有关,与舒张压无显著相关关系.结论 CAVI主要与年龄、收缩压、BMI有关.中国女性的血压水平高于同年龄段日本女性,而CAVI低于同年龄段的日本女性.

  20. 成都地区中老年居民脉压及脉压指数分析%AN ANALYSIS OF PULSE PRESSURE AND PULSE PRESSURE INDEX AMONG MIDDLE-AGED RESIDENTS IN CHENGDU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凯; 高音; 陈晓平; 李龙兴; 万里艳; 陈小妮

    2011-01-01

    [目的]调查分析成都地区中老年居民脉压(PP)、脉压指数(PPI)的影响因素,寻找可能改善脉压异常的方法.[方法]利用2007代谢综合征研究调查资料(共1061人),把人群依据PP(PP≤60 mmHg及PP>60mmHg)及PPI(PPI≤0.450及PPI>0.450)分为正常组及增高组,分析两组人群多代谢异常及心血管疾病危险因素分布特征,并采用Logistic回归分析寻找与PP/PPI相关的危险因素.[结果]①两个分组间年龄、收缩压、男性比重、高血压家族史、体重指教、腰围、臀围、空腹血耱、肾功能等指标PP、PPI增高组明显高于PP、PPI正常组,舒张压则是PP、PPI增高组明显低予PP、PPI正常组.②血脂各成分PP组间无统计学差异,总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白水平PPI增高组高于正常组.③PP及PPI增高组其代谢综合征、高血压、糖尿病、肥胖、腹型肥胖、血脂异常等患病率皆高于PPI正常组,差异有统计学意义.④Logistic回归分析提示PP、PPI与女性性别、年龄、收缩压、BMI、腰围、臀围、空腹血糖、肌酐、尿酸、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白水平呈正相关,与男性性别及舒张压呈负相关.[结论]成都地区脉压及脉压指教与代谢性指标关系密切,可能可以通过改善血脂、空腹血糖、腰围、体重指数、肾功能等指标来减少脉压及脉压指数的异常.%[Objective] To evaluate the influencing factors on pulse pressure (PP) and pulse presure index (PPI) among middle-aged residents in Chengdu, and search the possible methods to relieve PP disorder. [Methods] We divided the 1061 middle-aged people who came from the survey for metabolic syndrome study into 2 groups according to PP (PP≤60mmHg and PP > 60mmHg) and PPI (PPI (PPI≤0.450 and PPI > 0.450)). They were normal PP/PPI group and augmented PP/PPI group. The normal PP group mean the PP of the people was less than or equal to 60 mmHg, and normal PPI group was PPI less or equal to 0.450. The

  1. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  2. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  3. 高血压患者血压变异性与心踝血管指数的关系研究%Relationship between Blood Pressure Variability and Cardio-ankle Vascular index in Hytensive Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春玲; 郑侨克

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between blood pressure variability and cardio -ankle vascular index in hytensive pa-tients.Methods:A total 147 were enrolled in this study and divided into normal CAVI group (CAVI9.0) based on their cardio-ankle vascular index.ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and cardio -ankle vascular index were examined.Results:Mean 24 hour systolic blood pressure (134.17 ±9.70 vs.128.76 ±8.14), 24 hour systolic blood pressure variability (13.27 ±2.89 vs.10.55 ±2.49), MBPS(31.81 ±12.5 vs.23.06 ±10.48),24 hour diastolic blood pressure variability (11.77 ±2.40 vs.10.29 ±2.62)(all P<0.05)were significantly higher in high CAVI group than in normal CAVI group .Conclusions:Mean 24 hour systolic blood pressure , 24 hour systolic blood pressure variability , 24 hour diastolic blood pressure variability ,MBPS may be the risk fac-tors of high CAVI in hypertensive patients .%目的:探讨高血压患者血压变异性( BPV)与心踝血管指数( CAVI)的关系。方法:选择原发性高血压患者147例,根据CAVI分为2组,CAVI正常组57例,CAVI升高组90例,比较并分析2组24小时动态血压参数和血压变异性参数。结果:CAVI升高组较CAVI正常组,24小时平均收缩压、24小时收缩压变异性、24小时舒张压变异性、血压晨峰均高(P<0.05)。结论:高血压患者24小时平均收缩压、24小时收缩压变异性、24小时舒张压变异性、血压晨峰升高可能是高CAVI的危险因素。

  4. A computational analysis of the long-term regulation of arterial pressure [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1xq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The asserted dominant role of the kidneys in the chronic regulation of blood pressure and in the etiology of hypertension has been debated since the 1970s. At the center of the theory is the observation that the acute relationships between arterial pressure and urine production—the acute pressure-diuresis and pressure-natriuresis curves—physiologically adapt to perturbations in pressure and/or changes in the rate of salt and volume intake. These adaptations, modulated by various interacting neurohumoral mechanisms, result in chronic relationships between water and salt excretion and pressure that are much steeper than the acute relationships. While the view that renal function is the dominant controller of arterial pressure has been supported by computer models of the cardiovascular system known as the “Guyton-Coleman model”, no unambiguous description of a computer model capturing chronic adaptation of acute renal function in blood pressure control has been presented. Here, such a model is developed with the goals of: 1. capturing the relevant mechanisms in an identifiable mathematical model; 2. identifying model parameters using appropriate data; 3. validating model predictions in comparison to data; and 4. probing hypotheses regarding the long-term control of arterial pressure and the etiology of primary hypertension. The developed model reveals: long-term control of arterial blood pressure is primarily through the baroreflex arc and the renin-angiotensin system; and arterial stiffening provides a sufficient explanation for the etiology of primary hypertension associated with ageing. Furthermore, the model provides the first consistent explanation of the physiological response to chronic stimulation of the baroreflex.

  5. Indexing books

    CERN Document Server

    Mulvany, Nancy C

    2009-01-01

    Since 1994, Nancy Mulvany's Indexing Books has been the gold standard for thousands of professional indexers, editors, and authors. This long-awaited second edition, expanded and completely updated, will be equally revered.Like its predecessor, this edition of Indexing Books offers comprehensive, reliable treatment of indexing principles and practices relevant to authors and indexers alike. In addition to practical advice, the book presents a big-picture perspective on the nature and purpose of indexes and their role in published works. New to this edition are discus

  6. 压痕法测量Zr基非晶压力敏感因子%A New Approach to Measure the Pressure Sensitivity Index of Zr-Based Metallic Glasses Using the Indentation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻更生; 林建国

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the indentation test is employed to characterise the pressure-dependent yield behavior of two Zr-based BMGs, and the pressure sensitivity index of the alloys was measured on the basis of the measurement of the included angles (2θ) between two families of shear bands. The nanoindentation P-h curves of the alloys with the different pressure sensitivity indexes were measured and the results are compared with the finite element simulations. The experimental curves are in good agreement with the simulate dones. The included angles (2θ) and the P-h curve depend markedly on the above index. This dependence can be exploited to determine it from indentation experiments using an inverse approach.%采用压痕法研究了两种Zr基非晶依横于压力屈服行为,非晶的压力敏感因子可以通过对剪切带之间的夹角(2θ)测量得到.纳米压痕P-h曲线也表现出相似的结果,随着压力敏感因子而改变,这个结果与有限元模拟压痕测量的结果非常一致.剪切带之间的夹角(2θ)和纳米压痕P-h曲线都显著的依赖压力敏感因子改变而变化,这说明非晶是一种依赖于压力屈服行为.压痕实验结果依赖压力敏感因子变化行为进一步说明可以采用压痕法测量非晶压力敏感因子.

  7. Resource Endowments and Responses to Regulatory Pressure: Publications of Economics, Management, and Political Science Departments of Turkish Universities in Indexed Journals, 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Cetin; Kasapoglu-Onder, Rana

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how differences in resource endowments of universities shape variation in their response to regulatory pressures. Earlier research on higher education institutions tends to conceive regulatory rules as the primary basis of action and does not attend to differences in the salient characteristics of universities. This paper…

  8. Selecting fish-based metrics responding to human pressures in French natural lakes and reservoirs: towards the development of a fish-based index (FBI) for French lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Launois, L.; Veslot, J.; Irz, P.; ARGILLIER C.

    2010-01-01

    1.Fish-based indices of biotic integrity (IBI) have been developed for many lotic systems but remain scarce for lakes. The goal of the present study was to assess the responses of lentic fish assemblages to anthropogenic pressures when environmental variability was controlled for, and to compare them between French natural lakes and reservoirs. 2.Environmental features, catchment-scale anthropogenic descriptors and fish data were collected from 30 natural lakes and 59 reservoirs throughout...

  9. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  10. Common polymorphisms in CYP2C9, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic vascular disease in 52 000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) enzymes metabolize warfarin and arachidonic acid. We hypothesized that the CYP2C9*2 (rs. 1799853) and CYP2C9*3 (rs. 1057910) polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity affect risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (reduced ankle brachial index and increased C-reactive ......Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) enzymes metabolize warfarin and arachidonic acid. We hypothesized that the CYP2C9*2 (rs. 1799853) and CYP2C9*3 (rs. 1057910) polymorphisms with decreased enzyme activity affect risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (reduced ankle brachial index and increased C......% power. In conclusion, in three independent studies totaling more than 52 000 individuals, we found no association between CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis, ischemic vascular disease or death after ischemic heart disease. The Pharmacogenomics Journal (2009) 9...

  11. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  12. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkabiliy Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  13. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  14. 周围动脉硬化指标结合运动负荷试验预测冠状动脉狭窄程度的临床意义%Clinical significance of combined peripheral arteriosclerosis index and exercise load test in predictiing severity of coronary artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 李小鹰; 罗学胜; 陈穗; 张建; 陈琳; 孟艳玲; 何璐

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the clinical significance of peripheral arteriosclerosis index in predicting early occurrence and severity of coronary heart disease. Methods Fifty-six patients admitted to Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, were enrolled in this study. Their ankle-brachial index( ABI) ,brachial ankle artery pulse wave velocity(baPWV) ,and haPWV were measured before and after exercise by treadmill test followed by coronary angiography and analyzed by chi-squre test. The patients were divided into non-disease group(n= 9), non-significant stenosis group(n= 12) ,single vessel lesion group(n=17) ,2-vessel lesion group and 3-vessel lesion group according to their angiographic findings. Results No significant difference was found in ABI among the 4 groups at rest(P>0. 05). The baPWV and haPWV were significantly higher in coronary heart disease group than in non-disease group(P0. 05). The ABI, baPWV and haPWV decreased immediately after treadmill exercise. Conclusion The significantly increased resting baPWV and haPWV can predict coronary heart disease,but cannot predict its severity. The ABI before and after exercise and the baPWV and haPWV after exercise can hardly predict the occurrence and severity of coronary heart disease.%目的 探讨周围动脉硬化指标对早期预测冠心病及冠状动脉病变程度的临床意义.方法 随机选取解放军总医院心内科住院患者56例,平板运动试验前后完成静息性及运动后即刻踝臂指数( ankle-brachial index,ABI);肱动脉-踝动脉脉搏波速度(brachial ankle artery pulse wave velocity,baPWV)、上行主动脉-踝动脉脉搏波速度(haPWV)检测,同时完成冠状动脉造影检查,根据造影结果,分为无病变组9例,无意义狭窄组12例,单支病变组17例,双支病变组9例及3支病变组9例,对各组患者运动前后ABI、baPWV及haPWV进行统计学分析.结果 静息状态下,与无病变组比较,冠状动脉病变各

  15. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  16. Louisiana ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  17. Maryland ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  18. Prevalencia de calcificación arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados: Estudio multicéntrico poblacional ARTPER Prevalence of arterial calcification and related risk factors: The multicenter population-based ARTPER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Alzamora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la prevalencia de calcificación arterial (índice tobillo-brazo >1,4 y de factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados en población general >49 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio transversal, 3786 sujetos seleccionados aleatoriamente en 28 centros. Para el cálculo de la prevalencia se usó toda la muestra, excluyendo los sujetos con arteriopatía periférica (índice tobillo-brazo Objective: To determine the prevalence of arterial calcification (ankle-brachial index >1.4 and its related factors among the general population aged >49 years. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 3,786 people randomly selected from 28 centers. To assess the factors associated with arterial calcification using a multivariate logistic model, the whole sample was used to compute prevalence, excluding persons with peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index <0.9. Results: Arterial calcification was found in 235 persons (prevalen 6.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-7.0, and was twice as frequent in men as in women. Patients with arterial calcification were older, had more previous cardiovascular events, diabetes and obesity, and were less able to perform physical activity than persons with a healthy ankle-brachial index. Conclusions: We recommend measurement of the ankle-brachial index in primary care centers to detect arterial calcification among men, persons with diabetes, overweight, obesity or difficulty in performing physical activity, and in those with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  19. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15...

  20. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL...

  1. Ambulatory arterial stiffness indices and target organ damage in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Marcos Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to evaluate which arterial stiffness parameter - AASI or the home arterial stiffness index (HASI - correlates best with vascular, cardiac and renal damage in hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 258 hypertensive patients. AASI and HASI were defined as the 1-regression slope of diastolic over systolic blood pressure readings obtained from 24-hour recordings and home blood pressure over 6 days. Renal damage was evaluated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR and microalbuminuria; vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle/brachial index (ABI; and left ventricular hypertrophy by the Cornell voltage-duration product (VDP and the Novacode index. Results AASI and HASI were not correlated with microalbuminuria, however AASI and HASI- blood pressure variability ratio (BPVR showed negative correlation with GRF. The Cornell PDV was positively correlated with AASI- BPVR-Sleep (r = 0.15, p Conclusions After adjusting for age, gender and 24-hour heart, the variables that best associated with the variability of IMT, PWV and ABI were AASI and Awake-AASI, and with GFR was HASI-BPVR.

  2. Thigh muscle size and vascular function after blood flow-restricted elastic band training in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fukumura, Kazuya; Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of elastic band training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on thigh muscle size and vascular function in older women. Older women were divided into three groups: low-intensity elastic band BFR training (BFR-Tr, n = 10), middleto high-intensity elastic band training (MH-Tr, n = 10), and no training (Ctrl, n = 10) groups. BFR-Tr and MH-Tr groups performed squat and knee extension exercises using elastic band, 2 days/week for 12 weeks. During BFR-Tr exercise session, subjects wore pressure cuffs around the most proximal region of both thighs. The following measurements were taken before (pre) and 3-5 days after (post) the final training session: MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at mid-thigh, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extension, central systolic blood pressure (c-SBP), central-augmentation index (c-AIx), cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Quadriceps muscle CSA (6.9%) and knee extension MVIC (13.7%) were increased (p muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not decrease vascular function in older women. PMID:27244884

  3. Addition of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor to a calcium channel blocker ameliorates arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuchi S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shunsuke Kiuchi,1 Shinji Hisatake,1 Muneyasu Kawasaki,2 Osamu Hirashima,2 Takayuki Kabuki,1 Junichi Yamazaki,1 Takanori Ikeda1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Misato Central General Hospital, Saitama, JapanBackground: The aim of controlling hypertension is to protect against arteriosclerosis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors have been reported to have antihypertensive effects, but their effect on the progression of arteriosclerosis is not fully understood. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI was developed to estimate arterial stiffness, which reflects arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the longer term effects of CCBs and RAAS inhibitors on the progression of arteriosclerosis by monitoring the CAVI.Methods: Our subjects were 115 consecutive, non-smoking hypertensive patients on oral treatment with a CCB and/or RAAS inhibitor for at least 3 years in whom the CAVI was measured on two occasions approximately 1 year apart during the period from January 2009 to December 2011. Changes in CAVI were evaluated in patients administered a CCB alone (group C, an RAAS inhibitor (group R alone, or both drugs together (group B. Changes in laboratory findings, blood pressure, and ankle-brachial index were similarly evaluated.Results: No significant change in laboratory findings, blood pressure, or ankle-brachial index was noted in any of the groups. The CAVI decreased slightly in group R (first recording 8.80±1.03, second recording 8.57±0.97, P=0.517 and increased significantly in group C (first 8.45±0.92, second 8.95±1.04, P=0.038, but showed no significant change in group B (first 9.01±1.26, second 9.05±1.35, P=0.851.Conclusion: Long-term administration of a CCB alone increased the CAVI, but this effect was offset by the concomitant use of a RAAS inhibitor, indicating that a RAAS

  4. GCUBE Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Laxmaiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Online Analytical Processing System involves the non-categorical attribute information alsowhereas standard online analytical processing system deals with only categorical attributes. Providingspatial information to the data warehouse (DW; twomajor challenges faced are; 1.Defining andAggregation of Spatial or Continues values and 2.Representation, indexing, updating and efficient queryprocessing. In this paper, we present GCUBE (Geographical Cube storage and indexing procedure toaggregate the spatial information/Continuous values. We employed the proposed approach storing andindexing using synthetic and real data sets and evaluated its build, update and Query time. It is observedthat the proposed procedure offers significant performance advantage.

  5. Facile Atmospheric Pressure Synthesis of High Thermal Stability and Narrow-Band Red-Emitting SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) Phosphor for High Color Rendering Index White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Shin-Mou; Lin, Yin-Chih; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-08-01

    Red phosphors (e.g., SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+)) with high thermal stability and narrow-band properties are urgently explored to meet the next-generation high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, to date, synthesis of such phosphors remains an arduous task. Herein, we report, for the first time, a facile method to synthesize SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) through Sr3N2, Li3N, Al, and EuN under atmospheric pressure. The as-synthesized narrow-band red-emitting phosphor exhibits excellent thermal stability, including small chromaticity shift and low thermal quenching. Intriguingly, the title phosphor shows an anomalous increase in theoretical lumen equivalent with the increase of temperature as a result of blue shift and band broadening of the emission band, which is crucial for high-power white LEDs. Utilizing the title phosphor, commercial YAG:Ce(3+), and InGaN-based blue LED chip, a proof-of-concept warm white LEDs with a color rendering index (CRI) of 91.1 and R9 = 68 is achieved. Therefore, our results highlight that this method, which is based on atmospheric pressure synthesis, may open a new means to explore narrow-band-emitting nitride phosphor. In addition, the underlying requirements to design Eu(2+)-doped narrow-band-emitting phosphors were also summarized. PMID:27403812

  6. Macrovascular disease and systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, M; Veale, D; Eastmond, C.; Nuki, G.; Belch, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine if macrovascular disease is more prevalent in systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared with unaffected subjects.
METHODS—54 patients with SSc (both limited and diffuse disease) and 43 unaffected control subjects of similar age and sex were recruited. All subjects underwent a basic screen for conventional atherosclerotic disease risk factors. All had non-invasive vascular assessments—that is, carotid duplex scanning and measurement of ankle brachial blood pressure index—to iden...

  7. Pulse Pressure in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Parenica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The review presents basic information about the pulse pressure. The variables related to pulse pressure are briefly explained - arterial stiffness, arterial compliance, pulse wave velocity, pulse pressure amplification and augmentation index. We present some recent trials and observational studies that show the importance of pulse pressure in clinical practice. Briefly the possibilities of influencing the pulse pressure are discussed.

  8. Low pressure support changes the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation Baixos níveis de pressão de suporte alteram o índice de respiração rápida e superficial (IRRS) em pacientes graves sob ventilação mecânica

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine C. Gonçalves; Elaine C. Silva; Anibal Basile Filho; Maria Auxiliadora-Martins; Edson A. Nicolini; Ada C. Gastaldi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is the most widely used index within intensive care units as a predictor of the outcome of weaning, but differences in measurement techniques have generated doubts about its predictive value. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of low levels of pressure support (PS) on the RSBI value of ill patients. METHOD: Prospective study including 30 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) for 72 hours or more, ready for extubation. Prior to extuba...

  9. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security....

  10. 山东省儿童脂肪组织和非脂肪组织指数对血压水平的影响%Influence of fat mass index and fat-free mass index on blood pressure among children in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎修; 王淑荣; 赵金山; 张俊黎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) distribution on blood pressure (BP) , and to provide bases for early prevention against adult diseases. Methods A total of 4 321 children aged 7-12 participated in this study, their height,weight,skinfold thickness(SFT), systolic blood pressure(SBP) and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) were measured. Body fat percentage (BF%)were calculated by regression equation,fat mass index( FMI)and fat-free mass index(FFMI)were calculated. Results The Z score of SBP and DBP were positively correlated with the Z score of FMI and FFMI in both boys and girls(P<0.01). The prevalence of relative high BP increased from3.74% (boys) and 7.48% (girls) in

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid, zinc sulfate, experimental colitis, 2003328AC133 antigen, hematopoietic stem cells, fetal blood, immunophe-notyping, 2003138ALR2 gene, eNOS gene, PON1 gene, RAGE gene, 2003179 ATN-ISI, prognosis, acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis-individual severity index, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, 2003118 Alzheimer disease, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha,

  12. 老年体重指数与血压、脂肪肝、血脂的相关性研究%The relationship between body mass index and blood pressure,fatty liver and blood lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李厚隽

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究并且分析老年人群体重指数和血脂、血压与脂肪肝的有关性。方法选择2015年期间本团队对所管辖区实行健康体检的60岁以上老年人患者进行研究,根据体重指数把132例患者分成A、B、C三组,每组44例。观察并对比测量后三组患者血脂的各指标值、血压值和发生脂肪肝的几率。结果 A组患者血脂的指标明显要比C、B两组低(p<0.05);C组患者除了TC(总胆固醇)之外,TG(甘油三酯)和 LDL(低密度的脂蛋白)均比 B 组高(p <0.05);C 组患者血压的水平明显比 A、B 两组高(p<0.05);但三组在发生脂肪肝的几率上,各两组之间的差异在统计学上没有意义(p>0.05)。结论老年患者体重的指数是形成脂肪肝、高血压和高血脂重要的诱因,所以在临床上需要对其实行健康宣教,用以掌控肥胖。%Objective To study and analyze the relative characteristics of body mass index,blood fat,blood pressure and fat y liver in the elderly.Methods the elderly patients who were selected for health examination in our hospital during the period of 2014 were studied.According to the body mass index,132 patients were divided into three groups,A,B,and C,44 cases in each group.Observed and compared the three groups of patients with blood lipid index values,blood pressure and the incidence of fat y liver.Results indicators of blood lipid in group A were significantly lower than C and B group(P0.05).Conclusion the index of body weight in old patients is an important inducement of fat y liver,hypertension and hyperlipidemia,so it is necessary to carry out health education to control obesity.

  13. 福州市儿童青少年体质指数与血压的相关性分析%Study on relativity between children and adolescents body mess index and blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓阳; 徐幽琼; 李红; 王代榕; 林小宇

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析福州市7~18岁儿童青少年体质指数与血压的相关性,为开展相关的健康教育、健康促进提供基线资料。方法随机抽取福州市2个城区中等水平的小学和中学各一所,从各年级每个年龄段随机抽取至少20人,男女各半,共调查7~18岁儿童青少年590人并进行身高、体重和血压的测量。依据《中国学龄儿童青少年超重肥胖筛查体重指数值分类标准》,将学生分为正常、超重和肥胖3类,比较3类学生的收缩压及舒张压。结果7~12岁男生的超重率和肥胖率均高于13~18岁的男生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与正常体重组比较,7~12岁、13~18岁和7~18岁男生超重肥胖组的SBP和DBP均值以及13~18岁和7~18岁女生超重肥胖组SBP均值均明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);7~12岁男生的BMI与SBP、DBP均呈显著正相关(P<0.05),13~18岁男生和女生的BMI与SBP、DBP均呈显著正相关(P<0.05);在控制了年龄、性别因素后,7~12岁男生及13~18岁男生、女生BMI与SBP仍呈独立正相关(P<0.05),13~18岁男生BMI与DBP也呈独立正相关(P<0.05)。结论福州市7~18岁儿童青少年超重肥胖检出率男生比女生高、低年龄组比高年龄组高;BMI 与血压呈独立正相关,BMI 与 SBP 的相关性比BMI与DBP相关性强,年龄越大BMI与SBP的相关性也越强,男生的BMI与SBP、DBP的相关性较女生更为显著。%Objective To analyze children and adolescents body mass index and blood pressure correlation in Fuzhou, so as to provide baseline data to carry out health education and health promotion. Methods A primary school and a secondary school of moderate level were randomly selected in cangshan. At least 20 children of 7-18 were randomly sampled at each age group, evenly composed of boys and girls. A total of 590 children were recruited and assessed on their body

  14. 比较不同腰围、体质指数体检人群血压及心踝血管指数%To compare blood pressure and cardio-ankle vascular index in health examination population with different waist circumference and body mass index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 胡华青; 黄章伟; 金小芬; 谭月霞; 韩卫星

    2013-01-01

    目的比较体检人群中超重、肥胖者尤其是中心性肥胖者的血压及心踝血管指数(CAVI),分析腰围(WC)、体质指数(BMI)在评价动脉硬化和高血压中的意义。方法测量675例体检人群的身高、体重和WC,计算出其BMI,使用动脉硬化检测仪测出CAVI值与血压,对上述指标进行统计分析,进行评价。结果①体检人群中,男性中心性肥胖率为74.9%,女性中心性肥胖率为61.0%,男性超重者占48.1%,肥胖者占16.4%,女性超重者占35.6%,肥胖者占9.3%。于超重、肥胖者尤其是中心性肥胖者血压明显高于BMI正常者和WC正常者。男性组中心性肥胖者CAVI值低于WC正常者,而肥胖者CAVI值低于超重及BMI正常者。结论超重和肥胖尤其中心性肥胖者比BMI正常和WC正常者更具有患高血压的风险,男性CAVI值与WC、BMI呈负相关趋势,女性差异无统计意义,提示单纯的BMI或WC尚不能够准确的反映动脉硬化与肥胖的关系。%Objective To compare blood pressure and cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI) of the overweight and o-besity, especially the central obesity in health examination population, analysising the significance of waist circum-ference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in the evaluation of arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Methods To calculate their BMI by measuring the height, weight and WC of 675 health examination people and detect CAVI and blood pressure by using arteriosclerosis detector, then analyze the indexes above and do an evaluation. Results ①Among 675 health examination people, the rate of central obesity was 74.9% in male and 61.0% in female, and the overweight and obesity in male accounts for 48.1% and 16.4%, 35.6% and 9.3% in female.② The blood pressure of overweight and obesity,especially central obesity was significantly higher than people with normal BMI and WC. The CAVI of central obesity in male was smaller than people with normal WC, the CAVI of obesity was smaller than people

  15. Study the influence of body mass index on ambulatory venous pressure%体质指数对下肢动态静脉压的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明书; 赵志强; 张启文

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究体质指数对下肢慢性静脉功能不全患者下肢动态静脉压的影响.方法 对102例下肢慢性静脉功能不全患者的体质指数和下肢动态静脉压进行测定和比较,其中体重正常组28例,超体重组43例,肥胖组31例.结果 肥胖组和超体重组比体重正常组更容易出现色素沉着、湿疹、皮肤硬化和溃疡等下肢慢性静脉功能不全并发症.肥胖组、超体重组和体重正常组静息压(P0)分别为(118.0±11.5)、(113.0±9.7)、(101.0±10.6) mmHg(1mmHg=0.133 kPa);不挤压后4s时压力(4SP)分别为(75.00±2.99)、(71.00±3.01)、(65.00±2.17) mm Hg;压力降低百分比(pd)分别为(35.0±5.4)%、(39.0±4.3)%、(43.0±5.1)%;压力自挤压后静脉压开始恢复至P0的50%所需时间(RT50)分别为(7±1)、(9±2)、(12±3)s.肥胖组和超体重组P0和4SP比体重正常组明显升高(P<0.05),肥胖组和超体重组pd比体重正常组明显降低(P<0.05);在静脉压力逐渐恢复过程中,肥胖组和超体重组比体重正常组RT50明显缩短(P<0.05).结论 随着体质指数升高,下肢慢性静脉功能不全患者的下肢慢性静脉功能不全程度更严重.%Objective To study the influence of body mass index on ambulatory venous pressure of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremity.Methods One hundred and two consecutive patients with chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremity were enrolled in this study.Ambulatory venous pressure and body mass index were assessed and compared.Normal body weight group had 28 cases,over weight group had 43 cases,obesity group had 31 cases.Resets The complication of pigmentation,eczema,skin sclerosis and ulcer were more in obesity group and over weight group than those in normal body weight group.The resting pressure (P0) in obesity group,over weight group and normal body weight group were (118.0 ± 11.5),(113.0 ± 9.7),(101.0 ± 10.6) mm Hg (1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa),the pressure after unclamp 4 s (4SP)were (75

  16. Early Results of Clinical Application of Autologous Whole Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation for Critical Limb Ischemia with Buerger's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seon-Hee; Park, Yoong-Seok; Kang, Eun-Suk; Park, Kwang-Bo; Do, Young-Soo; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate early results of the clinical application of autologous whole bone marrow stem cell transplantation (AWBMSCT) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in patients with Buerger's disease. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 58 limbs of 37 patients (mean age, 43.0 years; range, 28-63 years; male, 91.9%) with Buerger's disease with CLI who were treated with AWBMSCT from March 2013 to December 2014. We analyzed Rutherford category, pain score, pain-free walking time (PFWT), total walking time (TWT), ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), and toe brachial pressure index (TBPI), and investigated wound healing and occurrence of unplanned amputations. The mean follow-up duration was 11.9 ± 7.2 months (range, 0.9-23.9 months) and 100%, 72.4%, and 74.1% of patients were available to follow-up 1, 3 and 6 months after AWBMST, respectively. At 6 months, patients demonstrated significant improvements in Rutherford category (P ABPI was increased compared to baseline, but the difference was not significant. A total of 76.5% ischemic wounds achieved complete or improved healing. AWBMSCT is a safe and effective alternative or adjunctive treatment modality to achieve clinical improvement in patients with CLI. PMID:26791280

  17. Early Results of Clinical Application of Autologous Whole Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation for Critical Limb Ischemia with Buerger’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seon-Hee; Park, Yoong-Seok; Kang, Eun-Suk; Park, Kwang-Bo; Do, Young-Soo; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate early results of the clinical application of autologous whole bone marrow stem cell transplantation (AWBMSCT) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in patients with Buerger’s disease. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 58 limbs of 37 patients (mean age, 43.0 years; range, 28–63 years; male, 91.9%) with Buerger’s disease with CLI who were treated with AWBMSCT from March 2013 to December 2014. We analyzed Rutherford category, pain score, pain-free walking time (PFWT), total walking time (TWT), ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), and toe brachial pressure index (TBPI), and investigated wound healing and occurrence of unplanned amputations. The mean follow-up duration was 11.9 ± 7.2 months (range, 0.9–23.9 months) and 100%, 72.4%, and 74.1% of patients were available to follow-up 1, 3 and 6 months after AWBMST, respectively. At 6 months, patients demonstrated significant improvements in Rutherford category (P ABPI was increased compared to baseline, but the difference was not significant. A total of 76.5% ischemic wounds achieved complete or improved healing. AWBMSCT is a safe and effective alternative or adjunctive treatment modality to achieve clinical improvement in patients with CLI. PMID:26791280

  18. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS OVER 50 YEARS OLD IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Guan; Zheng-yan Sheng; Hao-ming Tian; Da-long Zhu; De-min Yu; Wei-te Zhuang; Lu-lu Chen; Jian-ping Weng; Yong-jun Li; Zhang-rong Xu; Guang-wei Li; Xiao-hui Guo; Zhi-min Liu; Da-jin Zou; Hui-li Xing; Wei Liu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in China type 2 diabetic patients and to demonstrate the relationships between putative risk factors and PAD.Methods In total 1 397 type 2 diabetic patients aged 50 years and older were enrolled and determined ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 15 Class HI Grade A hospitals in 7 major cities of China.Results Mean patient age was 63. 7 ± 8. 2 years and mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9. 39 ± 7. 4 years. Two hundreds and seventy-two (19. 47% ) patients were diagnosed as PAD by ABI< 0. 9, 122 (18. 37% ) in male and 150 (20. 46% ) in female. PAD patients had a significantly longer duration of diabetes mellitus, higher hemoglobin Ale, and a significantly lower mean body mass index than non-PAD ones. Aging, smoking, and systolic blood pressure were found to be positively related with the prevalence of PAD. In terms of lipid profiles, no variable was found to relate with PAD. Notably, baPWV showed as the same significant guiding index for PAD, almost matched with ABI.Conclusions PAD is a common complication in China type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, PAD screening and treatment should be emphasized for diabetic patients with high risk factors.

  19. Increased aortic stiffness and related factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2013-10-01

    A number of conditions have been associated with functional changes of large arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with aortic stiffness in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The authors studied 86 patients with PAD (ankle-brachial pressure index [ABPI] ≤0.9) and 86 controls. Aortic stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity (aPWV) using applanation tonometry. In PAD patients, aPWV was higher compared with controls (11 ± 3 vs 9.8 ± 1.8; P=.002). In multiple regression analysis, aPWV was independently associated with pulse pressure (β=0.05, P=.01) in the PAD patients and with age in the control group (β=0.08, P=.0005). The results of this study confirm an aPWV increase in patients with PAD and emphasize the association between blood pressure and aPWV. Further studies are necessary to assess whether higher aortic stiffening adds prognostic value to ABPI, which is the most powerful prognostic indicator in PAD. PMID:24088278

  20. Dynamic analysis with a fractional-order chaotic system for estimation of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by narrowing or occlusion of vessels in patients like type 2 diabetes mellitus, the elderly and smokers. Patients with PAD are mostly asymptomatic; typical early symptoms of this limb-threatening disorder are intermittent claudication and leg pain, suggesting the necessity for accurate diagnosis by invasive angiography and ankle-brachial pressure index. This index acts as a gold standard reference for PAD diagnosis and categorizes its severity into normal, low-grade and high-grade, with respective cut-off points of ≥0.9, 0.9–0.5 and <0.5. PAD can be assessed using photoplethysmography as a diagnostic screening tool, displaying changes in pulse transit time and shape, and dissimilarities of these changes between lower limbs. The present report proposed photoplethysmogram with fractional-order chaotic system to assess PAD in 14 diabetics and 11 healthy adults, with analysis of dynamic errors based on various butterfly motion patterns, and color relational analysis as classifier for pattern recognition. The results show that the classification of PAD severity among these testees was achieved with high accuracy and efficiency. This noninvasive methodology potentially provides timing and accessible feedback to patients with asymptomatic PAD and their physicians for further invasive diagnosis or strict management of risk factors to intervene in the disease progression. (paper)

  1. Dynamic analysis with a fractional-order chaotic system for estimation of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Ming; Du, Yi-Chun; Wu, Jian-Xing; Lin, Chia-Hung; Ho, Yueh-Ren; Chen, Tainsong

    2013-08-01

    Lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by narrowing or occlusion of vessels in patients like type 2 diabetes mellitus, the elderly and smokers. Patients with PAD are mostly asymptomatic; typical early symptoms of this limb-threatening disorder are intermittent claudication and leg pain, suggesting the necessity for accurate diagnosis by invasive angiography and ankle-brachial pressure index. This index acts as a gold standard reference for PAD diagnosis and categorizes its severity into normal, low-grade and high-grade, with respective cut-off points of ≥0.9, 0.9-0.5 and diabetics and 11 healthy adults, with analysis of dynamic errors based on various butterfly motion patterns, and color relational analysis as classifier for pattern recognition. The results show that the classification of PAD severity among these testees was achieved with high accuracy and efficiency. This noninvasive methodology potentially provides timing and accessible feedback to patients with asymptomatic PAD and their physicians for further invasive diagnosis or strict management of risk factors to intervene in the disease progression.

  2. Serum Resistin Level and Progression of Atherosclerosis during Glucocorticoid Therapy for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahoko Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are important regulators of several processes, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. In patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis is accelerated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively investigated the association of adipokines and glucocorticoid therapy with progression of premature atherosclerosis in 38 patients starting glucocorticoid therapy for systemic autoimmune diseases. To detect premature atherosclerosis, carotid ultrasonography was performed at initiation of glucocorticoid therapy and after a mean three-year follow-up period. The ankle-brachial pressure index and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI were measured. Serum adipokine levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Twenty-three patients (60.5% had carotid artery plaque at baseline. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT increased significantly during follow-up. Glucocorticoids reduced the serum resistin level, while increasing serum leptin and high molecular weight-adiponectin. There was slower progression of atherosclerosis (carotid IMT and CAVI at follow-up in patients with greater reduction of serum resistin and with higher cumulative prednisolone dose. In conclusion, progression of premature atherosclerosis occurred at an early stage of systemic autoimmune diseases before initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. Since resistin, an inflammation and atherosclerosis related adipokine, is reduced by glucocorticoids, glucocortidoid therapy may not accelerate atherosclerosis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

  3. Serum Resistin Level and Progression of Atherosclerosis during Glucocorticoid Therapy for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nahoko; Masuoka, Shotaro; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-09-16

    Adipokines are important regulators of several processes, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. In patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis is accelerated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively investigated the association of adipokines and glucocorticoid therapy with progression of premature atherosclerosis in 38 patients starting glucocorticoid therapy for systemic autoimmune diseases. To detect premature atherosclerosis, carotid ultrasonography was performed at initiation of glucocorticoid therapy and after a mean three-year follow-up period. The ankle-brachial pressure index and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were measured. Serum adipokine levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had carotid artery plaque at baseline. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) increased significantly during follow-up. Glucocorticoids reduced the serum resistin level, while increasing serum leptin and high molecular weight-adiponectin. There was slower progression of atherosclerosis (carotid IMT and CAVI) at follow-up in patients with greater reduction of serum resistin and with higher cumulative prednisolone dose. In conclusion, progression of premature atherosclerosis occurred at an early stage of systemic autoimmune diseases before initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. Since resistin, an inflammation and atherosclerosis related adipokine, is reduced by glucocorticoids, glucocortidoid therapy may not accelerate atherosclerosis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

  4. Chronic venous ulceration of leg associated with peripheral arterial disease: an underappreciated entity in developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Hazra, Avijit; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Surana, Trupti V

    2014-10-01

    Chronic venous ulcer can often be associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which usually remains undiagnosed adding significantly to the morbidity of these patients. The Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is suggested for PAD evaluation. Many PAD studies were conducted in western countries, but there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of PAD in clinical venous ulcer patient in developing countries. We conducted a study in a tertiary care hospital of eastern part of India to find out the prevalence of PAD in venous ulcer patients, and also to find the sensitivity of ABPI as a diagnostic tool in these patients. We evaluated clinically diagnosed patients with venous ulcer using ABPI and Colour Doppler study for the presence of PAD. Possible associations such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis were studied. All results were analysed using the software Statistica version 6. PAD was present in 23 (27·71%) patients. Older age, longer duration, smoking, high BMI and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with PAD. A very strong level of agreement was found between venous Doppler and ABPI. Assessment for the presence of PAD is important in all clinically diagnosed venous ulcer patients. ABPI being a simple, non-invasive outpatient department (OPD)-based procedure, can be routinely used in cases of venous ulcer to find out the hidden cases of PAD even in developing countries. PMID:23170845

  5. The study on risk factor of metabolic diseases in pancreatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young; Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The body of the fat tissue increased in obese represented by risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic disease and dyslipidemia. Such metabolic diseases and the like of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increase in the adipose tissue of the pancreas is known to be a risk factor of these diseases. Study on the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer was conducted actively, case studies on pancreatic steatosis is not much. In this study, divided into a control group diagnosed with pancreatic steatosis as a result of ultrasonography to evaluation the physical characteristics and serologic tests and blood pressure and arterial stiffness. The control group and the test pancreas steatosis age and waist circumference, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, arterial elasticity is higher in pancreatic steatosis. And the lower ankle brachial stenosis and HDLcholesterol were lower than the normal control group, so the pancreatic steatosis harmful to blood vessels.(P <0.05). The difference between the control group and it was confirmed that the pancreatic jibanggun statistically significant. In conclusion, pancreatic steatosis at abdominal ultrasound can predict the risk of metabolic diseases, and there was a correlation with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Imaging of vascular dynamics within the foot using dynamic diffuse optical tomography to diagnose peripheral arterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Hoi, J. W.; Kim, I.; Dayal, R.; Shrikande, G.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is the narrowing of the functional area of the artery generally due to atherosclerosis. It affects between 8-12 million people in the United States and if untreated this can lead to ulceration, gangrene and ultimately amputation. The current diagnostic method for PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The ABI is a ratio of the patient's systolic blood pressure in the foot to that of the brachial artery in the arm, a ratio below 0.9 is indicative of affected vasculature. However, this method is ineffective in patients with calcified arteries (diabetic and end-stage renal failure patients), which falsely elevates the ABI recording resulting in a false negative reading. In this paper we present our results in a pilot study to deduce optical tomography's ability to detect poor blood perfusion in the foot. We performed an IRB approved 30 patient study, where we imaged the feet of the enrolled patients during a five stage dynamic imaging sequence. The patients were split up into three groups: 10 healthy subjects, 10 PAD patients and 10 PAD patients with diabetes and they were imaged while applying a pressure cuff to their thigh. Differences in the magnitude of blood pooling in the foot and rate at which the blood pools in the foot are all indicative of arterial disease.

  7. [Pathophysiology and diagnosis for arteriosclerosis obliterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hisao; Konisi, Keiko

    2002-08-01

    Patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, or peripheral arterial disease have been conventionally diagnosed and treated from only the viewpoint of peripheral arterial circulation. These concepts may have improved the quality of life for patients, but could not contribute the prognosis of life, because peripheral arterial disease is associated with an increased risk of the coronary disease and cerebrovascular disease. Intermittent claudication, the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease, results from flow-reducing lesions in the arteries of the lower extremity that cause exercise-induced muscle ischemia. In order to evaluate intermittent claudication, many kinds of noninvasive diagnostic studies, including ABPI (ankle brachial pressure index) and the measurement of claudication distance, et al have been proposed. We have used the recovery time of the ischemic reaction at foot sole, plethysmography, thermography, laser doppler flowmetry, or NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) after walking test, rather than ABPI. These examinations will be superior to ABPI to evaluate effects after ergotherapy or pharmacotherapy for patients with intermittent claudication. Carotid artery sclerosis may be a good marker of systemic atherosclerosis. By our assessment of risk factors, the progression of atherosclerotic change in carotid artery was strongly correlated with two risk factors, such as smoking and systolic blood pressure. In the cholesterol analysis, Lp (a) was only high risk factor for atherosclerotic change of carotid artery. Recent technical advances, adequate evaluation of systemic atherosclerosis, and reduction of risk factors should improve the prognosis of patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:12373817

  8. Correlation of pleth variability index with central venous pressure%脑肿瘤手术围手术期灌注变异指数和中心静脉压的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟丽; 罗中兵; 杨俊哲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of pleth variability index ( PVI) and central venous pressure ( CVP) in patients undergo-ing resection operation of brain neoplasms,and the correlation of PVI with CVP was investigated. Methods Forty-two patients ( ASA Ⅱ~Ⅲ grade) undergoing elective resection operation of brain neoplasms were included in the study. PVI was monitored continously with Masio Radical-7 pulse oximeter after patient entering operative room. CVP was monitored after central venous catheterization placed with regional an-esthesia. Total intravenous anesthesia was chosen. CVP and PVI were recorded at the time of entering operative room,operation began,and 30 minutes,60 minutes,90 minutes,120 minutes after the beginning of operation. Results The correlation coefficient of PVI with CVP was 0. 201 under spontaneously breathing ( at patient entering operative room before anesthesia) and was 0. 237 under mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Correlation of PVI and CVP is lower. The value of PVI might need further research for guiding volume management.%目的 观察灌注变异指数( PVI)和中心静脉压( CVP)持续监测用于脑肿瘤手术患者时的变化,探讨PVI和CVP的相关性. 方法 42例选择ASA分级为Ⅱ~Ⅲ级择期行脑肿瘤切除术患者,入室后持续监测PVI,局部麻醉下行中心静脉穿刺监测CVP. 麻醉方式采用全凭静脉麻醉. 记录入室时、手术开始时、手术开始后30 min、60 min、90 min和120 min时间点的CVP和PVI.结果 PVI和CVP在自主呼吸下(入室时)的相关系数r=0. 201,机械通气下的相关系数r=0. 237. 结论 PVI和CVP的相关性差,联合指导容量管理的应用价值可能还需要进一步的评估.

  9. Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; White, William B.

    Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quickflow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm. L'enregistrement en continu du débit, de la conductivité et de la température de l'eau a été réalisé au cours d'une série de crues à deux sources émergeant de calcaires, à Fort Campbell (Kentucky occidental, Tennessee, États-Unis). Des échantillons d'eau, prélevés à de courts pas de temps lors de ces crues, ont été analysés pour le calcium, le magnésium, les bicarbonates, le carbone organique total et le pH. Les chimiogrammes de calcium, d'indice de saturation de la calcite et de la pression partielle en CO2 ont été superposés aux hydrogrammes de crue. La concentration en calcium et la conductivité de l'eau se suivent bien et passent par un minimum correspondant au pic de l'hydrogramme ou légèrement retardé. La pression partielle en CO2 continue de croître au cours de la récession de l

  10. A relationship study on ambulatory pulse pressure,pulse pressure index and cognitive function in vascular cognitive impairment patients%血管性认知障碍患者动态脉压、脉压指数与认知功能损害的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登芹; 闫中瑞

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨动态脉压(PP)、脉压指数(PPI)与认知功能损害(VCI)程度的关系.方法 将60名重度、中度、轻度认知功能障碍患者作为研究对象,40名健康人作为对照组,所有患者进行动态血压的监测.结果 重度VCI组的PP、PPI显著高于中度、轻度VCI组及对照组[PP(mmHg):(59.10±11.82、54.94±10.86、50.28±8.33、45.54±9.22,P<0.05),PPI:(0.61±0.08、0.53±0.06、0.44±0.05、0.37±0.03,P<0.05)],其MMSE评分显著低于中度、轻度及对照组[(15.56±2.64)分、(19.32±3.32)分、(22.62±3.11)分、(26.45±2.94)分,P<0.05];中度VCI组PP、PPI显著高于对照组(P<0.05),MMSE评分显著低于轻度VCI及对照组(P<0.05).直线相关分析显示PP,PPI与MMSE评分呈明显负相关.结论 动态脉压、脉压指数的增加与认知功能的损害有关.%Objective To assess the relationship between ambulatory pulse pressure (PP),pulse pressure indices (PPI) and the severity of cognitive function.Methods Sixty patients with severe,moderate,mild vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) as the research object,and forty healthy people as control group.All of the patients of ambulatory blood pressure were monitored.Results Severe VCI group of PP and PPI was significantly higher than moderate,mild VCI group and the control group (PP (mmHg):(59.10 ± 11.82,54.94 ± 10.86,50.28 ±8.33,45.54±9.22,P<0.05),PPI:(0.61±0.08,0.53±0.06,0.44±0.05,0.37±0.03,P<0.05),and the MMSE score was significantly lower than moderate,mild,and the control group(15.56±2.64,19.32±3.32,22.62±3.11,26.45±2.94,P<0.05).Moderate VCI group of PP and PPI was significantly higher than the control group(P<0.05).MMSE score was significantly lower than mild VCI and the control group(P<0.05).Linear correlation analysis showed that PP and PPI was significantly negative related to MMSE score.Conclusion The increase of dynamic pulse pressure,pulse pressure index is associated with the damage of cognitive function.

  11. Study on the Correlation of Central Venous Pressure with Intrathoracic Blood Volume Index and Global End-Diastolic Volume Index after Pulmonary Lobectomy%肺手术后中心静脉压与血容量指数、全心舒张末期容积指数的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素梅; 黎阳; 黄冰; 茅乃权; 阮林; 彭丹晖; 杜学柯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of central venous pressure ( CVP ) with intrathoracic blood volume index(ITBVI) and global end-diastolic volume index(GEDVI) after pulmonary lobectomy,and to dis-cuss the value of CVP as a parameter of volume load after pulmonary lobectomy .Methods Twenty-three cases of ASA I-II grade lung cancer who underwent radical resection were enrolled in the study .Pulse indicator continuous cardiac output ( PiCCO) monitoring technology was used to record their postoperative CVP ,GEDVI and ITBVI at the time of off-lining(T1),after tracheal extubation instantly(T2),2 hours after extubation(T3),5 hours after extubation ( T4 ) ,and 15 hours after extubation ( T5 ) .The correlation of CVP with ITBVI and GEDVI was analyzed .Results The correlation coefficient of CVP and GEDVI was equal to -0 .138 ( P>0 .05 ); The correlation coefficient of CVP and ITBVI was equal to -0.153(P>0.05).Conclusion CVP can not indicate the volume load of patients after pulmonary lobectomy .It should be based on the clinical features or using more monitoring techniques when performing load monitoring and evaluation .%目的:探讨肺手术患者术后胸腔内血容量指数( ITBVI)、全心舒张末期容积指数( GEDVI)与中心静脉压( CVP)的相关性,研究肺手术后CVP用于评价肺手术后容量负荷的价值。方法 ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级行肺癌根治术患者23例,术后应用脉搏指示剂心排量连续监测( PiCCO)技术监测患者脱机后( T1)、拔管后( T2)、拔管后2h(T3)、拔管后5 h(T4)、拔管后15 h(T5)的CVP、ITBVI、GEDVI,分析CVP与ITBVI、GEDVI的相关性。结果 CVP与GEDVI的相关系数为r=-0.138(P>0.05); CVP与ITBVI r为-0.153(P>0.05)。结论CVP不能反映肺手术后机体的容量状态,在容量监测与评估时要根据临床表现或增加其他监测手段。

  12. An evaluation of short-stretch compression systems for chronic lower-limb leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Caryn; Shadwell, Janice; Regan, Pip; Hammett, Susan

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of a new short-stretch compression system (CoFlex UBZ, TLC and TLC Lite, Aspen Medical Europe Ltd) was undertaken in four leg ulcer clinics. A total of 19 patients aged 42-93 years were treated for up to 4 weeks, or until healed. Collated data included age, underlying diseases, leg ulcer type, ulcer duration and current treatment. The evaluation included quality of life measurements, wear time, slippage, exudate strikethrough and pain using a numerical pain score. Patients were asked to document sleep patterns. Compression was applied according to clinical need. Inclusion criteria were non-healing wounds on the lower limb existing for more than 6 weeks that were suitable for compression. Exclusion criteria included patients with untreated peripheral disease, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI)<0.5 or those unable to consent. Staff were asked to rate performance, wear time, fluid handling and conformability. Wound tissue types improved significantly for n=16 (84%) patients. Pain scores reduced significantly by week 2, n=11 (58%) patient leg ulcers had improved, n=2 (11%) patients in standard compression noted a marked reduction in malodour and sloughy tissue. n=16 (84%) rated the overall performance as 'very good' or 'good'. A detailed cost analysis was undertaken on one patient, suggesting a potential cost saving of £186.92 per month and a cost efficiency saving of 43.4%. PMID:25757382

  13. Peripheral arterial disease: implications beyond the peripheral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Whayne, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects a considerable percentage of the population. The manifestations of this disease are not always clinically overt. As a result, PAD remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. PAD is not just a disease of the peripheral arteries, but also an indication of generalized vascular atherosclerosis. PAD patients also have a high prevalence of other arterial diseases, such as coronary/carotid artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms. PAD is also a predictor of increased risk of lung and other cancers. The most often used examination for the establishment of the diagnosis of PAD, the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), is also a predictor of generalized atherosclerosis, future cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Several markers that have been linked with PAD (e.g. C-reactive protein, serum bilirubin levels) may also have predictive value for other conditions besides PAD (e.g. kidney dysfunction). The management of PAD should therefore not be restricted to the peripheral circulation but should include measurements to manage and decrease the systemic atherosclerotic burden of the patient. PMID:23221278

  14. Percutaneous peripheral laser angioplasty with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and sapphire tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnicka, Jan; Stanek, Frantisek; Boudik, Frantisek; Kubecek, Vaclav; Krivanek, Jiri; Keclik, Richard; Prochazkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel

    1990-07-01

    Percutaneous transluminal laser angioplasty with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm wavelength, 100 jig pulse duration, up to 0.4 J per pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate) coupled to optical fibers with sapphire tips of 1.8, 2.2 and 2.9 mm diameter was performed in 17 chronic occlusions of iliac, femoral, popliteal and fibular arteries in 15 patients. Clinically the procedure was successful in 14 cases. The probe formed a primary channel of at least 2.0 mm width which was further dilated by conventional balloon catheter. Ankle/brachial systolic pressure index (ABPI) increased from 0.46 0.13 to 0.84 0.21 after the procedure. Two failures were due to an extensive dissection which occurred after balloon angioplasty and resulted in an early reocclusion. In the remaining case a balloon catheter could not be introduced through the 30 cm long primary channel which reoccluded shortly after the recanalization. The initial patency rate was 82 % and in 5 patients followed for more then 6 months the ABPI showed only a minor decrease. These first results are encouraging and it is likely that this method could become an important alternative to conventional balloon angioplasty.

  15. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunping Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  16. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  17. Atmospheric stability index using radio occultation refractivity profiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Jagadheesha; B Manikiam; Neerja Sharma; P K Pal

    2011-04-01

    A new stability index based on atmospheric refractivity at ∼500 hPa level and surface measurements of temperature, pressure and humidity is formulated. The new index named here as refractivity based lifted index (RLI) is designed to give similar results as traditionally used lifted index derived from radiosonde profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity. The formulation of the stability index and its comparison with the traditional temperature profile based lifted index (LI) is discussed. The index is tested on COSMIC radio occultation derived refractivity profiles over Indian region. The forecast potential of the new index for rainfall on 2° × 2° latitude–longitude spatial scale with lead time of 3–24 hours indicate that the refractivity based lifted index works better than the traditional temperature based lifted index for the Indian monsoon region. Decreasing values of RLI tend to give increasing rainfall probabilities.

  18. Index effects: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao R

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of the first study of the index effects from changes in the composition of Australia’s tradeable benchmark index: the S&P/ASX 200. Prior to the introduction of the S&P/ASX200 changes to the composition of the market’s (then benchmark index (the All Ordinaries Index became evident before the formal announcement dates and the changes were made the following trading day. These announcement arrangements enabled profitable front-running trading. Along with the introduction of the new indices (including the S&P/ASX200 the arrangements for announcing changes to the composition of the index were changed to remove the opportunity for profitable frontrunning trading. While this objective was largely met for additions to the index the study found statistically significant evidence of price pressure between the announcement and implementation dates which were partially offset over the subsequent 20-day period. In relation to deletions the study found negative abnormal returns prior to announcement dates as well as between the announcement and implementation dates that were partially reversed over the subsequent 20-day period. The overall conclusion is that the event of changes in the composition of the S&P/ASX200 is on average associated with positive abnormal returns for additions and negative abnormal returns for deletions.

  19. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are 12 EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 12 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  20. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  1. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the notion of steps in indexing and reveals that the document-centered approach to indexing is prevalent and argues that the document-centered approach is problematic because it blocks out context-dependent factors in the indexing process. A domain-centered approach to indexin...... explain the indexing process and suggests that the domain-centered approach offers a guide for indexers that can help them manage the complexity of indexing. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Pressão arterial: efeito do índice de massa corporal e da circunferência abdominal em adolescentes Blood pressure: effect of body mass index and of waist circumference on adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Britto Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC e da circunferência abdominal (CA tem sido associado a elevação da pressão arterial. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do IMC e da CA sobre a pressão arterial (PA de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico de corte transversal. Selecionados 536 adolescentes, alunos de escolas públicas e privadas. Foram calculados IMC, classificado como normal alto (>p50 p85 p95. Mediu-se a CA, aumentada se>p75 e a PA, elevada se >p90. RESULTADOS: Trezentos e dezenove (59,5% indivíduos eram meninas, idade de 14,0± 1,99 anos, peso normal alto em 39,6%, sobrepeso em 37,1% e obesidade em 23,3%. O percentual de PAS e PAD elevadas acompanhou a elevação do IMC (p=0,000, alcançando 46,4% nos meninos e 39,3% nas meninas obesas (PAS e 42,0% e 44,6% (PAD, respectivamente. PAS e PAD elevadas foram 3,9 a 3,4 vezes mais freqüente nos meninos, e 2,2 a 2,0 vezes mais nas meninas com CA > p75, respectivamente. Pela análise de regressão linear simples cada aumento no IMC aumentaria a PAS em 1,198 mmHg e da CA em 0,622 mmHg. A razão de prevalência (RP de PAS e PAD elevadas em razão do IMC>p85 foi 3,9(I.C. 95% 2,0-7,4[p=0,000] e 4,3(I.C. 95% 2,2-8,5[p=0,000], respectivamente, e em razão da CA>p75 de 1,8(IC 95% 1,0 a 3,0 [p=0,036] e 1,4(IC 95% 0,8 a 2,4. Encontrou-se em 16/181(8,8% dos adolescentes com peso normal alto, PA>P90 com CA>p75. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores do IMC e da CA têm forte influência sobre os valores da PA de adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Increased body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC have been associated with blood pressure elevation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of BMI and WC on blood pressure (BP of adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study including 536 adolescents from public and private schools. BMI was calculated and classified as high-normal (> 50th p and 85th p and 95th p. WC was measured and considered increased if > 75th p. BP was considered elevated if > 90th p

  3. Sovereign debt crises in Latin America : A market pressure approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, T.M.; Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Kuper, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We construct a continuous sovereign debt crisis index for four large Latin American countries for the period 1870-2012. Our sovereign debt crisis index is similar to the Exchange Market Pressure Index for currency crises, and the Money Market Pressure Index for banking crises. To obtain the optimal

  4. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  5. Post marketing surveillance on safety and effectiveness of ANGIPARS in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, M.; S Bakhshayeshi; R Heshmat; Shahbazi, S.; M Aala; M Peimani; G Khushechin; M.R. Mohajeri Tehrani; A Shojaeefard; Kamali, K; O Azimaraghi; Larijani, B.

    2010-01-01

    "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:One of the most important complications of diabetes is foot ulcers with a life time risk of 15% among diabetics. The main objectives of this study was to evaluate adverse drug reactions(ADR) of oral and topical application of ANGIPARS, a novel compound applied in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and also its effect on wound surface area, Ankle Brachial Index(ABI), Toe Brachial Index(TBI) and wound temperature . "nMaterial and Method...

  6. The effect of a trunk release maneuver on Peak Pressure Index, trunk displacement and perceived discomfort in older adults seated in a high Fowler’s position: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Krista L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pressure ulcers pose significant negative individual consequences and financial burden on the healthcare system. Prolonged sitting in High Fowler’s position (HF is common clinical practice for older adults who spend extended periods of time in bed. While HF aids in digestion and respiration, being placed in a HF may increase perceived discomfort and risk of pressure ulcers due to increased pressure magnitude at the sacral and gluteal regions. It is likely that shearing forces could also contribute to risk of pressure ulcers in HF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-tech and time-efficient Trunk Release Manuever (TRM on sacral and gluteal pressure, trunk displacement and perceived discomfort in ambulatory older adults. Method A randomized controlled trial was used. We recruited community-living adults who were 60 years of age and older using posters, newspaper advertisements and word-of-mouth. Participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group (n = 59 received the TRM, while the control group (n = 58 maintained the standard HF position. Results The TRM group had significantly lower mean (SD PPI values post-intervention compared to the control group, 59.6 (30.7 mmHg and 79.9 (36.5 mmHg respectively (p = 0.002. There was also a significant difference in trunk displacement between the TRM and control groups, +3.2 mm and −5.8 mm respectively (p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in perceived discomfort between the groups. Conclusion The TRM was effective for reducing pressure in the sacral and gluteal regions and for releasing the trunk at the point of contact between the skin and the support surface, but did not have an effect on perceived discomfort. The TRM is a simple method of repositioning which may have important clinical application for the prevention of pressure ulcers that may occur as a result of HF.

  7. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  8. 云南省城镇上山压力指标体系测算与分析%Calculation and Analysis of Pressure Index System of “Building Urban Projects on Mountains” in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明军; 杨子生

    2016-01-01

    The concept of pressure was put forward in this paper, and the “Building Urban Projects on Mountains” pressure indicator system was built up.The pressure level of Yunnan Provinces’ s “Building Urban Projects on Mountains” in 2020 was analyzed and estimated at the municipal level by the methods of analytic hier-archy process,Delphi method and the comprehensive fuzzy evaluation .The results show that:1) The“Building Ur-ban Projects on Mountains” pressure in Yunnan exists obvious unbalance on the space, because the cultivated land resources, population, economic development level and the rural social development are different.2) The article divided pressure level into four ranks: Ultra high pressure levelⅠ mainly in the middle of central region of Yun-nan;High pressure levelⅡmainly distributed in the west and east of central region of Yunnan,the west of south-east Yunnan and the south of southwest Yunnan; Medium pressure level Ⅲ is mainly distributed in the middle of central region of Yunnan, the northwest of southwest Yunnan,the east of the northwest Yunnan and the north of northeast Yunnan;Low pressure levelⅣmainly distributed in the east of southeast Yunnan, the northwest of north-west Yunnan and the central of southwest Yunnan.3) The paper argues that the obvious unbalance of“Building Ur-ban Projects on Mountains” pressure can be narrowed by differentiated policy, so according to the research,the fu-ture focus area of“Building Urban Projects on Mountains” are mainly concentrated in the eastern Yunnan, the west of southeast Yunnan and the south of southwest Yunnan.%在提出城镇上山压力概念的同时构建了城镇上山压力指标体系,并进一步运用层次分析法、德尔菲法和综合模糊评价法测算和分析了2020年云南各州(市)的压力等级。研究结果表明:①由于耕地资源、人口、经济发展水平、农村社会发展不同,云南省城镇上山压力存在明显的空间非均

  9. Effect of Xuezhikang on pulse pressure and smoothness index in elderly patients with simple systolic hypertension%血脂康对老年单纯收缩期高血压患者脉压及平滑指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 张晓林

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察血脂康对老年单纯收缩期高血压患者脉压及平滑指数的影响.方法 选择老年单纯收缩期高血压患者77例,随机分为治疗组38例和对照组39例.对照组采用常规降压药物治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上,加服血脂康0.6g,2次/d.2组随访观察6个月.结果 2组患者治疗6个月后,24 h收缩压较治疗前均下降,治疗组24 h收缩压和脉压差较对照组明显降低(P<0.05,P<0.01),平滑指数较对照组明显升高(P<0.01).结论 降压协同血脂康治疗,能缩小老年单纯收缩期高血压患者的脉压差,明显提高降压药物的平滑指数.%Objective To observe the effect of Xuezhikang on pulse pressure and smoothness index in elderly patients with simple systolic hypertension. Methods Seventy-seven elderly patients with simple systolic hypertension were randomly divided into treatment group(n=38) and control group(n = 39). Patients in control group were treated with antihypertensive drugs and those in treatment group were treated with antihypertensive drugs plus oral Xuezhikang (0. 6 g,bid). The patients were followed up fro 6 months. Results The 24 h systolic pressure was lower in 2 groups 6 months after treatment than before treatment. The 24 h systolic pressure and pulse pressure difference were significantly lower whereas the smoothness index was significantly higher in treatment group than in control group after treatment(P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion Com bined anti-hypertension and Xuezhikang treatment can decrease the pulse pressure difference and increase the smoothness index in elderly patients with simple systolic hypertension.

  10. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  11. American Samoa ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  12. UV Index Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The UV Index Widget displays the ultraviolet (UV) Index providing a daily forecast of the expected risk of overexposure to the sun for a user-specified area of...

  13. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  14. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Glycemic Index and Diabetes The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a ... 08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ...

  15. The Glycemic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Pauline; Stubbs, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods. Foods are ranked according to their immediate effect on blood sugar levels. The higher a food raises blood sugar, the higher its glycemic index

  16. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  17. Body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  18. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  19. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  20. Index to Volume 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  1. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Part I–Price Index National Index for China Textile City (located in Keqiao, Shaoxing county in Zhejiang Province, east of China) concludes its price index (periodic code:20101101) at 100.31 points rise of 0.68% as against its previous week.

  2. The Europe 2020 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  3. Investigation on the relationship between body mass index and blood pressure in undergraduate students and exercise intervention%青年大学生BMI与血压的相关性分析及运动干预实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋桃; 胡蓉; 叶春姬

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨大学生人群中体质量指数(BMI)对血压水平的影响.方法 将重庆城市管理职业学院2008~2010年入学新生共8 757例大学生的身高、体质量、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)作为基础资料进行统计分析,超重肥胖者进行有氧运动干预.结果 BMI分别与SBP、DBP呈正相关(SBP:r=0.23,P=0.000,DBP:r=0.16,P=0.000),且SBP、DBP水平均表现为:肥胖组[(117.65±14.28)mm Hg,(75.65±9.55)mm Hg]大于超重组[(117.41±12.86)mm Hg,(74.78±8.91)mm Hg]大于体质量正常组[(111.78±11.38)mm Hg,(71.49±8.14)mm Hg]大于低体质量组[(107.85±10.66)mm Hg,(69.80±7.95)mm Hg],3组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),随BMI增长而增高.对超重组及肥胖组大学生进行运动干预,发现干预后人群的BMI、SBP、DBP及血压阳性率、正常血压高值阳性率[(22.93±2.74)mm Hg,(103.65±10.14)mm Hg,(69.62±7.83)mm Hg,2.4%,27.13%]均较未干预前[(26.50±3.07)mm Hg,(117.45±13.45)mm Hg,(74.93±9.02)mm Hg,6.1%,47.4%]下降,均P<0.05.结论 BMI增高对大学生血压水平有负面影响,可将BMI作为血压偏高的重要预测指标对学生的肥胖及血压情况进行监测,通过控制他们的体质量来降低今后患高血压的危险.%To investigate the relationship between BMI and blood pressure in undergraduate student and intervention study. Methods We choose freshmen students of the Chongqing City Management College from 2008 to 2010,total of 8757 cases, and the height, weight and blood pressure of the students were analyzed statistically. The overweight and obesity students were taken aerobic exercise. Results We found that the BMI had positive correlation with the blood pressure (systolic pressure: r = 0. 23,P = 0. 000 ;diastolic pressure: r = 0. 16,P = 0. 000). The relationship of blood pressure levels among the groups were: obese group [(117. 65 + 14. 28)mm Hg,(75. 65 + 9. 55)mm Hg]>overweight group[(117. 41 +12. 86)mm Hg,(74. 78 + 8. 91)mm Hg] >normal group[(lll. 78

  4. Study on the Change of Refractive Index on Mixing, Excess Molar Volume and Viscosity Deviation for Aqueous Solution of Methanol, Ethanol, Ethylene Glycol, 1-Propanol and 1, 2, 3-Propantriol at T = 292.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardad Koohyar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For aqueous solutions of methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, 1-propanol and 1, 2, 3-propantriol the change of refractive indices on mixing, excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated from the experimental data at 292.15 K. These experimental data (refractive indices, densities and viscosities were measured over the whole mole fractions range in atmospheric pressure and at T = 292.15 K. For these mixtures, excess thermodynamic properties have been correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation (and experimental equation to derive the coefficients and standard errors.

  5. Lower-leg symptoms in peripheral arterial disease are associated with anxiety, depression, and anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolderen, Kim G; Hoeks, Sanne E; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2009-01-01

    were associated with mood states such as anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (i.e. lack of positive affect). A cohort of consecutive PAD patients (n = 628) from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the San Diego...... Claudication questionnaire. The ankle-brachial index and clinical factors were assessed in all patients at baseline. Anxiety was present in 29%, depressive symptoms in 30%, and anhedonia in 28% of patients. Pain at rest was independently associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (ORs between...

  6. Contemporary medical management of peripheral arterial disease: a focus on risk reduction and symptom relief for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kush; Eberhardt, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is primarily caused by progressive systemic atherosclerosis manifesting in the lower extremities. This review addresses the epidemiology, clinical presentation and evaluation, and medical management of PAD, with a focus on intermittent claudication. Key advances in the recognition of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic individuals with mildly abnormal ankle-brachial index, newer reflections on exercise therapy, and a review of established and investigational agents for the treatment of symptomatic PAD, such as cilostazol, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, are highlighted.

  7. Hyperaldosteronism and cardiovascular risk in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Silvia; Petramala, Luigi; Mastroluca, Daniela; Petraglia, Emanuela; Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Indino, Elena; Panebianco, Valeria; Ciccariello, Mauro; Shahabadi, Hossein H; Galani, Alessandro; Letizia, Claudio; D'Angelo, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is commonly associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), often discovered before the onset of renal failure, albeit the pathogenetic mechanisms are not well elucidated. Hyperaldosteronism in ADPKD may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, and progression of cardiorenal disease. The aim of study was to evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in ADPKD patients and identify some surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.We have enrolled 27 hypertensive ADPKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, evaluating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), inflammatory indexes, nutritional status, homocysteine (Hcy), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), mineral metabolism, microalbuminuria, and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis [carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), ankle/brachial index (ABI), flow mediated dilation (FMD), renal resistive index (RRI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)]. Furthermore, we have carried out the morpho-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high-field 3 T Magnetom Avanto.We have divided patients into group A, with normal plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and group B with PA, present in 9 (33%) of overall ADPKD patients. Respect to group A, group B showed a significant higher mean value of LVMI, HOMA-IR and Hcy (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.018; respectively), and a lower value of FMD and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) (P = 0.037, P = 0.019; respectively) with a higher prevalence of non-dipper pattern at Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) (65% vs 40%, P FMD, and 25-OH-VitD, considered as surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, compared to ADPKD patients with normal PAC values. Our results indicate a higher overall cardiovascular risk in ADPKD patients with inappropriate aldosterone secretion, and a screening for PA in all patients with

  8. The Glycemic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods. Foods are ranked according to their immediate effect on blood sugar levels. The higher a f ood raises blood sugar, the higher its glycemic index. Scientists published the first index in 1981 when they were researching diet therapy for diabetes. This first list contained 51 foods, and the list has continued to expand, with the most recent official list containing 750 foods. Fruits, grains, dairy products, some vegetables, pastas...

  9. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  10. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  11. Influence of Body Mass Index on Blood Pressure and Blood Lipid in Health Examination%健康体检者的体质量指数对血压、血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈能凤; 韩辉武; 汤雁

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探讨长沙市健康体检人员的体质量指数(BMI)对血压与血脂的影响,为预防与控制血压及血脂异常提供依据。【方法】随机选择400例来自长沙市在湘雅医院参加健康体检的成人,按BM I不同将研究对象分为体重过轻组、正常组、超重组和肥胖组,采用单因素logistic回归及多因素logistic回归分析BM I对血压与血脂的影响。【结果】体质量过轻组高血压、高血脂患病率低于正常组,而超重组和肥胖组高血压、高血脂患病率明显高于正常组,且差异均有统计学意义(均 P <00.5)。单因素logistic回归结果显示,超重组与肥胖组高血压、高血脂的患病风险显著高于正常组,差异均具有统计学意义(均 P <00.5);多因素logistic回归结果显示,超重组与肥胖组高血压、高血脂的患病风险显著高于正常组,差异均具有统计学意义(均 P <00.5);年龄仅对是否患高血压有显著影响,差异具有统计学意义( P <00.5);对是否患高血脂并无显著影响( P >00.5)。【结论】超重或肥胖是高血压、高血脂患病的危险因素,应加强相关的健康教育工作。%Objective]To explore the effect of BMI on body pressure and lipid among people in Changsha so as to provide evidences for prevention and control of body pressure and Lipid abnormality [. Methods] A to‐tal of 400 cases were randomly selected in ordinary adults who participated in health examination in Xiangya Hospital and were grouped into the lighter weight ,the normal ,the overweight and he obesity according to BMI .The effect of BMI on blood pressure and blood lipid was analyzed by single factor Logistic regression and multiple logistic regression analysis[.Results ]The prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in the light weight group was lower than that in the normal BMI group ,but the prevalence of hypertension and

  12. Assessment of intrinsic vulnerability of an alluvial aquifer under anthropogenic pressure: cross comparison of 4 index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models within the Biguglia lagoon watershed (Corsica, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunat, Jessy; Huneau, Frédéric; Garel, Emilie; Devos, Alain; Lejeune, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Alluvial aquifer, Vulnerability mapping, Index-based methods, DRASTIC, SINTACS, SI, GOD The geographical position of the Biguglia lagoon watershed south of the Bastia city (80 000 inhabitants), lead to a highly vulnerable hydrosystem setting. This littoral plain is the unique territory available for the urbanisation and for the agriculture activities (cattle breeding). All the activities developed are likely to have a qualitative impact on water infiltration and therefore on groundwater, which is in hydraulic connection with the lagoon system. Beyond this ecological issue, groundwater of this watershed is intensively used as drinking water supply. It appears essential to control the long-term groundwater quality of the Biguglia plain which is the major economic zone of Corsica. Achievement of this issue requires the identification of the areas where the alluvial aquifer is mostly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. The results given by 4 of the most popular index-based vulnerability mapping methods (DRASTIC, SI, SINTACS and GOD) are compared. The water table, net recharge, aquifer and soils properties, topography, vadose zone and land uses have been precisely mapped and numerically translated in GIS with a 25m precision. 4 final maps were finally compiled according to the weighting factors of each methods. Hydrochemical investigations were also carried out on 30 sampling points (major ions and anthropogenic tracers) to evaluate the effect of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and also to validate the results of the vulnerability mapping. A comparison between the parametric models shows a significant agreement between the DRASTIC, SINTACS and SI results (2% to 5% of the total area in very low vulnerability class, 10% to 13% in low vulnerability, 16% to 23% in medium vulnerability, 31% to 53% in high vulnerability and 14% to 23% in very high vulnerability). The two first methods are quite similar, which explains the proximity of the

  13. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 60 supplementary EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  14. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  15. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  16. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  17. Watts Poverty Index

    OpenAIRE

    SAISANA Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The Watts poverty index is the first distribution-sensitive poverty measure, and it was proposed in 1964 by Harold W. Watts (1964). The index is computed by dividing the poverty line by income, taking logs, and taking the sum over the poor.

  18. Upwelling Index, 60N 149W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  19. Upwelling Index, 51N 131W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  20. Upwelling Index, 21N 107W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  1. Upwelling Index, 42N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  2. Upwelling Index, 30N 119W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  3. Upwelling Index, 36N 122W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  4. Upwelling Index, 27N 116W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  5. Upwelling Index, 57N 137W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  6. Upwelling Index, 54N 134W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  7. Upwelling Index, 48N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  8. Upwelling Index, 39N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  9. Upwelling Index, 24N 113W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  10. Upwelling Index, 33N 119W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  11. Upwelling Index, 45N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  12. Upwelling Index, 60N 146W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N....

  13. Improving interMediAte Risk management. MARK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Gil Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk functions fail to identify more than 50% of patients who develop cardiovascular disease. This is especially evident in the intermediate-risk patients in which clinical management becomes difficult. Our purpose is to analyze if ankle-brachial index (ABI, measures of arterial stiffness, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-measured blood pressure and presence of comorbidity are independently associated to incidence of vascular events and whether they can improve the predictive capacity of current risk equations in the intermediate-risk population. Methods/Design This project involves 3 groups belonging to REDIAPP (RETICS RD06/0018 from 3 Spanish regions. We will recruit a multicenter cohort of 2688 patients at intermediate risk (coronary risk between 5 and 15% or vascular death risk between 3-5% over 10 years and no history of atherosclerotic disease, selected at random. We will record socio-demographic data, information on diet, physical activity, comorbidity and intermittent claudication. We will measure ABI, pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index at rest and after a light intensity exercise. Blood pressure and anthropometric data will be also recorded. We will also quantify lipids, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a fasting blood sample and postprandial capillary glucose. Eighteen months after the recruitment, patients will be followed up to determine the incidence of vascular events (later follow-ups are planned at 5 and 10 years. We will analyze whether the new proposed risk factors contribute to improve the risk functions based on classic risk factors. Discussion Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is a priority in public health policy of developed and developing countries. The fundamental strategy consists in identifying people in a high risk situation in which preventive measures are effective and efficient. Improvement of these predictions in our country

  14. Hemoglobin A1c and arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Zieman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Arterial and ventricular stiffening are characteristics of diabetes and aging which confer significant morbidity and mortality; advanced glycation endproducts (AGE are implicated in this stiffening pathophysiology. We examined the association between HbA(1c, an AGE, with arterial and ventricular stiffness measures in older individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Baseline HbA(1c was measured in 830 participants free of diabetes defined by fasting glucose or medication use in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 65 years. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline exam data including echocardiography, ankle and brachial blood pressure measurement, and carotid ultrasonography. We examined the adjusted associations between HbA(1c and multiple arterial and ventricular stiffness measures by linear regression models and compared these results to the association of fasting glucose (FG with like measures. RESULTS: HbA(1c was correlated with fasting and 2-hour postload glucose levels (r = 0.21; p<0.001 for both and positively associated with greater body-mass index and black race. In adjusted models, HbA(1c was not associated with any measure of arterial or ventricular stiffness, including pulse pressure (PP, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, end-arterial elastance, or left ventricular mass (LVM. FG levels were positively associated with systolic, diastolic and PP and LVM. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of older adults without diabetes, HbA(1c was not associated with arterial or ventricular stiffness measures, whereas FG levels were. The role of AGE in arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults may be better assessed using alternate AGE markers.

  15. Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodriguez Jose I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to analyze the relationship between abdominal obesity and general obesity, with subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive subjects. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was made of 305 individuals (diabetics 32.8%, hypertensive subjects 37.0% and healthy individuals 30.2%. Measurements: Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (BFP and waist/height ratio (WHtR. Arterial stiffness was assessed according to pulse wave velocity (PWV, intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT, augmentation index (central and peripheral, ankle-brachial index (ABI, and central and peripheral pulse pressure. Results WC and WHtR showed a positive correlation to PWV and C-IMT in the studied groups. After adjusting for age, gender, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, serum glucose and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, and atherosclerotic plaques, it was seen that for every 0.1 point increase in WHtR, and for every cm increase in WC, the PWV increased 0.041 and 0.029 m/sec, and C-IMT increased 0.001 mm and 0.001 mm, respectively. Conclusions The measures of abdominal obesity (WHtR and WC correlates better than BMI and BFP with arterial stiffness evaluated by PWV, and with subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by C-IMT, independently of the presence of diabetes or hypertension. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064

  16. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Teens > Peer Pressure Print A A A Text Size What's in ... She'd just had a big dose of peer pressure. Who Are Your Peers? When you were a ...

  17. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  18. Compressing main memory index lists

    OpenAIRE

    Falk Nilsson, Max

    2015-01-01

    Index data structures are used in databases to get scalable access to rows in large tables for search conditions over indexed attributes. For each value of an indexed attribute, called the index key, the index associates a set of pointers, called the index list, to the rows where the value of the indexed attribute matches the key. If an index key over a very large collection has many duplicated values the index list can also become large. To make the indexes smaller and save space in main mem...

  19. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN THE LEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a condition characterized by atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities. While PAD is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation, it is also accompanied by a high likelihood for symptomatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for more than 90% of cases of PAD, and uncommon vascular syndromes account for the remaining 10%. The femoral and popliteal arteries are affected in 80% to 90% of symptomatic PAD patients, the tibial and peroneal arteries in 40% to 50%, and the aortoiliac arteries in 30%.Although 65–75% of patients with PAD are asymptomatic, the classic presenting symptom is usually described as muscle cramps, fatigue or pain in the lower legs induced by exercise and rapidly relieved by rest; often the symptom location indicates the level of arterial involvement. RISK FACTORS: Diabetes and smoking are the strongest risk factors for PAD. Other well-known risk factors are advanced age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. DIAGNOSIS: PAD can be easily and accurately diagnosed by calculating the ankle-brachial index (ABI.The ABI is defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure in the ankle divided by the systolic blood pressure at the arm. The tools required to perform the ABI measurement include a hand-held 5–10 MHz Doppler probe and a blood pressure cuff. MANAGEMENT: Most patients' symptoms improve with optimal medical treatment and invasive intervention is often not required. Smoking cessation and exercise are considered the two most important treatments for PAD. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic PAD often impairs a patient's quality of life and untreated disease can lead to limb loss. Aggressive management of atherosclerotic risk factors, a structured exercise program, use of antiplatelet agents and when indicated percutaneous or surgical revascularizations are the keys for successful management.

  20. Computerized dynamic posturography for postural control assessment in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Natalie; King, Stephanie A; Gohil, Risha; Chetter, Ian C; Coughlin, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography with the EquiTest is an objective technique for measuring postural strategies under challenging static and dynamic conditions. As part of a diagnostic assessment, the early detection of postural deficits is important so that appropriate and targeted interventions can be prescribed. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) on the EquiTest determines an individual's use of the sensory systems (somatosensory, visual, and vestibular) that are responsible for postural control. Somatosensory and visual input are altered by the calibrated sway-referenced support surface and visual surround, which move in the anterior-posterior direction in response to the individual's postural sway. This creates a conflicting sensory experience. The Motor Control Test (MCT) challenges postural control by creating unexpected postural disturbances in the form of backwards and forwards translations. The translations are graded in magnitude and the time to recover from the perturbation is computed. Intermittent claudication, the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease, is characterized by a cramping pain in the lower limbs and caused by muscle ischemia secondary to reduced blood flow to working muscles during physical exertion. Claudicants often display poor balance, making them susceptible to falls and activity avoidance. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is a noninvasive method for indicating the presence of peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication, a common symptom in the lower extremities. ABPI is measured as the highest systolic pressure from either the dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial artery divided by the highest brachial artery systolic pressure from either arm. This paper will focus on the use of computerized dynamic posturography in the assessment of balance in claudicants. PMID:24378378

  1. Index Futures Come Nearer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese investors have seen the dawn of stock index futures. The longexpected investment tool may be launched soon, but officials at the China Securities Regulatory Commission(CSRC) are working to further improve

  2. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Textile Index Monitor is a new column that delivers a textile-specific price index profile in weeks that are bygone when this monthly magazine comes to your hand. China Textile City is the name of the world-largest yarn&fabric marketplace in the famous town of Keqiao in Zhejiang,China.Several years ago,Ministry of Commerce(MOC)set up a national price index centre for textiles-specific category,China Textile City takes the leading role in publishing its analytical report of textile price index on weekly,monthly,quarterly and yearly basis,making it possible for Keqiao or its textile city to be the weathercock for textiles market trend in China and in the world as well.From this issue,a new column is given to cover the gist&feeds of the latest developments&gradients in this market barometer.

  3. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  4. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S....

  5. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  6. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices,...

  7. Arizona - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  8. Methods explained: Index numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Goodridge

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to explain the subtle differences in the methodologies used to construct index numbers.Many of the statistics produced by the Office for National Statistics,particularly economic statistics, are published in the form ofindices. However, there are a number of different forms of indices and this article attempts to explain the subtle differences in themethodologies used to construct them, and also factors that feed into the choice of which type of index to use. Hypothetical examplesare...

  9. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  10. Index Conditions of Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chun Cheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the following results are proved: (1) Using both deletion strategy and lock strategy, resolution is complete for a clause set where literals with the same predicate or proposition symbol have the same index. (2) Using deletion strategy, both positive unit lock resolution and input lock resolution are complete for a Horn set where the indexes of positive literals are greater than those of negative literals. (3) Using deletion strategy, input half-lock resolution is complete for a Horn set.

  11. The preparation and refractive index of BST thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique is used to deposit Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 (BST) thin films on fused quartz substrates. In order to prepare the high-quality BST thin films, the crystallization and microstructure of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). More intense characteristic diffraction peaks and better crystallization can be observed in BST thin films deposited at 600 deg. C and subsequently annealed at 700 deg. C. The refractive index of the films is determined from the measured transmission spectra. The dependences of the refractive index on the deposition parameters of BST thin films are different. The refractive index of the films increases with the substrate temperature. At lower sputtering pressure, the refractive index increases from 1.797 to 2.197 with pressure increase. However, when the pressure increases up to 3.9 Pa, the refractive index reduces to 1.86. The oxygen to argon ratio also plays an important effect on the refractive index of the films. It has been found that the refractive index increases with increase in the ratio of oxygen to argon. The refractive index of BST thin films is strongly dependent on the annealing temperature, which also increases as the annealing temperature ascends. In a word, the refractive index of BST thin films is finally affected by the films' microstructure and texture

  12. The tree BVOC index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.R., E-mail: jrsimpson@ucdavis.edu [U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Urban Ecosystems and Processes, 1731 Research Park Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McPherson, E.G. [U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Urban Ecosystems and Processes, 1731 Research Park Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. - Highlights: > A Tree BVOC index based on reduced emissions from low emitting trees is described. > An example illustrates use of the index as an implementation and monitoring tool. > This index could be useful for including urban trees in air quality mitigation plans. - A tree BVOC index is presented that calculates reduced BVOC emissions from planting lower-emitting urban tree species that has potential application for SIP compliance.

  13. Relationship between body composition index and blood pressure among children aged 7-12%山东省4326名7~12岁儿童体成分指数与血压水平的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎修; 王淑荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童体成分指数与血压水平的相关性.方法 对4326名7~12岁儿童进行身高、体重、血压和皮褶厚度测量,采用回归方程推算体脂比(BF%),用公式计算脂肪组织指数(FMI)=BF%×体重/身高2和非脂肪组织指数(FFMI)=(体重-BF%×体重)/身高2.结果 FMI、FFMI与收缩压(SBP)和舒张压(DBP)呈一定程度正相关,7~12岁儿童FMI与SBP的相关系数为0.432~0.531(男生)、0.413~0.485(女生),与DBP的相关系数为0.316~0450(男生)、0.345~0.421(女生).FFMI与SBP的相关系数为0.214~0.366(男生)、0.108~0.383(女生);与DBP的相关系数为0.090~0.250(男生)、0.063~0.214(女生).血压与FMI的相关性高于FFMI.血压偏高儿童的体成分指数显著高于正常儿童,以FMI差距最大.结论 预防儿童高血压应从控制体脂肪、预防肥胖做起.%Objective To explore the relationship between body composition index and blood pressure of children, and to provide bases for early prevention against adult diseases. Methods A total of 4326 children aged 7-12 participated in this study, with height, weight, skinfold thickness (SFT)and blood pressure(BP)of all subjects measured. Body fat percentage(BF%)were calculated by regression equation, fat mass index(FMI)and fat-free mass index(FFMI)were calculated according to following expressions: FMI(kg/m2)=BF% × weight/height2 and FFMI(kg/m2)=(weight - BF% × weight)/height2. Results Systolic blood pressure(SBP)and diastolic blood pressure(DBP)were positively correlated with FMI and FFMI in both boys and girls. Correlation coefficients between SBP, DBP and FMI were 0.432-0.531, 0.316-0.450 for boys, and 0.413-0.485, 0.345-0.421 for girls respectively and the correlation coefficients between SBP, DBP and FFMI were 0.214-0.366, 0.090-0.250 for boys, and 0.108-0.383, 0.063-0.214 for girls respectively. The coefficient between BP and FMI were larger than those between BP and FFMI. The mean values of FMI and FFMI of children

  14. Predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of limb arteries according to cardioangiological screening of the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of arteries identified through a multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS. Material and methods. Simultaneous survey of 441 rural residents over 40 years old was performed. Synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four limbs using MCVS was fulfilled, and differences in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg were calculated. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was also evaluated. │ΔSBParm│≥15 mm Hg or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as the markers of atherosclerotic arterial disease. Results. A significant asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mmHg was found in 7.7% [95% confidence interval (CI 5.5-10.6%] of patients in the upper limbs and in 6.8% (95 % CI 4.89.6% of patients in the lower extremities. The relative risk of asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mm Hg in the upper limbs increased in hypertension and obesity, and in the lower limbs in men and diabetes. Various quantitative risk factors of the onset and progression of atherosclerosis (age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, BP level had a positive correlation with the level of asymmetry of SBP on the limbs. Using MCVS and the appropriate combinations of features (SBP asymmetry or ABI≤0.9 allowed us at the stage of screening to find out blood flow disturbances in the arteries of the extremities in 14.7% (95% CI 11.7-18.4% of patients. This detection frequency was significantly higher than that when using only ABI. Conclusion. Identification of significant SBP asymmetry (≥15 mm Hg in the limbs may improve the diagnosis of atherosclerotic arterial disease at the stage of screening.

  15. Predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of limb arteries according to cardioangiological screening of the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of arteries identified through a multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS. Material and methods. Simultaneous survey of 441 rural residents over 40 years old was performed. Synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four limbs using MCVS was fulfilled, and differences in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg were calculated. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was also evaluated. │ΔSBParm│≥15 mm Hg or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as the markers of atherosclerotic arterial disease. Results. A significant asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mmHg was found in 7.7% [95% confidence interval (CI 5.5-10.6%] of patients in the upper limbs and in 6.8% (95 % CI 4.89.6% of patients in the lower extremities. The relative risk of asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mm Hg in the upper limbs increased in hypertension and obesity, and in the lower limbs in men and diabetes. Various quantitative risk factors of the onset and progression of atherosclerosis (age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, BP level had a positive correlation with the level of asymmetry of SBP on the limbs. Using MCVS and the appropriate combinations of features (SBP asymmetry or ABI≤0.9 allowed us at the stage of screening to find out blood flow disturbances in the arteries of the extremities in 14.7% (95% CI 11.7-18.4% of patients. This detection frequency was significantly higher than that when using only ABI. Conclusion. Identification of significant SBP asymmetry (≥15 mm Hg in the limbs may improve the diagnosis of atherosclerotic arterial disease at the stage of screening.

  16. Sex differences in correlates of intermediate phenotypes and prevalent cardiovascular disease in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate B. Schnabel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background-There are marked sex differences in cardiovascular disease [CVD] manifestation. It is largely unknown how the distribution of CVD risk factors or intermediate phenotypes explain sex-specific differences.Methods and Results-In 5000 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55±11 years, 51% males, we examined sex-specific associations of classical CVD risk factors with intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic variables. Intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes were related to prevalent CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, lower extremity artery disease [LEAD] N=561.We observed differential distributions of CVD risk factors with a higher risk factor burden in men. Manifest coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and LEAD were more frequent in men; the proportion of heart failure was higher in women. Intermediate phenotypes showed clear sex differences with more beneficial values in women. Fairly linear changes towards less beneficial values with age were observed in both sexes. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index were consistently associated with intermediate phenotypes in both sexes with different ranking according to random forests, maximum model R² 0.43. Risk factor-adjusted associations with prevalent CVD showed some differences by sex. No interactions by menopausal status were observed. Conclusions-In a population-based cohort we observed sex differences in risk factors and a broad range of intermediate phenotypes of noninvasive cardiovascular structure and function. Their relation to prevalent CVD differed markedly. Our results indicate the need of future investigations to understand sex differences in CVD manifestation.

  17. The Viborg vascular (VIVA screening trial of 65-74 year old men in the central region of Denmark: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henneberg Eskild W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA of men aged 65-74 years reduces the AAA-related mortality and is generally considered cost effective. Despite of this only a few national health care services have implemented permanent programs. Around 10% of men in this group have peripheral arterial disease (PAD defined by an ankle brachial systolic blood pressure index (ABI below 0.9 resulting in an increased mortality-rate of 25-30%. In addition well-documented health benefits may be achieved through primary prophylaxis by initiating systematic cholesterol-lowering, smoking cessation, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirins, exercise, a healthy diet and blood-pressure control altogether reducing the increased risks for cardiovascular disease by at least 20-25%. The benefits of combining screening for AAA and PAD seem evident; yet they remain to be established. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of a combined screening program for AAA, PAD and hypertension. Methods The Viborg Vascular (VIVA screening trial is a randomized, clinically controlled study designed to evaluate the benefits of vascular screening and modern vascular prophylaxis in a population of 50,000 men aged 65-74 years. Enrolment started October 2008 and is expected to stop in October 2010. The primary outcome is all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes are cardiovascular mortality, AAA-related mortality, hospital services related to cardiovascular conditions, prevalence of AAA, PAD and potentially undiagnosed hypertension, health-related quality of life and cost effectiveness. Data analysis by intention to treat. Results Major follow-up will be performed at 3, 5 and 10 years and final study result after 15 years. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00662480

  18. A case series to describe the clinical characteristics of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Heidi J; Firth, Jill; Waxman, Robin; Nelson, E Andrea; Helliwell, Philip S

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Adults with RA and current foot ulceration but without diabetes were recruited. Clinical examination included assessment of RA disease activity, foot deformity, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy and plantar pressures. Location, wound characteristics and time to healing were recorded for each ulcer. Participants completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Leeds Foot Impact Scale. Thirty-two cases with 52 current ulcers were recruited. Thirteen patients (41%) experienced more than one current ulcer: 5 (16%) had bilateral ulceration, 15 (47%) had previous ulceration at a current ulcer site. The majority (n = 33) of open ulcers were located over the dorsal aspect of the interphalangeal joints (n = 12), plantar aspect of the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) (n = 12) and medial aspect of first MTPJs (n = 9). In ulcerated limbs (n = 37), ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) was 6 kg/cm(2) in 6 (16%). Mean ulcer size was 4.84 by 3.29 mm. Most ulcers (n = 42, 81%) were superficial; five (9.6%) were infected. Time to healing was available for 41 ulcers: mean duration was 28 weeks. Three ulcers remained open. In conclusion, foot ulceration in RA is recurrent and multiple ulcers are common. Whilst ulcers are small and shallow, time to achieve healing is slow, posing infection risk. Reduced protective sensation is common in affected patients. The prevalence of arterial disease is low but may be under estimated due to high intolerance of ABPI. PMID:22052587

  19. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špan, Matjaž; Geršak, Gregor; Millasseau, Sandrine C; Meža, Marko; Košir, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD(®) device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop) and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi). ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years). Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, PABPI MD measurements to be performed. In conclusion, MESI improved automated oscillometric method and offered a faster and repeatable measurement of ABI with only a small, clinically irrelevant overestimation of ABI value. The tested MESI ABPI MD-improved oscillometric system can be used as a screening tool for patients in general practice and would enable family doctors to comply with current guidelines for PAD. PMID:27536125

  20. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is not Related to the Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Shan Bi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, the incidence of diabetic nephropathy was assessed in 413 type 2 diabetic patients, by testing the 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER. The NAFLD was diagnosed based on patient’s medical history and liver ultrasound. The difference in diabetic nephropathy incidence between patients with and without NAFLD was tested by χ2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the factors associated with diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Total 363 out of 413 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. The incidences of NAFLD and diabetic nephropathy in participants were approximately 56% (202/363 and 38% (137/363 respectively, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy between patients with and without NAFLD (37.1% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.787. The duration of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.014–1.120, p = 0.012, waist circumference (OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.040–1.116, p = 0.000, and fasting blood glucose (FBG; OR 1.136, 95% CI 1.023–1.1262, p = 0.017 were significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy, whereas sex, high blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI were not significantly associated with the disorder. The present results suggest that NAFLD is not related to the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, but the duration of diabetes, waist circumference, and FBG are important factors for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Reforming of Wiener Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yun-ping; Wang Zhen-dong; Yang Feng; Zhou Pei-jiang

    2004-01-01

    Based on distance matrix W, the novel topological index WF is defined by the matrices X, W, L, as WF=XWL. Where X is a row matrix, which expresses the bonding characteristics between adjacent atoms; L is a column matrix expressing the characteristic of vertexes in molecules; W is a distance matrix, which expresses the chemical environment of the atoms in the molecule. the properties, the chemical environments and the interaction of the vertexes in a molecule are taken into account in this definition. Hence the application of the index WF to multiple bonds and heteroatomcontaining organic systems or inorganic systems is possible. Good correlation coefficients are achieved not only in the prediction of the standard formation enthalpy of methyl halides, titanium halides, but also the retention index of gas chromatography of the hydrocarbons.

  2. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  3. Guidebook/index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The Guidebook/Index introduces information dealing with the general rationale for energy conservation and deals with some of the definitions and concepts common to each of the subjects covered in the series of 10 booklets. The master index for the series is presented. Subjects covered are saving money in heating, cooling, and lighting; in process design and heat recovery; through production optimization; through combustion control; through steam and compressed air management; in transportation and delivery; through efficient people moving; in office practices; and through employee motivation and participation.

  4. Clinical Factors affecting Minor Amputation in Diabetic Foot Disease at Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAKARIA, Zamzuri; AFIFI, Mustaqim; SHARIFUDIN, Mohd Ariff

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot disease poses a substantial problem in Malaysian diabetic population. We evaluate the clinical factors affecting minor amputation in diabetic foot disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolling patients admitted to orthopaedic wards of a single tertiary hospital for diabetic foot disease was conducted. Patients who had undergone major amputation or with medical condition above the ankle joint were not included. Clinical data were collected by measurement of ankle brachial systolic index and Semmes-Weinstein 5.07 gauge monofilament test with foot clinical evaluation using King’s classification respectively. Results: The total number of patients included was 138, with mean age of 59.7 years (range 29 to 94 years old). Fifty patients (36.2%) had minor amputations. Poor compliance to diabetic treatment, King’s classification stage 5, low measures of ankle brachial systolic index, sensory neuropathy, high serum C-Reactive protein and high serum creatinine are significant predictive factors for minor amputation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Identifying these risk factors may help in prevention of minor amputation and subsequently reduce limb loss in diabetic foot. PMID:26023294

  5. A New Technique of Graphic Representation of Myocardial Reserve and Responsiveness of Peripheral Arteries when Choosing the Surgical Approach in Patients with Multifocal Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov L.N.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to develop a new technique to estimate myocardial and peripheral reserves; and on the basis of the obtained responsiveness indices of coronary and peripheral arteries — to improve the diagnostics and optimize the choice of surgical treatment modality of patients with multifocal atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods. 296 patients with concomitant lesions of coronary arteries and lower extremity vessels were examined. In 15 patients, according to the findings of synchronously performed stress-echocardiography and ultrasound Doppler of lower extremities, we compared the severity of coronary and peripheral syndromes using the developed technique of graphic representation of ejection fraction and ankle brachial index (initial, load-peak, recovery time 3 min, 6 min later on phase plane. Results. The study of the distribution dynamics of the indices of ejection fraction and ankle brachial index — the basic indices of intracardiac regional circulatory dynamics — enabled to distinguish 4 zones: А1 zone — low coronary and satisfactory peripheral reserves, А2 zone — low coronary and peripheral reserves, А3 zone — low peripheral and satisfactory coronary reserves, B zone — satisfactory coronary and peripheral reserves. A surgical approach will depend on the zone the indices of the measured parameters are referred to. Conclusion. The suggested technique for the assessment of functional coronary and peripheral reserves by means of graphic representation of the findings on phase plane enables to specify the indications to surgical management and prognosticate ischemic complications.

  6. [Acute and chronic limb ischemia in endurance athletes - a serious diagnosis of exercise-induced lower limb pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regus, Susanne; Lang, Werner

    2016-07-01

    Lower extremity pain due to acute or chronic ischemia in high performance endurance athletes is an often forgotten differential diagnosis. A variety of symptoms constitues a multi-disciplinary challenge. Intermittent claudication or acute ischemia are clinical symptoms indicative of this vascular disease. The most important basic methods of investigation are anamnesis and clinical examination. Furthermore, the determination of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and duplexsonography should be considered. In addition, modern cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are recommended. In case of suspect findings, the digital substraction angiography (DSA) represents a high resolution image technique for illustration of the vessel lumen. If necessary, interventional therapy (balloon angioplasty or clot lysing) can be performed simultaneously. Surgical revision remains the gold-standard of therapy and the fastest way in which athletes regain maximum performance abilities. Correct diagnosis of lower limb ischemia affecting endurance athletes should be performed without delays. Determining the ankle-brachial index following maximal exertion represents the most important diagnostic tool. Surgical treatment techniques as decompression and revascularisation provide the best long-term results. PMID:27464284

  7. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (β=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  8. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 – 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (β=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  9. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  10. The Misery Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  11. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron;

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park...

  12. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  13. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  14. Index for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  15. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špan M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Matjaž Špan,1 Gregor Geršak,2 Sandrine C Millasseau,3 Marko Meža,4 Andrej Košir4 1Cardiovascular Department, Izola General Hospital, Izola, 2Laboratory of Metrology and Quality, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Pulse Wave Consulting, Saint Leu La Foret, France; 4Faculty of Electrical Engineering, User-adapted Communication and Ambient Intelligence Lab, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract: In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50% and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD® device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi. ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years. Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, P<0.0001. The difference between the two techniques was 0.06±0.14 with ABI_mesi providing slightly higher values (P<0.0001 and negligible bias across the range (R=0.19, P<0.0001. Therefore, ABI

  16. Pressure pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, Søren; Holmager, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    induce hyperalgesia.The aim of the present study was to evaluate hyperalgesia by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) in patients with IHD, and compare PPS to questionnaires measuring depressive symptoms, reduced psychological wellbeing, and QOL as markers of stress. Design. A cross-sectional study of 361...... subjects with IHD. Methods. PPS was measured on the sternum, and compared to the questionnaires: Clinical stress symptoms score (CSS), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, and SF-36 QOL score. Results. PPS correlated to CSS (r = 0.20, p <0.001), MDI (r = 0.14, p = 0.02), SF-36 mental...

  17. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.

  18. 膝骨性关节炎患者膝关节疼痛指数与足底压力变化的相关性研究%Impaction of knee pain index on plantar pressure in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清; 袁海; 曹娟娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨膝骨性关节炎患者足底压力改变及疼痛对足底压力的影响。方法运用足底压力测试系统对28例单侧膝骨性关节炎疼痛患者自然行走时的步态进行测试,观察受试者单足支撑分期时段参数、足角及膝关节疼痛指数,对健、患侧足底压力各指标进行统计学分析并分析膝关节疼痛指数与各指标相关性。结果膝骨性关节炎患者患侧前足着地阶段时间百分比为(57.90±32.93)、全足支撑阶段时间百分比为(57.93±2.93)低于健侧对应百分比(60.26±2.66,P =0.007;51.53±3.84,P <0.001);患侧足角(16.24±4.50)明显高于健侧足角(14.67±4.09),差异有统计学意义(P =0.014);膝关节疼痛指数与患侧前足着地阶段时间百分比(r =-0.53,P =0.004)、全足支撑阶段时间百分比(r =-0.56,P =0.002)呈负相关;与患侧足角无明显相关性(r =0.245,P =0.193)。结论膝骨性关节炎患者足底压力具有特征性,前足着地时段、全足支撑时段明显缩短、足角变大,疼痛严重影响膝骨性关节炎患者步态。%Objective To explore the gait characteristics of patients with knee osteoarthritis during natural walking and the impaction of knee pain on plantar foot pressure. Methods The Footscan plate system was used to test the plantar pressure parameters of 28 patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis during natural walking. The data of gait parameters with single support phases,foot angle and knee joint pain index were evaluated,and the plantar pressure of ipsilateral and contralateral foot were statistically analyzed,the relation between knee joint pain index and those data also being analyzed. Results There were statistically significant differences between ipsilateral and contralat-eral foot of knee osteoarthritis patients for the contacting time percentage of forefoot contact phase(57. 93 ± 2. 93,60. 26 ± 2. 66,P = 0. 007) and foot

  19. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  20. Pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  1. The tree BVOC index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  2. Towards Cryptocurrency Index

    OpenAIRE

    Trimborn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In dieser Thesis wird ein Marktindex konstruiert, wobei neu entwickelte Methoden für solch eine Aufgabe verwendet werden. Die Entscheidung über die Anzahl der Indexteilnehmer wird mithilfe des AIC und BIC Kriteriums getroffen und die Liquiditätsregel wird auf Grundlage der BIS Umfrage ermittelt. Dieser neu entwickelte Index, CRIX, wird dann benutzt, um den Kryptowährungsmarkt gegen Bitcoins und andere Märkte zu vergleichen. Es wurde herausgefunden, dass dieser Markt wesentlich risikoreicher i...

  3. Serbian Monetary Conditions Index

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mladenovic-Komatina; Mirjana Palic; Boris Vukicevic

    2005-01-01

    Monetary conditions index (MCI) is an indicator of the combined effect of short-term interest rates and the exchange rate on price stability and/or aggregate demand. The MCI enables monitoring of changes in the level of restrictiveness and/or expansiveness of monetary policy compared to the base period. It enables us to observe the impact of monetary conditions on the general level of prices and inflation process. Depending on the circumstances, MCI can be construed by calculating weights to ...

  4. Indexing dif/2

    OpenAIRE

    Neumerkel, Ulrich; Kral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Many Prolog programs are unnecessarily impure because of inadequate means to express syntactic inequality. While the frequently provided built-in `dif/2` is able to correctly describe expected answers, its direct use in programs often leads to overly complex and inefficient definitions --- mainly due to the lack of adequate indexing mechanisms. We propose to overcome these problems by using a new predicate that subsumes both equality and inequality via reification. Code complexity is reduced ...

  5. Attention to the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery disease is essential in reducing diabetic foot ulcer and amputation%重视下肢动脉病变的诊治是降低糖尿病截肢率的重要措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许樟荣

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease(PAD)is one of diabetic macrovascular complications,with characteristics of being more distal.segmental and extensive.The clinical manifestation of PAD is usually not noticed,and thus diagnosis easily missed.However,PAD is a main cause of diabetic foot and amputation,which would be diagnosed relatively easily if due attention is paid to artery pulse,ankle-brachial blood pressure index,and skin temperature.Ultrasound,CT,MR,and digital subtraction angiography(DSA)examinations are quite useful tools in diagnosis of PAD.The treatment of PAD,including medical and surgical intervention,has been developing quickly.Therapy with stem cell transplantation has been tested in some clinics.%下肢动脉疾病(PAD)是常见的糖尿病并发症,具有多节段、更远端、病变更广泛等临床特点.该症起病缓慢而隐匿,临床上尚未受到足够重视,但危害性大,是糖尿病足的重要原因.该症诊断相对容易,触诊、踝肱动脉压指数测定、皮温测定、超声检查、CT或核磁共振都是有效的诊断技术,血管减数造影仍然是诊断的金标准.轻-中度病变采用药物治疗,重症患者需要外科手术治疗.介入治疗如深部球囊扩张术和血管内支架置放和干细胞移植治疗已在国内一些大医院开展并取得了相当疗效.

  6. Placement of hemoparin-coated stents in the iliac arteries: Early experience and midterm results in 28 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmar, Peter I., E-mail: peter.kalmar@medunigraz.at; Portugaller, Rupert H., E-mail: rupert.portugaller@medunigraz.at; Schedlbauer, Peter, E-mail: peter.schedlbauer@klinikum-graz.at; Bohlsen, Dennis, E-mail: dennis.bohlsen@medunigraz.at; Deutschmann, Hannes A., E-mail: hannes.deutschmann@medunigraz.at

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Aim was to determine immediate results and mid-term outcome of the hemoparin-coated (HC) stainless-steel stent (camouflage coating) in the treatment of occlusive lesions of the iliac arteries. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients were prospectively treated with the use of a HC stent between January 2007 and March 2010. Clinical examination and color-doppler ultrasound were performed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, CT angiography (CTA) or MR angiography (MRA) at 12 months. Indication for treatment was a high-grade stenosis of the common iliac and/or external iliac artery. Results: Successful placement was achieved in all patients. Significant decrease in translesional pressure gradient (>10 mmHg) was measured in 27 patients (96%). In one patient, proximal dissection occurred without flow limitation. A minor complication (small access site hematoma) occurred in one patient (4%). Two patients (7%) were lost to follow-up. After 12 months, stent patency in CTA, MRA and ultrasound was 100%. 20 patients (77%) experienced an initial improvement of at least one clinical stage. In one patient (4%), mild intimal hyperplasia without significant stenosis was observed. In three patients (12%), proximal or distal stenosis occurred. A non-significant increase of mean ankle-brachial index (ABI) after treatment was measured (0.85 ± 0.27 vs. 0.75 ± 0.22, respectively; p = 0.328). Conclusions: The use of HC stents in patients with iliac artery occlusive disease may lead to a lower rate of intimal hyperplasia and thus to increased patency rates even in heavily calcified vessels. However, large-scale prospective trials have to be performed to evaluate the long-term patency rates of the HC coated stents.

  7. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD, based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI, and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+. Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI.Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small-scale subsistence

  8. How To Prevent Foot Ulcers In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Morshed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients is 4% to 10%, these ulcers may be infected, cause morbidity and may lead to lower extremity amputation.Objective: Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers in patients known to be diabetics by fasting blood sugar (FBS, HbA1C tests.Material and Methods: The study was done on 120 patients between March 2010 and July 2011 diagnosed as diabetics and they performed simple screening tests for peripheral neuropathy (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination (SWME, superficial pain, vibration testing by the on-off method, the timed method. Nerve conduction studies (NCS were used as standard criterion for detection of neuropathy, they also underwent Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI measurement to assess the vascularity of their lower limbs. All patients were given proper education to prevent foot ulcers, including optimising glycemic control, cessation of smoking, debridement of calluses, appropriate foot wear and foot care with periodic foot examination.Results: In our study we succeeded in increasing the prevention of foot ulceration in our diabetic patients by 95%, compared to results achieved with the previous measures.Conclusion: Screening tests are effective for all diabetic patients to identify patients at risk of foot ulceration. They may benefit from prophylactic interventions including, optimising glycemic control, cessation of smoking, debridement of calluses, appropriate foot wear and intensive foot care.Also, we take care of patients with low risk of foot ulceration by adequate foot care and periodic foot examination to prevent foot ulceration.

  9. Fatal pulmonary embolism following ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy combined with multiple microphlebectomies.

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    Bruijninckx, Cornelis Ma

    2016-08-01

    Ambulatory ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) for refluxing saphenous veins is considered a safe therapy. Venous thromboembolic complications after UGFS as well as after all other ambulatory ablative venous interventions are rarely reported. This paper reports a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) following UGFS in combination with an extended phlebectomy, and questions what measures should be taken to minimize the risk for thromboembolic complications after these procedures. In the reported case (unsuspected), extensive non-occluding atherosclerosis as well as obesity in combination with use of an oral contraceptive might have contributed to the development of the PE while the use of a β-blocker might have increased its fatal course considerably. Routine measurement of the ankle-brachial pressure index reduces the risk for undetected atherosclerosis. It appears that 'in the real world' of ambulatory phlebological treatments thromboembolic complications are more common (2.4-4.7%) and appear accompanied by post-procedural mortality. It is concluded therefore that pharmacological thromboprophylaxis appears warranted in selected cases, perhaps even routine application could be considered. Attention is drawn to the highly thrombogenic but not uncommon combination of overweight and use of oral contraceptive. Apart from applying some form of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, technical adaptations that might prevent or reduce spill over of foam into the deep venous system should be considered. Firstly, next to adherence to the generally accepted maximum of 10 mL of foam per session, it seems prudent to maximize the injected volume of foam per site. Secondly, it seems best to inject the foam in an elevated leg without groin compression. The concentration of the sclerosant does not appear decisive in this respect, although higher concentrations appear more effective and therefore might be injected in lower volumes without compromising efficacy. PMID:26338843

  10. PAPAYYA THERAPY FOR CHRONICULCER: A RETROSPECTIVE C OHORTANDA META: ANALYSIS

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    Gopal Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Papayya wound therapy (PWT has been used in various wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, pressure ulcers, and acute surgical wounds. However, the efficiency of PWT therapy has been controversial. We therefore conduct ed a cohort study and a meta - analysis to assess PWT effects. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU patients who were treated with PWT or conventional wound ther apy (CWT i n Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital Warangal Telan gana State India. The Kaplan - Meier curve was applied to estimate the healing probability. A meta - analysis was performed to pool our study with four previous cohort studies identified from Medline a nd Scopus. RESULTS: The estimated incidence of wound healing was 5.7/100 (95% CI: 4.49, 7.32 patients - week, and the median time to healing was 14 weeks. The hazard ratio (HR of wound healing . W as 7.87 times significantly higher in the PWT than the CWT (p< 0.001 after adjusting for d uration and size of ulcers, ankle brachial index (ABI, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. Meta - analysis was applied and suggested that the treatment effects were moderately heterogeneous {Chi - square Z 6.18 [degrees of freedom (d . f. Z 4]; p Z 0.186; I2 Z 35.2%}, with the pooled risk ratio (RR of 1.77 [95% confidence intervals (CI Z 1.01, 3.11], i.e., the chance of wound healing was 2 0% significantly higher with PWT than CWT. The average costs of d epartment of Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital Warangal Telangana State India.

  11. Validity and reproducibility of arterial pulse wave velocity measurement using new device with oscillometric technique: A pilot study

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    Patnaik Amar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of a range of techniques and devices allow measurement of many variables related to the stiffness of large or medium sized arteries. There is good evidence that, pulse wave velocity is a relatively simple measurement and is a good indicator of changes in arterial properties. The pulse wave velocity calculated from pulse wave recording by other methods like doppler or tonometry is tedious, time-consuming and above all their reproducibility depends on the operator skills. It requires intensive resource involvement. For epidemiological studies these methods are not suitable. The aim of our study was to clinically evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new automatic device for measurement of pulse wave velocity that can be used in such studies. Methods In 44 subjects including normal healthy control and patients with coronary artery disease, heart brachial, heart ankle, brachial ankle and carotid femoral pulse wave velocities were recorded by using a new oscillometric device. Lead I and II electrocardiogram and pressure curves were simultaneously recorded. Two observers recorded the pulse wave velocity for validation and one observer recorded the velocity on two occasions for reproducibility. Results and Discussion Pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness index were recorded in 24 control and 20 coronary artery disease patients. All the velocities were significantly high in coronary artery disease patients. There was highly significant correlation between the values noted by the two observers with low standard deviation. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for various velocities ranged from (r = 0.88–0.90 with (p Conclusion The new device "PeriScope" based on oscillometric technique has been found to be a simple, non-invasive and reproducible device for the assessment of pulse wave velocity and can be used to determine arterial stiffness in large population based studies.

  12. Changes in Two Point Discrimination and the law of mobility in Diabetes Mellitus patients

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    Manivannan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic neuropathy is a family of nerve disorders with progressive loss of nerve function in 15% of diabetes mellitus (DM subjects. Two-point discrimination (TPD is one method of quantitatively testing for loss of nerve function. The law of mobility for TPD is known for normal subjects in earlier studies but has not been studied for diabetic subjects. This is a pilot study to evaluate and plot the law of mobility for TPD among DM subjects. Methods The Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWMF was used to measure the loss of protective sensation. An Aesthesiometer was used to find the TPD of several areas in upper and lower extremities for normal and diabetic subjects. All the subjects were screened for peripheral artery occlusive disease with ankle brachial pressure index (0.9 or above. Results TPD of normal and diabetic subjects for different areas of hands and legs from proximal to distal is evaluated for 18 subjects. TPD values decrease from proximal to distal areas. Vierodt's law of mobility for TPD holds good for normal subjects in the hand and foot areas. The law of mobility for TPD in DM subjects holds well in the hand but doesn't hold well in foot areas with or without sensation. Conclusion TPD is a quantitative and direct measure of sensory loss. The TPD value of diabetic subjects reveals that the law of mobility do not hold well for Diabetic subjects in foot areas. The significance of this result is that the TPD of the diabetic subjects could provide direct, cost effective and quantitative measure of neuropathy.

  13. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

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    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  14. Early Clinical Results Of Pulsed ND-YAG Laser Angioplasty In Patients

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    Cross, F. W.; Bowker, T. J.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes the use of a 100u second pulsed Nd-YAG laser at 1.064 um wavelength in the treatment of critical ischemia of the lower limb in five human subjects. Laser energy was delivered percutaneously to superficial femoral artery occlusions using standard angiography access techniques. The fiber tip was modified by the use of a 2.2mm hemispherical sapphire tip in contact with the tissue and laser energy was delivered at 0.5 Joules per pulse at a repetition rate of 10Hz. Patients were selected because of their unsuitability for standard treatment, either through technical inoperability of poor general health. Their mean age (±SD) was 74 ± 11 years and the mean occlusion length (+SD) in the five patients was 16.3 ± 11.9 cm. Passage of a guidewire across the occlusion was attempted, but failed, in every case. The laser crossed all these occlusions with a mean energy delivery of 129 + 76 Joules. Mean ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) in the successful cases doubled from 0.25 to 0.5. Two of the recanalised segments closed within 24 hours due to poor runoff but remained open in the remaining three patients for a followup period of up to one year, averting amputation in one of them. These are poor risk patients with deteriorating critical ischemia and little hope of alternative treatment. Laser angioplasty using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser has been shown to be feasible in femoropopliteal disease and should now be applied in patients with less severe symptoms.

  15. Add-on rosiglitazone therapy improves plasminogen activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, Nazri; Ibrahim, Suhairi; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Yusof, Zurkurnai

    2011-09-01

    Rosiglitazone is an oral hypoglycaemic agent of the thiazolidinedione group. This study aimed to assess changes in the diabetic prothrombotic state via plasminogen activity and changes in surrogate markers of atherosclerotic burden via ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurements after rosiglitazone was added to a pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment regime. A nonblinded interventional study was designed. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled. Rosiglitazone-naïve patients were prescribed oral rosiglitazone 4 mg daily for 10 weeks. ABPI, plasminogen activity, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting lipid profile were measured pretreatment and post-treatment. Forty-eight patients completed the study. At the end of this study, mean plasminogen activity improvement was nearly 16% (PABPI improvement was 0.01 (P=0.439), mean HbA1c reduction was 0.51% (P<0.05), mean total cholesterol (TC) increase was 0.36 mmol/l (P<0.05), mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase was 0.15 mmol/l (P<0.05) and mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.19 mmol/l (P=0.098). Rosiglitazone significantly improved plasminogen activity. There was also significant HbA1c reduction, and rise in both TC and HDL-C. Thus, rosiglitazone potentially improves the atherosclerotic burden and prothrombotic state. In future, more studies are needed to confirm the relationship between rosiglitazone, fibrinolytic system and atheromatous reduction in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21537159

  16. Primary Infrarenal Aortic Stenting With or Without Iliac Stenting for Isolated and Aortoiliac Stenoses: Single-Centre Experience With Long-Term Follow-Up

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    Tapping, C. R.; Ahmed, M.; Scott, P. M.; Lakshminarayan, R.; Robinson, G. J.; Ettles, D. F.; Shrivastava, V., E-mail: vivek.shrivastava@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical success, complications, long-term clinical outcome, and patency after primary infrarenal aortic stenting for aortic and aortoiliac stenosis. Between January 1999 and January 2006, 22 consecutive patients underwent endovascular treatment because of infrarenal aortic stenosis with and without common iliac stenosis (10 men; mean age 64 {+-} 14 years). Eleven (11 of 22) patients had an isolated aortic stenosis, whereas 11 of 22 had aortic stenosis that extended into the common iliac arteries (CIAs). Thirteen patients were Rutherford classification type 3, and 9 patients were type 4. Statistical analysis included paired Student t test and Kaplan-Meier life table analysis; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Technical and initial clinical success was achieved in all patients. There were three (14 %) procedure-related complications, which included two access-point pseudoaneurysms and one non-flow-limiting left external iliac dissection. Patients were followed-up for a mean period of 88 months (range 60-132). Mean preprocedure ankle brachial pressure indexes (ABPI) were 0.60 {+-} -0.15 (right) and 0.61 {+-} -0.16 (left). After the procedure they were 0.86 {+-} -0.07 (right) and 0.90 {+-} -0.09 (left). The increase in ABPI was significant (p < 0.05), and this continued throughout follow-up. Four (18 %) patients had recurrence of symptoms during follow-up. These occurred at 36, 48, 48, and 50 months after the original procedure. All four patients were successfully treated with repeat angioplasty procedures. There was a significant difference in primary patency between isolated aortic stenosis (100 %) and aortoiliac stenosis (60 %) (p = 0.031). Cumulative follow-up was 1920 months yielding a reintervention rate of 0.025/events/year. Primary stenting of infrarenal stenosis is safe and successful with a low reintervention rate. It should be considered as first-line treatment for patients with infrarenal aortic stenotic

  17. Relationship Between Carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity and Severity of Coronary Artery Lesions Measured by SYNTAX Score%颈-股脉搏波速度与冠状动脉病变严重程度关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳伟; 王志广; 党爱民; 柳青; 吕纳强; 杨跃进

    2015-01-01

      结论:作为评估主动脉僵硬度的“金标准”,cfPWV与冠脉病变程度有相关性。%Objective: To explore the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and the severity of coronary artery lesions measured by SYNTAX score. Methods:A total of 319 patients who received the ifrst time coronary angiography were studied. SYNTAX score evaluation was conducted to assess the severity of coronary lesions and the patients were divided into 3 groups:Control group, the subjects without coronary stenosis≥50%, n=118, the rest 201 patients were divided as Low SYNTAX score (1-17.5) group, n=96 and High SYNTAX score (18-72) group, n=105. The cfPWV was measured in all patients, the relationship between SYNTAX score and cfPWV was studied by Ordinal logistic regression analysis, the accuracy for cfPWV predicting SYNTAX scoring was assessed by ROC analysis. Results: With the adjusted factors of age, gender, obesity, smoking, family history of CAD, mean blood pressure, TC, HDL-C, ankle-brachial index (ABI), hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes, SYNTAX score was obviously related to cfPWV (OR=1.24, P=0.006). Further analysis for both High and Low SYNTAX score groups, the relationship between cfPWV and SYNTAX score was more close in patients with male gender, non-obesity, smoking, diabetes and non-hypertension. The accuracy for cfPWV predicting SYNTAX scoring had the higher sensitivity in patients with SYNTAX≥33 (ROC=0.703). Conclusion: As golden standard for measuring aortic stiffness, cfPWV is related to the severity of coronary artery lesions in relevant patients.

  18. Peripheral arterial disease among adult diabetic patients attending a large outpatient diabetic clinic at a national referral hospital in Uganda: a descriptive cross sectional study.

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    Raymond Mbayo Mwebaze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the recognised diabetic macro vascular complications. It is a marker of generalised systemic atherosclerosis and is closely associated with symptomatic coronary and cerebrovascular disease, hence significant morbidity and mortality. Among African adult diabetic populations, screening and diagnosis of PAD is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated clinical factors of PAD in adult ambulatory diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic clinic of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, Kampala Uganda. METHODS: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 146 ambulatory adult diabetic patients were studied. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, fasting lipid profile status, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and presence of albuminuria was collected using a pre tested questionnaire. Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI to assess for PAD, defined as a ratio less than 0.9 was performed using a portable 5-10 MHz Doppler device. Clinical factors associated with PAD were determined by comparing specific selected characteristics in patients with PAD and those without. RESULTS: The mean age/standard deviation of the study participants was 53.9/12.4 years with a male predominance (75, 51.4%. PAD was prevalent in 57 (39% study participants. Of these, 34 (59.6% had symptomatic PAD. The noted clinical factors associated with PAD in this study population were presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a high prevalence of PAD among adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Aggressive screening for PAD using ABI measurement in adult diabetic patients should be emphasised in Uganda especially in the presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria.

  19. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiomegaly With Aortic Arch Calcification in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ming-Chen Paul; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Aortic arch calcification (AoAC) is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in end-stage renal disease population. AoAC can be simply estimated with an AoAC score using plain chest radiography. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of AoAC with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardiomegaly in patients who have undergoing hemodialysis (HD).We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) by chest x-ray in 220 HD patients who underwent the measurement of baPWV. The values of baPWV were measured by an ankle-brachial index-form device. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with AoAC score >4.Compared patients with AoAC score ≦4, patients with AoAC score >4 had older age, higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular disease, lower diastolic blood pressure, higher baPWV, higher CTR, higher prevalence of CTR ≧50%, lower total cholesterol, and lower creatinine level. After the multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, old age, cerebrovascular disease, high baPWV (per 100 cm/s, odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003-1.129, P = 0.038), CTR (per 1%, OR 1.116, 95% CI 1.046-1.191, P = 0.001), and low total cholesterol level were independently associated with AoAC score >4.Our study demonstrated AoAC severity was associated with high baPWV and high CTR in patients with HD. Therefore, we suggest that evaluating AoAC on plain chest radiography may be a simple and inexpensive method for detecting arterial stiffness in HD patients. PMID:27175684

  20. Comparative study among acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine in different doses, through bispectral index, term and pressure algimetry, in dogs / Estudo comparativo entre a acepromazina, clorpromazina e levomepromazina em diferentes doses, através do exame bispectral, termo e pressoalgimetria, em cães

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    Lidia Mitsuko Matsubara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective was to realize comparisons among different acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine doses, evaluate parametric changes, test analgesia using press and term algimetry, and evaluate bispectral condition. 90 mongrel dogs were used, male and female, adult, weighting 10 to 15 Kg as a rule, distributed in 9 groups with 10 animals each. At first, second and third groups acepromazine was used at 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/Kg, respectively. At forth, fifth and sixth groups, chlorpromazine was used at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg, respectively. At seventh, eighth and ninth groups, methotrimeprazine at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg was used, respectively. All drugs were administered intravenously. Objects of study: heart rate (HR, non invasive blood pressure (SAP, MAP, DAP, respiratory rate (f, capnography (ETCO2, pulse oxymetry (SatO2, mouth and rectal temperature, bispectral index (BIS, electromyography (EMG%, press and term algimetry. Somatic analgesia was evaluated by animal’s response to nociceptives stimulus. We concluded that chlorpromazine had more hypotension. Dogs showed higher hypnosis level at chlorpromazine group, with evident myorelaxation. All groups showed analgesia to thermic and mechanic stimulus. Acepromazine group showed high duration to both pain stimuli. Bispectral index was shorten at chlorpromazine group at 1,0 mg/kg doses, showing higher hypnosis index, and acepromazine was the less depressing considering the bispectral index.Objetivou-se comparar, em diferentes doses, a acepromazina, a clorpromazina e a levomepromazina com relação às alterações paramétricas, à analgesia avaliada através da presso e termoalgimetria e a condição bispectral em 90 cães sem raça definida alocados em nove grupos. No primeiro, segundo e terceiro grupo foi empregada a acepromazina nas doses de 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/kg, respectivamente. No quarto, quinto e sexto grupo foi empregada a clorpromazina nas doses de 1,0; 0,5 e 0

  1. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of diabetic lower limb vascular disease%脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 朱旅云; 宋光耀; 贾黎静; 杨少玲; 胡丽叶

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Compared with bone marrow and autologous peripheral blood stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells are characterized as more primitive, more powerful amplification and lower immunogenicity, no ethical problems, which are more important to the elderly patients with diabetes mel itus. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in the treatment of the elderly patients with diabetic lower limb vascular disease. METHODS:Fifty-six elderly patients with diabetic lower limb vascular disease were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was treated with conventional therapy, while the observation group was treated with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Observation group showed a higher efficiency than the control group, with significant difference (P<0.05). After treatment, foot skin temperature, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, and ankle brachial index were al improved in both two groups, and the ankle brachial index showed a better value in the observation group (P<0.05). There were no significant adverse reactions in the two groups. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation is a simple, safe and effective therapy for the elderly patients with diabetic lower limb vascular disease, with better short-term curative effect.%背景:与骨髓和自体外周血干细胞相比,脐带间充质干细胞更原始,扩增能力更强,且免疫原性弱,无伦理问题,对于年老体弱的糖尿病患者更具有重要意义。目的:分析脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变的有效性和安全性。方法:56例中老年2型糖尿病下肢血管病变患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组采用常规药物治疗,观察组采用脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗。结果与结论:观察组临床显效率高于对照组的临床显效率

  2. 脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变%Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of diabetic lower limb vascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 朱旅云; 宋光耀; 贾黎静; 杨少玲; 胡丽叶

    2014-01-01

    背景:与骨髓和自体外周血干细胞相比,脐带间充质干细胞更原始,扩增能力更强,且免疫原性弱,无伦理问题,对于年老体弱的糖尿病患者更具有重要意义。目的:分析脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变的有效性和安全性。方法:56例中老年2型糖尿病下肢血管病变患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组采用常规药物治疗,观察组采用脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗。结果与结论:观察组临床显效率高于对照组的临床显效率,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05);两组治疗后皮温、经皮氧、踝肱指数值均有好转表现,观察组踝肱指数值好转更明显(P<0.05);两组均未发现明显的不良反应。结果可见脐带间充质干细胞移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变是一种简便、安全、有效的治疗方法,近期疗效显著。%BACKGROUND:Compared with bone marrow and autologous peripheral blood stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells are characterized as more primitive, more powerful amplification and lower immunogenicity, no ethical problems, which are more important to the elderly patients with diabetes mel itus. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in the treatment of the elderly patients with diabetic lower limb vascular disease. METHODS:Fifty-six elderly patients with diabetic lower limb vascular disease were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was treated with conventional therapy, while the observation group was treated with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Observation group showed a higher efficiency than the control group, with significant difference (P<0.05). After treatment, foot skin temperature, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, and ankle brachial index were al improved in both two groups, and the ankle

  3. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

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    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  4. Relationship between body mass index and blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profiles and blood uric acid in health check-up populations%健康体检超重人群体质指数与部分健康指标关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓雨; 王晓华; 叶良平

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究合肥市健康体检人群体质指数(BMI)及其与血压、血糖、血脂、血尿酸的关系.方法 对3 640例健康体检者BMI分析,探讨超重、肥胖与血压、血糖、血脂及血尿酸水平变化.结果 该人群的平均BMI为(25.47±2.83)kg/m2,其中男性(26.33±2.48)kg/m2高于女性(23.91±2.75)kg/m2;BMI在各年龄组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同BMI分层组中血压、血糖、血脂及血尿酸水平有显著差异,不同性别及年龄组BMI中血压、血糖、血脂及血尿酸水平有显著差异.结论 不同性别及年龄组BMI中血压、血糖、血脂及血尿酸水平差异较大,控制体重对高血压、高血糖、高血脂及高血尿酸等慢性病的防治具有重要意义.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure,blood glucose,lipid profiles and blood uric acid in healthy populations in Hefei of Anhui province.Methods A total of 3 640 healthy adults were enrolled to analyze the relationship between BMI and blood pressure and serum levels of lipid profiles,uric acid and glucose.Results The mean BMI of the subjects was (25.5±2.8) kg/m2 (men vs women:(26.3±2.5) vs (23.9±2.8) kg/m2).BMI showed a significant difference in different age groups (P<0.05).Different BMI subgroup had statistically significant difference in blood pressure,glucose,lipid profiles and uric acid.In different gender and age groups,BMI,blood pressure,glucose,blood lipid and uric acid were found to be significantly different.Conclusion The prevalence of obesity and overweight is high in our health check-up populations.It should be important to prevent and control hypertension,high blood glucose,high blood uric acid and other chronic diseases.

  5. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  6. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  7. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  8. Index Sets and Vectorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  9. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  10. Terry effects of vasopressin and norepinephrine ≥80 years in patients with septic shock and shock index,mean arterial pressure%特利加压素与去甲肾上腺素对≥80岁感染性休克患者平均动脉压及休克指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of mean arterial pressure and shock index of terlipressin and norepinephrine on super elderly patient with septic shock. Methods From January 2012 to January 2014 in our hospital,50 cases over 80 years old patients with septic shock was divided randomly into the observation group and control group. Each group included 25 cases. The patients in observation group were given terlipressin combined norepinephrine treatment. The patients in the control group were given treatment of dopamine and norepinephrine. Results In addition to the difference of blood urea nitrogen,creatinine between the two groups was not statistically significant( P ﹥0. 05). The other indicators of the two groups after treatment improved. The mean arterial pressure,urine output in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control multiple group. The heart rate,shock index were significantly lower than those of the control group. The patients with UV,CCr, FEH20 were significantly higher than the control group. FENa was significantly lower than the control group( P ﹤0. 05). Incidence of postoperative complications observed in patients 16. 0. 0%(4/25),which was significantly lower than the control group,40. 0%(10/25)( P ﹤0. 05). Conclusion Terlipressin is more effective than dopamine. This method can enhance mean arterial pressure in patients with septic shock and reduces its shock index.%目的探讨特利加压素与去甲肾上腺素对≥80岁感染性休克患者平均动脉压及休克指数的影响。方法选取2012年1月至2014年1月收治的50例≥80岁感染性休克患者,依据随机数字表法将这些患者分为两组,即观察组和对照组,每组25例。给予观察组患者特利加压素联合去甲肾上腺素治疗,给予对照组患者多巴胺联合去甲肾上腺素治疗。详细记录两组患者的心率、平均动脉压、休克指数、血尿素氮、肌酐、肌醉清除率( CCr )

  11. All-optical pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical pressure sensor comprising a waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector. Pressure sensing can then be provided by utilizing effective index modulation of the waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of light reflected from the Bragg...... reflector. Sound sensing may also be provided thereby having an all-optical microphone. One embodiment of the invention relates to an optical pressure sensor comprising at least one outer membrane and a waveguide, the waveguide comprising at least one core for confining and guiding light,at least one...... distributed Bragg reflector located in said at least one core, and at least one inner deflecting element forming at least a part of the core,wherein the pressure sensor is configured such that the geometry and/or dimension of the at least one core is changed when the at least one outer membrane is submitted...

  12. An improved molecular connectivity index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 俞庆森; 朱龙观

    2000-01-01

    Through modification of the delta values of the molecular connectivity indexes, and connecting the quantum chemistry with topology method effectively, the molecular connectivity indexes are converted into quantum-topology indexes. The modified indexes not only keep all information obtained from the original molecular connectivity method but also have their own virtue in application, and at the same time make up some disadvantages of the quantum and molecular connectivity methods.

  13. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  14. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  15. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  16. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  17. Redução da pressão arterial, da IMC e da glicose após treinamento aeróbico em idosas com diabete tipo 2 Decrease in blood pressure, body mass index and glycemia after aerobic training in elderly women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Zaranza Monteiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O processo de envelhecimento associa-se ao desenvolvimento de várias doenças, que podem ser amenizadas pela prática de atividades físicas. O treinamento aeróbico é um meio efetivo para manter e melhorar as funções cardiovasculares. Além disso, desempenha um papel fundamental na prevenção e tratamento de diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas, em especial o diabete melito. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de 13 semanas de treinamento aeróbico sobre a pressão arterial, o índice de massa corpórea e a glicemia em idosas com diabete tipo 2. MÉTODOS: Onze mulheres idosas diabéticas (61,0 ± 9,1 anos de idade, sedentárias, realizaram 13 semanas de treinamento aeróbico, compondo o grupo G2. Onze idosas (60,2 ± 6,8 anos de idade controladas não realizaram exercícios físicos durante a pesquisa, constituindo o grupo-controle (G1. O grupo G1 foi submetido somente a orientações educativas uma vez na semana, e o grupo G2, a caminhadas três vezes na semana. RESULTADOS: Houve redução significativa da glicemia e da pressão arterial diastólica nos dois grupos. Não foram encontradas reduções significativas no IMC após o treinamento aeróbico em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Treze semanas de treinamento aeróbico foi suficiente para promover reduções significativas na pressão arterial diastólica e glicemia, portanto, esse tipo de exercício reduz os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas.BACKGROUND: The aging process is associated with the development of several diseases, which can be attenuated by the practice of physical activities. Aerobic training is an effective method to maintain and improve cardiovascular function. Additionally, it has a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of several chronic-degenerative diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. }OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of a 13-week aerobic training program on blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI and glycemia levels

  18. Pressurized hopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Secure Automated Fuel Fabrication Line is being developed to reduce personnel exposure and to improve safeguards. Fertile and fissile fuel powders are blended in the line for making fuel pellets. A pressurized hopper was developed for use not only as a blender, but also as a storage and feeding device. It works with or without injection tubes to produce a well-blended powder with reduced agglomerate population. Results of blending experiments using dry Kaolin clay and Tempra pigment are given

  19. Indexing events in memory: evidence for index dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H A; Tversky, B

    1997-07-01

    Research on narrative comprehension and autobiographical memory converge on three hypotheses which make different predictions about event organisation. The availability of different event components as indexes may explain the convergence on three hypotheses rather than one. In this paper, three experiments assessed event indexing in narratives with different available indexes. In Experiment 1, participants read event descriptions organised by character or time. In Experiment 2, event descriptions were organised by character or location. In Experiment 3, participants read event descriptions where events were grouped by activity. In each experiment, memory could be organised by any of the available components alone, by both components, or by using the organisation imposed by the discourse. Participants indexed events by character in Experiment 1, re-indexing information when necessary. Results of Experiment 2 indicated equal use of character and location indexes. In this case, participants used the discourse organisation. In Experiment 3, participants indexed events using activity groupings, again re-indexing events when necessary. Results are interpreted as indicating reliance on a single organising index with flexibility in the selection of different event components as indexes. PMID:9282221

  20. Generalizations of Wiener polarity index and terminal Wiener index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    In theoretical chemistry, distance-based molecular structure descriptors are used for modeling physical, pharmacologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. We introduce a generalized Wiener polarity index $W_k (G)$ as the number of unordered pairs of vertices $\\{u, v\\}$ of $G$ such that the shortest distance $d (u, v)$ between $u$ and $v$ is $k$. For $k = 3$, we get standard Wiener polarity index. Furthermore, we generalize the terminal Wiener index $TW_k (G)$ as the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of degree $k$. For $k = 1$, we get standard terminal Wiener index. In this paper we describe a linear time algorithm for computing these indices for trees and partial cubes, and characterize extremal trees maximizing the generalized Wiener polarity index and generalized terminal Wiener index among all trees of given order $n$.

  1. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  2. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  3. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  4. Low pressure support changes the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation Baixos níveis de pressão de suporte alteram o índice de respiração rápida e superficial (IRRS em pacientes graves sob ventilação mecânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI is the most widely used index within intensive care units as a predictor of the outcome of weaning, but differences in measurement techniques have generated doubts about its predictive value. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of low levels of pressure support (PS on the RSBI value of ill patients. METHOD: Prospective study including 30 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV for 72 hours or more, ready for extubation. Prior to extubation, the RSBI was measured with the patient connected to the ventilator (DragerTM Evita XL and receiving pressure support ventilation (PSV and 5 cmH2O of positive end expiratory pressure or PEEP (RSBI_MIN and then disconnected from the VM and connected to a Wright spirometer in which respiratory rate and exhaled tidal volume were recorded for 1 min (RSBI_ESP. Patients were divided into groups according to the outcome: successful extubation group (SG and failed extubation group (FG. RESULTS: Of the 30 patients, 11 (37% failed the extubation process. In the within-group comparison (RSBI_MIN versus RSBI_ESP, the values for RSBI_MIN were lower in both groups: SG (34.79±4.67 and 60.95±24.64 and FG (38.64±12.31 and 80.09±20.71; pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O índice de respiração rápida e superficial (IRRS tem sido o mais utilizado dentro das unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs como preditor do resultado do desmame, porém diferenças no método de obtenção têm gerado dúvidas quanto a seu valor preditivo. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de baixos níveis de pressão de suporte (PS no valor do IRRS em pacientes graves. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, incluindo 30 pacientes sob ventilação mecânica (VM por 72 horas ou mais, prontos para extubação. Anteriormente à extubação, o IRRS foi obtido com o paciente conectado ao ventilador Evita-XL da DragerTM recebendo pressão de suporte ventilatório (PSV e PEEP=5 cmH2O (IRRS_MIN e, logo após, desconectado da VM e

  5. Glycaemic index methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S

    2005-06-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed.

  6. Peripheral "oscillatory" compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P; Qasem, A; De Backer, T; Carlier, S; Verdonck, P; Avolio, A

    2001-01-01

    The augmentation index (AIx) and "oscillatory" compliance (C-2) are wave contour analysis parameters for the central aorta (P-ao) and radial artery pressure wave (P-rad)(x) respectively. Both are sensitive to cardiovascular risk factors such as aging, hypertension, and diabetes and have been propose

  7. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  8. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  9. Nelson-Farrar cost indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Nelson-Farrar Cost Indexs. Topics covered include: economic analysis, petroleum refineries, petroleum industry, pumps, compressors, beat exchangers, cost estimation, productivity and wages

  10. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  11. Ruby fluorescence pressure scale: Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lei; Bi Yan; Xu Ji-Ar

    2013-01-01

    Effect of non-hydrostatic stress on X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) is studied.The pressure gradient in the sample chamber leads to the broadening of the diffraction peaks,which increase with the hkl index of the crystal.It is found that the difference between the determined d-spacing compressive ratio d/d0 and the real d-spacing compressive ratio dr/d0 is determined by the yield stress of the pressure transmitting media (if used) and the shear modulus of the sample.On the basis of the corrected experiment data of Mao et al.(MXB86),which was used to calibrate the most widely used ruby fluorescence scale,a new relationship of ruby fluorescence pressure scale is corrected,i.e.,P =(1904/9.827)[(1 +△λ/λ0)9.827-1}.

  12. Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Pau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.

  13. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  14. Satisfiability with Index Dependency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yu Liang; Jing He

    2012-01-01

    We study the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) restricted on input formulas for which there are linear arithmetic constraints imposed on the indices of variables occurring in the same clause.This can be seen as a structural counterpart of Schaefer's dichotomy theorem which studies the SAT problem with additional constraints on the assigned values of variables in the same clause.More precisely,let k-SAT(m,A) denote the SAT problem restricted on instances of k-CNF formulas,in every clause of which the indices of the last k-m variables are totally decided by the first m ones through some linear equations chosen from A.For example,if A contains i3 =i1+2i2 and i4 =i2-i1 + 1,then a clause of the input to 4-SAT(2,A) has the form yi1∨yi2∨yi1+2i2∨yi2-i1+1,with yi being xi or (xi).We obtain the following results:1) If m ≥2,then for any set A of linear constraints,the restricted problem k-SAT(m,A) is either in P or NP-complete assuming P ≠ NP.Moreover,the corresponding #SAT problem is always #P-complete,and the MAx-SAT problem does not allow a polynomial time approximation scheme assuming P ≠ NP.2) m =1,that is,in every clause only one index can be chosen freely.In this case,we develop a general framework together with some techniques for designing polynomial-time algorithms for the restricted SAT problems.Using these,we prove that for any A,#2-SAT(1,A) and MAX-2-SAT(1,A) are both polynomial-time solvable,which is in sharp contrast with the hardness results of general #2-SAT and MAX-2-SAT.For fixed k≥ 3,we obtain a large class of non-trivial constraints A,under which the problems k-SAT(1,A),#k-SAT(1,A)and MAx-k-SAT(1,A) can all be solved in polynomial time or quasi-polynomial time.

  15. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  16. Maslov index for Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Portaluri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an explicit formula for computing the Maslov index of the fundamental solutions of linear autonomous Hamiltonian systems in terms of the Conley-Zehnder index and the map time one flow.

  17. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana;

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  18. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  19. Trajectory Indexing Using Movement Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfoser, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    -the-shelf database management systems typically do not offer higher-dimensional indexing, this reduction in dimensionality allows us to use existing DBMSes to store and index trajectories. Moreover, we argue that, given the right circumstances, indexing these dimensionality-reduced trajectories can be more efficient......With the proliferation of mobile computing, the ability to index efficiently the movements of mobile objects becomes important. Objects are typically seen as moving in two-dimensional (x,y) space, which means that their movements across time may be embedded in the three-dimensional (x,y,t) space...... than using a three-dimensional index. A decisive factor here is the fractal dimension of the network.the lower, the more efficient is the proposed approach. This hypothesis is verified by an experimental study that incorporates trajectories stemming from real and synthetic road networks....

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  1. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury and Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Using Functional Activity in Pressure Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Stinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. People with spinal cord injury (SCI are at increased risk of pressure ulcers due to prolonged periods of sitting. Concordance with pressure relieving movements is poor amongst this population, and one potential alternative to improve this would be to integrate pressure relieving movements into everyday functional activities. Objectives. To investigate both the current pressure relieving behaviours of SCI individuals during computer use and the application of an ergonomically adapted computer-based activity to reduce interface pressure. Design. Observational and repeated measures design. Setting. Regional Spinal Cord Injury Unit. Participants. Fourteen subjects diagnosed with SCI (12 male, 2 female. Intervention.Comparing normal sitting to seated movements and induced forward reaching positions. Main Outcome Measures. Interface pressure measurements: dispersion index (DI, peak pressure index (PPI, and total contact area (CA. The angle of trunk tilt was also measured. Results. The majority of movements yielded less than 25% reduction in interface pressure compared to normal sitting. Reaching forward by 150% of arm length during an adapted computer activity significantly reduced DI (P<0.05, angle of trunk tilt (p<0.05, and PPI for both ischial tuberosity regions (P<0.001 compared to normal sitting. Conclusion. Reaching forward significantly redistributed pressure at the seating interface, as evidenced by the change in interface pressures compared to upright sitting.

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  5. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  6. Louisiana ESI: LG_INDEX (Large Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  7. Louisiana ESI: SM_INDEX (Small Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  8. Methods for Predicting Stock Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on methods that have been used in the last two decades to predict Stock Market Indexes. Methods studied range from those enabling to grab the linear characteristics present in the stock market indexes, going through those that focus on non-linear features and finally hybrid methods that are more robust, since they capture linear and non-linear features. In addition, this research includes methods that use macroeconomic variables to predict indexes from different stock exchanges around the world.

  9. Firm Sustainability Performance Index Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed Radzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to bring a model for firm sustainability performance index by applying both classical and Bayesian structural equation modeling (parametric and semi-parametric modeling. Both techniques are considered to the research data collected based on a survey directed to the China, Taiwan, and Malaysia food manufacturing industry. For estimating firm sustainability performance index we consider three main indicators include knowledge management, organizational learning, and business strategy. Based on the both Bayesian and classical methodology, we confirmed that knowledge management and business strategy have significant impact on firm sustainability performance index.

  10. A cavitation aggressiveness index within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes methodology for cavitating flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUKOUVINIS P.; BERGELES G.; GAVAISES M

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers for cavitating flows capable of predicting the flow regions of bubble collapse and the potential aggressiveness to material damage. An aggressiveness index is introduced, called cavitation aggressiveness index (CAI) based on the total derivative of pressure which identifies surface areas exposed to bubble collapses, the index is tested in two known cases documented in the open literature and seems to identify regions of potential cavitation damage.

  11. Introduction to indexing and abstracting

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Successful information access in the digital information age requires robust systems of indexing and abstracting. This book provides a complete introduction to the subject that covers the many recent changes in the field.

  12. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  13. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  14. Index Grids - MDC_DMLIndex

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Digital Map Library (DML) index layer. This layer identifies the areas, which is divided into square mile that we have...

  15. The Callias index formula revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gesztesy, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes aim at providing a purely analytical and accessible proof of the Callias index formula. In various branches of mathematics (particularly, linear and nonlinear partial differential operators, singular integral operators, etc.) and theoretical physics (e.g., nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, and quantum field theory), there is much interest in computing Fredholm indices of certain linear partial differential operators. In the late 1970’s, Constantine Callias found a formula for the Fredholm index of a particular first-order differential operator (intimately connected to a supersymmetric Dirac-type operator) additively perturbed by a potential, shedding additional light on the Fedosov-Hörmander Index Theorem. As a byproduct of our proof we also offer a glimpse at special non-Fredholm situations employing a generalized Witten index.

  16. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  17. Region 9 - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  18. Firm Sustainability Performance Index Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi; Maisarah Binti Hasbullah

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to bring a model for firm sustainability performance index by applying both classical and Bayesian structural equation modeling (parametric and semi-parametric modeling). Both techniques are considered to the research data collected based on a survey directed to the China, Taiwan, and Malaysia food manufacturing industry. For estimating firm sustainability performance index we consider three main indicators include knowledge management, organizational learn...

  19. A General Interindustry Relatedness Index

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Bryce; Winter, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    For empirical work in the resource-based view of the firm, characterizing the resources that are responsible for firm growth is difficult because valuable resources are often tacit, ambiguous, or difficult to identify. This is a particular problem for empirical assessments that rely upon the concept of relatedness between resources to characterize the direction of growth of the firm. We tackle the problem for the general case by developing a general interindustry relatedness index. The index ...

  20. Occupational risk index of pneumoconiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Linjun; 劉林均

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pneumoconiosis is a kind of diffuse lung fibrosis disease caused by long-term inhalation of industrial dust and retention in the lungs. In recent years, the incidence of pneumoconiosis decline in Europe, America and other developed countries, but remains stubbornly high in China, and even shows a rising trend. Currently, China does not have a comprehensive pneumoconiosis risk index system for risk assessment. This project aims to review methods to construct the risk index system o...

  1. Perinatal factors associated with blood pressure during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, E; Haelterman, E; Belizán, J; Villar, J; Carroli, G

    2000-03-15

    This study aims to determine whether variables reflecting an adverse intrauterine environment are associated with childhood blood pressure. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort of children born to healthy, nulliparous women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 518 children were traced in 1995-1996 from 614 eligible children born in a clinic in Rosario, Argentina. The outcome was systolic blood pressure at 5-9 years. Hemoglobin during pregnancy was positively associated with children's pressure. Other maternal characteristics during pregnancy (blood pressure, smoking, weight gain, weight at 20 weeks' gestation, and glycemia) and size at birth (birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference/length ratio, and small for gestational age) were not associated with children's pressure. Among children in the upper quartile of body mass index, there was a weak inverse correlation between birth weight and systolic pressure, and systolic pressure was 14.8 mmHg (95 percent confidence interval: 3.3, 26.4) higher in low birth weight children than in others. The main predictors of childhood pressure were childhood body mass index and maternal pressure outside pregnancy. In this healthy population, the authors found weak support for an association between variables reflecting an adverse fetal environment and childhood blood pressure. Low birth weight was a risk factor for high blood pressure only in overweight children. PMID:10733041

  2. Monitoring cerebrovascular pressure reactivity with rheoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, K. M.; Mytar, J. O.; Kibler, K. K.; Easley, R. B.; Koehler, R. C.; Czosnyka, M.; Smielewski, P.; Zweifel, C.; Bodo, M.; Pearce, F. J.; Armonda, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    Determining optimal perfusion pressure for patients with traumatic brain injury can be accomplished by monitoring the pressure reactivity index, or PRx, which requires an intracranial pressure monitor. We hypothesized that pressure reactivity could be quantified using a rheoencephalography index, or REGx. We measured the REGx and PRx as repetitive, low-frequency linear correlation between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure (PRx) or arterial blood pressure and REG pulse amplitude (REGx) in a piglet model of progressive hypotension. We compared the PRx and REGx against a gold standard determination of the lower limit of autoregulation using laser-Doppler measurements of cortical red cell flux. The PRx produced an accurate metric of vascular reactivity in this cohort, with area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves of 0.91. REGx was moderately correlated to the PRx, (Spearman r = 0.63, p < 0.0001; Bland-Altman bias-0.13). The area under the receiver-operator curve for the REGx was 0.86. Disagreement occurred at extremes of hypotension.

  3. The predictors of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Waxman, Robin; Law, Graham; Nelson, E Andrea; Helliwell, Philip; Siddle, Heidi; Otter, Simon; Butters, Violet; Baker, Lesley; Hryniw, Rosemary; Bradley, Sarah; Loughrey, Lorraine; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Davies, Samantha; Tranter, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the predictors of foot ulceration occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without diabetes. A multi-centre case control study was undertaken; participants were recruited from eight sites (UK). Cases were adults diagnosed with RA (without diabetes) and the presence of a validated foot ulcer, defined as a full thickness skin defect occurring in isolation on / below the midline of the malleoli and requiring > 14 days to heal. Controls met the same criteria but were ulcer naive. Clinical examination included loss of sensation (10g monofilament); ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI); forefoot deformity (Platto); plantar pressures (PressureStat); RA disease activity (36 swollen/tender joint counts) and the presence of vasculitis. History taking included past ulceration/foot surgery; current medication and smoking status. Participants completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Foot Impact Scale. A total of 83 cases with 112 current ulcers and 190 ulcer naïve controls participated. Cases were significantly older (mean age 71 years; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 69-73 vs. 62 years, 60-64) and had longer RA disease duration (mean 22 years; 19-25 vs. 15, 13-17). Univariate analysis showed that risk of ulceration increases with loss of sensation; abnormality of ABPI and foot deformity. Plantar pressures and joint counts were not significant predictors. HAQ score and history of foot surgery were strongly associated with ulceration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.704, 95 % CI 1.274-2.280 and OR = 2.256, 95 % CI 1.294-3.932). Three cases and two controls presented with suspected cutaneous vasculitis. In logistic regression modelling, ABPI (OR = 0.04; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.28) forefoot deformity (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.08-1.21) and loss of sensation (OR = 1.22; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.36) predicted risk of ulceration. In patients with RA, ABPI, forefoot deformity and loss of sensation predict risk of ulceration

  4. Clinical and Physiological Events That Contribute to the Success Rate of Finding "Optimal" Cerebral Perfusion Pressure in Severe Brain Trauma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weersink, Corien S. A.; Aries, Marcel J. H.; Dias, Celeste; Liu, Mary X.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Donnelly, Joseph; Czosnyka, Marek; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Regtien, Joost; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Smielewski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recently, a concept of an individually targeted level of cerebral perfusion pressure that aims to restore impaired cerebral vasoreactivity has been advocated after traumatic brain injury. The relationship between cerebral perfusion pressure and pressure reactivity index normally is suppos

  5. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  6. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  7. Non-storm irregular variation of the Dst index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Higuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dst index has a long-term variation that is not associated with magnetic storms. We estimated the long-term non-storm component of the Dst variation by removing the short-term variation related to magnetic storms. The results indicate that the variation of the non-storm component includes not only a seasonal variation but also an irregular variation. The irregular long-term variation is likely to be due to an anti-correlation with the long-term variation of solar-wind activity. In particular, a clear anti-correlation is observed between the non-storm component of Dst and the long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure. This means that in the long term, the Dst index tends to increase when the solar-wind dynamic pressure decreases. We interpret this anti-correlation as an indication that the long-term non-storm variation of Dst is influenced by the tail current variation. The long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure controls the plasma sheet thermal pressure, and the change of the plasma sheet thermal pressure would cause the non-storm tail current variation, resulting in the non-storm variation of Dst.

  8. Association between different risk factors and vascular accelerated ageing (EVA study): study protocol for a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre

  9. Refractive Index of Humid Air in the Infrared: Model Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2006-01-01

    The theory of summation of electromagnetic line transitions is used to tabulate the Taylor expansion of the refractive index of humid air over the basic independent parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, wavelength) in five separate infrared regions from the H to the Q band at a fixed percentage of Carbon Dioxide. These are least-squares fits to raw, highly resolved spectra for a set of temperatures from 10 to 25 C, a set of pressures from 500 to 1023 hPa, and a set of relative humidities from 5 to 60%. These choices reflect the prospective application to characterize ambient air at mountain altitudes of astronomical telescopes.

  10. Closed incision negative pressure therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willy, Christian; Agarwal, Animesh; Andersen, Charles A;

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site occurrences (SSOs) affect up to or over 25% of patients undergoing operative procedures, with the subset of surgical site infections (SSIs) being the most common. Commercially available closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) may offer surgeons an additional option to manage...... of Controlled Trials using key words 'prevention', 'negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)', 'active incisional management', 'incisional vacuum therapy', 'incisional NPWT', 'incisional wound VAC', 'closed incisional NPWT', 'wound infection', and 'SSIs' identified peer-reviewed studies published from 2000....... A majority presented data supporting ciNPT use. Numerous publications reported SSI risk factors, with the most common including obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ); diabetes mellitus; tobacco use; or prolonged surgical time. We recommend that the surgeon assess the individual patient's risk factors...

  11. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  12. Glophymed: an index to establish the ecological status for the Water Framework Directive based on phytoplankton in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; Pachés, M; Martínez-Guijarro, R; Ferrer, J

    2013-10-15

    Phytoplankton and its attributes (biomass, abundance, composition, and frequency and intensity of phytoplankton blooms) are essential to establish the ecological status in the Water Frame Directive. The aim of this study is to develop an index "Glophymed" based on all phytoplankton attributes for coastal water bodies according to the directive requirements. It is also developed an anthropogenic pressure index that takes into account population density, tourism, urbanization, industry, agriculture, fisheries and maritime transport for Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Both indexes (Glophymed and human pressure index) based on a multisampling dataset collected monthly during several years, show a significant statistical correlation (r2 0.75 α<0.01) for typology IIA and (r2 0.93 α<0.01) for typology III-W. The relation between these indexes provides suitable information about the integrated management plans and protection measures of water resources since the Glophymed index is very sensitive to human pressures. PMID:23968991

  13. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  14. A Multivariate Process Capability Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shaoxi; JIA Xinzhang; JIAO Huifang; BIAN Yingchao; SONG Ning; ZHAO Luyu; WEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Process capability indices have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, providing numerical measures on process precision, process accuracy, and process performance. Capability measures for processes with a single characteristic have been investigated extensively. However, capability measures for processes with multiple characteristics are comparatively neglected. In this paper, inspired by the approach and model of process capability index investigated by K.S.Chen et al.(2003) and A.B.Yeh et al.(1998), a note model of multivariate process capability index based on non-conformity is presented. As for this index, the data of each single characteristic don't require satisfying normal distribution, of which its computing is simple and particioners will not fell too theoretical. At last the application analysis is made.

  15. Index for Wind Power Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Scharff, Richard; Milligan, Michael; Weir, David Edward

    2014-11-13

    Variability of large scale wind power generation is dependent on several factors: characteristics of installed wind power plants, size of the area where the plants are installed, geographic dispersion within that area and its weather regime(s). Variability can be described by ramps in power generation, i.e. changes from time period to time period. Given enough data points, it can be described with a probability density function. This approach focuses on two dimensions of variability: duration of the ramp and probability distribution. This paper proposes an index based on these two dimensions to enable comparisons and characterizations of variability under different conditions. The index is tested with real, large scale wind power generation data from several countries. Considerations while forming an index are discussed, as well as the main results regarding what the drivers of variability experienced for different data.

  16. Witten Index for Noncompact Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is $L^2$, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical $L^2$ Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For $d=1$ theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral $L^2$ Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and ...

  17. A note on Weil index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-song CHAI; Xu-ri CONG

    2007-01-01

    Let F be a non-archimedean local field of characteristic 0 and ψ a nontrivial additive character. Weil first defined the Weil index γ(a, b) (a ∈ F*) in his famous paper, from which we know that γ(a,ψ)γ(b,ψ) =γ(ab,ψ)γ(1,ψ) (a, b) and γ(a,ψ)4 = (- 1, - 1),where (a, b) is the Hilbert symbol for F. The Weil index plays an important role in the theory of theta series and in the general representation theory. In this paper, we establish an identity relating the Weil index γγ(a,ψ) and the Gauss sum.

  18. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  19. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  20. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  1. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  2. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  3. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  4. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Headers and Digests; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index; and Facility Index.

  5. Indexing from thesauri to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    de Keyser, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Indexing consists of both novel and more traditional techniques. Cutting-edge indexing techniques, such as automatic indexing, ontologies, and topic maps, were developed independently of older techniques such as thesauri, but it is now recognized that these older methods also hold expertise. Indexing describes various traditional and novel indexing techniques, giving information professionals and students of library and information sciences a broad and comprehensible introduction to indexing. This title consists of twelve chapters: an Introduction to subject readings and theasauri; Automatic i

  6. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  7. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  8. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  9. Psychometric properties of brief indexes designed to measure social-cognitive predictors of smoking initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Envold; Siersma, Volkert; Ross, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constructing indexes which measure factors that may predict smoking initiation is essential for planning prevention programs. Our aim was to examine the criterion-related construct validity of brief psychological indexes of attitude, social influence and self-efficacy to be used...... of the Rasch model that allows for differential item functioning and positive local dependence. RESULTS: The three indexes social influence-norms, social influence-pressure and attitude showed acceptable deviations from the Rasch model, while the two indexes self-efficacy and social influence-behavior were...... invalidated by negative local dependence. CONCLUSION: Of the five tested indexes, three (social influence-norms, social influence-pressure and attitude) showed acceptable criterion-related construct validity and may be considered unbiased representations of the theory-based factors if statistical analyses...

  10. The Powerdomain of Indexed Valuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varacca, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    This paper is about combining nondeterminism and probabilities. We study this phenomenon from a domain theoretic point of view. In domain theory, nondeterminism is modeled using the notion of powerdomain, while probability is modeled using the powerdomain of valuations. Those two functors do not...... combine well, as they are. We define the notion of powerdomain of indexed valuations, which can be combined nicely with the usual nondeterministic powerdomain. We show an equational characterization of our construction. Finally we discuss the computational meaning of indexed valuations, and we show how...

  11. Complexity of Finding Alphabet Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozono, Shinichi; Miyano, Satoru

    1992-01-01

    For two finite disjoint sets $P$ and $Q$ of strings over an alphabet $sum$, an alphabet indexing $psi$ for $P,Q$ by an indexing alphabet $Gamma$ with $mid Gamma mid < mid sum mid is a mapping $psi : sum \\to Gamma$ satisfying $\\tilde{psi}(P) cap \\tilde{psi}(Q) = emptyset$, where $\\tilde{psi} : sum^* \\to Gamma^*$ is the homomorphism derived from $psi$. We defined this notion through experiments of knowledge acquisition from amino acid sequences of proteins by learning algorithms. This paper an...

  12. The correlations of ions density with geomagnetic activity and solar dynamic pressure in cusp region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO JianGuang; SHI JianKui; ZHANG TieLong; LIU ZhenXing; A. FAZAKERLEY; H. R(E)ME; Ⅰ. DANDOURAS; E. LUCEK

    2007-01-01

    A statistical study of the properties of ions (O+, He+ and H+) measured by the Cluster-Ⅱ in cusp region as a function of the solar wind dynamic pressure and geomagnetic index Kp respectively was made during the summer and fall of 2001 -2003. The main results are that: (1) O+ ion density responds in a significant way to geomagnetic index Kp, and He+ ion density is not correlated with geomagnetic index Kp,both of them have a significant positive correlation with solar wind dynamic pressure; (2) H+ ion density is also observed to increase with solar wind dynamic pressure, and not correlated with geomagnetic index Kp.

  13. Venture Capital Industry Index Portfolio Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagang Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper using index analysis method, knowledge of venture capital as well as index funds investment ideas, successively set up the Markowitz model and the single index model of index investing. Markowitz model for the calculation of the risk of workload is too big and single-index model although accuracy is slightly lower, but can certainly be very well used in practice. Therefore, We use index invest to invest in Shanghai 10 index securities with the single-index model , and apply lingo software to figure out the venture capital portfolio which have different yields.

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  16. [Use of drug-free methods of treatment in comprehensive therapy of patients with stage II chronic lower limb ischaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I V; Lukashova, A V

    2016-01-01

    Analysed herein are the results of treating a total of 139 patients presenting with stage II chronic lower limb ischaemia. The patients were subdivided into three groups, depending on the variant of treatment performed. Group One patients (n=57) received standard conservative therapy combined with ozone therapy, with the Group being further subdivided into two subgroups: patients of subgroup 1a (n=28) were subjected to intravenous administration of ozonated physiological solution (OPS), subgroup 1b patients (n=29) were given big autohemoozonetherapy (BAT). Group Two patients (n=62) underwent complex treatment including beside medical ozone gravitation therapy (GT). Group Two patients were also subdivided into two subgroups: subgroup 2a patients (n=31) received standard conservative therapy combined with OPS and GT, subgroup 2b patients (n=31) received standard conservative therapy in combination with BAT and GT. Group Three (Control Group) was composed of 20 patients receiving standard conservative therapy alone. The highest efficacy was observed in the subgroup of patients receiving OPS and GT, with the patients of this subgroup showing a statistically significant increase in the pain-free walking distance by 116.5% and in the ankle-brachial index by 49.2%, also demonstrating the most pronounced positive dynamics of lipid metabolism parameters: a decrease in total cholesterol by 21.3%, low density lipoproteins by 25.4%, very low density lipoproteins by 24.2% and triglycerides by 18.5%. Besides, a tendency was observed towards normalization of the haemostasis system indices: fibrinogen decreased by 21.8%, prothrombin index by 13%, fibrin monomer complexes retraction by 18.2%, and the clotting time increased by 20.7%. Hence, combined use of ozonated physiological solution and gravitation therapy in treatment of patients with stage II chronic lower limb ischaemia promotes a considerable increase in the pain-free walking distance and ankle-brachial index, as well as

  17. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Papacosta, O

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  18. Transportation Environment Data Bank index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1976-11-01

    In an effort to determine the environment intensities to which energy materials in transit will be exposed, a ''Data Bank'' of environmental information has been established by Sandia Laboratories, Division 1285 for the ERDA Division of Environmental Control Technology. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest.

  19. Transportation Environment Data Bank index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1977-04-01

    In an effort to determine the environment intensities to which energy materials in transit will be exposed, a ''Data Bank'' of environmental information has been established by Sandia Laboratories, Division 1285 for the ERDA Division of Environmental Control Technology. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest.

  20. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2016-06-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).