Neubauer, Brett C; Nath, Jonathan; Durfee, William K
Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping and engineering bench test evaluation. The device provides 90 Nm of ankle torque and has an operating pressure of 138 bar (2,000 psi). The battery-operated hydraulic power supply weighs about 3 kg and is worn at the waist. The ankle component weighs about 1.2 Kg and connects to the power supply with two hoses. Performance simulation and preliminary bench testing suggests that the device could be useful in certain rehabilitation applications.
Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi, Fardin; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Hutchins, Stephen W
Compared to able-bodied subjects, subjects with post-polio syndrome and poliomyelitis demonstrate a preference for weight-bearing on the non-paretic limb, causing gait asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait symmetry of the poliomyelitis subjects when ambulating with either a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis or a newly developed powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis who routinely wore conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses participated in this study and received training to enable them to ambulate with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on level ground, prior to gait analysis. There were no significant differences in the gait symmetry index of step length (p = 0.085), stance time (p = 0.082), double-limb support time (p = 0.929), or speed of walking (p = 0.325) between the two test conditions. However, using the new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis improved the symmetry index in step width (p = 0.037), swing time (p = 0.014), stance phase percentage (p = 0.008), and knee flexion during swing phase (p ⩽ 0.001) compared to wearing the drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. The use of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis for ambulation by poliomyelitis subjects affects gait symmetry in the base of support, swing time, stance phase percentage, and knee flexion during swing phase. A new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis can improve gait symmetry for poliomyelitis subjects by influencing step width, swing time, stance time percentage, and knee flexion during swing phase when compared to ambulating with a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of foot and ankle orthoses is currently limited by the methods used to fabricate the devices, particularly in terms of geometric freedom and potential to include innovative new features. Additive manufacturing (AM technologies, where objects are constructed via a series of sub-millimetre layers of a substrate material, may present the opportunity to overcome these limitations and allow novel devices to be produced that are highly personalised for the individual, both in terms of fit and functionality. Two novel devices, a foot orthosis (FO designed to include adjustable elements to relieve pressure at the metatarsal heads, and an ankle foot orthosis (AFO designed to have adjustable stiffness levels in the sagittal plane, were developed and fabricated using AM. The devices were then tested on a healthy participant to determine if the intended biomechanical modes of action were achieved. Results The adjustable, pressure relieving FO was found to be able to significantly reduce pressure under the targeted metatarsal heads. The AFO was shown to have distinct effects on ankle kinematics which could be varied by adjusting the stiffness level of the device. Conclusions The results presented here demonstrate the potential design freedom made available by AM, and suggest that it may allow novel personalised orthotic devices to be produced which are beyond the current state of the art.
Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Yanhe; Fan, Jizhuang; Zhao, Jie; Yu, Hongying
Muscular rigidity and atrophy caused by long-term underactivity usually lead to foot drop, strephenopodia, foot extorsion or some other complications for the lower limb movement disorders or lower limb surgery sufferers. The ankle-foot orthosis can help patients conduct the right ankle motion mode training, inhibit spasm and prevent ankle complications. In this paper, a quasi-passive 3 DOFs ankle-foot wearable orthosis was designed on the basis of kinematics and dynamics analysis of the ankle joint. Ankle joint trajectory and dynamic characteristics similar to those of natural gait can be obtained by the combination of passive energy storage and additional power complement. In terms of function, the orthosis has shock absorption and low energy consumption. Given its excellent characteristics of comfortableness, lightweight, and anthropomorphic construction, the orthosis can be used in medical institutions for rehabilitation training or as a daily-walking auxiliary equipment for surgery sufferers.
Full Text Available The ankle foot orthosis (AFO is as an assistive device used in foot disability for gait improvement. The objective of this paper was to design a neuro fuzzy controller for an AFO. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was selected after a detailed study of existing neuro-fuzzy architectures. Data of gait pattern was collected with the help of analog gyro sensors. This data was fed to the ANFIS and a fuzzy rule base was created to complete the neuro-fuzzy system which was used to control the gait pattern. Angular velocity and angle of feet served as inputs to the controller and the output was actuation. The results obtained showed sigmoidal membership functions for the various inputs and outputs due to their close resemblance with the normal human gait. Output of the ANFIS showcased the initial data which was fed to the system; the modified data; changed membership functions and error after training.
Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake
We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.
Delvert, Céline; Rippert, Pascal; Margirier, Françoise; Vadot, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Carole; Poirot, Isabelle; Vuillerot, Carole
Transverse-plane foot deformities are a frequently encountered issue in children with neurological disorders. They are the source of many symptoms, such as pain and walking difficulties, making their prevention very important. We aim to describe the use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis used to prevent transverse-plane foot deformities in children with neurologic disorders. Monocentric, retrospective, observational study. Medical data were collected from 103 children with transverse-plane foot deformities in one or both feet caused by a neurological impairment. All children were braced between 2001 and 2010. Unilateral orthosis was prescribed for 32 children and bilateral orthosis for 71. Transverse-plane foot deformities were varus in 66% of the cases and an equinus was associated in 59.2% of the cases. Mean age for the first prescription was 8.6 years. For the 23 patients present at the 4-year visit, 84.8% still wore the orthosis daily, and 64.7% wore the orthosis more than 6 h per day. The rate of permanent discontinuation of wearing the orthosis was 14.7%. The side pole static ankle foot orthosis is well tolerated with very few side effects, which promotes regular wearing and observance. Clinical relevance Side pole static ankle foot orthoses are well tolerated and can be safely used for children with foot abnormalities in the frontal plane that have a neurological pathology origin.
Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A
Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.
Arazpour, Mokhtar; Chitsazan, Ahmad; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Ghomshe, Farhad Tabatabai; Hutchins, Stephen W
The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of a powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis on the kinematics and temporospatial parameters of walking by a person with poliomyelitis when compared to a knee ankle foot orthosis. A knee ankle foot orthosis was initially manufactured by incorporating drop lock knee joints and custom molded ankle foot orthoses and fitted to a person with poliomyelitis. The orthosis was then adapted by adding electrically activated powered knee joints to provide knee extension torque during stance and also flexion torque in swing phase. Lower limb kinematic and kinetic data plus data for temporospatial parameters were acquired from three test walks using each orthosis. Walking speed, step length, and vertical and horizontal displacement of the pelvis decreased when walking with the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis compared to the knee ankle foot orthosis. When using the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis, the knee flexion achieved during swing and also the overall pattern of walking more closely matched that of normal human walking. The reduced walking speed may have caused the smaller compensatory motions detected when the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis was used. The new powered SCKAFO facilitated controlled knee flexion and extension during ambulation for a volunteer poliomyelitis person.
Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P
We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.
Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew
Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic
Gordon Keith E
Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied human locomotor adaptation to powered ankle-foot orthoses with the intent of identifying differences between two different orthosis control methods. The first orthosis control method used a footswitch to provide bang-bang control (a kinematic control and the second orthosis control method used a proportional myoelectric signal from the soleus (a physiological control. Both controllers activated an artificial pneumatic muscle providing plantar flexion torque. Methods Subjects walked on a treadmill for two thirty-minute sessions spaced three days apart under either footswitch control (n = 6 or myoelectric control (n = 6. We recorded lower limb electromyography (EMG, joint kinematics, and orthosis kinetics. We compared stance phase EMG amplitudes, correlation of joint angle patterns, and mechanical work performed by the powered orthosis between the two controllers over time. Results During steady state at the end of the second session, subjects using proportional myoelectric control had much lower soleus and gastrocnemius activation than the subjects using footswitch control. The substantial decrease in triceps surae recruitment allowed the proportional myoelectric control subjects to walk with ankle kinematics close to normal and reduce negative work performed by the orthosis. The footswitch control subjects walked with substantially perturbed ankle kinematics and performed more negative work with the orthosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the choice of orthosis control method can greatly alter how humans adapt to powered orthosis assistance during walking. Specifically, proportional myoelectric control results in larger reductions in muscle activation and gait kinematics more similar to normal compared to footswitch control.
Buckon, C E; Thomas, S S; Jakobson-Huston, S; Sussman, M; Aiona, M
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the hinged ankle-foot orthosis (HAFO), posterior leaf spring (PLS), and solid ankle-foot orthosis (SAFO), in preventing contracture, improving efficiency of gait, and enhancing performance of functional motor skills in 30 children (21 male, 9 female; mean age 9 years 4 months; age range 4 to 18 years,) with spastic hemiplegia. Following a 3-month baseline period of no ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) use, each AFO was worn for 3 months after which ankle range of motion, gait analysis, energy consumption, and functional motor skills were assessed. The HAFO and PLS increased passive ankle dorsiflexion and normalization of ankle rocker function during gait. Normalization of knee motion in stance was dependent upon the knee abnormality present and AFO configuration. The HAFO was the most effective in controlling knee hyperextension in stance, while PLS was the most effective in promoting knee extension in children with >10 degree knee flexion in stance. Energy efficiency was improved in 21 of the children, with 13 of these children demonstrating the greatest improvement in HAFO and PLS. Improvements in functional mobility were greatest in the HAFO and PLS.
Ishak N.Z.; Mohamaddan S.; Kamaruddin A.M.N.A; Khamis H.; Yamamoto S.; Dawal S.Z.M.
Ankle foot orthosis (AFO) are commonly used to correct the instabilities and joint weakness of lower limb. In this research, AFO was developed by using pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) to prevent plantarflexion to occur and also to correct the foot from the inversion syndrome. The research started with designing the AFO by using SolidWorks software based on anthropometry measurement data (n=5, age=12 years old). The mechanical simulation was conducted by using Autodesk Inventor software to o...
Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P
Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1) without wearing the orthosis, 2) wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3) wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4) wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04) and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04) joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17). Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current orthosis design
Ferris Daniel P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1 without wearing the orthosis, 2 wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3 wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4 wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04 and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04 joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17. Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current
Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Hutchins, Stephen W; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Curran, Sarah; Mardani, Mohammad A
A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine its effect on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis significantly reduced walking speed (p = 0.015) and the distance walked (p = 0.004), and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values (p = 0.009) compared to walking with the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Using a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects. This powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis. Further research is therefore warranted. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.
Belokar, R. M.; Banga, H. K.; Kumar, R.
This study presents a novel approach for testing mechanical properties of medical orthosis developed by three dimensional (3D) technologies. A hand-held type 3D laser scanner is used for generating 3D mesh geometry directly from patient’s limb. Subsequently 3D printable orthotic design is produced from crude input model by means of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies is used to fabricate the 3D printable Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) prototype in order to test the mechanical properties on printout. According to test results, printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) AFO prototype has sufficient elasticity modulus and durability for patient-specific medical device manufactured by the 3D technologies.
Conclusion This study showed that the AFOs based on the models (static or dynamic had a paradoxical effect on balance, kinetic and kinematic parameters of gait in the stroke patients. AFOs had a significant improvement in balance, kinetic and kinematic parameters of gait compared to those without orthosis situation in the stroke patients. According to the result of this study, depending on the patient's needs and situation, the best and the most suitable ankle foot orthoses should be designed and custom molded for them.
ities. The most common fracture of the lower extremity is to the tibia and fibula . As opposed to prior military From 1Orthopaedic Surgery Service...patients, demonstrates that 26% of patients with extremity wounds have fractures , 82% of which are open, divided evenly between the upper and lower extrem...sustained a severe open ankle fracture and underwent irrigation and debridement with splint immobilization in theater on the day of injury. Thereafter he
Solanki, Punita Vasant; Sheth, Binoti Arun; Poduval, Murali; Sams, Stephen Brian Austin
The aim of this study was to study the effectiveness of modified ankle foot orthosis fabricated from low-temperature thermoplastics, as an alternative orthosis for the maintenance of correction in idiopathic congenital talipes equino varus (CTEV) deformity. The study was conducted in infants after the completion of the Ponseti serial manipulation and cast treatment, with or without, percutaneous Achilles tenotomy. Both male and female infants with unilateral or bilateral CTEV deformity were included in our study. A custom-made modified ankle foot orthosis was fabricated on the day of the removal of the last plaster of Paris cast. Initial clinical assessment, including medical history, Pirani score, modified Dimeglio score, clinical method of evaluating tibial torsion, ankle and foot range of motion were carried out on the day of the fabrication of the orthosis. Follow-up assessments were carried out at regular intervals for a duration of 6 months. All infants were provided with a set of exercises in the outpatient department three to five times per week, and other sessions were carried out by the caregivers in the form of home exercise programmes, daily every 2 h. In our study, we had 40 infants. Of these, 12 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 28 infants (22 males and six females) were included in the study. Of the 28 infants, six were left sided, seven were right sided and 15 were bilateral cases. The age at which cast treatment was initiated ranged from 1 week to 8 months, and the age at which modified ankle foot orthosis was given ranged from 1 month 1 week to 15 months. The average number of plaster of Paris casts given was six. Sixteen infants required tenotomy. We found that there was a significant reduction in the Pirani and modified Dimeglio scores from baseline to the third and to the sixth months, that is, improvement and/or maintenance of the baseline scores of Pirani and modified Dimeglio was observed (P0.05). The difference was independent of the
Full Text Available Ankle foot orthosis (AFO are commonly used to correct the instabilities and joint weakness of lower limb. In this research, AFO was developed by using pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM to prevent plantarflexion to occur and also to correct the foot from the inversion syndrome. The research started with designing the AFO by using SolidWorks software based on anthropometry measurement data (n=5, age=12 years old. The mechanical simulation was conducted by using Autodesk Inventor software to obtain a safety factor before the fabrication process was conducted. The AFO was fabricated using 3D printer and the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE rubber was selected as the material. PAM was tested by using test bed machine to generate the force and contraction by muscle. The result shows that the PAM was suitable for low speed as the displacement was greater. The AFO could be valuable for the gait rehabilitation.
de Wit, D.C.M.; Buurke, Jaap; Nijlant, J.M.M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Objective: Regaining walking ability is a major goal during the rehabilitation of stroke patients. To support this process an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is often prescribed. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of an AFO on walking ability in chronic stroke patients. Design: Cross-over
Farmani, Farzad; Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Aminian, Gholamreza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi-Goghari, Mohammad
Ankle-foot orthoses could be utilized both with and without shoes. While several studies have shown that ankle-foot orthoses improve gait abilities in hemiplegic patients, it remains unclear whether they should be used with shoes or without. The study purpose was to compare the effect of standard shoes and rocker shoes on functional mobility in post-stroke hemiplegic patients utilizing ankle-foot orthosis. Randomized clinical study. Thirty post-stroke hemiplegic patients participated in this study randomly assigned to two groups. Group I received standard shoes + ankle-foot orthosis and group II were provided with rocker shoes + ankle-foot orthosis. Their functional mobility and energy expenditure parameters including timed up and go, timed up stairs, timed down stairs, preferred walking speed, and oxygen (O2) cost (mL/kg/m) were measured. In group I, no significant changes were seen in outcome measures after wearing standard shoes. While in group II, O2 cost and timed up and go time significantly decreased, and preferred walking speed increased when patients wore rocker shoes. Also, there was a significant difference between rocker shoes and standard shoes in improvement of timed up and go, preferred walking speed, and O2 cost. When patients using ankle-foot orthosis wore rocker shoes, their functional mobility improved and oxygen cost diminished. Also, rocker shoes was significantly more effective than standard shoes in improving functional mobility parameters. This study suggests that in post-stroke hemiplegic patients using ankle-foot orthosis, wearing rocker shoes can lead to much more improved functional mobility and decreased energy expenditure compared to ankle-foot orthosis only. Thus, in stroke patients, the combination of ankle-foot orthosis-rocker shoes is recommended for both rehabilitation programs and ankle-foot orthosis efficacy investigations. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.
Full Text Available Hinge-based Ankle Foot Orthosis (HAFO is one of the most common non-surgical solutions for the foot drop. In conventional HAFOs, the ankle joint is almost locked, and plantar flexion is restricted due to the high stiffness of the hinge mechanism. This often leads to a rigid walking gate cycle, poor muscle activity, and muscle atrophy. Since the ankle torque-angle loop has a non-linear profile, the use of a superelastic NiTi spring within the hinge, due to its nonlinear behavior, could recreate a close-to-normal stiffness of the normal ankle joint, which, in turn, could create a more natural walk. The focus of this study is to evaluate the performance of a superelastic NiTi spring versus a conventional Stainless Steel spring in a hinge mechanism of a custom-fit HAFO. To this aim, a custom-fit HAFO was fabricated via the fast casting technique. Then, motion analysis was performed for two healthy subjects (Case I and Case II: (i subjects with bare foot; (ii subjects wearing a conventional HAFO with no spring; (iii subjects wearing a conventional Stainless Steel-based HAFO; and (iv subjects wearing a NiTi spring-based HAFO. The data related to the ankle angle and the amount of moment applied to the ankle during walking were recorded using Cortex software and used for the evaluations. Finally, Finite Element Analysis (FEA was performed to evaluate the safety of the designed HAFO. The NiTi spring offers a higher range of motion (7.9 versus 4.14 degree and an increased level of moment (0.55 versus 0.36 N·m/kg. Furthermore, a NiTi spring offers an ankle torque-angle loop closer to that of the healthy subjects.
Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Zamanian, Hashem; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Jahadakbar, Ahmadreza; Elahinia, Mohammad
Hinge-based Ankle Foot Orthosis (HAFO) is one of the most common non-surgical solutions for the foot drop. In conventional HAFOs, the ankle joint is almost locked, and plantar flexion is restricted due to the high stiffness of the hinge mechanism. This often leads to a rigid walking gate cycle, poor muscle activity, and muscle atrophy. Since the ankle torque-angle loop has a non-linear profile, the use of a superelastic NiTi spring within the hinge, due to its nonlinear behavior, could recreate a close-to-normal stiffness of the normal ankle joint, which, in turn, could create a more natural walk. The focus of this study is to evaluate the performance of a superelastic NiTi spring versus a conventional Stainless Steel spring in a hinge mechanism of a custom-fit HAFO. To this aim, a custom-fit HAFO was fabricated via the fast casting technique. Then, motion analysis was performed for two healthy subjects (Case I and Case II): (i) subjects with bare foot; (ii) subjects wearing a conventional HAFO with no spring; (iii) subjects wearing a conventional Stainless Steel-based HAFO; and (iv) subjects wearing a NiTi spring-based HAFO. The data related to the ankle angle and the amount of moment applied to the ankle during walking were recorded using Cortex software and used for the evaluations. Finally, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the safety of the designed HAFO. The NiTi spring offers a higher range of motion (7.9 versus 4.14 degree) and an increased level of moment (0.55 versus 0.36 N·m/kg). Furthermore, a NiTi spring offers an ankle torque-angle loop closer to that of the healthy subjects.
Swigchem, R. van; Roerdink, M.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Daffertshofer, A.
BACKGROUND: A reduced capacity to modify gait to the environment may contribute to the risk of falls in people with poststroke foot drop using an ankle-foot orthosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify their capacity to restore steady gait after a step modification. DESIGN: This was a
van Swigchem, R.; Roerdink, M.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Geurts, A.C.; Daffertshofer, A.
Background. A reduced capacity to modify gait to the environment may contribute to the risk of falls in people with poststroke foot drop using an ankle-foot orthosis. Objective. This study aimed to quantify their capacity to restore steady gait after a step modification. Design. This was a
Thompson, N S; Taylor, T C; McCarthy, K R; Cosgrove, A P; Baker, R J
Eighteen children with hemiplegia, mean age 8 years 5 months, underwent gait analysis and musculoskeletal modelling using specially designed software. The maximum lengths of the hamstrings were determined for each child walking in and out of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). The muscles were deemed to be short if shorter than the normal average -1SD. In bare feet 8 participants had short medial hamstrings with a higher proportion of these in the less involved individuals. All participants showed an increase in maximum hamstring length when wearing an AFO. In all but one child this was sufficient to restore hamstring length to within normal limits. These finding suggest that hamstring pathology in hemiplegic gait is usually secondary to more distal lower limb pathology.
Kim, Ha Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Bo Ryun
To evaluate the effects of heel-opened ankle foot orthosis (HOAFO) on hemiparetic gait after stroke, especially on external foot rotation, and to compare the effects of HOAFO with conventional plastic-AFO (pAFO) and barefoot during gait. This cross-over observational study involved 15 hemiparetic patients with external rotation of the affected foot. All subjects were able to walk independently, regardless of their usual use of a single cane, and had a less than fair-grade in ankle dorsiflexion power. Each patient was asked to walk in three conditions with randomized sequences: 1) barefoot, 2) with a pAFO, and 3) with an HOAFO. Their gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. Fifteen patients consisted of nine males and six females. On gait analysis, hip and foot external rotation were significantly greater in pAFO (-3.35° and -23.68°) than in barefoot and HOAFO conditions (pexternal rotation compared with pAFO; although there was no significant difference between HOAFO and barefoot walking. Walking speed and percentage of single limb support were significantly greater for HOAFO than in barefoot walking. HOAFO was superior to pAFO in reducing hip and foot external rotation during the stance phase in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. HOAFO may, therefore, be useful in patients with excessive external rotation of the foot during conventional pAFO.
Gao, Fan; Carlton, William; Kapp, Susan
Articulated or hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) allow more range of motion. However, quantitative investigation on articulated AFO is still sparse. The objective of the study was to quantitatively investigate effects of alignment and joint types on mechanical properties of the thermoplastic articulated AFO. Tamarack dorsiflexion assist flexure joints with three durometers (75, 85 and 95) and free motion joint were tested. The AFO joint was aligned with the center of the motor shaft (surrogate ankle joint), 10 mm superior, inferior, anterior and posterior with respect to the motor shaft center. The AFO was passively moved from 20° plantar flexion to 15° dorsiflexion at a speed of 10°/s using a motorized device. Mechanical properties including index of hysteresis, passive resistance torque and quasi-static stiffness (at neutral, 5°, 10° and 15° in plantar flexion) were quantified. Significant effects of joint types and joint alignment on the mechanical properties of an articulated thermoplastic AFO were revealed. Specifically, center alignment showed minimum resistance and stiffness while anterior and posterior alignment showed significantly higher resistance and stiffness. The dorsiflexion assist torques at neutral position ranged from 0.69 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.10 Nm. Anterior and posterior alignment should be avoided as much as possible. The current study suggested that anterior and posterior alignment be avoided as much as possible in clinical practice due to potential skin irritation and increase in stress around the ankle joint.
Buckon, Cathleen E; Thomas, Susan Sienko; Jakobson-Huston, Sabrina; Moor, Michael; Sussman, Michael; Aiona, Michael
This study compared the functional efficacy of three commonly prescribed ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) configurations (solid [SAFO], hinged [HAFO], and posterior leaf spring [PLS]). Sixteen independently ambulatory children (10 males, six females; mean age 8 years 4 months, SD 2 years 4 months; range 4 years 4 months to 11 years 6 months) with spastic diplegia participated in this study. Four children were classified at level I of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS; Palisano et al. 1997); the remaining 12 were at level II. Children were assessed barefoot (BF) at baseline (baseline assessment of energy consumption was performed with shoes on, no AFO) and in each orthotic configuration after three months of use, using gait analysis, oxygen consumption, and functional outcome measures. AFO use did not markedly alter joint kinematics or kinetics at the pelvis, hip, or knee. All AFO configurations normalized ankle kinematics in stance, increased step/stride length, decreased cadence, and decreased energy cost of walking. Functionally, all AFO configurations improved the execution of walking/running/jumping skills, upper extremity coordination, and fine motor speed/dexterity. However, the quality of gross motor skill performance and independence in mobility were unchanged. These results suggest that most children with spastic diplegia benefit functionally from AFO use. However, some children at GMFCS level II demonstrated a subtle but detrimental effect on function with HAFO use, shown by an increase in peak knee extensor moment in early stance, excessive ankle dorsiflexion, decreased walking velocity, and greater energy cost. Therefore, constraining ankle motion by using a PLS or SAFO should be considered for most, but not all, children with spastic diplegia.
Sankaranarayan, H.; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B.; Thennarasu, K.
Objective: To study role of ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in improving locomotion and functional recovery after stroke. Setting: Neurological Rehabilitation Department of a university research tertiary hospital. Patients and Methods: AFO and activity based rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures: Distance (meters) covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and speed (meter/second) during the 10-meter walk test. Functional abilities assessed using Functional Independence Measure (FIM®). Results: ...
Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ray, Sayantan; Biswas, Dibakar; Baidya, Arjun; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar
Off-loading of the ulcer area is extremely important for the healing of plantar ulcers. Off-loading with total contact cast (TCC) may be superior to other off-loading strategies studied so far, but practical limitations can dissuade clinicians from using this modality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of TCC compared with that of a pressure-relieving ankle foot orthosis (PRAFO) in healing of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers and their effect on gait parameters. Thirty adult diabetic patients attending the foot clinic with neuropathic plantar ulcers irrespective of sex, age, duration and type of diabetes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 off-loading modalities (TCC and PRAFO). Main outcome measures were ulcer healing after 4 weeks of randomization and effect of each of the modalities on various gait parameters. The percentage reduction of the ulcer surface area at 4 weeks from baseline was 75.75 ± 9.25 with TCC and 34.72 ± 13.07 with PRAFO, which was significantly different (P diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer. Further studies are needed involving larger subjects and using 3D gait analysis to collect more accurate data on gait parameters and wound healing with different off-loading devices. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.
Guerra Padilla, M; Molina Rueda, F; Alguacil Diego, I M
Stroke is currently the main cause of permanent disability in adults. The impairments are a combination of sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional changes that result in restrictions on the ability to perform basic activities of daily living (BADL). Postural control is affected and causes problems with static and dynamic balance, thus increasing the risk of falls and secondary injuries. The purpose of this review was to compile the literature to date, and assess the impact of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on postural control and gait in individuals who have suffered a stroke. The review included randomised and controlled trials that examined the effects of AFO in stroke patients between 18 and 80 years old, with acute or chronic evolution. No search limits on the date of the studies were included, and the search lasted until April 2011. The following databases were used: Pubmed, Trip Database, Cochrane library, Embase, ISI Web Knowledge, CINHAL and PEDro. Intervention succeeded in improving some gait parameters, such as speed and cadence. However it is not clear if there was improvement in the symmetry, postural sway or balance. Because of the limitations of this systematic review, due to the clinical diversity of the studies and the methodological limitations, 0these results should be considered with caution. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Sangeux, Morgan; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C
The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to develop a multiple regression normalization (MR) strategy to decorrelate physical properties and walking speed from spatiotemporal gait data in healthy children; and secondly, to use this MR approach to identify the effect of a solid ankle foot orthosis (AFO) on gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spatiotemporal gait data during self-selected walking were obtained from 51 children with diplegic CP and 34 aged-matched healthy controls. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations (DS) and a MR approach. Stride length, stance time, swing time, and double support time were significantly different between children with CP and healthy controls using DS (pchildren with CP walked with and without an AFO. Normalizing gait data using DS demonstrated significant differences in cadence and step time in children with CP when wearing an AFO compared to the controls (pchildren with CP with and without an AFO, except double support time. After MR normalization, spatiotemporal parameters in children wearing an AFO became closer to those of the controls, except for double support time. The MR approach presented will assist in evaluating the effectiveness of conservative interventions such as AFOs in children with CP, as well as in surgery, and may be useful in gait classification using machine learning.
Lv, Ge; Zhu, Hanqi; Elery, Toby; Li, Luwei; Gregg, Robert D
Traditional control methodologies of rehabilitation orthoses/exoskeletons aim at replicating normal kinematics and thus fall into the category of kinematic control . This control paradigm depends on pre-defined reference trajectories, which can be difficult to adjust between different locomotor tasks and human subjects. An alternative control category, kinetic control , enforces kinetic goals (e.g., torques or energy) instead of kinematic trajectories, which could provide a flexible learning environment for the user while freeing up therapists to make corrections. We propose that the theory of underactuated potential energy shaping, which falls into the category of kinetic control, could be used to generate virtual body-weight support for stroke gait rehabilitation. After deriving the nonlinear control law and simulating it on a human-like biped model, we implemented this controller on a powered ankle-foot orthosis that was designed specifically for testing torque control strategies. Experimental results with an able-bodied human subject demonstrate the feasibility of the control approach for both positive and negative virtual body-weight augmentation.
Kerkum, Y.L.; Brehm, M.A.; Buizer, A.I.; van den Noort, J.C.; Becher, J.G.; Harlaar, J.
A rigid ventral shelf ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may improve gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) whose gait is characterized by excessive knee flexion in stance. However, these AFOs can also impede ankle range of motion (ROM) and thereby inhibit push-off power. A more spring-like AFO
Kerkum, Yvette L.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap
A rigid ventral shelf ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may improve gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) whose gait is characterized by excessive knee flexion in stance. However, these AFOs can also impede ankle range of motion (ROM) and thereby inhibit push-off power. A more spring-like AFO
Bregman, D.J.J.; Van der Krogt, M.M.; De Groot, V.; Harlaar, J.; Wisse, M.; Collins, S.H.
Background In stroke and multiple sclerosis patients, gait is frequently hampered by a reduced ability to push-off with the ankle caused by weakness of the plantar-flexor muscles. To enhance ankle push-off and to decrease the high energy cost of walking, spring-like carbon-composite Ankle Foot
Bregman, D.J.J.; van der Krogt, M.M.; de Groot, V.; Harlaar, J.; Wisse, M.; Collins, S.H.
Background: In stroke and multiple sclerosis patients, gait is frequently hampered by a reduced ability to push-off with the ankle caused by weakness of the plantar-flexor muscles. To enhance ankle push-off and to decrease the high energy cost of walking, spring-like carbon-composite Ankle Foot
Menotti, Federica; Laudani, Luca; Damiani, Antonello; Mignogna, Teresa; Macaluso, Andrea
Ankle-foot orthoses are commonly prescribed in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease to improve quality of walking and reduce the risk of falling due to the foot drop. This study aimed at assessing the effect of an anterior ankle-foot orthosis on walking economy in a group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients. Within-group comparisons. 7 Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients (four women and three men; 37 ± 11 years; age range = 22-53 years) were asked to walk on a circuit at their self-selected speeds ('slow', 'comfortable' and 'fast') in two walking conditions: (1) with shoes only and (2) with Taloelast(®) anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses. Speed of walking and metabolic cost of walking energy cost per unit of distance were assessed at the three self-selected speeds of walking for both walking conditions. Speed of walking at the three self-selected speeds did not differ between shoes only and anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses, whereas walking energy cost per unit of distance at comfortable speed was lower in patients using anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses with respect to shoes only (2.39 ± 0.22 vs 2.70 ± 0.19 J kg(-1) m(-1); P Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients, the use of anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses improved walking economy by reducing the energy cost of walking per unit of distance, thus reflecting a lower level of metabolic effort and improved mechanical efficiency in comparison with shoes only. From a practical perspective, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients with anterior elastic ankle-foot orthoses can walk for a longer duration with a lower level of physical effort. Improvements in walking economy due to ankle-foot orthoses are likely a consequence of the reduction in steppage gait. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.
Tanner, Lynn R; Hooke, Mary C; Hinshon, Scott; Hansen, Cheryl R
Children with cancer are at risk for physical performance limitations. In this pilot study we investigated the feasibility and initial efficacy of an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in children with non-central nervous system cancer with peripheral weakness. Participants included children aged 5 to 11 years diagnosed with cancer. Children wore AFOs for 1 cycle of chemotherapy. Pre- and postintervention adverse events, adherence, gait, strength, range of motion, activity, and fatigue were measured. Six of 7 children completed the study; none of the 7 reported adverse events. Positive trends were observed in step length (46.23-49.25 cm), dorsiflexion strength (19.25-24.50 lb), ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (0.5-8°), and activity (7850-9857 epochs). Negative trends observed included cadence and fatigue ratings. No change was observed in the 6-minute walk or parent-reported fatigue. An AFO intervention is feasible in children with cancer. Initial efficacy results warrant further study.
Balaban, Birol; Yasar, Evren; Dal, Ugur; Yazicioglu, Kamil; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp
To assess the effectiveness of a hinged ankle-foot orthoses on gait impairments and energy expenditure in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) whom orthoses were indicated to control equines. Eleven children (seven males, four females) who had a diagnosis of hemiplegic cerebral palsy were included in the study. Each child underwent gait analysis and energy consumption studies with and without ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). The AFOs were all custom-made for the individual child and had plantarflexion stop at 0 degrees with no dorsoflexion stop. The Vicon 512 Motion analysis system was used for gait analysis. Walking energy expenditure measurements were done with breath by breath method using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter (Vmax 29c, Sensormedics, USA). All tests were carried out on the same day with enough resting period. AFO application, as compared with the barefoot condition improved walking speed, stride length and single support time. Double support time was decreased significantly with AFOs and no change in cadance. Ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, midstance and midswing showed significiant increase. Knee flexion at initial contact was decreased and no significant change in maximum knee extension at stance and maximum knee flexion at swing was obtained. The oxygen consumption was significantly reduced during AFO walking. The hinged AFO is useful in controlling dynamic equinus deformity and reducing the energy expenditure of gait in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy.
Don Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hyun Jin; Lee, Myoung Hyo; Hwangbo, Gak
[Purpose] This study examined how an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) influences the weight-bearing of chronic stroke patients during the performance of five functional standing tasks. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients with stroke participated in this experiment. The subjects performed functional standing tasks with or without the AFO and weight bearing was measured during the tasks. [Results] Patients showed increased weight-bearing ability on the affected side during wearing the AFO in all tasks, and there were significant differences among Tasks 1, 2, and 3. Patients showed a small amount of increased weight bearing on the unaffected side while wearing the AFO in all tasks except for Task 2. [Conclusion] ADL-related functional standing tasks with AFO increased the weight bearing.
Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre
The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.
Schiemanck, Sven; Berenpas, Frank; van Swigchem, Roos; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; de Vries, Joost; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; Geurts, Alexander C.
To investigate whether an implantable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system of the common peroneal nerve (ActiGait®) improves relevant aspects of gait in chronic stroke patients with a drop foot typically using an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). Ten community-dwelling patients participated, of
Tavernese, E; Petrarca, M; Rosellini, G; Di Stanislao, E; Pisano, A; Di Rosa, G; Castelli, E
Hemiplegic Celebral Palsy (CP) children commonly use AFO orthoses as walking aids. It is known that AFOs may have a detrimental effect on gait. To enhance mechanical properties of AFOs we developed an innovative, custom-made, carbon, ankle-foot orthosis (Ca.M.O) which offers the opportunity to tune its response to the patient's gait characteristics and/or functional maturity. To assess the efficacy of Ca.M.O. in improving gait in a group of hemiplegic CP children and to compare its performances with those of commonly prescribed AFO. A clinical and instrumental gait analysis was performed on a group of 15 spastic hemiplegic children (WINTERS-GAGE type I-II) walking barefoot, with commonly prescribed AFOs and with Ca.M.O.Temporal, kinematic and kinetic data were collected with an 8 cameras optoelectronic system and 2 force plates. Studied variables were comparable walking with Ca.M.O. and with the commonly prescribed AFO and are significantly different (p < 0.01) with respect to barefoot condition. Both types of orthoses normalize the kinematics of the first and second ankle rocker. The main advantage of Ca.M.O. is its modularity that allows to tune its effect on gait in relationship with the progress or involution of the child's functional development.
Delafontaine, Arnaud; Gagey, Olivier; Colnaghi, Silvia; Do, Manh-Cuong; Honeine, Jean-Louis
Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI). Nineteen healthy adults participated in the study. They initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint as well as wearing an AFO on the stance leg, or bilaterally. Constraining the stance leg ankle decreased TA activity ipsilaterally during the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of GI, and ipsilateral soleus activity during step execution. In the sagittal plane, the decrease in the stance leg TA activity reduced the backward displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) resulting in a reduction of the forward velocity of the center of mass (CoM) measured at foot contact (FC). In the frontal plane, wearing the AFO reduced the displacement of the CoP in the direction of the swing leg during the APA phase. The mediolateral velocity of the CoM increased during single-stance prompting a larger step width to recover balance. During step execution, the CoM vertical downward velocity is normally reduced in order to lessen the impact of the swing leg with the floor and facilitates the rise of the CoM that occurs during the subsequent double-support phase. The reduction in stance leg soleus activity caused by constraining the ankle weakened the vertical braking of the CoM during step execution. This caused the absolute instantaneous vertical velocity of the CoM at FC to be greater in the constrained conditions with respect to the control condition. From a
Full Text Available Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI. Nineteen healthy adults participated in the study. They initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint as well as wearing an AFO on the stance leg, or bilaterally. Constraining the stance leg ankle decreased TA activity ipsilaterally during the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA of GI, and ipsilateral soleus activity during step execution. In the sagittal plane, the decrease in the stance leg TA activity reduced the backward displacement of the center of pressure (CoP resulting in a reduction of the forward velocity of the center of mass (CoM measured at foot contact (FC. In the frontal plane, wearing the AFO reduced the displacement of the CoP in the direction of the swing leg during the APA phase. The mediolateral velocity of the CoM increased during single-stance prompting a larger step width to recover balance. During step execution, the CoM vertical downward velocity is normally reduced in order to lessen the impact of the swing leg with the floor and facilitates the rise of the CoM that occurs during the subsequent double-support phase. The reduction in stance leg soleus activity caused by constraining the ankle weakened the vertical braking of the CoM during step execution. This caused the absolute instantaneous vertical velocity of the CoM at FC to be greater in the constrained conditions with respect to the control condition. From
Yong Ho Cha
Full Text Available We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient’s lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the “STL” file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec. The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software.
Hamdan, Puteri N F; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Usman, Juliana; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Wahab, Ahmad K Abdul; Hasnan, Nazirah; Davis, Glen M
Previous research investigated recumbent cycle power output (PO) from the perspective of knee and hip joint biomechanics. However, ankle-foot biomechanics and, in particular, the effect of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO)-constrained movements on cycle PO has not been widely explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether AFOs of a fixed position (FP) and in dorsi-plantarflexion (DPF)-, dorsiflexion (DF)- and plantarflexion (PF)-constrained movements might influence PO during voluntary recumbent cycling exercises. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. All underwent 1-min cycling at a fixed cadence for each of the AFOs. The peak and average PO of each condition were analyzed. The peak and average PO were 27.2±12.0 W (range 6-60) and 17.2±9.0 W (range 2-36), respectively, during voluntary cycling. There were no significant differences in the peak PO generated by the AFOs (p=0.083). There were also no significant differences in the average PO generated using different AFOs (p=0.063). There were no significant differences in the changes of the hip and knee joint angles with different AFOs (p=0.974 and p=1.00, respectively). However, there was a significant difference in the changes of the ankle joint angle (pcycling in healthy individuals. This finding might serve as a reference for future rehabilitative cycling protocols.
Gupta, Anupam; Nalini, Atchayaram; Arya, Shanti Prakash; Vengalil, Seena; Khanna, Meeka; Krishnan, Rashmi; Taly, Arun B
To assess Ankle-Foot-Orthosis (AFO) requirement and ambulation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients seen over a period of 4 y at a multi-disciplinary Neuromuscular disorders clinic (NMD). A study was conducted in university quaternary research hospital with DMD patients confirmed by MLPA (multiplex ligation - dependent probe amplification) method and were evaluated between January 2012 and December 2015. Their ambulatory status, detailed neurological and functional status were recorded. Requirement of AFOs was determined and provided. In total 126 DMD children reported to the NMD clinic. Mean age at presentation was 7.6 y (range 2 to12 y, SD 2.1). Mean duration of illness at first evaluation was 3.4 y (range 0.5 to 10 y, SD 2.0). AFO's were advised at a mean age of 8.5 y (range 7 to 12 y, SD 1.8). Fifty-nine patients were advised AFO as resting or walking splint. At last follow-up 113 patients were still ambulatory whereas 13 had become wheel chair bound. Out of 59 patients, 48 were still wearing AFOs and the remaining discontinued AFOs for various reasons. Children with DMD require wearing of AFOs as resting or walking splint, mostly in first or early second decade of life. As there is some gap between onset of clinical signs and requirement of orthosis, follow-up preferably at a multidisciplinary clinic at regular intervals is desirable for timely intervention in the form of AFOs or other splints to prolong ambulatory status in these patients.
Kobayashi, Toshiki; Leung, Aaron K L; Akazawa, Yasushi; Naito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Masao; Hutchins, Stephen W
The purpose of this study was to design a new automated stiffness measurement device which could perform a simultaneous measurement of both dorsi- and plantarflexion angles and the corresponding resistive torque around the rotational centre of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO). This was achieved by controlling angular velocities and range of motion in the sagittal plane. The device consisted of a hydraulic servo fatigue testing machine, a torque meter, a potentiometer, a rotary plate and an upright supporter to enable an AAFO to be attached to the device via a surrogate shank. The accuracy of the device in reproducing the range of motion and angular velocity was within 4% and 1% respectively in the range of motion of 30° (15° plantarflexion to 15° dorsiflexion) at the angular velocity of 10°/s, while that in the measurement of AAFO torque was within 8% at the 0° position. The device should prove useful to assist an orthotist or a manufacturer to quantify the stiffness of an AAFO and inform its clinical use.
Kobayashi, Toshiki; Gao, Fan; LeCursi, Nicholas; Foreman, K Bo; Orendurff, Michael S
Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions. The results of this study demonstrated that the stiffness of the AFO-Shoe combination was significantly decreased compared to the AFO-alone condition, but no significant differences were found in energy efficiency. From the results, we recommend that shoes used with AFOs should be carefully selected not only based on their effect on alignment of the lower limb, but also their effects on overall mechanical properties of the AFO-Shoe combination. Further study is needed to clarify the effects of differences in shoe designs on AFO-Shoe combination mechanical properties.
Callejo Goena, Daniel
En este proyecto se presenta el diseño mecánico de un banco de pruebas para el sistema de actuación de una ortesis activa de rodilla-tobillo-pie (knee-ankle-foot orthosis en inglés) para lesionados medulares incompletos. El objetivo de dicho banco es caracterizar con precisión el comportamiento dinámico del sistema de actuación de la rodilla: estudiar su funcionamiento directo e inverso y la posibilidad de emplear materiales elásticos en alguna de las piezas que transmite el movimiento a l...
1.78 97.3 7.5 R LE tissue loss/trauma 4 40 1.81 81.0 9.3 L ankle fracture and osteoarthritis 5 30 1.75 79.1 9.8 L tibia/ fibula fracture 6 30 1.76 78.2...11.0 L LE neuropathy, crushed tibia/ fibula 7 36 1.78 75.5 4.4 L LE talar fracture , multiple fractures 8 22 1.64 80.3 9.0 R LE tissue loss/trauma 9 27...1.82 92.0 6.4 R equinovarus, LE tissue loss/trauma, neuropathy 10 23 1.74 84.1 5.0 L LE tibia/ fibula fracture 11 36 1.95 80.9 20.8 L LE fractures
Cruz, Theresa Hayes; Dhaher, Yasin Y
Abnormal within and across-joint synergistic behaviors have been reported in the lower limb post stroke. It is unknown, however, whether these impairments limit adaptive movement strategies in response to imposed kinematic constraints. In this context, the goal of this pilot study was to examine changes to three-dimensional swing phase kinematics of the paretic hip, knee, and ankle joints and pelvis induced by AFO use in subjects with chronic stroke. Overground gait analysis was performed on 9 ambulating hemiplegic subjects with and without their AFOs. Both the toeoff and peak ankle dorsiflexion angles were significantly decreased in the no AFO condition. Likewise, the peak and toeoff swing phase pelvic obliquity angles significantly increased when the AFO was removed (6.47 degrees (2.0 SD) vs. 8.16 degrees (2.8 SD), paired t-tests, p=0.03 and 0.8 degrees (3.1 SD) vs. 2.9 degrees (1.1 SD), paired t-test, p=0.02, respectively). These behaviors were consistent across subjects (7 of 9 subjects). The hip frontal plane, and hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics were unaffected by removal of the AFO. Finally, the minimum toe clearance was not affected by the removal of the AFO (1.39 cm+/-0.62 SD vs. 1.27 cm+/-0.47 SD, p>0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that pelvic obliquity is the primary compensatory degree of freedom utilized to achieve toe clearance in response to impaired dorsiflexion in the stroke population. We propose that this degree of freedom is exploited as it is not constrained by synergistic torque coupling of the lower limb.
Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Van Gestel, Leen; Huenaerts, Catherine; Van Campenhout, Anja; Callewaert, Barbara; Van de Walle, Patricia; Seyler, J
Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (with carbon fibre at the dorsal part of the orthosis). Both orthoses were expected to prevent plantar flexion, thus improving first rocker, allowing dorsiflexion to improve second rocker, absorbing energy during second rocker, and returning it during the third rocker. The effect of the AFOs was studied using objective gait analysis, including 3D kinematics, and kinetics in four conditions: barefoot, shoes without AFO, and PLS and CFO combined with shoes. Several gait parameters significantly changed in shoe walking compared to barefoot walking (cadence, ankle ROM and velocity, knee shock absorption, and knee angle in swing). The CFO produced a significantly larger ankle ROM and ankle velocity during push-off, and an increased plantar flexion moment and power generation at pre-swing compared to the PLS (<0.01). The results of this study further support the findings of previous studies indicating that orthoses improve specific gait parameters compared to barefoot walking (velocity, step length, first and second ankle rocker, sagittal knee and hip ROM). However, compared to shoes, not all improvements were statistically significant.
Bill, M; McIntosh, R; Myers, P
This paper reports on a series of case studies where improvements were sought in muscle tone and gait in children with cerebral palsy. A Midfoot Control Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) was developed to control foot position in a cohort of patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The concept of controlling midfoot and hindfoot with an encapsulated internal Supra-Malleolar AFO that fitted into an external AFO was shown to be effective in ambulant children with CP. Some initial problems of compliance were noted and postulated to be due to difficulties associated with previous orthotic devices. Evidence from the case studies suggest that the developed Supra-Malleolar AFO orthoses enables children with CP to maintain mobility without skin tissue damage, delays the need for surgery and at the same time maintains the length of the Triceps Surae (Gastrocnemius and Soleus) complex. Plans for further research are discussed which will contribute to the evidence base for this particular orthotic device.
Is transcutaneous peroneal stimulation beneficial to patients with chronic stroke using an ankle-foot orthosis? A within-subjects study of patients' satisfaction, walking speed and physical activity level.
Swigchem, R. van; Vloothuis, J.; Boer, J. de; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether community-dwelling chronic stroke patients wearing an ankle-foot orthosis would benefit from changing to functional electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve. METHODS: In 26 community-dwelling chronic (> 6 months post-onset) patients after
Hegarty, Amy K; Petrella, Anthony J; Kurz, Max J; Silverman, Anne K
Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation techniques have been used to gain insights into movement disabilities for many populations, such as ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The individuals who can benefit from these techniques are often limited to those who can walk without assistive devices, due to challenges in accurately modeling these devices. Specifically, many children with CP require the use of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) to improve their walking ability, and modeling these devices is important to understand their role in walking mechanics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of AFO mechanical property assumptions, including rotational stiffness, damping, and equilibrium angle of the ankle and subtalar joints, on the estimation of lower-limb muscle forces during stance for children with CP. We analyzed two walking gait cycles for two children with CP while they were wearing their own prescribed AFOs. We generated 1000-trial Monte Carlo simulations for each of the walking gait cycles, resulting in a total of 4000 walking simulations. We found that AFO mechanical property assumptions influenced the force estimates for all the muscles in the model, with the ankle muscles having the largest resulting variability. Muscle forces were most sensitive to assumptions of AFO ankle and subtalar stiffness, which should therefore be measured when possible. Muscle force estimates were less sensitive to estimates of damping and equilibrium angle. When stiffness measurements are not available, limitations on the accuracy of muscle force estimates for all the muscles in the model, especially the ankle muscles, should be acknowledged.
Swigchem, R. van; Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Boer, J. den; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.
BACKGROUND: Walking ability of people with foot drop in the chronic phase after stroke is better with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the peroneal nerve than without an orthotic device. However, the literature is not conclusive on whether peroneal FES also is better than an ankle-foot
Sienko Thomas, Susan; Buckon, Cathleen E; Jakobson-Huston, Sabrina; Sussman, Michael D; Aiona, Michael D
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of three different ankle foot orthoses (AFO) configurations on the function and kinematics of stair locomotion in children with spastic hemiplegia. Nineteen children were evaluated barefoot and with a hinged, posterior leaf spring (PLS) and solid AFO during stair ascent and descent. Stair specific items from the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used to evaluate function, while a motion measurement system was used to evaluate kinematics. The PEDI revealed no significant differences between AFOs and barefoot, although a greater percentage of children were able to keep up with their peers while wearing a hinged AFO. At the ankle, the hinged AFO provided the greatest amount of dorsiflexion during stance. All AFOs reduced plantarflexion in comparison to barefoot. The results of this study indicate that for children with spastic hemiplegia the use of an AFO did not impair stair ambulation.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING POSSIBILITY OF SPECIAL ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS COMPONENTS BY OMPARISON BETWEEN THE REQUIRED PRECISION AND THE VAILABLE PRECISION ON A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER PROGRAMED WITH TOPSOLID
Full Text Available Validation of different solutions adopted to achieve new ankle foot orthosis involves among others their prototyping. In these paper we developed a representative part for two axis machining that requires the use of the main features of TopSolid Cad and Cam modules, and that assumes the use of the main manufacturing processes that usually may be met on a vertical machining center. Also, in order to determine the dimensional and geometrical deviations of the part this was done on the YMC 1050 machining center. After comparing the measured deviations with the requirements of various components of orthesis, we concluded that the available precision meets the requirements and that the machining center with TopSolid software that we have will enable us to realize special ankle foot orthosis of quality, for experimental research .
Kerkum, Yvette L; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap
A rigid ventral shelf ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may improve gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) whose gait is characterized by excessive knee flexion in stance. However, these AFOs can also impede ankle range of motion (ROM) and thereby inhibit push-off power. A more spring-like AFO can enhance push-off and may potentially reduce walking energy cost. The recent development of an adjustable spring-hinged AFO now allows adjustment of AFO stiffness, enabling tuning toward optimal gait performance. This study aims to quantify the mechanical properties of this spring-hinged AFO for each of its springs and settings. Using an AFO stiffness tester, two AFO hinges and their accompanying springs were measured. The springs showed a stiffness range of 0.01-1.82 N · m · deg(-1). The moment-threshold increased with increasing stiffness (1.13-12.1 N · m), while ROM decreased (4.91-16.5°). Energy was returned by all springs (11.5-116.3 J). These results suggest that the two stiffest available springs should improve joint kinematics and enhance push-off in children with SCP walking with excessive knee flexion.
Fournier Belley, Amélie; Bouffard, Jason; Brochu, Karine; Mercier, Catherine; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Bouyer, Laurent
Proprioception is important for proper motor control. As the central nervous system modulates how sensory information is processed during movement (sensory gating), proprioceptive tests performed at rest do not correlate well with performance during dynamic tasks such as walking. Proprioception therefore needs to be assessed during movement execution. 1) To develop a test evaluating the ability to detect movement errors during walking, and its test-retest reliability; 2) to quantify the relationship between proprioceptive threshold (obtained with this new test) and performance in a standardized dynamic balance task. Thirty healthy subjects walked on a treadmill while wearing a robotized ankle-foot orthosis (rAFO) for 2 bouts of 6min on 2 evaluation sessions (test-retest reliability). Force perturbations resisting ankle dorsiflexion during swing were applied to the ankle via the rAFO (150ms duration, variable amplitude). Participants pushed a button when they detected the perturbations. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to evaluate dynamic balance. Angular differences between perturbed and non-perturbed gait cycles were used to quantify movement error. Detection threshold was defined as the minimal movement error at which 50% of the perturbations were perceived. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) estimated test-retest reliability, and Pearson coefficients were used to determine the correlation between detection threshold and SEBT. Detection threshold was 5.31±2.12°. Good reliability (ICC=0.70) and a moderate to strong correlation to SEBT (r=-0.57 to -0.76) were found. Force perturbations produced by the robotized AFO provides a reliable way of evaluating proprioception during walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Choi, Hwan; Wren, Tishya Anne Leong; Steele, Katherine Muterspaugh
Many individuals with cerebral palsy wear ankle foot orthoses during daily life. Orthoses influence joint motion, but how they impact muscle remains unclear. In particular, the gastrocnemius is commonly stiff in cerebral palsy. Understanding whether orthoses stretch or shorten this muscle during daily life may inform orthosis design and rehabilitation. This study investigated the impact of different ankle foot orthoses on gastrocnemius operating length during walking in children with cerebral palsy. Case series, within subject comparison of gastrocnemius operating length while walking barefoot and with two types of ankle foot orthoses. We performed gait analyses for 11 children with cerebral palsy. Each child was fit with two types of orthoses: a dynamic ankle foot orthosis (Cascade dynamic ankle foot orthosis) and an adjustable dynamic response ankle foot orthosis (Ultraflex ankle foot orthosis). Musculoskeletal modeling was used to quantify gastrocnemius musculotendon operating length and velocity with each orthosis. Walking with ankle foot orthoses could stretch the gastrocnemius more than barefoot walking for some individuals; however, there was significant variability between participants and orthoses. At least one type of orthosis stretched the gastrocnemius during walking for 4/6 and 3/5 of the Gross Motor Functional Classification System Level I and III participants, respectively. AFOs also reduced peak gastrocnemius lengthening velocity compared to barefoot walking for some participants, with greater reductions among the Gross Motor Functional Classification System Level III participants. Changes in gastrocnemius operating length and lengthening velocity were related to changes in ankle and knee kinematics during gait. Ankle foot orthoses impact gastrocnemius operating length during walking and, with proper design, may assist with stretching tight muscles in daily life. Clinical relevance Determining whether ankle foot orthoses stretch tight muscles can
NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; BUCKLIN, MARY; ORDWAY, NATHANIEL; LEMLEY, FREDERICK
STUDY DESIGN Controlled laboratory, repeated measures. BACKGROUND Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common musculoskeletal problem that includes tendon degeneration and collapse of the medial arch of the foot (flatfoot deformity). Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) typically are used to correct flatfoot deformity. Correction of flatfoot deformity involves increasing forefoot adduction, forefoot plantar flexion, and hindfoot inversion. OBJECTIVES To test whether a foot orthosis with a lateral extension reduces forefoot abduction in patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction while walking. METHODS The gait of 15 participants with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was evaluated under 3 conditions: a standard AFO, an AFO with a lateral extension, and a shoe-only control condition. Kinematic variables of interest were evaluated at designated time points in the gait cycle and included hindfoot inversion/eversion, forefoot plantar flexion/dorsiflexion, and forefoot abduction/adduction. A 3-by-4, repeated-measures analysis of variance (brace condition by gait phase) was used to compare variables across conditions. RESULTS The AFO with a lateral extension resulted in a significantly greater change in forefoot adduction compared to the standard AFO (2.6°, P = .02) and shoe-only conditions (4.1°, P<.01) across all phases of stance. Forefoot plantar flexion was significantly increased when comparing the standard AFO and AFO with a lateral extension to the shoe-only condition. The AFO with the lateral extension also demonstrated significantly increased hindfoot inversion during the loading response and terminal stance phases. CONCLUSION Off-the-shelf and standard AFOs have been shown to improve forefoot plantar flexion and hindfoot eversion, but not forefoot adduction. A lateral extension added to a standard AFO along the forefoot significantly improved forefoot adduction in participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction while walking. PMID
Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven
Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Danino, Barry; Erel, Snir; Kfir, Meital; Khamis, Sam; Batt, Reuven; Hemo, Yoram; Wientroub, Shlomo; Hayek, Shlomo
Neuromuscular impairments may compromise gait function in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). As such, ambulatory children with CP often use ankle foot orthosis (AFO) to facilitate and optimize their ability to walk.The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the different gait indices, the Gillette Gait Index (GGI), the Gait Deviation Index (GDI), and the Gait Profile Score (GPS), reflect the improved gait that was previously shown using AFO. A retrospective analysis of 53 studies on children with spastic diplegic CP. All had undergone a comprehensive gait study and were analyzed while walking, both barefoot and with their braces, in the same session.Kinematic and temporal spatial data were determined and summarized by 3 methods: GPS, GDI, and GGI. Significant differences were found between the barefoot condition and the AFO conditions for temporal and kinematic parameters: changes in GGI, GDI, and GPS were not statistically significant, with an improvement of 9.33% in GGI (P=0.448) and no change in GDI and GPS. The use of AFO in diplegic CP children caused a statistically significant improvement in temporal and kinematic parameters. Interestingly, it was found that this improvement was not reflected by GGI, GDI, or GPS.These findings might suggest that gait indices, as outcome measures, may sometimes not reflect all the effects of specific interventions. Level III-retrospective study.
Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Pu, Fang; Yang, Yang; Wang, Lizhen; Liu, Hong; Fan, Yubo
A novel splint, the assisting ankle-foot orthoses (AFO), was developed to provide adjustable sustained stretching to improve conservative treatment for equinus deformities in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The treatment effect was validated by follow-up visits. This study involved subjects between 2 and 12 years old, including 28 CP children treated with splint-assisted AFO correction, 30 CP children treated with static AFO correction, and 30 normal children with typical development (TD). Quantitative pedobarographic measurements were taken to evaluate the effect of splint-assisted AFO correction. The heel/forefoot ratio was introduced to indicate the degree of the equinus deformity during treatment. The results showed that the heel/forefoot ratios were 1.41 ± 0.26 for the TD children; 0.65 ± 0.41, 1.02 ± 0.44, and 1.24 ± 0.51 for the splint-assisted AFO correction before and after 6-month and 12-month treatments; 0.59 ± 0.37, 0.67 ± 0.44, and 0.66 ± 0.42 for the static AFO correction before and after 6-month and 12-month treatments. This study suggests that correction with the adjustable splint-assisted AFO is an effective treatment for equinus deformity in CP Children.
Moltedo, Marta; Bacek, Tomislav; Langlois, Kevin; Junius, Karen; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk
The human ankle joint plays a crucial role during walking. At the push-off phase the ankle plantarflexors generate the highest torque among the lower limb joints during this activity. The potential of the ankle plantarflexors is affected by numerous pathologies and injuries, which cause a decrease in the ability of the subject to achieve a natural gait pattern. Active orthoses have shown to have potential in assisting these subjects. The design of such robots is very challenging due to the contrasting design requirements of wearability (light weight and compact) and high torques capacity. This paper presents the development of a high-torque ankle actuator to assist the ankle joint in both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The compliant actuator is a spindle-driven MACCEPA (Mechanically Adjustable Compliance and Controllable Equilibrium Position Actuator). The design of the actuator was made to keep its weight as low as possible, while being able to provide high torques. As a result of this novel design, the actuator weighs 1.18kg. Some static characterization tests were perfomed on the actuator and their results are shown in the paper.
Burer, B.; Houdijk, H.; Lamoth, C.; De Boer, K.; Van Den Bogaard, S.
Background: During the swing phase of the gait of HD patients, some patients show an irregular, uncoordinated movement of the foot, or the foot can not be held in dorsal flexion. These symptoms affect the manner of walking and therefore an individual's ability to participate in daily living. In
Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma
Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...
Fatone, Stefania; Johnson, William Brett; Tucker, Kerice
Misalignment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis joint axis with the anatomic joint axis may lead to discomfort, alterations in gait, and tissue damage. Theoretical, two-dimensional models describe the consequences of misalignments, but cannot capture the three-dimensional behavior of ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this project was to develop a model to describe the effects of ankle-foot orthosis ankle joint misalignment in three dimensions. Computational simulation. Three-dimensional scans of a leg and ankle-foot orthosis were incorporated into a link segment model where the ankle-foot orthosis joint axis could be misaligned with the anatomic ankle joint axis. The leg/ankle-foot orthosis interface was modeled as a network of nodes connected by springs to estimate interface pressure. Motion between the leg and ankle-foot orthosis was calculated as the ankle joint moved through a gait cycle. While the three-dimensional model corroborated predictions of the previously published two-dimensional model that misalignments in the anterior -posterior direction would result in greater relative motion compared to misalignments in the proximal -distal direction, it provided greater insight showing that misalignments have asymmetrical effects. The three-dimensional model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist others in understanding the consequences of joint misalignments. Models and simulations can be used to gain insight into functioning of systems of interest. We have developed a three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses. The model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist understanding of trainees and others interested in orthotics. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Kerkum, Y.L.; Buizer, A.I.; van den Noort, J.C.; Becher, J.G.; Harlaar, J.; Brehm, M.A.
Introduction: Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off
Kerkum, Yvette L.; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; Brehm, Merel-Anne
Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off power. A
Full Text Available The paper presents design and manufacturing process of an individualized ankle orthosis using additive manufacturing technologies and reverse engineering. Conventional processes of manufacturing of orthosesareexpensive and time consuming -an alternative method was proposed. The patient’s leg was 3D scanned and the orthosis was designed using a CAD system. It was then manufactured using the Fused Deposition Modelling technology, assembled and fully tested. Positive results were obtained.
... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...
Brehm, M.A.; Harlaar, J.; Schwartz, M.
Objective: To determine the effect of ankle-foot orthoses on walking efficiency and gait in a heterogeneous group of children with cerebral palsy, using barefoot walking as the control condition. Design: A retrospective study. Methods: Barefoot and ankle-foot orthosis data for 172 children with
Brehm, Merel-Anne; Harlaar, Jaap; Schwartz, Michael
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of ankle-foot orthoses on walking efficiency and gait in a heterogeneous group of children with cerebral palsy, using barefoot walking as the control condition. DESIGN: A retrospective study. METHODS: Barefoot and ankle-foot orthosis data for 172 children with
... Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Page Content Achilles tendon - The Achilles tendon ... research grants, humanitarian outreach and public education initiatives. Ankle instability - Chronic, repetitive sprains of the ankle. This ...
... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... Ankle Tennis involves much foot work. Foot and ankle injuries can occur from the continuous side-to-side ...
Yvette L Kerkum
Full Text Available Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP. While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off power. A spring-like AFO may enhance push-off power, which may come at the cost of reducing the knee flexion less effectively. Optimizing this trade-off between enhancing push-off power and normalizing knee flexion in stance is expected to maximize gait efficiency. This study investigated the effects of varying AFO stiffness on gait biomechanics and efficiency in children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion in stance. Fifteen children with spastic CP (11 boys, 10±2 years were prescribed with a ventral shell spring-hinged AFO (vAFO. The hinge was set into a rigid, or spring-like setting, using both a stiff and flexible performance. At baseline (i.e. shoes-only and for each vAFO, a 3D-gait analysis and 6-minute walk test with breath-gas analysis were performed at comfortable speed. Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated. From the 6-minute walk test, walking speed and the net energy cost were determined. A generalized estimation equation (p<0.05 was used to analyze the effects of different conditions. Compared to shoes-only, all vAFOs improved the knee angle and net moment similarly. Ankle power generation and work were preserved only by the spring-like vAFOs. All vAFOs decreased the net energy cost compared to shoes-only, but no differences were found between vAFOs, showing that the effects of spring-like vAFOs to promote push-off power did not lead to greater reductions in walking energy cost. These findings suggest that, in this specific group of children with spastic CP, the vAFO stiffness that maximizes gait efficiency is primarily determined by its effect on knee kinematics and kinetics rather than by its effect on push-off power
Kerkum, Yvette L; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; Brehm, Merel-Anne
Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off power. A spring-like AFO may enhance push-off power, which may come at the cost of reducing the knee flexion less effectively. Optimizing this trade-off between enhancing push-off power and normalizing knee flexion in stance is expected to maximize gait efficiency. This study investigated the effects of varying AFO stiffness on gait biomechanics and efficiency in children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion in stance. Fifteen children with spastic CP (11 boys, 10±2 years) were prescribed with a ventral shell spring-hinged AFO (vAFO). The hinge was set into a rigid, or spring-like setting, using both a stiff and flexible performance. At baseline (i.e. shoes-only) and for each vAFO, a 3D-gait analysis and 6-minute walk test with breath-gas analysis were performed at comfortable speed. Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated. From the 6-minute walk test, walking speed and the net energy cost were determined. A generalized estimation equation (pchildren with spastic CP, the vAFO stiffness that maximizes gait efficiency is primarily determined by its effect on knee kinematics and kinetics rather than by its effect on push-off power. Dutch Trial Register NTR3418.
Weber, Nicholas J; McPoil, Thomas G
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by joint pain, stiffness, and functional disability. Approximately 90% of patients will report symptoms in the foot or ankle during the course of their disease. A case of a 40-year-old woman with a 12-year history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to outpatient physical therapy with a chief complaint of pain in the lateral rearfoot and forefoot is presented. At the time of the initial examination, the patient reported persistent pain ranging from 3 to 9/10, aggravated when standing and walking during activities of daily living. Treatment consisted of the fabrication of a supramalleolar orthosis that incorporated an in-shoe foot orthosis to address functional limitations and abnormal foot and ankle posture. A home exercise program was prescribed to address potential balance deficits and strength loss following the application of the orthosis. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, gait speed, and on the Foot Function Index following the implementation of the orthotic device. The patient returned to standing and walking with minimal symptom limitations. This case report highlights the short-term clinical outcomes when using a supramalleolar orthosis in conjunction with an in-shoe foot orthosis to manage lateral rearfoot and forefoot pain in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven
One intervention often used to address physical impairments post stroke is an ankle-foot orthosis. Ankle-foot orthoses may improve walking speed, stride length, and gait pattern. However, effects on balance, crucial for safe ambulation, are thus far inconclusive. One aspect of balance shown to contribute to functional ability is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy, defined as the belief in one's ability to succeed in particular situations, has been shown to be more strongly associated with activity and participation (as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health) than physical performance measures of gait or balance. We investigated whether self-efficacy, or balance confidence when referred to in the context of balance capabilities, is improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. Repeated measures study design. Balance confidence was measured using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale in 15 persons with chronic poststroke hemiplegia, with and without their regular ankle-foot orthosis. Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale scores were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) for the ankle-foot orthosis condition compared to no ankle-foot orthosis. One mechanism by which ankle-foot orthosis use may influence balance is improved balance confidence. Future work should explore the specific mechanisms underlying this improvement in self-efficacy. Clinical relevance Self-efficacy may be an important factor to consider when evaluating functioning post stroke. Rehabilitative interventions that improve balance confidence may help restore participation and overall functioning in pathological populations, particularly in the fall-prone poststroke population. Study results provide evidence for improvements in balance confidence with ankle-foot orthosis use.
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Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L
A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.
Changes in joint kinematics in children with cerebral palsy while walking with and without a floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis Mudanças na cinemática articular em crianças com paralisia cerebral durante o andar com e sem órteses de reação ao solo
Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis is commonly prescribed in the attempt to decrease knee flexion during the stance phase in the cerebral palsy (CP gait. Reported information about this type of orthosis is insufficient. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of clinically prescribed floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis on kinematic parameters of the hip, knee and ankle in the stance phase of the gait cycle, compared to barefoot walking on children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 2200 patients revealed that 71 patients (142 limbs had a diagnosis of diplegia, with no contractures in hip, knee or ankle flexion. Their average age was 12.2 ± 3.9. All of them were wearing clinically prescribed hinged floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis undergoing a three dimensional gait analysis. We divided the patients in three groups: Group I, with limited extension (maximum knee extension less than 15º; Group II, with moderate limited extension (maximum knee extension between 15º and 30º and Group III Crouch (maximum knee extension in stance more than 30º. RESULTS: Results indicate the parameters maximum knee extension and ankle dorsiflexion were significant in Group II e III; no change was observed in Group I. The maximum hip extension was not significant in all three groups. Conclusion: when indicated to improve the extension of the knees and ankle in the stance of the CP patients floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis was effective.INTRODUÇÃO: A órtese de reação ao solo é freqüentemente prescrita com o objetivo de reduzir a flexão do joelho durante a fase de apoio na marcha de pacientes com paralisia cerebral. Não há informações suficientes relatadas na literature sobre este tipo de órteses. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito que a órtese de reação ao solo tem na cinamática angular das articulações do quadril, joelho e tornozelo durante a fase de
Danino, Barry; Erel, Snir; Kfir, Meital; Khamis, Sam; Batt, Reuven; Hemo, Yoram; Wientroub, Shlomo; Hayek, Shlomo
We retrospectively assessed the effect of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on the foot progression angle (FPA) of 97 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who had undergone comprehensive computer-based gait analysis both barefoot and with their orthosis, during the same session. The physical examination results and the gait study temporal and kinematic parameters comprise the study data. We focused on the peak FPA reached during stance and swing phases and at mid-stance and mid-swing, and also measured the transverse rotations of the pelvis, the femur and the tibia. AFOs improved gait, as reflected by improved temporal parameters, but they also increased internal rotation of the feet in diplegic CP children by 4.29 degrees for mid-stance, and by 3.72 degrees for mid-swing. The correlation between components of the rotational profile and FPA was significant for the diplegic group. AFOs did not produce any noteworthy differences between walking barefoot and walking with the brace in the hemiplegic group in what concerns FPA. Children with diplegic CP who use AFOs walk with increased internal FPAs in their orthoses. These findings might be explained by anatomical attributes as well as dynamic features during gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chan, Victoria O
Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.
Saeedi, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Majddoleslam, Basir; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad; Movahedi Yeganeh, Mohsen
Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking. The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance. The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.
Sukumar, Chand; Ramachandran, K. I.
Leg amputation is a major consequence of aggregated foot ulceration in diabetic patients. A common sense based treatment approach for diabetic foot ulceration is foot offloading where the patient is required to wear a foot offloading orthosis during the entire treatment course. Removable walker is an excellent foot offloading modality compared to the golden standard solution - total contact cast and felt padding. Commercially available foot offloaders are generally customized with huge cost and less patient compliance. This work suggests an optimized 3D model of a new type light weight removable foot offloading orthosis for diabetic patients. The device has simple adjustable features which make this suitable for wide range of patients with weight of 35 to 74 kg and height of 137 to 180 cm. Foot plate of this orthosis is unisexual, with a size adjustability of (US size) 6 to 10. Materials like Aluminum alloy 6061-T6, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polyurethane acted as the key player in reducing weight of the device to 0.804 kg. Static analysis of this device indicated that maximum stress developed in this device under a load of 1000 N is only 37.8 MPa, with a small deflection of 0.150 cm and factor of safety of 3.28, keeping the safety limits, whereas dynamic analysis results assures the load bearing capacity of this device. Thus, the proposed device can be safely used as an orthosis for offloading diabetic ulcerated foot.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of permanent, non-progressive motor disorders of movement and posture. Ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) are frequently prescribed to correct skeletal misalignments in spastic CP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the three side support ankle–foot orthosis on ...
Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B
Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.
Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training.
Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming
Custom-molded foot orthoses are frequently prescribed in routine clinical practice to prevent or treat plantar ulcers in diabetes by reducing the peak plantar pressure. However, the design and fabrication of foot orthosis vary among clinical practitioners and manufacturers. Moreover, little information about the parametric effect of different combinations of design factors is available. As an alternative to the experimental approach, therefore, computational models of the foot and footwear can provide efficient evaluations of different combinations of structural and material design factors on plantar pressure distribution. In this study, a combined finite element and Taguchi method was used to identify the sensitivity of five design factors (arch type, insole and midsole thickness, insole and midsole stiffness) of foot orthosis on peak plantar pressure relief. From the FE predictions, the custom-molded shape was found to be the most important design factor in reducing peak plantar pressure. Besides the use of an arch-conforming foot orthosis, the insole stiffness was found to be the second most important factor for peak pressure reduction. Other design factors, such as insole thickness, midsole stiffness and midsole thickness, contributed to less important roles in peak pressure reduction in the given order. The statistics-based FE method was found to be an effective approach in evaluating and optimizing the design of foot orthosis.
Ayad Murad Takhakh, Hassanein Salih Hussain
This study includes two main parts: The first part includes the process of manufacturing and testing partial foot orthosis for a patient suffering from partial foot amputation. The orthosis was manufactured from lamination Perlon-Carbon-Perlon(4-2-4) and then tested with Force plate and F-Socket. The patientwas tested in two cases: the first without wearing the orthosis and the second after wearing the orthosis. The results of gait cycle testshow that the gait cycle of the patient was improve...
Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.
Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates
Shankman, S; Cisa, J; Present, D
Although tumor and tumor-like conditions of the foot and ankle are unusual, certain bone and soft tissue lesions are more common than others. Conventional radiographs remain essential in all such cases and are especially specific for intraosseous tumors. MR imaging is more sensitive to the presence and extent of both bone and soft tissue lesions.
Yadagiri Surender Rao
Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.
Almonroeder, Thomas G; Benson, Lauren C; O'Connor, Kristian M
Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. Background Orthotic prescription is often based on the premise that the mechanical effects will be more prominent in individuals with greater calcaneal eversion. Objective To compare the effects of a prefabricated foot orthosis on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between recreational athletes with high and low calcaneal eversion during running. Methods Thirty-one recreational athletes were included in this study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected while running with and without a foot orthosis. Participants were grouped based on the degree of calcaneal eversion during the running trials relative to a standing trial (dynamic foot motion). The effects of the orthosis on the frontal and transverse plane angles and moments of the hip and knee were compared between the 10 participants with the greatest and least amount of dynamic foot motion. Results There were no significant interactions (group by orthotic condition) for any of the kinematic or kinetic variables of interest. Conclusion The effects of an orthosis on the mechanics of the hip and knee do not appear to be dependent on an individual's dynamic foot motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):749-755. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6253.
Legacy, Kelly Bromley
In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…
Mascard, E.; Gaspar, N.; Brugières, L.; Glorion, C.; Pannier, S.; Gomez-Brouchet, A.
Most of tumours of the foot are tumour-like (synovial cyst, foreign body reactions and epidermal inclusion cyst) or benign conditions (tenosynovial giant cells tumours, planta fibromatosis). Malignant tumours of the soft-tissue and skeleton are very rare in the foot and their diagnosis is often delayed with referral to specialised teams after initial inappropriate procedures or unplanned excisions. The adverse effect of these misdiagnosed tumours is the increasing rate of amputation or local recurrences in the involved patients. In every lump, imaging should be discussed before any local treatment. Every lesion which is not an obvious synovial cyst or plantar fibromatosis should have a biopsy performed. After the age of 40 years, chondrosarcoma is the most usual malignant tumour of the foot. In young patients bone tumours such as osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma, are very unusually located in the foot. Synovial sarcoma is the most frequent histological diagnosis in soft tissues. Epithelioid sarcoma or clear cell sarcoma, involve more frequently the foot and ankle than other sites. The classic local treatment of malignant conditions of the foot and ankle was below-knee amputation at different levels. Nowadays, with the development of adjuvant therapies, some patients may benefit from conservative surgery or partial amputation after multidisciplinary team discussions. The prognosis of foot malignancy is not different from that at other locations, except perhaps in chondrosarcoma, which seems to be less aggressive in the foot. The anatomy of the foot is very complex with many bony and soft tissue structures in a relatively small space making large resections and conservative treatments difficult to achieve. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160078. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630763
Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.
Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.
Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Saeedi, Hassan; Kamali, Mohammad; Farahmand, Behshid; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Dolagh, Roghaye S
Flat foot in children is a common deformity in which the medial longitudinal arch is reduced or eliminated. The objective of this article was to compare flat foot and healthy children on the displacement of the center of pressure and walking parameters in children with two common orthoses (functional foot orthosis and medical shoe). Comparative study. This study included 30 children with flat foot and 20 healthy children as a control group. The step length and width, walking velocity, symmetry, and center of pressure (CoP) displacements were recorded and compared for three conditions: functional foot orthosis and regular shoe, a medical shoe and barefoot. The results from the CoP displacements showed that the regular shoe with functional foot orthosis caused a significant decrease in the level of displacement of the CoP in flat foot children. The findings indicated a significant improvement in symmetry of steps and walking speed with the functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoe in flat foot children. The CoP displacement was decreased and the percentage of gait symmetry and walking speed were increased by the use of regular shoes with a functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoes. An orthopaedic shoe can be expensive, and in particular heavy with most children reluctant to wear it. This study focussed on the CoP displacement and selected gait parameters with an orthopaedic shoe and functional foot orthosis, and showed that a combined prescription of a functional foot orthosis and with regular shoes may be a useful alternative for children with moderate flat foot. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.
Wilk, van der Dymphy; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Hijmans, Juha Markus
Background: People with floppy ankle muscles paresis use ankle foot orthoses to improve their walking ability. Ankle foot orthoses also limit ankle range of motion thereby introducing additional problems. Insight in effects of ankle foot orthoses on body functions and activities in people with
Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)
Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)
Goldstein, Christina L; Schemitsch, Emil; Bhandari, Mohit; Mathew, George; Petrisor, Brad A
Identifying optimal treatment strategies in patients with traumatic foot and ankle injuries has been hampered by the use of multiple available outcome measures with unproven reliability and validity. This prospective observational study aimed to measure the correlation between six functional outcome measures in patients with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. Patients 18 years of age or older with a traumatic foot or ankle injury completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12), Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA), Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS), Foot and Ankle Questionnaire and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale at a single followup visit. Raw scores for each of the outcome measures were calculated. Fifty-two patients were enrolled in our study. Pearson correlation coefficients provided measures of correlation. Moderate to strong correlations were found for most pairwise comparisons of raw scores and functional categorical rankings (ρ=|0.5243 to 0.92|, p Foot and Ankle Questionnaire. High correlations between scores on six commonly used functional outcome instruments suggest it is likely unnecessary to use more than one instrument when examining functional outcome in patients with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. However, inconsistencies between measures in the same patient population suggest a need for further validation and scrutiny.
Rougier, Patrice; Genthon, Nicolas; Gallois-Montbrun, Thibault; Brugiere, Steve; Bouvat, Eric
To highlight the capacity of one- and two-legged standing protocols when assessing postural behavior induced by a rigid ankle orthosis, 14 healthy individuals stood upright barefoot and wore either an elastic stocking on the preferred leg or a rigid orthosis with or without additional taping in one- or two-legged (TL) conditions. Traditional…
Lv, Ge; Gregg, Robert D
Body-weight support (i.e., gravity compensation) is an effective clinical tool for gait rehabilitation after neurological impairment. Body-weight supported training systems have been developed to help patients regain mobility and confidence during walking, but conventional systems constrain the patient's treatment in clinical environments. We propose that this challenge could be addressed by virtually providing patients with bodyweight support through the actuators of a powered orthosis (or exoskeleton) utilizing potential energy shaping control. However, the changing contact conditions and degrees of underactuation encountered during human walking present significant challenges to consistently matching a desired potential energy for the human in closed loop. We therefore derive a generalized matching condition for shaping Lagrangian systems with holonomic contact constraints. By satisfying this matching condition for four phases of gait, we derive passivity-based control laws to achieve virtual body-weight support through a powered knee-ankle orthosis. We demonstrate beneficial effects of virtual body-weight support in simulations of a human-like biped model, indicating the potential clinical value of this proposed control approach.
Schmalz, Thomas; Blumentritt, Siegmar; Drewitz, Heiko; Freslier, Marie
In earlier stages of knee osteoarthritis orthotic treatments with knee orthoses or modified footwear are often considered. Although the load reducing effects of knee orthoses have been well established, wearing modified footwear would be more comfortable for the patient and less encumbering. The effect of modified footwear on the frontal load of the knee is controversial. This article describes the effect of medial or lateral shoe wedges alone or together with two different types of ankle-stabilizing orthoses. The effect on frontal knee loading was measured during standing and walking with medially and laterally placed wedges under the sole of the shoe. The wedges were also combined with two types of orthotic devices - an Ankle-Foot-Orthosis that was rigid in the frontal plane but allowed unrestricted sagittal plane motion and an ankle support that was semi-rigid in the frontal plane. Joint loading of 10 healthy persons (mean (standard deviation): age 34 (9) years, height 178 (4)cm, mass 73 (9)kg) was investigated by means of a special measuring device that accurately determines static loads (Lasar Posture) and with instrumented gait analysis (Vicon/Kistler). Using a lateral wedge under the sole of the shoe (without orthotic support) showed no significant reduction in the mean maximal knee moment in the frontal plane. Adding an Ankle-Foot-Orthosis that is rigid in the frontal plane resulted in significant reduction in the maximal frontal moment from 0.54 Nm/kg to 0.38Nm/kg (p0.01). Using a medial wedge, without and with Ankle-Foot-Orthosis, produced a significant increase in the maximal frontal moment to 0.59 Nm/kg (p0.05) or 0.67 Nm/kg (p0.01), respectively. These results suggest that the application of a sole wedge significantly influences frontal knee loading when used in combination with an Ankle-Foot-Orthosis that is rigid in the frontal plane.
Seo, Kyo Chul; Park, Kwang Yong
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects' step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject's step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis.
Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit
Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of gaps in the evidence base for the use of ankle-foot orthoses for stroke patients. Three dimensional motion analysis offers an ideal method for objectively obtaining biomechanical gait data from stroke patients, however there are a number of major barriers to its use in routine clinical practice. One significant problem is the way in which the biomechanical data generated by these systems is presented. Through the careful design of bespoke biomechanical visualisation software it may be possible to present such data in novel ways to improve clinical decision making, track progress and increase patient understanding in the context of ankle-foot orthosis tuning. Methods A single-blind randomised controlled trial will be used to compare the use of biomechanical visualisation software in ankle-foot orthosis tuning against standard care (tuning using observation alone. Participants (n = 70 will have experienced a recent hemiplegia (1-12 months and will be identified by their care team as being suitable candidates for a rigid ankle-foot orthosis. The primary outcome measure will be walking velocity. Secondary outcome measures include; lower limb joint kinematics (thigh and shank global orientations & kinetics (knee and hip flexion/extension moments, ground reaction force FZ2 peak magnitude, step length, symmetry ratio based on step length, Modified Ashworth Scale, Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and EuroQol (EQ-5D. Additional qualitative measures will also be taken from participants (patients and clinicians at the beginning and end of their participation in the study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether or not the visualisation of biomechanical data can be used to improve the outcomes of tuning ankle-foot orthoses for stroke patients. Discussion In addition to answering the primary research question the broad range of measures that will be taken during this study are likely to contribute to a
Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta
There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation ( p = .001), paretic limb health ( p = .04), sounds ( p = .02), and well-being ( p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis devices. The C-Brace offers new functions including controlled
Hunt, Kenneth J; Lakey, Eric
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are a measure of health care quality that empower patients to share their health care perceptions with their providers. In orthopedic foot and ankle surgery, these measures can range from global assessments of pain or satisfaction to complex questionnaires designed to assess the function of specific anatomic regions or the recovery from specific procedures. This article seeks to characterize the use of PROs in foot and ankle surgery, describe some of the most commonly used measures, discuss implementation in everyday clinical practice, and explore the future of PROs in foot and ankle orthopedics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Lee, Doo Jae; Bae, Kee Jeong; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Dong Yeon
Total ankle replacement (TAR) and ankle arthrodesis (AA) are usually performed for severe ankle arthritis. We compared postoperative foot segmental motion during gait in patients treated with TAR and AA. Gait analysis was performed in 17 and 7 patients undergoing TAR and AA, respectively. Subjects were evaluated using a 3-dimensional multisegmental foot model with 15 markers. Temporal gait parameters were calculated. The maximum and minimum values and the differences in hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, and arch in 3 planes (sagittal, coronal, transverse) were compared between the 2 groups. One hundred healthy adults were evaluated as a control. Gait speed was faster in the TAR ( P = .028). On analysis of foot and ankle segmental motion, the range of hindfoot sagittal motion was significantly greater in the TAR (15.1 vs 10.2 degrees in AA; P = .004). The main component of motion increase was hindfoot dorsiflexion (12.3 and 8.6 degrees). The range of forefoot sagittal motion was greater in the TAR (9.3 vs 5.8 degrees in AA; P = .004). Maximum ankle power in the TAR (1.16) was significantly higher than 0.32 in AA; P = .008). However, the range of hindfoot and forefoot sagittal motion was decreased in both TAR and AA compared with the control group ( P = .000). Although biomechanical results of TAR and AA were not similar to those in the normal controls, joint motions in the TAR more closely matched normal values. Treatment decision making should involve considerations of the effect of surgery on the adjacent joints. Level III, case-control study.
Trnka, H J; Ivanic, G; Trattnig, S
Arthrography is the intra-articular injection of contrast media. This article reviews the normal and pathologic findings of standard arthrography and MR imaging arthrography of the ankle and subtalar joint. Standard arthrography is used primarily after acute ankle sprains, whereas MR imaging arthrography is used for staging and detecting osteochondritis dissecans of the talus, anterolateral soft tissue impingement, and chronic lateral ankle instability.
Pr?bsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta
Background: There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Study design: Survey of lower limb orthosis user...
Farzadi, Maede; Safaeepour, Zahra; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Saeedi, Hassan
Higher plantar pressures at the medial forefoot are reported in hallux valgus. Foot orthoses with medial arch support are considered as an intervention in this pathology. However, little is known about the effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus. To investigate the effect of a foot orthosis with medial arch support on pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus. Quasi-experimental. Sixteen female volunteers with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus participated in this study and used a medial arch support foot orthosis for 4 weeks. Plantar pressure for each participant was assessed using the Pedar-X(®) in-shoe system in four conditions including shoe-only and foot orthosis before and after the intervention. The use of the foot orthosis for 1 month led to a decrease in peak pressure and maximum force under the hallux, first metatarsal, and metatarsals 3-5 (p hallux and the first metatarsal head by transferring the load to the other regions. It would appear that this type of foot orthosis can be an effective method of intervention in this pathology. Findings of this study will improve the clinical knowledge about the effect of the medial arch support foot orthosis used on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus pathology. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
O'Reilly, Tara; Hunt, Adrienne; Thomas, Bronwyn; Harris, Lynne; Burns, Joshua
To compare the effects of a leaf spring ankle-foot orthosis (LAFO) and a hinged AFO with plantar flexion stop with that of shoe only on weight-bearing and function in children with hemiplegia. The study used an experimental single-subject alternating treatment design with replication. Outcomes measured were weight-bearing symmetry, weight-bearing on the hemiplegic rear foot compared with that of the forefoot, functional ability, and child and parent preference. Both AFOs increased relative contact area of the hemiplegic foot. The LAFO increased relative force through the hemiplegic foot. There was increased pressure through the rear foot, time spent on the rear foot, and force through the forefoot. Rear foot contact area increased in the LAFO. Neither AFO affected function. Patient preference for AFO condition was inconsistent. Both AFOs increased weight-bearing through the hemiplegic foot and rear foot, indicative of potential benefit to growth. Neither the LAFO nor the hinged AFO with plantar flexion stop improved function of the children.
Full Text Available Objectives: To document the prevalence and spectrum of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS findings at different parts of the foot. Materials and Methods: All MSKUS studies conducted on the foot during a 2-year period (2012-2013 at the Department of Radiology were reviewed. Demographic parameters including age, gender, and MSKUS findings were documented. Results: Three hundred and sixty-four studies had been conducted in the 2-year period. Ninety-three MSKUS evaluations were done for the ankle, 30 studies for the heel, and 241 for the rest of the foot. The most common MSKUS finding at the ankle was tenosynovitis, mostly in female patients; at the heel it was Achilles tendonitis, also mostly in female patients; and for the rest of the foot it was fluid collection and presence of foreign body, mainly in male patients. The number of different MSKUS abnormalities that were reported was 9 at the ankle, 9 at the heel, and 21 on the rest of the foot. Conclusions: MSKUS has the potential for revealing a huge spectrum of abnormalities. The most common finding was collection/hematoma and foreign bodies at the foot, tenosynovitis at the ankle, and Achilles tendinitis at the heel.
Chauvin, Nancy A; Jaimes, Camilo; Khwaja, Asef
Injuries to the ankle and foot are common in the young athlete, especially with increasing participation and high levels of competitiveness in youth sports programs. Knowledge of the normal development of the foot and ankle is crucial to understand age-specific injury patterns because acute or chronic/repetitive stress to the developing skeleton results in injuries that differ from those seen in adults. Congenital abnormalities may also predispose children to increased risk of injury and pain. Radiologists must be aware of these distinctions to diagnose and classify injuries correctly for optimum treatment. We describe common and unique foot and ankle injuries in the young athlete. Throughout the article we focus not only on imaging findings but also on the mechanism of injury. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Hottya, G.A.; Peterfy, C.G.; Uffmann, M.; Haeckl, F.O.; LeHir, P.; Redei, J.; Gindele, A.U.; Dion, E.; Genant, H.K.
The purpose of this review is to provide illustrative examples of diseases of the foot and ankle when imaged with a low-field MR imaging system. A retrospective review of 268 foot and ankle examinations, performed in our institution within the past 3 years with a 0.2-T (Artoscan Esaote, Genoa, Italy) dedicated extremity MR system was done. Additionally, illustrative comparison with conventional radiography and high-field MR imaging is presented in patients in whom these examinations were also performed. Although motion artifact limited the value of a few studies, in the majority of examinations low-field MR imaging provided diagnostic image quality for the full spectrum of disorders affecting the foot and ankle and seemed to be a feasible alternative to high-field MR imaging in establishing an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)
Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C; Thompson, Nathan E; Demes, Brigitte
Many aspects of chimpanzee ankle and midfoot joint morphology are believed to reflect adaptations for arboreal locomotion. However, terrestrial travel also constitutes a significant component of chimpanzee locomotion, complicating functional interpretations of chimpanzee and fossil hominin foot morphology. Here we tested hypotheses of foot motion and, in keeping with general assumptions, we predicted that chimpanzees would use greater ankle and midfoot joint ranges of motion during travel on arboreal supports than on the ground. We used a high-speed motion capture system to measure three-dimensional kinematics of the ankle and midfoot joints in two male chimpanzees during three locomotor modes: terrestrial quadrupedalism on a flat runway, arboreal quadrupedalism on a horizontally oriented tree trunk, and climbing on a vertically oriented tree trunk. Chimpanzees used relatively high ankle joint dorsiflexion angles during all three locomotor modes, although dorsiflexion was greatest in arboreal modes. They used higher subtalar joint coronal plane ranges of motion during terrestrial and arboreal quadrupedalism than during climbing, due in part to their use of high eversion angles in the former. Finally, they used high midfoot inversion angles during arboreal locomotor modes, but used similar midfoot sagittal plane kinematics across all locomotor modes. The results indicate that chimpanzees use large ranges of motion at their various ankle and midfoot joints during both terrestrial and arboreal locomotion. Therefore, we argue that chimpanzee foot anatomy enables a versatile locomotor repertoire, and urge caution when using foot joint morphology to reconstruct arboreal behavior in fossil hominins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chien, Bonnie Y; Dixon, Tonya; Guss, Daniel; DiGiovanni, Christopher
There are limited data to guide the use of venous thromboembolism disease (VTED) prophylaxis after foot and ankle surgery. Although there is general consensus that the overall risk is lower than after hip or knee replacement, subpopulations of patients may be at relatively heightened risk. Furthermore, existing data are often conflicting regarding the efficacy of prophylaxis, with little acknowledgment of the tradeoffs between VTED prophylaxis and potential complications associated with the use of such medications. This article provides an overview of currently available evidence to guide decision making regarding VTED prophylaxis in patients who undergo foot and ankle surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lamm, Bradley M; Stasko, Paul A; Gesheff, Martin G; Bhave, Anil
The limb deformity-based principles originate from a standard set of lower extremity radiographic angles and reference points. Objective radiographic measures are the building blocks for surgical planning. Critical preoperative planning and intraoperative and postoperative evaluation of radiographs are essential for proper deformity planning and correction of all foot and ankle cases. A total of 33 angles and reference points were measured on 24 healthy feet. The radiographic measurements were performed on standard weightbearing anteroposterior, lateral, and axial views of the right foot. A total of 4 measurements were made from the axial view, 12 from the lateral view, and 17 from the anteroposterior view. All angles were measured by both senior authors twice, independent of each other. The radiographic angles and measurements presented in the present study demonstrate a comprehensive and useful set of standard angles, measures, and reference points that can be used in clinical and perioperative evaluation of the foot and ankle. The standard radiographic measures presented in the present study provide the foundation for understanding the osseous foot and ankle position in a normal population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roos, E M; Brandsson, S; Karlsson, J
We studied the validity and reliability of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) when used to evaluate the outcome of 213 patients (mean age 40 years, 85 females) who underwent anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments with an average postoperative follow-up of 12 years (range, three to 24 years). The FAOS is a 42-item questionnaire assessing patient-relevant outcomes in five separate subscales (Pain, Other Symptoms, Activities of Daily Living, Sport and Recreation Function, Foot- and Ankle-Related Quality of Life). The FAOS met set criteria of validity and reliability. The FAOS appears to be useful for the evaluation of patient-relevant outcomes related to ankle reconstruction.
van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.
INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a
Groarke, P J
It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.
Ozen, Mustafa; Sayman, Onur; Havitcioglu, Hasan
Total ankle replacement (TAR) is a relatively new concept and is becoming more popular for treatment of ankle arthritis and fractures. Because of the high costs and difficulties of experimental studies, the developments of TAR prostheses are progressing very slowly. For this reason, the medical imaging techniques such as CT, and MR have become more and more useful. The finite element method (FEM) is a widely used technique to estimate the mechanical behaviors of materials and structures in engineering applications. FEM has also been increasingly applied to biomechanical analyses of human bones, tissues and organs, thanks to the development of both the computing capabilities and the medical imaging techniques. 3-D finite element models of the human foot and ankle from reconstruction of MR and CT images have been investigated by some authors. In this study, data of geometries (used in modeling) of a normal and a prosthetic foot and ankle were obtained from a 3D reconstruction of CT images. The segmentation software, MIMICS was used to generate the 3D images of the bony structures, soft tissues and components of prosthesis of normal and prosthetic ankle-foot complex. Except the spaces between the adjacent surface of the phalanges fused, metatarsals, cuneiforms, cuboid, navicular, talus and calcaneus bones, soft tissues and components of prosthesis were independently developed to form foot and ankle complex. SOLIDWORKS program was used to form the boundary surfaces of all model components and then the solid models were obtained from these boundary surfaces. Finite element analyses software, ABAQUS was used to perform the numerical stress analyses of these models for balanced standing position. Plantar pressure and von Mises stress distributions of the normal and prosthetic ankles were compared with each other. There was a peak pressure increase at the 4th metatarsal, first metatarsal and talus bones and a decrease at the intermediate cuneiform and calcaneus bones, in
Cychosz, Chris C.; Phisitkul, Phinit; Barg, Alexej; Nickisch, Florian; van Dijk, C. Niek; Glazebrook, Mark A.
The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on tendoscopy of the foot and ankle and assign an evidence-based grade of recommendation for or against intervention. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed on May 26, 2013, using the PubMed,
Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. Methods/Design Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices. The patient group will include individuals with metarsalgia, flexible flat foot and drop foot. Each participant will undergo a clinical foot function assessment, 3D surface scans of the foot under different loading conditions, and detailed gait analysis including kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity and plantar pressure measurements in both barefoot and shod conditions. Following this each participant will undergo computed tomography (CT imaging of their foot and ankle under a range of loads and positions while plantar pressures are recorded. A further subgroup of participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the foot and ankle. Imaging data will be segmented to derive the geometry of the bones and the orientation of the joint axes. Insertion points of muscles and ligaments will be determined from the MRI and CT-scans and soft tissue material properties computed from the loaded CT data in combination with the plantar pressure measurements. Gait analysis data will be used to drive the models and in combination with the 3D surface scans for scaling purposes. Predicted plantar pressures and muscle activation patterns predicted from the models will be compared to determine the validity of the models. Discussion This protocol will lead to the generation of unique datasets which will be used
Bai, Xuefei; Ewins, David; Crocombe, Andrew D.
Improved walking comfort has been linked with better bio-mimicking of the prosthetic ankle. This study investigated if a hydraulic ankle/foot can provide enough motion in both the sagittal and frontal planes during level and camber walking and if the hydraulic ankle/foot better mimics the biological ankle moment pattern compared with a fixed ankle/foot device. Five active male unilateral trans-femoral amputees performed level ground walking at normal and fast speeds and 2.5° camber walking in both directions using their own prostheses fitted with an “Echelon” hydraulic ankle/foot and an “Esprit” fixed ankle/foot. Ankle angles and the Trend Symmetry Index of the ankle moments were compared between prostheses and walking conditions. Significant differences between prostheses were found in the stance plantarflexion and dorsiflexion peaks with a greater range of motion being reached with the Echelon foot. The Echelon foot also showed significantly improved bio-mimicry of the ankle resistance moment in all walking conditions, either compared with the intact side of the same subject or with the “normal” mean curve from non-amputees. During camber walking, both types of ankle/foot devices showed similar changes in the frontal plane ankle angles. Results from a questionnaire showed the subjects were more satisfied with Echelon foot. PMID:28704428
Full Text Available Improved walking comfort has been linked with better bio-mimicking of the prosthetic ankle. This study investigated if a hydraulic ankle/foot can provide enough motion in both the sagittal and frontal planes during level and camber walking and if the hydraulic ankle/foot better mimics the biological ankle moment pattern compared with a fixed ankle/foot device. Five active male unilateral trans-femoral amputees performed level ground walking at normal and fast speeds and 2.5° camber walking in both directions using their own prostheses fitted with an "Echelon" hydraulic ankle/foot and an "Esprit" fixed ankle/foot. Ankle angles and the Trend Symmetry Index of the ankle moments were compared between prostheses and walking conditions. Significant differences between prostheses were found in the stance plantarflexion and dorsiflexion peaks with a greater range of motion being reached with the Echelon foot. The Echelon foot also showed significantly improved bio-mimicry of the ankle resistance moment in all walking conditions, either compared with the intact side of the same subject or with the "normal" mean curve from non-amputees. During camber walking, both types of ankle/foot devices showed similar changes in the frontal plane ankle angles. Results from a questionnaire showed the subjects were more satisfied with Echelon foot.
Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Chevalier, Thierry Larose
Measurement of ankle joint dorsiflexion is an essential examination technique that needs to be performed prior to prescription of foot orthoses since the presence or absence of ankle equinus will affect the design of such devices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of foot posture on sagittal plane kinematics of various foot segments during passive dorsiflexion. Comparative repeated measures design. To determine the effect of foot posture on inter segmental kinematics during passive dorsiflexion. An optoelectronic movement analysis system was employed to collect kinematic data. A validated marker set (Oxford Foot Model) was applied to 16 subjects (12 males, 4 females) with a mean age of 35.5 years (range 20-56 years), who provided informed consent. An upward force was applied to the forefoot until maximum resistance. Sagittal movement of the hindfoot and forefoot segments along with the whole foot movement were analyzed in the pronated, neutral and supinated foot postures. While maximum foot dorsiflexion angle showed a significant difference between the three postures (p = 0.000) the actual recorded difference between the neutral and supinated postures was only 2.49°. For the hindfoot and forefoot segments, mean angle range of movement for the pronated foot posture was significantly higher than the other foot postures. The forefoot to hindfoot angle demonstrated a significant (p = 0.005) increase during dorsiflexion between the pronated and supinated postures. These results indicate that during passive dorsiflexion, the forefoot travels through a greater degree of movement than the hindfoot. While the maximum foot dorsiflexion angle differs significantly between the pronated and supinated foot postures, hindfoot movement also varies significantly between foot postures. Furthermore, the forefoot to tibia angle travels through a greater range than the hindfoot to tibia angle, in all three foot postures. The hindfoot to forefoot angle does not
Thomson, J D; Ounpuu, S; Davis, R B; DeLuca, P A
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on gait patterns in patients with low-level myelomeningocele and to identify any abnormal gait patterns that may lead to future knee instability and pain. A total of 28 children (26 L4-level sides, 18 L5-level sides, and 10 S1-2-level sides) underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis when ambulating barefoot and with AFOs. Results show significant improvements in sagittal plane function with reductions in excessive ankle dorsiflexion, increases in peak plantar flexor moment, and reductions in crouch and knee extensor moment in the L4 and L5 groups. The only improvement in the S1-2 group was a reduction in excessive dorsiflexion, but there was a reduction in power generation at the ankle. The S1-2 group had normal transverse plane knee motion in stance during barefoot walking that increased significantly (p AFO. Both the L5 and L4 groups showed greater-than-normal transverse plane knee motion in stance during barefoot walking that also increased significantly (p AFO. The results suggest that excessive knee transverse plane rotation may contribute to knee instability more than coronal plane abnormalities. The AFO in S1-2-level patients may be more detrimental for the knee than barefoot walking.
Park, KwangYong; Seo, KyoChul
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional foot orthosis on the knee angle in the sagittal plane of college students in their 20s who had flatfoot. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 college students diagnosed as having flatfoot. The variations of their knee angle (Q-angle) in the sagittal plane during the stance phase were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Hansung, Korea) before and while wearing a foot orthosis. The experimental data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows. [Results] The Q-angle in the test group during the stance phase showed statistically significant declines on the right and left sides while wearing the foot orthosis during the gait-phases of loading response and midstance. During initial contact, terminal stance, and preswing, the Q-angle also decreased on the right and left sides after wearing the foot orthosis, but the changes were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The college students with flatfoot exhibited declines in the Q-angle in the sagittal plane while wearing a foot orthosis. In this regard, the application of active gait training using orthotic shoes for long hours is likely to help individuals with flatfoot to achieve normal gait.
Borthwick Alan M
Full Text Available Abstract Journal of Foot and Ankle Research was launched one year ago, and a number of its key achievements are highlighted in this editorial. Although the journal is underpinned by professional bodies associated with the podiatry professions in the UK and Australasia, its content is aimed at the wider foot and ankle research community. Nevertheless, the journal's achievements over the past year reflect the development of research in the profession of podiatry. From this perspective, the journal may be viewed as contributing to the overall attainment of some of the profession's key goals and strategic aims over the last decade, across the UK and Australasia. The journal has also witnessed policy changes in the last year, and these are discussed - notably, the decision not to accept case reports for publication. We also report on a few of the key metrics, providing readers with a summary of the journal's performance over the last year.
Ayad M. Takhakh, Muhsin J. Jweeg, S. M. Abbas
This work covered the experimental program to obtain the mechanical properties of the ankle Foot Ortheses (AFO) composite materials by using tensile, flexural and fatigue tests. They are composed of number of layers (12 layers) perlon with two lyers of carbon-fiber and (10 layers) without carbon fiber. Also, the Ground Reaction Force (GRF), Center of Pressure (COP) and pressure distribution were determined experimentally for patients (first is about (42)year old with height (173cm) and weight...
A.S. de Boer (Annette ); Tjioe, R.J.C. (Roderik J.C.); Van Der Sijde, F. (Fleur); D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); C.H. van der Vlies (Cornelis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)
textabstractObjectives The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It consists of a patient-reported and a physician-reported
Wingstrand, Maria; Hägglund, Gunnar; Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is the most frequently used type of orthosis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). AFOs are designed either to improve function or to prevent or treat muscle contractures. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the use of, the indications for, and the outcome of using AFO, relative to age and gross motor function in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. A cross-sectional study was performed of 2200 children (58% boys, 42% girls), 0-19 years old (median age 7 years), based on data from the national Swedish follow-up programme and registry for CP. To analyse the outcome of passive ankle dorsiflexion, data was compared between 2011 and 2012. The Gross motor classification system (GMFCS) levels of included children was as follows: I (n = 879), II (n = 357), III (n = 230), IV (n = 374) and V (n = 355). AFOs were used by 1127 (51%) of the children. In 215 children (10%), the indication was to improve function, in 251 (11%) to maintain or increase range of motion, and 661 of the children (30%) used AFOs for both purposes. The use of AFOs was highest in 5-year-olds (67%) and was more frequent at lower levels of motor function with 70% at GMFCS IV-V. Physiotherapists reported achievement of functional goals in 73% of the children using AFOs and maintenance or improvement in range of ankle dorsiflexion in 70%. AFOs were used by half of the children with CP in Sweden. The treatment goals were attained in almost three quarters of the children, equally at all GMFCS levels. AFOs to improve range of motion were more effective in children with a more significant decrease in dorsiflexion at baseline.
Full Text Available Background: Foot pronation is a series of movements which is intended to absorb shock by decelerating and cushioning the foot as it comes in contact with surface. When this motion is exaggerated, the ankle rolls too far inward and the arch is flattened causing overpronation. It is seen that with an abnormal pronation, navicular drop occurs. Navicular drop causes pain in ankle and knee, fatigue, difficulty in walking. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of intrinsic muscle strengthening with orthosis over conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis for correction of navicular drop and Pain Disability in prolong standing workers. Method: An Experimental study design, seventy industrial workers were tested for navicular drop test out of which fifty tested positive. The subjects were divided into two groups Group A (N=25 and Group B (N=25. Group-A subjects received intrinsic muscle strengthening exercises with orthosis and Group-B received conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis. The duration of treatment continued was given for 8 weeks and outcome measurements were measured at 0 day, 4th week and 8th week using the Navicular drop (ND test and Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ. Results: Comparative analysis using Independent t-test was carried out separately for ND and PDQ. For ND, t =-5.01 which is highly significant (p=0.00. It has been inferred that ND decreases more when intrinsic muscle strengthening with orthosis was applied. To see the difference of means of PDQ, t = -1.97 which is significant (p = 0.049 implying that PDQ decrease more when intrinsic muscle strengthening was applied as compared to conventional physiotherapy with orthosis. Conclusion: It is concluded that 8 weeks of intrinsic muscle strengthening exercise with orthosis is more effective than conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis in reducing navicular drop and improving Pain Disability in prolong standing workers.
Othman, Mohamad Isham Bin; Chew, Kian Ming; Peh, Wilfred C G
Foot and ankle injuries are very common, particularly among young active athletic individuals. MR imaging has become one of the modalities of choice in the assessment of foot and ankle injuries. Accurate interpretation of MR images and diagnosis of pathology requires familiarity with normal anatomical variants and common diagnostic pitfalls. This article describes the common anatomical variants and technical pitfalls in MR imaging of the foot and ankle. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro
This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo
Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...
Liu, Xue-Cheng; Embrey, David; Tassone, Channing; Zvara, Kim; Brandsma, Brenna; Lyon, Roger; Goodfriend, Karin; Tarima, Sergey; Thometz, John
Orthoses commonly are prescribed to children with cerebral palsy (CP) to provide foot correction and to improve ambulatory function. Immediate effects of ankle foot orthosis (AFOs) have been investigated, but long-term kinematic effects are lacking clinical evidence. To determine changes in 3-dimensional ankle and foot segment motion in pediatric patients with CP between initial and follow-up visits (18-month average time differences) in both barefoot gait and gait with their AFO. We also investigated intravisit changes between barefoot and AFO gait. A prospective cohort study. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin. A total of 23 children with CP, mean age 10.5 years (6.2-18.1 years) were clinically prescribed either a solid ankle foot orthotic (SAFO), hinged ankle foot orthotic (HAFO), or supramalleolar orthotic. Holes were cut in the study orthoses so that electromagnetic markers could be directly placed on the skin. A 6-foot segment model was used. Kinematic and kinetic data was recorded for each patient's initial and follow-up visit (18-month follow-up average, 15-20 months range). For the SAFO group (gait with AFO), a significant decrease in dorsiflexion was found between the initial and third visit (P = .008). Furthermore, the SAFO group (barefoot gait) had an increased eversion at the midfoot for most of the gait cycle (P AFO groups. The use of AFOs long term either maintained or improved foot deformities or dysfunction. Level II. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mayer, Stephanie W.; Joyner, Patrick W.; Almekinders, Louis C.; Parekh, Selene G.
Context: Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a common problem encountered by athletes of all levels and ages. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose and may be initially evaluated by all levels of medical personnel. Clinical suspicion should be raised with certain history and physical examination findings. Evidence Acquisition: Scientific and review articles were searched through PubMed (1930-2012) with search terms including stress fractures and 1 of the following: foot ankle, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, calcaneus, talus, metatarsal, cuboid, cuneiform, sesamoid, or athlete. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Stress fractures of the foot and ankle can be divided into low and high risk based upon their propensity to heal without complication. A wide variety of nonoperative strategies are employed based on the duration of symptoms, type of fracture, and patient factors, such as activity type, desire to return to sport, and compliance. Operative management has proven superior in several high-risk types of stress fractures. Evidence on pharmacotherapy and physiologic therapy such as bone stimulators is evolving. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for stress fractures is appropriate in many high-risk groups of athletes with lower extremity pain. Proper and timely work-up and treatment is successful in returning these athletes to sport in many cases. Low-risk stress fracture generally requires only activity modification while high-risk stress fracture necessitates more aggressive intervention. The specific treatment of these injuries varies with the location of the stress fracture and the goals of the patient. PMID:25364480
Bejarano-Pineda, Lorena; Amendola, Annunziato
Participation in sports activity has increased significantly during the last several decades. This phenomenon has exposed orthopedic sports medicine surgeons to new challenges regarding the diagnosis and management of common sport-related injuries. Arthroscopy is becoming more commonly used in many of the surgical procedures for these injuries and carries the risk of complications. Wound and nerve complications make up the bulk of complications in most procedures. This article describes these complications associated with the common surgical procedures related to foot and ankle sport-related injuries and how to address and prevent them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Douglas, R.M.; Mankin, H.J.; Jennings, L.C.; Gebhardt, M.C.; Harmon, D.; Ancukiewicz, M.; Suit, H.D.; Spiro, Ira J.
Purpose: To evaluate the management and outcomes of 40 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1974 and September 1996 for soft tissue sarcomas of the foot or ankle. Materials and Methods: Seventy seven percent of patients had AJCC stage II or III disease. Primary disease was treated in 28 patients while recurrent disease was addressed in 12. The mean tumor size was 4.6 cm with a median tumor size of 4.0 cm, (range 1 to 15 cm). Seventeen patients were treated with surgery followed by radiation therapy for primary or recurrent disease. Preoperative radiation therapy was employed in 15 patients, 5 of whom received additional postoperative radiation therapy for close or positive margins. Six patients received radiation treatment alone. Amputations were performed in 5 patients. Two amputations were performed due to inadequate surgical margins obtained at the time of resection. Three amputations were performed due to local failure. The median preoperative radiation dose was 48 Gy. The median total dose was 59 Gy (range 22 Gy to 70 Gy). Chemotherapy was incorporated in the therapy of 6 patients. Results: After a mean follow-up of 4.9 years, 28 (70%) patients remain without evidence of disease. Four patients have died of disease. Five patients have died of intercurrent disease or another cancer. Three patients remain alive with disease. There were 5 isolated local failures, 4 distant failures and 1 combined local and distant failure. Of the 5 patients with isolated local failures, 3 were treated with radiation alone. The most common site of distant failure was the lung. Actuarial local control rates are 80% at 5 and 10 years in this population. Actuarial overall survival at 5 and 10 years are 83% and 69% respectively. Wound healing difficulties occurred in 13 patients. Seven patients suffered a wound dehiscence. Five patients required therapy for wound dehiscence and infection and one patient was treated for wound infection only. In six patients
Canseco, Karl; Long, Jason; Smedberg, Thomas; Tarima, Sergey; Marks, Richard M.; Harris, Gerald F.
Background Gait changes in patients with hallux valgus, including altered kinematic and temporal-spatial parameters, have been documented in the literature. Although operative treatment can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results, restoration of normal gait in this population remains unclear. Segmental kinematic changes within the foot and ankle during ambulation after operative correction of hallux valgus have not been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in multisegmental foot and ankle kinematics in patients who underwent operative correction of hallux valgus. Methods A 15-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used to evaluate 24 feet in 19 patients with hallux valgus preoperatively and postoperatively. The Milwaukee Foot Model was used to characterize segmental kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters (TSPs). Preoperative and postoperative kinematics and TSPs were compared using paired nonparametric methods; comparisons with normative data were performed using unpaired nonparametric methods. Outcomes were evaluated using the SF-36 assessment tool. Results Preoperatively, patients with hallux valgus showed significantly altered temporal-spatial and kinematic parameters. Postoperatively, kinematic analysis demonstrated restoration of hallux position to normal. Hallux valgus angles and intermetatarsal angles were significantly improved, and outcomes showed a significant increase in performance of physical activities. Temporal-spatial parameters and kinematics in the more proximal segments were not significantly changed postoperatively. Conclusion Postoperative results demonstrated significant improvement in foot geometry and hallux kinematics in the coronal and transverse planes. However, the analysis did not identify restoration of proximal kinematics. Clinical Relevance Further investigation is necessary to explore possible causes/clinical relevance and appropriate treatment interventions for the persistently altered kinematics
Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zhang, Ming
Background/Methodology Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak. Principal Findings/Conclusions Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after
van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Seldentuis, Arnoud; Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin
Background: The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is a patient-reported questionnaire measuring symptoms and functional limitations of the foot and ankle. Aim is to translate and culturally adapt the Dutch version of the FAOS and to investigate internal consistency, validity, repeatability and
Sobhani, S.; Dekker, R.; Postema, K.; Dijkstra, P. U.
Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to
van Bergen, C. J. A.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Hoogervorst, P.; Waizy, H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Becher, C.
Outcome assessment is critical in evaluating the efficacy of orthopaedic procedures. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is a 42-item questionnaire divided into five subscales, which has been validated in several languages. Germany has no validated outcome score for general foot and ankle
Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon
Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306
Chong, Albert K.; Alrikabi, Redha; Milburn, Peter
Plantar pressure-sensing mats and insole plantar sensor pads are ideal low-cost alternatives to force plates for capturing plantar COP excursion during gait. The acquired COP traces, in the form of pedobarographic images are favored by many clinicians and allied health professionals for evaluation of foot loading and balance in relation to foot biomechanics, foot injury, foot deformation, and foot ulceration. Researchers have recommended the use of COP trace for the biomechanical study of the deformed foot and lower-limb to improve orthosis design and testing. A correctly designed orthoses improves mobility and reduces pain in the foot, lower limb and lower spine region during gait. The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of two types of orthosis, namely: a custom-molded orthosis and an over-the-counter molded orthosis to determine the quality of gait of an adult scoliotic patient. COP trace patterns were compared with those of a healthy adult and showed the design of the custom-molded orthosis resulted in an improved quality of movements and provided enhanced stability for the deformed left foot during gait.
Background and purpose The self-reported foot and ankle score (SEFAS) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate disorders of the foot and ankle, but it is only validated for arthritis in the ankle. We validated SEFAS in patients with forefoot, midfoot, hindfoot, and ankle disorders. Patients and methods 118 patients with forefoot disorders and 106 patients with hindfoot or ankle disorders completed the SEFAS, the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS), SF-36, and EQ-5D before surgery. We evaluated construct validity for SEFAS versus FAOS, SF-36, and EQ-5D; floor and ceiling effects; test-retest reliability (ICC); internal consistency; and agreement. Responsiveness was evaluated by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM) 6 months after surgery. The analyses were done separately in patients with forefoot disorders and hindfoot/ankle disorders. Results Comparing SEFAS to the other scores, convergent validity (when correlating foot-specific questions) and divergent validity (when correlating foot-specific and general questions) were confirmed. SEFAS had no floor and ceiling effects. In patients with forefoot disorders, ICC was 0.92 (CI: 0.85–0.96), Cronbach's α was 0.84, ES was 1.29, and SRM was 1.27. In patients with hindfoot or ankle disorders, ICC was 0.93 (CI: 0.88-0.96), Cronbach's α was 0.86, ES was 1.05, and SRM was 0.99. Interpretation SEFAS has acceptable validity, reliability, and responsiveness in patients with various forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle disorders. SEFAS is therefore an appropriate patient- reported outcome measure (PROM) for these patients, even in national registries. PMID:24564747
Although the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is commonly used in several languages for a variety of foot disorders, it has not been validated specifically for foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The aims of the present study were to translate the original English FAOS into Thai and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the FAOS for the foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The original FAOS was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation. The Thai FAOS and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36 ® ) questionnaires were distributed to 44 Thai patients suffering from arthritis of the foot and ankle to complete. For validation, Thai FAOS scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also analyzed in this study. The Thai FAOS score demonstrated sufficient correlation with SF-36 total score in Pain (Pearson's correlation coefficient (r)=0.45, p=0.002), Symptoms (r=0.45, p=0.002), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r=0.47, p=0.001), and Quality of Life (QOL) (r=0.38, p=0.011) subscales. The Sports and Recreational Activities (Sports & Rec) subscale did not correlate significantly with the SF-36 ® (r=0.20, p=0.20). Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency, for the five subscales was as follows: Pain, 0.94 (pvalidity for the evaluation of foot and ankle arthritis. Although reliability was satisfactory for the major subscale ADL, it was not sufficient for the minor subscales. Our findings suggest that it can be used as a disease-specific instrument to evaluate foot and ankle arthritis and can complement other reliable outcome surveys. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koltsov, Jayme C B; Greenfield, Stephen T; Soukup, Dylan; Do, Huong T; Ellis, Scott J
The field of foot and ankle surgery lacks a widely accepted gold-standard patient-reported outcome instrument. With the changing infrastructure of the medical profession, more efficient patient-reported outcome tools are needed to reduce respondent burden and increase participation while providing consistent and reliable measurement across multiple pathologies and disciplines. The primary purpose of the present study was to validate 3 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computer adaptive tests (CATs) most relevant to the foot and ankle discipline against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Short Form 12 general health status survey in patients with 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. Patients (n = 240) indicated for operative treatment for 1 of 6 common foot and ankle pathologies completed the CATs, FAOS, and Short Form 12 at their preoperative surgical visits, 1 week subsequently (before surgery), and at 6 months postoperatively. The psychometric properties of the instruments were assessed and compared. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs each took less than 1 minute to complete, whereas the FAOS took 6.5 minutes, and the Short Form 12 took 3 minutes. CAT scores were more normally distributed and had fewer floor and ceiling effects than those on the FAOS, which reached as high as 24%. The CATs were more precise than the FAOS and had similar responsiveness and test-retest reliability. The physical function and mobility CATs correlated strongly with the activities subscale of the FAOS, and the pain interference CAT correlated strongly with the pain subscale of the FAOS. The CATs and FAOS were responsive to changes with operative treatment for 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. The CATs performed as well as or better than the FAOS in all aspects of psychometric validity. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs show tremendous potential for improving the study of patient
Gur, Gozde; Turgut, Elif; Dilek, Burcu; Baltaci, Gul; Bek, Nilgun; Yakut, Yavuz
The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the visual analog scale foot and ankle (VAS-FA) among healthy subjects and patients with foot problems. A total of 128 participants, 65 healthy subjects and 63 patients with foot problems, were evaluated. The VAS-FA was translated into Turkish and administered to the 128 subjects on 2 separate occasions with a 5-day interval. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α. The validity was assessed using the correlations with Turkish versions of the Foot Function Index, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and the Short-Form 36-item Health Survey. A statistically significant difference was found between the healthy group and the patient group in the overall score and subscale scores of the VAS-FA (p Foot Function Index, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and Short-Form 36-item Health Survey scores in the healthy and patient groups both. The Turkish version of the VAS-FA is sensitive enough to distinguish foot and ankle-specific pathologic conditions from asymptomatic conditions. The Turkish version of the VAS-FA is a reliable and valid method and can be used for foot-related problems. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
John J. Stapleton
Full Text Available The management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and/or nonunions is often complicated by the presence of broken or loosened hardware, Charcot joints, infection, osteomyelitis, avascular bone necrosis, unstable deformities, bone loss, disuse and pathologic osteopenia, and ulcerations. The author discusses a rational approach to functional limb salvage with various surgical techniques that are aimed at achieving anatomic alignment, long-term osseous stability, and adequate soft tissue coverage. Emphasis is placed on techniques to overcome the inherent challenges that are encountered when surgically managing a diabetic nonunion and/or malunion. Particular attention is directed to the management of deep infection and Charcot neuroarthropathy in the majority of the cases presented.
Capen, D.; Scheck, M.
Seronegative inflammatory disease was diagnosed in seven patients who had pain, swelling, and redness of the foot and/or ankle. Since the clinical findings mimicked infection, tendinitis, fasciitis, or chronic strain, the initial diagnosis was erroneous and treatment ineffective. In addition to the test for the HLA-B27 antigen, technetium-99m-diphosphonate scintigraphy and magnification roentgenograms have proved valuable tools. Increased isotope uptake was found in all involved extremities, and magnification roentgenograms helped to detect early and subtle lesions of bone. The lesions comprised cortical erosion, increased intracortical absorption of bone, periosteal reactions, and osteoporosis. The response to anti-inflammatory drugs was good in all seven patients. Limited and preliminary follow-up data, including repeat bone scans, suggest that the inflammation may be of a transient nature
Sung, Paul S
Although the magnitude of ankle motion is influenced by joint congruence and ligament elasticity, there is a lack of understanding on ankle stiffness between subjects with and without flat foot. This study investigated a quantified ankle stiffness difference between subjects with and without flat foot. There were forty-five age- and gender-matched subjects who participated in the study. Each subject was seated upright with the tested foot held firmly onto a footplate that was attached to a torque sensor by the joint-driving device. The flat foot group (mean ± standard deviation) demonstrated increased stiffness during ankle dorsiflexion (0.37 ± 0.16 for flat foot group, 0.28 ± 0.10 for control group; t=-2.11, p=0.04). However, there was no significant group difference during plantar flexion (0.35 ± 0.15 for flat foot group, 0.33 ± 0.07 for control group; t=0.64, p=0.06). The results of this study indicated that the flat foot group demonstrated increased ankle stiffness during dorsiflexion regardless of demographic factors. This study highlights the need for kinematic analyses and joint stiffness measures during ankle dorsiflexion in subjects with flat foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boszczyk, Andrzej; Błoński, Marcin; Pomianowski, Stanisław
The Polish orthopaedic literature lacks a tool to measure patient reported treatment outcomes in the foot and ankle. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire was performed in accordance with relevant guidelines. The Polish version of the questionnaire was tested to check its test retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Polish version of the questionnaire was prepared. Testing of the questionnaire revealed acceptable test retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The translation, cultural adaptation and testing of the Polish version of patient related outcome measuring tool for the foot and ankle is described.
Weel, Hanneke; Zwiers, Ruben; Sierevelt, Inger N; Haverkamp, Daniel; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J
To investigate which valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are available for foot and ankle disorders in the Dutch population, and which of these is the most suitable for uniform use. Systematic review. PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar were systematically searched for relevant articles; subsequently two researchers screened first the title and the abstract, and then the full article within a selection of these articles. Studies that described a validation process for foot- and ankle-PROMs in a Dutch population were included. Data on measurement characteristics and translation procedure were extracted, and methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. ('COSMIN' stands for 'Consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments'.) Two general foot- and ankle-PROMs in the Dutch language were validated: the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measurement (FAAM); two foot-PROMs: the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) and the 5-point Foot Function Index (FFI-5pt) were also validated. There were also two disorder-specific PROMs available in Dutch: the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) for Achilles tendinopathies and the Foot Impact Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis (FIS-RA) for rheumatoid arthritis patients. The FAOS and the FFI-5pt showed the strongest evidence for having good measurement characteristics. Currently, we regard the FAOS as the most appropriate foot- and ankle-PROM for general foot and ankle problems. Further studies of higher methodological quality are, however, required to draw firmer conclusions.
Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J
By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.
Galina Yurevna Strakhova
Full Text Available AimThe purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy, safety and consumer properties of ankle-foot pneumoorthosis with a HAS-337 TM Orlett compared with non-removable total contact cast (TCC immobilization.Materials and methodsOur study included 40 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1 and type 2 (DM2 with neuropathic diabetic foot syndrome and chronic uninfected wounds of the plantar surface of the forefoot, with wound duration of at least 3 weeks, wound areas not less than 1 cm2 and wound depths not more than stage II based on Wagner’s classification. We excluded patients with infected wounds, osteomyelitis, Charcot osteoarthropathy or peripheral vascular disease. Our test group included 20 patients who received pressure off-load using ankle-foot pneumoorthosis with a HAS-337 TM Orlett. For a control group (n = 20, pressure off-load was achieved using TCC immobilization. Both groups were comparable with regard to age, gender, duration and degree of diabetes compensation and by original wound defect sizes (p >0.05. The study duration was 6 months. Plantar pressure was measured inside the orthosis or TCC and was compared with test shoe measurements. Our major criteria for pressure relief were reduced pressures in the wound area and the whole foot and the rate of wound healing.ResultsAt the end of the 6-month period, complete healing of all ulcers was achieved. The average healing time was 46.1±19.0 days for the test group and was 48.3±20.5 days for the control group (p >0.05. Two patients who wore pneumoorthosis with HAS-337 were discontinued upon patient request.With pneumoorthosis, the maximum peak pressure on the foot and wound defect areas was reduced by 26% and 57%, respectively. The pressure/time integral decreased on average by 41% (p >0.05. Furthermore, in the midfoot area with pneumoorthosis, the maximum pressure increased by 48% and the pressure/time integral increased by 47%.ConclusionsUsing pneumoorthosis with
Full Text Available The design and control of an active ankle-foot rehabilitation orthotic system that was designed as a wearable and portable rehabilitation and walking assistive tool is presented. This device can measure and assist the six degree of freedoms (DOFs movement of the human ankle joint by using a Stewart platform mechanism, which can adapt to the displacement of the rotation axis during the movement of a human foot. The estimation method of an instantaneous rotation axis of ankle-foot motion is also proposed. In this paper, the motion measurement and motion control performance of the developed assistive device is evaluated. Static and dynamic motion measurement and motion reproduction performance verification experiments are conducted. The experimental results showed that the developed assistive device is enough for measuring and controlling the human ankle-foot motion.
Reed, Lloyd F; Battistutta, Diana; Young, Jeanine; Newman, Beth
Background Nurses are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the prevalence of MSDs of the lower back, upper limbs, neck and shoulders have been reported previously in nursing, few studies have evaluated MSDs of the foot and ankle. This study evaluated the prevalence of foot and ankle MSDs in nurses and their relation to individual and workplace risk factors. Methods A self-administered survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed, ov...
Garcés, Juan B Gerstner; Winson, Ian; Goldhahn, Sabine; Castro, Michael D; Swords, Michael P; Grujic, Leslie; Rammelt, Stefan; Sands, Andrew K
The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) has been validated in Spanish for use in patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery. 120 patients completed the MOXFQ and the SF-36 before surgery and 6 and 12 months postoperative. Surgeons completed the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Clinical Rating System. Psychometric properties were assessed for all three MOXFQ dimensions, and for the MOXFQ Index. The Spanish MOXFQ demonstrated consistency with Cronbach's alpha values between 0.65 and 0.90, and reliability ([ICCs] >0.95). It shows a moderate to strong correlation between the Walking/standing dimension and the related domains of the SF-36 (|r|>0.6), the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (|r|>0.47) and Hallux-MTP-IP Scale (|r|>0.64). Responsiveness was excellent, (effect sizes >2.1). The respective minimal detectable change (MDC90) was 14.18 for the MOXFQ Index. The Spanish version of the MOXFQ showed good psychometric properties in patients with foot and ankle disorders. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hinds, Richard M; Danna, Natalie R; Capo, John T; Mroczek, Kenneth J
The Internet has been reported to be the first informational resource for many fellowship applicants. The objective of this study was to assess the accessibility of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship websites and to evaluate the quality of information provided via program websites. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA) fellowship databases were accessed to generate a comprehensive list of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship programs. The databases were reviewed for links to fellowship program websites and compared with program websites accessed from a Google search. Accessible fellowship websites were then analyzed for the quality of recruitment and educational content pertinent to fellowship applicants. Forty-seven orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship programs were identified. The AOFAS database featured direct links to 7 (15%) fellowship websites with the independent Google search yielding direct links to 29 (62%) websites. No direct website links were provided in the FREIDA database. Thirty-six accessible websites were analyzed for content. Program websites featured a mean 44% (range = 5% to 75%) of the total assessed content. The most commonly presented recruitment and educational content was a program description (94%) and description of fellow operative experience (83%), respectively. There is substantial variability in the accessibility and quality of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship websites. Recognition of deficits in accessibility and content quality may assist foot and ankle fellowships in improving program information online. Level IV.
Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Baumfeld, Daniel
Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. It has undergone many changes in recent years, mainly because of increased physical demands, and this has led to an increased injury risk. Direct contact accounts for half of all injuries in both indoor and outdoor soccer and ankle sprains are the most common foot and ankle injury. There is a spectrum of foot and ankle injuries and their treatment should be individualized in these high-demand patients. An injury prevention program is also important and should the players, the trainer, responsible physician, and physical therapists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); A.S. de Boer (Annette); D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); C.H. van der Vlies (Cornelis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel)
textabstractIntroduction: The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring the outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It combines a clinician-reported and a
Bergen, C.J. van; Sierevelt, I.N.; Hoogervorst, P.; Waizy, H.; Dijk, C.N. van; Becher, C.
PURPOSE: Outcome assessment is critical in evaluating the efficacy of orthopaedic procedures. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is a 42-item questionnaire divided into five subscales, which has been validated in several languages. Germany has no validated outcome score for general foot and
Full Text Available Laura E Gill,1,2 Kevin E Klingele,1,2 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: In this review, we focus on the treatment of injuries to the foot and ankle in the adolescent athlete. While many injuries in the adolescent foot and ankle are similar to or overlap with their counterparts in the adult population, the anatomy of the adolescent ankle, especially the presence of growth plates, results in different injury patterns in many cases and calls for specific management approaches. We discuss the unique anatomy of the pediatric patient as well as the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of common injuries in the young athlete. Keywords: foot, ankle, lower extremity, pediatric athlete, growth plate, Lisfranc injury
Arbab, Dariusch; Kuhlmann, Katharina; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; Lüring, Christian; König, Dietmar
Patient-reported outcome measures are a critical tool in evaluating the efficacy of orthopedic procedures and are increasingly used in clinical trials to assess outcomes of health care. The intention of this study was to develop and culturally adapt a German version of the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) and to evaluate reliability, validity and responsiveness. According to Cross Cultural Adaptation of Self-Reported Measure guidelines forward and backward translation has been performed. The German SEFAS was investigated in 177 consecutive patients. 177 Patients completed the German SEFAS, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Short-Form 36 and numeric scales for pain and disability (NRS) before and 118 patients 6 months after foot or ankle surgery. Test-Retest reliability, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity and minimal important change were analyzed. The German SEFAS demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with ICC values of 0.97. Cronbach's alpha (α) value of 0.89 demonstrated strong internal consistency. No floor or ceiling effects were observed for the German version of the SEFAS. As hypothesized SEFAS correlated strongly with FAOS and SF-36 domains. It showed moderate (ES/SRM > 0.5) responsiveness between preoperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. The German version of the SEFAS demonstrated good psychometric properties. It proofed to be a valid and reliable instrument for use in foot and ankle patients. DRKS00007585.
Wyndow, Narelle; De Jong, Amy; Rial, Krystal; Tucker, Kylie; Collins, Natalie; Vicenzino, Bill; Russell, Trevor; Crossley, Kay
The frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) is frequently used as a measure of dynamic knee valgus during functional tasks, such as the single leg squat. Increased dynamic knee valgus is observed in people with knee pathologies including patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate injury. As the foot is the primary interface with the support surface, foot and ankle mobility may affect the FPPA. This study investigated the relationship between foot and ankle mobility and the FPPA in asymptomatic adults. Thirty healthy people (aged 18-50 years) performed 5 single leg squats. Peak FPPA and FPPA excursion were determined from digital video recordings. Foot mobility was quantified as the difference in dorsal midfoot height or midfoot width, between non-weightbearing and bilateral weightbearing positions. Ankle joint dorsiflexion range was measured as the maximum distance in centimetres between the longest toe and the wall during a knee-to-wall lunge. Linear regressions with generalised estimating equations were used to examine relationships between variables. Higher midfoot width mobility was associated with greater peak FPPA (β 0.90, p Foot and ankle mobility was significantly related to the FPPA during the single leg squat in healthy individuals. Specifically, higher midfoot width mobility, or lower ankle joint dorsiflexion range and midfoot height mobility, were associated with a greater FPPA. These foot mobility factors should be considered in the clinical management of knee-related disorders that are associated with a high FPPA.
Park, Eun Sook; Park, Chang Il; Chang, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jong Eun; Lee, Don Shin
To investigate the effectiveness of the hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on sit-to-stand (STS) transfers in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Before-after trial. University-affiliated hospital. Nineteen spastic diplegic children (age range, 2-6 y). Not applicable. The transitional movement of STS was tested in random order with children while wearing the barefoot and hinged AFOs. The temporal, kinematic, and kinetic data during the task were collected by using a motion analyzer (with 6 infrared cameras). Statistical comparison between barefoot and hinged AFO was done with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Total duration of STS transfer was significantly shortened with the hinged AFO (P AFO, compared with when barefoot (P AFO. The maximal moment and power of hip and knee joints were significantly increased with the AFO (P AFO. Although proximal compensatory strategy of increased pelvic tilt and hip flexion did not change with the hinged AFO, some improvements of temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were identified during the task. These findings suggest that a hinged AFO is beneficial for STS transfer activity for children with spastic diplegia.
Arbab, Dariusch; Kuhlmann, Katharina; Ringendahl, Hubert; Bouillon, Bertil; Eysel, Peer; König, Dietmar
Patient-reported outcome measures are a critical tool in evaluating the efficacy of orthopaedic procedures. The intention of this study was to develop and culturally adapt a German version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) and to evaluate reliability, validity and responsiveness. According to guidelines forward and backward translation has been performed. The German MOXFQ was investigated in 177 consecutive patients before and 6 months after foot or ankle surgery. All patients completed MOXFQ, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Short form 36 and numeric scales for pain and disability (NRS). Test-Retest reliability, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity and minimal important change were analyzed. The German MOXFQ demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with ICC values >0.9 Cronbach's alpha (α) values demonstrated strong internal consistency. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. As hypothesized MOXFQ subscales correlated strongly with corresponding FAOS and SF-36 domains. All subscales showed excellent (ES/SRM >0.8) responsiveness between preoperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. The German version of the MOXFQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. It proofed to be a valid and reliable instrument for use in foot and ankle patients. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gates, L S; Bowen, C J; Sanchez-Santos, M T; Delmestri, A; Arden, N K
Whilst a number of risk factors for poor patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) following knee arthroplasty (KA) have been identified, unexplained variability still remains. The role of pre-operative foot and ankle status on such outcomes has not been investigated. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the association of clinical foot and ankle assessments with patient reported outcomes 1 year following KA. One hundred and fifteen participants from the Clinical Outcomes in Arthroplasty Study (COASt), underwent detailed foot and ankle assessments at baseline, prior to KA (2012-2014) and were followed up for self-reported outcomes 1 year after surgery. Thirty nine percent of subjects reported foot pain at baseline. Mean pre-operative Oxford Knee Score (OKS; 0 [worst] to 48 [best outcome]) was 21 and post-operative OKS score was 38. In fully adjusted analysis pre-operative foot pain was significantly associated with 1 year outcome (risk ratio [RR] 0.78 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.62, 0.98). No significant association was observed between ankle dorsiflexion or foot posture and outcome. Patients with pre-operative foot pain are more likely to have poorer clinically important outcomes 1 year following KA than patients without foot pain. Static ankle dorsiflexion and foot posture do not further explain post-operative KA outcomes. Consideration should also be given to address pre-operative foot pain when attempting to achieve a good clinical outcome for KA. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Struchkov, Vasily; Buckley, John G
Walking down slopes and/or over uneven terrain is problematic for unilateral trans-tibial amputees. Accordingly, 'ankle' devices have been added to some dynamic-response feet. This study determined whether use of a microprocessor controlled passive-articulating hydraulic ankle-foot device improved the gait biomechanics of ramp descent in comparison to conventional ankle-foot mechanisms. Nine active unilateral trans-tibial amputees repeatedly walked down a 5° ramp, using a hydraulic ankle-foot with microprocessor active or inactive or using a comparable foot with rubber ball-joint (elastic) 'ankle' device. When inactive the hydraulic unit's resistances were those deemed to be optimum for level-ground walking, and when active, the plantar- and dorsi-flexion resistances switched to a ramp-descent mode. Residual limb kinematics, joints moments/powers and prosthetic foot power absorption/return were compared across ankle types using ANOVA. Foot-flat was attained fastest with the elastic foot and second fastest with the active hydraulic foot (Ptypes. The greater negative 'ankle' work done when using the active hydraulic compared to other two ankle types, explains why there was a corresponding reduction in flexion and negative work at the residual knee. These findings suggest that use of a microprocessor controlled hydraulic foot will reduce the biomechanical compensations used to walk down slopes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Amiri, Pouya; Esrafilian, Amir; Sedigh, Jafar; Fatoye, Francis
Most patients with spinal cord injury use a wheelchair to transfer from place to place, however they need to stand and walk with orthosis to improve their health status. Although many orthoses have been designed for paraplegic patients, they have experienced various problems while in use. A new type of reciprocal gait orthosis was designed in the Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University to solve the problems of the available orthoses. Since there was no research undertaken regarding testing of the new orthosis on paraplegic subjects, this study was aimed to evaluate the new orthosis during standing of paraplegic subjects. Five paraplegic patients with lesion level between T12 and L1 and aged matched normal subjects were recruited into this study. The stability of subjects was evaluated during quiet standing and while undertaking hand tasks during standing with the new orthosis and the knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO). The difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while standing with both orthoses, and between the function of normal and paraplegic subjects were compared using the paired t test and independent sample t test, respectively. The stability of paraplegic subjects in standing with the new orthosis was better than that of the KAFO orthosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the force applied on the crutch differed between the orthoses. The functional performance of paraplegic subjects was better with the new orthosis compared with normal subjects. The performance of paraplegic subjects while standing with the new orthosis was better than the KAFO. Therefore, the new orthosis may be useful to improve standing and walking in patients with paraplegia.
Malizos, Konstantinos N; Gougoulias, Nikolaos E; Dailiana, Zoe H; Varitimidis, Sokratis; Bargiotas, Konstantinos A; Paridis, Dionysios
A management protocol for ankle and foot osteomyelitis and the outcome in 84 patients treated in a unit with special interest in musculoskeletal infection, is presented. Patients' mean age was 50.7+/-16.5 years and mean follow-up 31.5+/-18.2 months. Systemic antibiotics were administered initially empirically, and later according to cultures. Surgical treatment included surgical debridement and bead-pouch technique, minor amputation (ray or toe), below knee amputation, and joint fusion. "Second-look" procedures were performed after 48-7h. Vascularised grafts or Ilizarov's technique were used for bone defect reconstruction. Soft tissues were managed according the 'reconstructive ladder' concept. Host-type (Cierny's classification) was A in 25, B in 53 and C in 6 patients. Seventy-six infections were chronic. Causes were: open trauma without fracture (45/84), open fractures (9/84), ORIF of closed fractures (25/84) and elective surgery (5/84). Patients underwent 3.0+/-1.5 (range 1-10) operative procedures and spent 14.8+/-12.2 (range 3-60) days in hospital. Two (host-C) patients died. Complications requiring reoperations occurred in 20/84 (2/25 host-A, 16/53 host-B, 2/6 host-C; significant difference between host-A versus host-B and -C patients, pvacuum assisted closure in 5/84 patients. Eighty-two surviving patients, including amputees, were able to mobilise independently and were satisfied with the result of treatment. Host-B and -C patients had more complications and infection recurrences and occasionally required amputations. Reconstructive procedures were performed for limb salvage in patients with soft tissue and bone defects and restoration of a functional limb was achieved. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saltzman, Charles; Lightfoot, Andrew; Amendola, Annunziato
Arthrodesis is the most common surgical treatment for foot and ankle arthritis. In adults, these procedures are associated with a 5% to 10% rate of nonunion. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation was approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of delayed unions after long-bone fractures and joint arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the results of PEMF treatment for delayed healing after foot and ankle arthrodesis. Three hundred and thirty-four foot and ankle arthrodeses were done. Nineteen resulted in delayed unions that were treated with a protocol of immobilization, limited weightbearing, and PEMF stimulation for a median of 7 (range 5 to 27) months. All patients were followed clinically and radiographically. The use of PEMF, immobilization, and limited weightbearing to treat delayed union after foot and ankle arthrodesis was successful in 5 of 19 (26%) patients. Of the other 14 patients with nonunions, nine had revision surgery with autogenous grafting, continued immobilization, and PEMF stimulation. Seven of these eventually healed at a median of 5.5 (range 2 to 26) months and two did not heal. One patient had a below-knee amputation, and four refused further treatment. The protocol of PEMF, immobilization, and limited weightbearing had a relatively low success rate in this group of patients. We no longer use this protocol alone to treat delayed union after foot and ankle arthrodesis.
Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study was to analysis the ankle moment-angle relation and its characteristics at different gait speeds and phases for using in prosthetic ankle-foot design. Materials & Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytic study in which 20 participants were chosen with assessable sampling method. Gait analysis at different speeds was performed with two force-plates and five high speed cameras. Ankle characteristics including quasi-stiffness and work were estimated at three periods of stance phase based on moment-angle loop. Mean differences were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA and regression analysis was performed to fit the linear model to the data. Results: Moment-angle curve was clockwise at slower speeds and turned counter-clockwise while speed increased. The best fitted line to the work-walking speed curve had R2=0.81. There were significant differences in quasi-stiffness between fast and normal speed and slower speeds (P<0.001. Conclusion: Moment-angle curve displayed ankle passive function in slower speeds and active function in faster speeds. Results showed ankle characteristics varied at different gait phases and speeds. Thus, at slower speeds a spring-damper model with regulable damping would simulate the ankle function. However, at higher speeds the active elements also should be considered.
Ficanha, Evandro M; Rastgaar, Mohammad; Kaufman, Kenton R
The ankle joint of currently available powered prostheses is capable of controlling one degree of freedom (DOF), focusing on improved mobility in the sagittal plane. To increase agility, the requirements of turning in prosthesis design need to be considered. Ankle kinematics and kinetics were studied during sidestep cutting and straight walking. There were no significant differences between the ankle sagittal plane mechanics when comparing sidestep cutting and straight walking; however, significant differences were observed in ankle frontal plane mechanics. During straight walking, the inversion-eversion (IE) angles were smaller than with sidestep cutting. The ankle that initiated the sidestep cutting showed progressively increasing inversion from 2 to 13 degrees while the following contralateral step showed progressively decreasing inversion from 8 to -4 degrees during normal walking speed. The changes in IE kinematics were the most significant during sidestep cutting compared with straight walking. The IE moments of the step that initiated the sidestep cutting were always in eversion, acting as a braking moment opposing the inverting motion. This suggests that an ankle-foot prosthesis with active DOFs in the sagittal and frontal planes will increase the agility of gait for patients with limb loss.
Geusens, E.; Geyskens, W.; Brys, P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Janzing, H. [Dept. of Traumatology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the statistical significance of a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot in patients with ankle or foot trauma. In 100 consecutive patients a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot was taken in addition to the conventional plain films. Ten of 29 fractures were not visualised on the conventional films of foot and ankle and could only be diagnosed on the reversed oblique film. In 7 of these 10 cases an avulsion fracture at the anterolateral aspect of the calcaneus was present. This additional reversed oblique film of the foot seems to be of considerable importance, especially when an anterolateral avulsion fracture of the calcaneus is clinically suspected. (orig.)
Geusens, E.; Geyskens, W.; Brys, P.; Janzing, H.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the statistical significance of a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot in patients with ankle or foot trauma. In 100 consecutive patients a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot was taken in addition to the conventional plain films. Ten of 29 fractures were not visualised on the conventional films of foot and ankle and could only be diagnosed on the reversed oblique film. In 7 of these 10 cases an avulsion fracture at the anterolateral aspect of the calcaneus was present. This additional reversed oblique film of the foot seems to be of considerable importance, especially when an anterolateral avulsion fracture of the calcaneus is clinically suspected. (orig.)
Soma, Toshio; Onishi, Hideaki; Makita, Mitsuyo; Kurokawa, Yukio; Sato, Naritoshi; Manabe, Toshiro
Muscular activities and dynamics were analyzed when a healthy adult and a patient with hemiplegia caused by stroke both wore the DP-AFO and took level-ground walk tests. The results demonstrated that the DP-AFO replicates the joint angles, joint moments, and muscular activites that are similar to those observed in normal gait. Further, a possible re-education of muscular function was suggested in the patient with late-phase hemiplegia that resulted from stroke. This is a part of the study sup...
Cöster, Maria; Rosengren, Björn; Carlsson, Åke; Montgomery, Fredrik; Karlsson, Magnus
There is need for structured evaluation of disability before and after surgery. The patients' subjective aspects of their symptoms should be one part of this evaluation, preferably captured by patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). There are several PROMs, either generic or region-specific questionnaires, but no » gold standard « for foot or ankle evaluation. We translated the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) and evaluated the psychometric properties of the score in terms of reliability, validity and responsiveness in patients with a variety of foot and ankle disorders. In this report we recommend a validation process for PROMs and report that SEFAS shows good results when doing this. As SEFAS is a PROM, the instrument seems suitable for use in national registers.
Teh, James; Suppiah, Ravi; Sharp, Robert; Newton, Julia
Overuse injuries of the ankle and foot are common in the general and athletic populations. The wide spectrum of overuse injuries includes ligamentous injuries, soft tissue and osseous impingement, osteochondral lesions, tendon injuries, and stress fractures. Some conditions such as impingement syndromes and stress fractures may be missed on initial physical examination, and patients with such injuries often present to a sports or orthopedic clinic with persistent symptoms. With the increasing participation in sports, health-care professionals involved in the care of athletes at all levels must have a thorough understanding of overuse conditions of the foot and ankle, and the use of imaging in the management of these conditions. This article covers the clinical presentation, pertinent anatomy, imaging features, and management of overuse injuries of the foot and ankle. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Li, N; Liu, Y S; Xin, J Y; Ma, X L; Mei, X L; Shi, Z Q; Li, G; Sun, Z H
Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of modified Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) for the differential diagnosis of fractures in acute foot and ankle injuries. Methods: From October 2016 to December 2016, 272cases (135 males and 137 females) of foot and ankle injury in emergency department of Tianjin Hospital were prospective enrolled in the study.The median age was 27.5 years (7-87); left limb 155, right 117 cases; injury time ranged from 0.3 to 24 h (median 4 h). Conventional and modified OAR was applied on physical examination, subsequently radiography performed to determine the occurrence of fractures.The efficiency of the two methods were compared and analyzed. Results: Fractures were found in 100 cases (36.8%), 49 cases of ankle and 51 cases of foot fractures.With the imaging results as the standard, the sensitivity for conventional and modified OAR were 93.0% and 100%, specificity were 9.9% and 8.7%, the positive predictive value were 37.5% and 38.9%, the negative predictive value were 70.8% and 100%, the accuracy were 40.4% and 42.3%, missed diagnosis rate were 7% and 0% respectively.The sensitivity, positive likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, negative likelihood ratio and missed diagnosis ratio were better than in modified OAR compared with Conventional OAR, while the specificity was slightly lower compared to Conventional OAR.The Kappa value of modified OAR was 0.065 ( P >0.05), which is better than conventional OAR.Conventional OAR can reduce 6.3% (17/272) X-ray and modified OAR decline 5.5% (15/272). Conclusion: Modified OAR significantly reduces the rate of missed diagnosis of foot fractures, but its specificity is poor. Ultrasound can be assisted to improve the specificity and reduce the number of unnecessary X-rays.
Jiao, Shao-Feng; Qin, Si-He; Ren, Long-Xi; Ge, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Hong-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Zheng, Xue-Jian
To study surgical strategies for ankle and foot deformities secondary to spina bifida and treatment methods for different types of deformities. From January 1990 and July 2009, 107 patients with ankle and foot deformities secondary to spina bifida were retrospectively analyzed. There were 44 males and 63 females, with an average age of 17.7 years (rangd from 1.3 to 52 years). Among the patients, 58 patients had double ankle deformities, 49 patients had unilateral deformities (22 cases on the left side, 27 cases on the right). Ninety-nine patients with equinus deformities were treated by achilles tendon lengthening and tendon transfering; 25 patients with talipes were treated by release of anterior tendon of ankle and tendon transfer; 17 patients with valgus and varus deformities were treated by tendon transfer and calcaneal osteotomy; 15 patients with flail deformities were managed treated by bone fusion between calcaneus and talus and shortening of achilles tendon; 9 patients with claw toe deformities were treated by bone fusion of interphalangeal joint or Ilizarovs distraction. AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society) comprehensive scoring system was used to evaluate subjective pain and objective functional. Seventy-nine (127 feet) of 107 patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 48 to 180 months (averaged, 64 months). According to AOFAS scoring system, the results were rated as excellent in 89 feet, good in 26 feet, moderate in 9 feet and poor in 3 feet. Treatment strategies for ankle-foot deformities mainly included four principles, deformity correction, muscular balance, joint stability and reservation of foot elasticity. Different combined procedure was applied for different foot deformities and received good therapeutic effects.
A.S. de Boer (Annette); T. Schepers (Tim); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)
textabstractBackground: Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health
de Boer, A. Siebe; Schepers, Tim; Panneman, Martien J. M.; van Beeck, Ed F.; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.
Background: Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health care costs in
Zhang Zhaohui; Liang Manqiu; Li Zhuhao
Objective: To explore the clinical and MR imaging features of soft tissue ganglion cyst in the foot and ankle. Methods: Clinical and MR imaging data of 12 patients (male to female ratio 1:5, mean age 47 years) with soft tissue ganglion cysts in the feet and ankles were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 12 ganglion cysts were located near the first metatarsophalangeal joint (2), in the medial dorsum of foot (4), in the ankle (5) and in the heel (1). Compared with muscle, all lesions showed homogeneous slight T 1 hypointensity and T 2 hyperintensity with thin mural enhancement following the injection of Gd-DTPA. Ten cases were multilocular, and 5 showed mild pericystic edema. Conclusion: Soft tissue ganglion cyst of the foot and ankle are more common in middle aged women. They are frequently located in the ankle and medial dorsum of foot. On MRI they usually appear as multilocular cysts with homogeneous slightly low signal intensity relative to muscle on T 1 WI, high signal intensity on T 2 WI and contrast enhancement of the thin wall. (authors)
Full Text Available Among the many donor sites for harvesting autologous bone graft, the iliac crest has been the most commonly used. However, for foot and ankle procedures the proximal tibia has gained popularity as an alternative donor site due to its anatomic proximity to the primary surgical site. In this article we evaluated the possible complications associated with harvesting proximal tibia bone graft. Our study showed the low incidence of morbidity in harvesting proximal tibia bone graft, thereby providing a good alternative donor for foot and ankle procedures.
Gottlieb, Tonio; Klaue, Kaj
There is no universal approach to surgery aftercare among foot and ankle surgeons. Although infections following foot and ankle surgery are rare, soft tissue healing can be jeopardized after extensive and multiple approaches. We defined a precise fixation technique of the foot and ankle in the immediate post-operative phase using what we call "the Jones dressing cast". This technique is a modification of the Jones dressing bandage. In a previous study we compared two groups of patients (N=20/23) who underwent similar reconstructive surgery with the application of the described cast for one week and without. At the two-month follow-up we observed that the group treated with the cast required less pain relief, spent less time in hospital and achieved faster autonomy using crutches (Gottlieb and Klaue, 2013). In this study we considered a group of 45 patients who underwent similar reconstructive procedures to those in the first study and who were treated with the cast for two weeks post-operatively. There was no visual check of the soft tissues before removal of the cast. Unlike the earlier study, the results from this second study were more significant. Revision surgery occurred far less frequently in the group wearing the cast for two weeks. The reduced strain to the soft tissue around the foot due to the cast and less manipulation of the wound dressing decrease complications in the post-operative period. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reed, Lloyd F; Battistutta, Diana; Young, Jeanine; Newman, Beth
Nurses are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although the prevalence of MSDs of the lower back, upper limbs, neck and shoulders have been reported previously in nursing, few studies have evaluated MSDs of the foot and ankle. This study evaluated the prevalence of foot and ankle MSDs in nurses and their relation to individual and workplace risk factors. A self-administered survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed, over a nine-week period, to all eligible nurses (n = 416) working in a paediatric hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The prevalence of MSDs for each of the NMQ body regions was determined. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between activity-limiting foot/ankle MSDs and risk factors related to the individual (age, body mass index, number of existing foot conditions, smoking history, general physical health [SF36 Physical Component Scale], footwear features) or the workplace (level of nursing position, work location, average hours worked, hours worked in previous week, time since last break from work). A 73% response rate was achieved with 304 nurses completing surveys, of whom 276 were females (91%). Mean age of the nurses was 37 years (±10), younger than the state average of 43 years. Foot/ankle MSDs were the most prevalent conditions experienced by nurses during the preceding seven days (43.8%, 95% CI 38.2-49.4%), the second most prevalent MSDs to impair physical activity (16.7%, 95% CI 13.0-21.3%), and the third most prevalent MSD, after lower-back and neck problems, during the preceding 12 months (55.3%, 95% CI 49.6-60.7%). Of the nurse and work characteristics investigated, obesity, poor general physical health, existing foot conditions and working in the intensive care unit emerged as statistically significant (p MSDs. Foot/ankle MSDs are common in paediatric hospital nurses and resulted in physical activity limitations in one
van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth
The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20-65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20-24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53-65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects.
van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Seldentuis, Arnoud; Reininga, Inge H F; Stevens, Martin
The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is a patient-reported questionnaire measuring symptoms and functional limitations of the foot and ankle. Aim is to translate and culturally adapt the Dutch version of the FAOS and to investigate internal consistency, validity, repeatability and responsiveness. According to the Cross Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures guideline, the FAOS was translated into Dutch. Eighty-nine patients who had undergone an ankle arthroscopy, ankle arthrodesis, ankle ligament reconstruction or hallux valgus correction completed the FAOS, FFI, WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires and were included in the validity study. Sixty-five of them completed the FAOS a second time to determine repeatability. Responsiveness was analysed in an additional 15 patients who were being treated for foot or ankle problems. Internal consistency of the FAOS is high (Cronbach's alphas varying between 0.90 and 0.96). Repeatability can be considered good, with ICC's ranging from 0.90 to 0.96. Construct validity can be classified as good with moderate-to-high correlations between the FAOS subscales and subscales of the FFI (0.55 to 0.90), WOMAC (0.57 to 0.92) and SF-36 subscales physical functioning, pain, social functioning and role-physical (0.33 to 0.81). Low standard response means were found for responsiveness (0.0 to 0.4). The results of this study show that the Dutch version of the FAOS is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess symptoms and functional limitations of the foot and ankle.
Negahban, Hossein; Mazaheri, Masood; Salavati, Mahyar; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Askari, Marjan; Fanian, Hossein; Parnianpour, Mohamad
The aims of this study were to culturally adapt and validate the Persian version of Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and present data on its psychometric properties for patients with different foot and ankle problems. The Persian version of FAOS was developed after a standard forward-backward translation and cultural adaptation process. The sample included 93 patients with foot and ankle disorders who were asked to complete two questionnaires: FAOS and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To determine test-retest reliability, 60 randomly chosen patients completed the FAOS again 2 to 6 days after the first administration. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. To evaluate convergent and divergent validity of FAOS compared to similar and dissimilar concepts of SF-36, the Spearman's rank correlation was used. Dimensionality was determined by assessing item-subscale correlation corrected for overlap. The results of test-retest reliability show that all the FAOS subscales have a very high ICC, ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. The minimum Cronbach's alpha level of 0.70 was exceeded by most subscales. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for convergent construct validity fell within 0.32 to 0.58 for the main hypotheses presented a priori between FAOS and SF-36 subscales. For dimensionality, the minimum Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.40 was exceeded by most items. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the Persian version of FAOS seems to be suitable for Iranian patients with various foot and ankle problems especially lateral ankle sprain. Future studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for patients with different foot and ankle problems.
Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yosuke
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of the muscles around the ankle joint during foot gripping. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 17 healthy females. [Methods] We measured the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activities of the soleus muscle, the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle, and calculated %IEMG during foot gripping in 3 different ankle joint positions: 10° of plantar flexion, 0°, and 10° of dorsiflexion. [Results] The maximal force of foot gripping achived by the crural muscles in any ankle position was 30-50% IMEG of the MVC. Repeated analysis of variance showed that the %IEMG was significantly lower in 10°of dorsiflexion than in the other 2 positions for all muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggested that the crural muscles help the ankle joint by co-contracting during foot gripping.
Ries, Andrew J; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H
Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) prescriptions are common for patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). Typical treatment objectives are to improve ankle-foot function and enhance general gait quality. To determine the effectiveness of AFOs for improving the gait of children with diplegic CP. Retrospective analysis. Primary clinical care facility. Data were used from 601 visits for 378 individuals (age at visit: 9.8 ± 3.8 years [mean ± standard deviation]) who wore either a solid, hinged, or posterior leaf spring AFO design. Participants had a diagnosis of diplegic CP, wore the same AFO design bilaterally, and had 3-dimensional gait analysis data collected while walking both barefoot and with AFOs during a single session. Differences between walking with AFOs and walking barefoot were used as outcome measures. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-tests and multivariate analysis of variance scores to determine significance, main effects, and interactions of AFO design, ambulation type (walking with/without assistive devices), and barefoot level on each outcome. Minimal clinically important differences from the literature determined clinical significance. Gait Deviation Index (GDI), ankle Gait Variable Score, knee Gait Variable Score, nondimensional speed, and nondimensional step length. Only step length exhibited clinically meaningful improvements for the average AFO user. Changes in step length, speed, and GDI all were statistically significant (P gait improvements for step length only. This study emphasizes the need to develop more effective AFO prescription algorithms in an effort to improve the efficacy of AFOs on general gait quality via optimizing patient selection or AFO design. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Souza, Thales R; Mancini, Marisa C; Araújo, Vanessa L; Carvalhais, Viviane O C; Ocarino, Juliana M; Silva, Paula L; Fonseca, Sérgio T
Health professionals are frequently interested in predicting rearfoot pronation during weight-bearing activities. Previous inconsistent results regarding the ability of clinical measures to predict rearfoot kinematics may have been influenced by the neglect of possible combined effects of alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and by the disregard of possible influences of hip mobility on foot kinematics. The present study tested whether using a measure that combines frontal-plane bone alignment and mobility at the foot-ankle complex and a measure of hip internal rotation mobility predicts rearfoot kinematics, in walking and upright stance. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent assessment of forefoot-shank angle (which combines varus bone alignments at the foot-ankle complex with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints), with a goniometer, and hip internal rotation mobility, with an inclinometer. Frontal-plane kinematics of the rearfoot was assessed with a three-dimensional system, during treadmill walking and upright stance. Multivariate linear regressions tested the predictive strength of these measures to inform about rearfoot kinematics. The measures significantly predicted (p ≤ 0.041) mean eversion-inversion position, during walking (r(2) = 0.40) and standing (r(2) = 0.31), and eversion peak in walking (r(2) = 0.27). Greater values of varus alignment at the foot-ankle complex combined with inversion mobility at the midfoot joints and greater hip internal rotation mobility are related to greater weight-bearing rearfoot eversion. Each measure (forefoot-shank angle and hip internal rotation mobility) alone and their combination partially predicted rearfoot kinematics. These measures may help detecting foot-ankle and hip mechanical variables possibly involved in an observed rearfoot motion or posture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yosuke
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of the muscles around the ankle joint during foot gripping. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 17 healthy females. [Methods] We measured the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activities of the soleus muscle, the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle, and calculated %IEMG during foot gripping in 3 different ankle joint positions: 10° of plantar flexion, 0°, and 10° of dorsiflexion....
Mavroidis, Constantinos; Ranky, Richard G; Sivak, Mark L; Patritti, Benjamin L; DiPisa, Joseph; Caddle, Alyssa; Gilhooly, Kara; Govoni, Lauren; Sivak, Seth; Lancia, Michael; Drillio, Robert; Bonato, Paolo
Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait). The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait. The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.
Christopher A Rábago
Full Text Available Passive prosthetic feet lack active plantarflexion and push-off power resulting in gait deviations and compensations by individuals with transtibial amputation (TTA during slope ascent. We sought to determine the effect of active ankle plantarflexion and push-off power provided by a powered prosthetic ankle-foot (PWR on lower extremity compensations in individuals with unilateral TTA as they walked up a slope. We hypothesized that increased ankle plantarflexion and push-off power would reduce compensations commonly observed with a passive, energy-storing-returning prosthetic ankle-foot (ESR. We compared the temporal spatial, kinematic, and kinetic measures of ten individuals with TTA (age: 30.2 ± 5.3 yrs to matched abled-bodied (AB individuals during 5° slope ascent. The TTA group walked with an ESR and separately with a PWR. The PWR produced significantly greater prosthetic ankle plantarflexion and push-off power generation compared to an ESR and more closely matched AB values. The PWR functioned similar to a passive ESR device when transitioning onto the prosthetic limb due to limited prosthetic dorsiflexion, which resulted in similar deviations and compensations. In contrast, when transitioning off the prosthetic limb, increased ankle plantarflexion and push-off power provided by the PWR contributed to decreased intact limb knee extensor power production, lessening demand on the intact limb knee.
Passive prosthetic feet lack active plantarflexion and push-off power resulting in gait deviations and compensations by individuals with transtibial amputation (TTA) during slope ascent. We sought to determine the effect of active ankle plantarflexion and push-off power provided by a powered prosthetic ankle-foot (PWR) on lower extremity compensations in individuals with unilateral TTA as they walked up a slope. We hypothesized that increased ankle plantarflexion and push-off power would reduce compensations commonly observed with a passive, energy-storing-returning prosthetic ankle-foot (ESR). We compared the temporal spatial, kinematic, and kinetic measures of ten individuals with TTA (age: 30.2 ± 5.3 yrs) to matched abled-bodied (AB) individuals during 5° slope ascent. The TTA group walked with an ESR and separately with a PWR. The PWR produced significantly greater prosthetic ankle plantarflexion and push-off power generation compared to an ESR and more closely matched AB values. The PWR functioned similar to a passive ESR device when transitioning onto the prosthetic limb due to limited prosthetic dorsiflexion, which resulted in similar deviations and compensations. In contrast, when transitioning off the prosthetic limb, increased ankle plantarflexion and push-off power provided by the PWR contributed to decreased intact limb knee extensor power production, lessening demand on the intact limb knee. PMID:27977681
Gatt, Alfred; De Giorgio, Stephanie; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Formosa, Cynthia
Although the clinical assessment of ankle dorsiflexion has traditionally been measured utilising various goniometric means, the validity of this static examination has never been investigated. Since any impairment in ankle flexibility is likely to result in injuries, it is imperative that the correct examination technique is conducted. To determine whether a clinical diagnosis of ankle equinus, or limited ankle dorsiflexion, correlates with a decreased dorsiflexion range of movement of the foot and ankle during gait. Twenty participants with a clinical diagnosis of ankle equinus underwent optoelectronic motion capture utilising the Rizzoli foot model. Participants were divided into two groups, Group A with dynamic ankle dorsiflexion angle of 13.9°, while those in Group A had a mean dorsiflexion angle of 4.4°, resulting in a significant difference (p=0.004) between the two groups. Likewise, foot mean dynamic dorsiflexion angle of Group B was 17.13° and Group A 8.6° (p=0.006). There is no relationship between a static diagnosis of ankle dorsiflexion at 0° with dorsiflexion during gait. On the other hand, those subjects with less than -5° of dorsiflexion during static examination did exhibit reduced ankle range of motion during gait. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ploeger, Hilde E.; Bus, Sicco A.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans
In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We
Sierevelt, I.N.; Beimers, L.; van Bergen, C.J.A.; Haverkamp, D.; Terwee, C.B.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.M.J.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a Dutch language version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS-DLV) and evaluate its measurement properties according to the definitions of the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). Methods: After a
Sierevelt, I. N.; Beimers, L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; Haverkamp, D.; Terwee, C. B.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.
The aim of this study was to develop a Dutch language version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS-DLV) and evaluate its measurement properties according to the definitions of the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). After a standard
Weel, Hanneke; Zwiers, Ruben; Azim, Donija; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Haverkamp, Daniel; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.
The aim of the study was to develop a Dutch language version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and evaluate its measurement properties according to the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN) definitions. A forward-backward translation
Full Text Available Cutaneous nerve injury is the most common complication following foot and ankle surgery. However, clinical studies including long-term follow-up data after cutaneous nerve injury of the foot and ankle are lacking. In the current retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical data of 279 patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery. Subjects who suffered from apparent paresthesia in the cutaneous sensory nerve area after surgery were included in the study. Patients received oral vitamin B 12 and methylcobalamin. We examined final follow-up data of 17 patients, including seven with sural nerve injury, five with superficial peroneal nerve injury, and five with plantar medial cutaneous nerve injury. We assessed nerve sensory function using the Medical Research Council Scale. Follow-up immediately, at 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 9 months, and 1 year after surgery demonstrated that sensory function was gradually restored in most patients within 6 months. However, recovery was slow at 9 months. There was no significant difference in sensory function between 9 months and 1 year after surgery. Painful neuromas occurred in four patients at 9 months to 1 year. The results demonstrated that the recovery of sensory function in patients with various cutaneous nerve injuries after foot and ankle surgery required at least 6 months
Arunakul, Marut; Arunakul, Preeyaphan; Suesiritumrong, Chakhrist; Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha
Self-administered questionnaires have become an important aspect for clinical outcome assessment of foot and ankle-related problems. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) subjective form is a region-specific questionnaire that is widely used and has sufficient validity and reliability from previous studies. Translate the original English version of FAAM into a Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai FAAM in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. The FAAM subjective form was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation protocol. Afterward, reliability and validity were tested. Following responses from 60 consecutive patients on two questionnaires, the Thai FAAM subjective form and the short form (SF)-36, were used. The validity was tested by correlating the scores from both questionnaires. The reliability was adopted by measuring the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Thai FAAM score including activity of daily life (ADL) and Sport subscale demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF) and physical composite score (PCS) domains of the SF-36 (statistically significant with p foot and ankle-related problems.
van Bergen, C J A; Sierevelt, I N; Hoogervorst, P; Waizy, H; van Dijk, C N; Becher, C
Outcome assessment is critical in evaluating the efficacy of orthopaedic procedures. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is a 42-item questionnaire divided into five subscales, which has been validated in several languages. Germany has no validated outcome score for general foot and ankle pathology. The aim of this study was to develop a German version of the FAOS and to investigate its psychometric properties. Forward and backward translation was executed according to official guidelines. The final version of the FAOS was investigated in 150 patients with various foot and ankle disorders. All patients completed the FAOS, Short Form-36, numeric rating scales for pain and disability, and the Hannover questionnaire. The FAOS was re-administered after 1 week. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, minimal detectable change, construct validity, and floor and ceiling effects were analyzed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of each subscale were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.88-0.95; Cronbach's α, 0.94-0.98). The minimal detectable changes of each subscale were 17.1-20.8 at the individual level and 2.0-2.4 at group level. There were moderate to strong correlations between FAOS subscales and physical outcomes and low to moderate correlations between FAOS subscales and mental outcomes. Floor and ceiling effects were not present. The German version of the FAOS is a reliable and valid instrument for use in foot and ankle patients.
Deschamps, Kevin; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Dingenen, Bart; De Boeck, Jente; Bronselaer, Sarah; Staes, Filip
Investigate differences in multi-segment foot kinematics between controls and participants with chronic ankle instability during running with a midfoot striking pattern and to evaluate the effect of Low-Dye and High-Dye taping. Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics of 12 controls and 15 participants with chronic ankle instability were collected while running barefoot, and in both taping conditions. Ranges of motion occurring at each joint, each sub phase of stance, were compared between groups and between taping conditions (0-dimensional inference). Kinematic data were also compared using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. The symptomatic group demonstrated while barefoot running a significantly decreased rearfoot dorsiflexion range of motion during the peak impact phase as well as a less dorsiflexed position from 6 to 12% of the running cycle. During the absorption and generation phase, the symptomatic group also showed a significantly increased rearfoot dorsiflexion and adduction motion as well as an increased midfoot inversion motion. In the peak impact phase of both taping conditions, a decreased midfoot inversion motion was found. The High-Dye taping resulted in a decreased rearfoot plantarflexion motion whereas the Low-Dye caused a decreased midfoot inversion motion. Persons with chronic ankle instability seem to have altered rearfoot and midfoot kinematics while running with a midfoot striking index. High-Dye taping seems to have better therapeutic features than Low-Dye taping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Pauw, Kevin; Cherelle, Pierre; Roelands, Bart; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain
Evaluating the effectiveness of a novel prosthetic device during walking is an important step in product development. To investigate the efficacy of a novel quasi-passive ankle prosthetic device, Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic Foot 4.0, during walking at different speeds, using physiological determinants in transtibial and transfemoral amputees. Nonrandomized crossover design for amputees. Six able-bodied subjects, six unilateral transtibial amputees, and six unilateral transfemoral amputees underwent a 6-min walk test at normal speed, followed by series of 2-min walking at slow, normal, and fast speeds. The intensity of effort and subjective measures were determined. Amputees performed all walking tests on a treadmill with current and novel prostheses. Shapiro-Wilk normality tests and parametric and nonparametric tests were conducted (p < 0.05). Compared to able-bodied individuals, the rating of perceived exertion levels were significantly elevated in transtibial and transfemoral amputees for both prostheses (p ≤ 0.016). Compared to able-bodied individuals transfemoral amputees also showed significantly elevated heart rate for both prostheses at normal speed (p ≤ 0.043). Within-group comparisons demonstrated that walking with Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic Foot significantly increased the heart rate in transfemoral amputees and transtibial compared to current prosthesis (p = 0.002). Furthermore, transfemoral amputees reached a significantly higher rating of perceived exertion levels. Intensity of effort during walking with Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic Foot is higher compared to current prostheses. Clinical relevance Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic Foot 4.0 is a novel quasi-passive ankle prosthesis with state-of-the-art technological parts. Subjective measures show the importance of this technology, but the intensity of effort during walking still remains higher compared to current passive prostheses, especially in transfemoral amputees.
Nomura, Kenta; Yonezawa, Teru; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Takemura, Hiroshi
This paper presents a method to measure the passive stiffness of an ankle joint in three degrees of freedom (DOF) under two motion speeds (1 Hz and 5 degree/s) using a developed Stewart platform-type device. The developed device can reproduce input motions of the foot in 6 DOF by controlling six pneumatic linear motion actuators. We used the device to measure the passive stiffness of an ankle joint undergoing three kinds of motion, namely dorsi-plantar flexion, inversion-eversion, and adduction-abduction. The measured values of the passive stiffness of the ankle joint in dorsiflexion that we obtained agreed well with that obtained in a previous study, indicating that the developed device is useful for measuring the passive stiffness of ankle joint. In addition, the developed device can be used to measure the stiffness in inversion-eversion and adduction-abduction motions as well, parameters that have never been measured. The results we obtained demonstrated certain interesting features as we varied both the direction and pace of motion (e.g., there were significant differences in the stiffness not only between adduction and abduction during the faster pace, but also between these and the other motions).
Cody, Elizabeth A; Mancuso, Carol A; Burket, Jayme C; Marinescu, Anca; MacMahon, Aoife; Ellis, Scott J
Few authors have investigated patients' expectations from foot and ankle surgery. In this study, we aimed to examine relationships between patients' preoperative expectations and their demographic and clinical characteristics. We hypothesized that patients with more disability and those with anxiety or depressive symptoms would have greater expectations. All adult patients scheduled for elective foot or ankle surgery by 1 of 6 orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons were screened for inclusion over 8 months. Preoperatively, all patients completed the Hospital for Special Surgery Foot & Ankle Surgery Expectations Survey in addition to the Foot & Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Short Form (SF)-12, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-8, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), and pain visual analog scale (VAS). The expectations survey contained 23 expectations categories, each with 5 answer choices ranging from "I do not have this expectation" to "complete improvement" expected. It was scored from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more expectations. Differences in expectations relating to numerous patient demographic and clinical variables were assessed. In total, 352 patients with an average age of 55 ± 15 (range, 18-86) years were enrolled. Expectations scores were not related to age ( P = .36). On average, women expected to achieve complete improvement more often than men ( P = .011). Variables that were significantly associated with higher expectations scores ( P < .05) included nonwhite race, use of a cane or other assistive device, and greater medical comorbidity. Worse function and quality of life (as assessed by all FAOS subscales and the SF-12 physical and mental components), more depressive and anxiety symptoms, and higher pain VAS scores were associated with higher expectations scores and more expectations ( P < .01 for all). The results of this study may help inform surgeons' preoperative discussions with their patients regarding realistic
Feldman, Kent A
Based on the success of the anterior cruciate ligament model, interference screw fixation is now being applied to a wide variety of orthopedic conditions that require the fixation of tendon or ligament to bone. The primary focus of this article is to present the principles of interference screw fixation. By understanding the principles of interference screw fixation, the foot and ankle surgeon will be able to apply this fixation technique to a wide variety of surgical applications for tendon transfers or ligament repairs. The surgical technique, history, principles of fixation, studies of fixation strength, tissue healing, and foot and ankle indications are reviewed. A modified Girdlestone digital flexor tendon transfer procedure description is included to illustrate how interference screw techniques may be applied to foot surgery.
Bonnet, Xavier; Adde, Jean N; Blanchard, François; Gedouin-Toquet, Annick; Eveno, Dominique
It is always a challenge to rehabilitate geriatric amputees to perform self-care skills at home with limited ambulation. A new geriatric foot (with a lower effective foot length) has been specifically designed to reduce residual limb stress and to ease the step completion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of a new geriatric foot versus a Solid Ankle Cushion Heel foot for low-activity persons with transtibial amputation. Crossover study. A total of 12 patients were included in this study. 2-min walking test, Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology 2.0 questionnaire and pressure socket measurements. The geriatric foot allows for greater patient satisfaction. The maximal pressure was significantly lower in the proximal anterior stump area. No statistical differences were obtained from the 2-min walking test. A geriatric foot designed with a low effective foot length improves the satisfaction and reduces proximal anterior socket pressures for poor-performing persons with transtibial amputation. The development and evaluation of feet specifically designed for geriatric persons with transtibial amputation could improve their specific requirements and satisfaction. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
de Boer, A Siebe; Tjioe, Roderik J C; Van der Sijde, Fleur; Meuffels, Duncan E; den Hoed, Pieter T; Van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Van Lieshout, Esther M M
The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It consists of a patient-reported and a physician-reported part. A validated, Dutch version of this instrument is currently not available. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Dutch and to determine the measurement properties of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale Dutch language version (DLV) in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. Multicentre (two Dutch hospitals), prospective observational study. In total, 142 patients with a unilateral ankle fracture were included. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. Patients completed the subjective (patient-reported) part of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale-DLV. A physician or trained physician-assistant completed the physician-reported part. For comparison and evaluation of the measuring characteristics, the Foot Function Index and the Short Form-36 were completed by the patient. Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), reliability (ie, internal consistency), construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test-retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change) and responsiveness were determined. The AOFAS-DLV and its subscales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α >0.90). Construct validity and longitudinal validity were proven to be adequate (76.5% of predefined hypotheses were confirmed). Floor effects were not present. Ceiling effects were present from 6 months onwards, as expected. Responsiveness was adequate, with a smallest detectable change of 12.0 points. The AOFAS-DLV is a reliable, valid and responsive measurement instrument for evaluating functional outcome in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. This implies that the questionnaire is suitable to compare different treatment modalities within this population or to compare outcome across
Yatsuya, Kanan; Hirano, Satoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Eguchi, Masayuki; Katoh, Masaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Uno, Akito; Kagaya, Hitoshi
To compare the energy efficiency of Wearable Power-Assist Locomotor (WPAL) with conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses (MSH-KAFO) such as Hip and Ankle Linked Orthosis (HALO) or Primewalk. Cross over case-series. Chubu Rosai Hospital, Aichi, Japan, which is affiliated with the Japan Organization of Occupational Health and Safety. Six patients were trained with MSH-KAFO (either HALO or Primewalk) and WPAL. They underwent 6-minute walk tests with each orthosis. Energy efficiency was estimated using physiological cost index (PCI) as well as heart rate (HR) and modified Borg score. Trial energy efficiency with MSH-KAFO was compared with WPAL to assess if differences in PCI became greater between MSH-KAFO and WPAL as time goes on during the 6-minute walk. Spearman correlation coefficient of time (range: 0.5-6.0 minutes) with the difference was calculated. The same statistical procedures were repeated for HR and modified Borg score. Greater energy efficiency, representing a lower gait demand, was observed in trials with WPAL compared with MSH-KAFO (Spearman correlation coefficients for PCI, HR and modified Borg were 0.93, 0.90 and 0.97, respectively, all P energy efficient type of robotics that may be used by patients with paraplegia.
Hay-David, A G C; Clint, S A; Brown, R R
April 1st 2012 saw the introduction of National Trauma Networks in England. The aim to optimise the management of major trauma. Patients with an ISS≥16 would be transferred to the regional Major Trauma Centre (level 1). Our premise was that trauma units (level 2) would no longer manage complex foot and ankle injuries thereby obviating the need for a foot and ankle specialist service. Retrospective analysis of the epidemiology of foot and ankle injuries, using the Gloucestershire trauma database, from a trauma unit with a population of 750,000. Rates of open fractures, complex foot and ankle injuries and requirement for stabilisation with external fixation were reviewed before and after the introduction of the regional Trauma Network. Secondly, using the Trauma Audit & Research Network (TARN) database, all foot and ankle injuries triaged to the regional Major Trauma Centre (MTC) were reviewed. Incidence of open foot and ankle injuries was 2.9 per 100,000 per year. There were 5.1% open injuries before the network and 3.2% after (p>0.05). Frequency of complex foot and ankle injuries was 4.2% before and 7.5% after the network commenced, showing no significant change. There was no statistically significant change in the numbers of patients with complex foot and ankle injuries treated by application of external fixators. Analysis of TARN data revealed that only 18% of patients with foot and ankle injuries taken to the MTC had an ISS≥16. The majority of these patients were identified as requiring plastic surgical intervention for open fractures (69%) or were polytrauma patients (43%). Only 4.5% of patients had isolated, closed foot and ankle injuries. We found that at the trauma unit there was no decrease in the numbers of complex foot and ankle injuries, open fractures, or the applications of external fixators, following the introduction of the Trauma Network. These patients will continue to attend trauma units as they usually have an ISScomplex foot and ankle
Leigheb, Massimiliano; Janicka, Paulina; Andorno, Silvano; Marcuzzi, Augusto; Magnani, Corrado; Grassi, Federico
Background and Aim of the workAnkle and hindfoot injuries are common and may lead to functional impairment, disability, exclusion from occupational and daily activities. It's necessary a standardized method for assessing treatment outcomes in people with same condition and disease.American-Orthopaedics-Foot-and-Ankle-Society's-Ankle-Hindfoot-Evaluation-Scale (AOFAS-AHES) is specific to estimate clinical problems of the ankle-hindfoot.Outcome evaluation scales should be translated and culturally adapted into the language of the investigated patient.Our purpose was to translate and culturally adapt into Italian AOFAS-AHES, and to check its reproducibility and validity.MethodsAn Italian translation of the AOFAS-scale was retranslated into English by a native English and compared to the original to define a second correct Italian-version, that was submitted to 50 randomized patients operated at their ankle or hindfoot with a minimum follow-up of 6 months for cultural adaptation, and to 10 healthcare professionals to check comprehension of the medical part.To check intra and inter-observer reproducibility each patient underwent 2 interviews by interviewer-A and 1 by B. ShortForm(SF)-36-questionnaire for quality of life and Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS) for pain were also compared for validation. The Pearson's-Correlation-Coefficient and the Intra-Class-Correlation coefficient were calculated to check inter and intra-observer reproducibility for validation.ResultsCultural adaptation revealed to be good. We obtained a good correlation of the inter and intra-observer reproducibility. Further validation of the Italian-AOFAS-AHES was obtained comparing AOFAS results to SF-36.ConclusionsItalian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the AOFAS-AHES has been performed successfully and could be useful to improve assistance quality in care practice.
Dhillon, Mandeep Singh; Agashe, Vikas; Patil, Sampat Dumbre
Tuberculosis of the foot and ankle still remains to be a significant problem, especially in the developing countries, and with an increase in incidence in immunosuppressed patients. Treatment is mainly medical using multidrug chemotherapy; surgical interventions range from biopsy, synovectomy and debridement, to joint preserving procedures like distraction in early cases, and arthrodesis of hindfoot joints and the ankle in advanced disease with joint destruction. Surgical Options: All procedures should be done after initiating appropriate medical management. The ankle is the commonest joint needing intervention, followed by the subtalar and talo-navicular joint. Forefoot TB limited to the bone rarely needs surgical intervention except when the infective focus is threatening to invade a joint. Articular disease can spread rapidly, so early diagnosis and treatment can influence the outcome. Surgical interventions may need to be modified in the presence of sinuses and active disease; fusions need compression, and implants have to be chosen wisely. External fixators are the commonest devices used for compression in active disease, but intramedullary nails better stabilize pantalar arthrodesis. Arthroscopy has become a valuable tool for visualizing the ankle and hindfoot joints, and is an excellent adjunct for arthrodesis by minimally invasive methods. Although Osteoarticular Tb involving the foot and ankle is largely managed with chemotherapy, specific indications for surgical intervention exist. Timely done procedures could limit joint destruction, or prevent spread to adjacent joints. Fusions are the commonest procedure for sequelae of disease or for correcting residual deformity.
Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Menz, Hylton B
Age-related reduction in lower limb muscle strength has been shown to be related to disability, falls and loss of independence. While there have been a number of studies on age-related changes in muscle strength, they have concentrated on more proximal muscle groups with little research into how ageing affects the muscles of the foot and ankle. To evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of hand-held dynamometry for the assessment of foot and ankle strength, and to compare the values obtained between young and older people. The muscle groups which perform ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion and plantar flexion of the hallux and lesser digits were recorded for 36 young participants (17 males, 19 females, mean age 23.2 ± 4.3 years) and 36 older people (17 males, 19 females, mean age 77.1 ± 5.7 years) using a Citec hand-held dynamometer. Differences in muscle strength between the groups as well as intrarater and interrater reliability of two assessors were determined. The reliability of the hand-held dynamometry procedure was excellent for both intrarater (ICC(3,1) = 0.78-0.94) and interrater (ICC(3,1) = 0.77-0.88) comparisons. There were significant differences between the muscle strength of the young and older participants for all muscle groups tested (p dynamometry is a reliable instrument to measure the foot and ankle strength of young and older adults. Ageing is associated with a reduction in strength of between 24 and 37% for the muscles responsible for movement of the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dr. Ajai Singh
Full Text Available Majority of paediatric flat feet are flexible and asymptomatic; less than 0.1% of all flat feet are rigid. If these can be diagnosed and managed early, then various complications can be prevented and they will remain asymptomatic. This study was conducted to analyse the ankle rotational mal-alignments in the natural course of flexible flat foot in children. Seventy-six patients of flexible flat foot and one hundred controls were included in this study. The height of foot arches was judged clinically by inspecting the height of the medial arch and by measuring the arch index on weight-bearing podograms. Tibial torsion and bimalleolar angle were assessed in all subjects. Tibial torsion was assessed in the first twenty subjects (ten cases and ten controls both by clinical methods (foot-thigh angle and CT. As no statistical difference in the two methods was observed, tibial torsion was measured by clinical methods only in the remaining subjects. Bimalleolar angle was measured on weight-bearing podograms in all subjects. For a minimum of two years, cases were followed up regularly with a standard conservative protocol and the height of the arches observed. Majority of cases of flexible flat foot were found to have increased tibial torsion and increased foot-bimalleolar angle (high talar spin. The severity of collapse of the medial arch and the response to conservative treatment was found to correlate with these rotational mal-alignments of the ankle. Ankle rotational mal-alignments were seen to make these flexible flat foot deformities more complex and less responsive to conservative treatment.
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional data is required to have advanced knowledge of foot and ankle kinematics and morphology. However, studies have been difficult to compare due to a lack of a common coordinate system. Therefore, we present a means to define a coordinate frame in the foot and ankle and its clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out ten CT scans in anatomically normal feet and segmented them in a general purpose segmentation program for grey value images. 3D binary formatted stereolithography files were then create and imported to a shape analysis program for biomechanics which was used to define a coordinate frame and carry out morphological analysis of the forefoot. RESULTS: The coordinate frame had axes standard deviations of 2.36 which are comparable to axes variability of other joint coordinate systems. We showed a strong correlation between the lengths of the metatarsals within and between the columns of the foot and also among the lesser metatarsal lengths. CONCLUSION: We present a reproducible method for construction of a coordinate system for the foot and ankle with low axes variability. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To conduct meaningful comparison between multiple subjects the coordinate system must be constant. This system enables such comparison and therefore will aid morphological data collection and improve preoperative planning accuracy.
Wheel spoke injury of the ankle and foot is very common in children and its reconstruction is challenging. Reverse flow sural artery fasciocutaneous flap is versatile for this area but lead to significant donor site morbidity. Free tissue transfer is an option in children which needs a micro-vascular expertise, expensive equipment and long operating time. Method: Fifteen adipofascial flaps were done for foot and ankle coverage from June 2011 to June 2014 at CH and ICH Lahore. The efficacy of adipofascial sural artery flap for the coverage of these defects was evaluated. Results: Fifteen children presented with defects of foot and ankle, 11 (73%) were male and 4 (27%) were female. Their age ranged from 1 - 13 years. All patients had trauma to the foot due to wheel spoke injury. Flaps were used to cover tendoachilles and malleoli. In one patient there was flap tip necrosis with partial graft loss which healed with dressings. Donor site aesthetic outcome was satisfactory in all cases. Mean follow-up was I year. Conclusion: Adipofascial Sural artery flap is quick and safe with wide arc of rotation, minimal donor site morbidity and better aesthetic outcome and it does not sacrifice major extremity vessel. (author)
Fraser, John J; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay
Assessment of foot posture, morphology, intersegmental mobility, strength and motor control of the ankle-foot complex are commonly used clinically, but measurement properties of many assessments are unclear. To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change of morphology, joint excursion and play, strength, and motor control of the ankle-foot complex. Reliability study. 24 healthy, recreationally-active young adults without history of ankle-foot injury were assessed by two clinicians on two occasions, three to ten days apart. Measurement properties were assessed for foot morphology (foot posture index, total and truncated length, width, arch height), joint excursion (weight-bearing dorsiflexion, rearfoot and hallux goniometry, forefoot inclinometry, 1 st metatarsal displacement) and joint play, strength (handheld dynamometry), and motor control rating during intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises. Clinician order was randomized using a Latin Square. The clinicians performed independent examinations and did not confer on the findings for the duration of the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability and agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,k ) and weighted kappa ( K w ). Test-retest reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .80-1.00, joint excursion: .58-.97, joint play: -.67-.84, strength: .67-.92, IFM motor rating: K W -.01-.71. Inter-rater reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .81-1.00, joint excursion: .32-.97, joint play: -1.06-1.00, strength: .53-.90, and IFM motor rating: K w .02-.56. Measures of ankle-foot posture, morphology, joint excursion, and strength demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability for rating of perceived difficulty and motor performance was good to excellent for short-foot, toe-spread-out, and hallux exercises and poor to fair for lesser toe extension. Joint play measures had
Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Lacraz, Alain; Lenoir, Jean; Assal, Mathieu; Armand, Stéphane
To compare the well-recognized solid ankle cushion heel (SACH) foot with the prosthetic foot developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross (CR Equipements SACH) during gait. Double-blind study was conducted to compare the influence on the biomechanics of gait of the CR Equipements SACH foot and the SACH foot. University hospital research center. Participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (N=15) were included. Three-dimensional motion analysis system and 2 forceplates were used to capture body motion and ground reaction forces during gait at a self-selected speed and at 1.2m/s. Nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests were used to compare the 2 prosthetic feet with respect to their spatiotemporal (gait velocity, stride length, and percentage of stance phase), kinematic (range and peak angles of the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle), and kinetic (peak moment and power of the hip, knee, and ankle) parameters. Compared with the SACH foot, the CR Equipements SACH foot demonstrated a significantly greater stance phase symmetry ratio (SACH: 94% vs CR Equipements SACH: 97%), a more extensive ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane (SACH: 7° vs CR Equipements SACH: 12°), a greater maximal dorsiflexion angle during the terminal stance phase (SACH: 10° vs CR Equipements SACH: 13°), and a higher ankle power (SACH: .31W/kg vs CR Equipements SACH: .40W/kg). No significant difference was found for the examined knee, hip, and pelvis parameters. The CR Equipements SACH foot provides more symmetry and improves ankle kinematics and kinetics in the sagittal plane compared with the SACH foot. This study suggests that individuals using the CR Equipements SACH foot improve their gait biomechanics compared when using the SACH foot. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes further improvement and preliminarily evaluation of a novel viscoelastic ankle-foot prosthesis prototype. The objective was to control the ankle hysteresis at slow and normal walking speeds. Methods: Inspired by the ankle biomechanics, in which the hysteresis differs based on the gait speeds, a manually damping control mechanism imbedded in the prosthesis for adjusting the ankle damping at slow and normal walking speeds. The prototype was then preliminarily tested on an able-bodied subject wearing an adaptor which simulates the amputee walking. The ankle joint kinetics and kinematics were measured in a gait analysis lab at different walking speeds. Results: The results suggest that the viscoelastic ankle foot prosthesis prototype could provide a smooth normal-like walking for most of the measured gait characteristics in slow and normal speeds. Discussion: Therefore, it is suggested to apply a controllable damping mechanism based on the gait speeds in the design of new prosthetic feet.
Naraghi, Reza; Bremner, Alexandra; Slack-Smith, Linda; Bryant, Alan
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of an association between intermetatarsal neuroma and foot type, as measured by the Foot Posture Index. The study also examined whether there was a relationship between foot type and the interspace affected with intermetatarsal neuroma, and whether ankle equinus or body mass index had an effect. In total, 100 participants were recruited from The University of Western Australia's Podiatry Clinic, 68 of whom were diagnosed with inter-metatarsal neuroma from 2009 to 2015. There were 32 control participants recruited from 2014 to 2015. The age of subjects was recorded, as were weight and height, which were used to calculate body mass index. The foot posture index and ankle dorsiflexion were measured using standard technique. Independent t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare differences in foot posture index, body mass index and ankle dorsiflexion between the inter-metatarsal neuroma and control groups. Multivariable logistic regression was also used to model relationships for outcome. The 68 intermetatarsal neuroma subjects had a mean age of 52 years (range 20 to 74 years) and comprised of 56 females and 12 males. The 32 control subjects had a mean age of 49 years (range 24 to 67 years) with 26 females and six males. There were no significant differences between the control and the intermetatarsal neuroma groups with respect to the mean foot posture index scores of the left and right foot ( p = 0.21 and 0.87, respectively). Additionally no significant differences were detected between the affected intermetatarsal neuroma interspace and foot posture index ( p = 0.27 and 0.47, respectively). There was no significant difference in mean body mass index between the intermetatarsal neuroma (26.9 ± 5.7) and control groups (26.5 ± 4.1) ( p = 0.72). There was, however, a significant difference in mean ankle dorsiflexion between the intermetatarsal neuroma and control
Rusaw, David; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
The use of motion analysis techniques in amputee rehabilitation often utilizes kinematic data from the prosthetic limb. A problem with methods currently used is that the joint positions of the prosthetic ankle are assumed to be in the same position as that of an intact ankle. The aim of this study was to identify both traditional anatomical joint centres as well as functional joint centres in a selection of commonly used prosthetic feet. These coordinates were then compared across feet and compared to the contralateral intact ankle joint. Six prosthetic feet were fit to a unilateral trans-tibial amputee on two separate occasions. The subject's intact limb was used as a control. Three-dimensional kinematics were collected to determine the sagittal position of the functional joint centre for the feet investigated. None of the prosthetic feet had a functional joint centre that was within the 95% CI for that of an intact ankle (both x- and y-coordinate position), nor any of the other prosthetic feet investigated. The repeatability of the method was found to be adequate, with 95% CI of the difference (test-retest) of the prosthetic feet similar to that for the intact ankle and within clinically accepted levels of variability. The motion of the prosthetic feet tested is clearly different from that of an intact ankle. Kinematic methods that assume ankle constraints based on an intact ankle are subject to systematic error as this does not reflect the real motion of the prosthetic foot. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paterson, Kade L; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L
To document the management of foot/ankle osteoarthritis/arthritis (OA) by general practitioners (GP) in Australia. We analysed data from the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health Program April 2010-March 2016 inclusive. Patient and GP encounter characteristics were extracted. Data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, Version 2, and summarised using descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) around point estimates. The dataset included 583,900 patient-encounter records among which foot/ankle OA was managed 621 times, at a rate of 1.1 per 1,000 encounters, with an annual estimated 152,000 GP encounters nationally. The management rate was most frequent among patients aged 65-74 years (2.25 per 1,000 encounters). Comorbidities were managed at a rate of 105.8 per 100 encounters, the most common being hypertension, and few being other musculoskeletal problems. Foot/ankle OA was mostly managed using medication (64.6 per 100 problems), with prescription rates far exceeding non-pharmacological strategies such as counselling, advice or education (17.7 per 100), or allied health referral (10.1 per 100). When considering specific health/medical professionals, patients were referred to orthopaedic surgeons 8.4 times per 100 foot/ankle problems, podiatrists 6.3 times per 100 foot/ankle problems, and physiotherapists 2.6 times per 100 foot/ankle problems. Pharmacological management rates of foot/ankle OA were high and substantially exceeded non-pharmacological management such as lifestyle advice and allied health referral. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of this care compared to self-management and conservative non-drug treatment in people with foot/ankle OA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Shinabarger, Andrew B; Manway, Jeffrey M; Nowak, Jessica; Burns, Patrick R
Tendon transfers are commonly performed procedures in the foot and ankle. They have been described for multiple tendons and a myriad of pathologies. One issue with these procedures has always been inadequate fixation with several methods available to the surgeon. In this report, we describe a novel technique in foot and ankle surgery using a cortical button and an interference screw. © 2014 The Author(s).
Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming
This paper introduces a method to generate the planar jumping motion for biped robot. In this work, through determining the upper body posture trajectory in the flight phase, the foot landing posture is made to be flat while landing. Together with properly designing the trajectory for local center of gravity and the foot landing velocity, the soft landing trajectory is generated. A controller on the ankle joint is added to avoid significant impact with the ground and stabilize the robot after landing. Jumping motion with stable landing is achieved in a dynamic simulation environment based on this method.
Fitzgibbons, Timothy C; Hawks, Michael A; McMullen, Scott T; Inda, David J
Bone grafting is a common procedure in foot and ankle surgery. Historically, autogenous bone graft has most often been harvested from the ipsilateral iliac crest. However, other sites offer similar volumes of cancellous bone and are associated with fewer complications. The ipsilateral proximal tibia, distal tibia, and calcaneus provide adequate amounts of bone graft material for most arthrodesis procedures about the foot and ankle. Emerging techniques have enabled the development of a seemingly unlimited supply of alternative bone graft materials with osteoconductive properties. The osteoprogenitor cells in bone marrow aspirates can be concentrated by use of selective retention systems. These aspirate-matrix composites may be combined with allograft preparations, resulting in a product that promotes osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and osteogenesis with limited morbidity.
Vankoski, S J; Michaud, S; Dias, L
The aims of this study were to determine the influence of external tibial torsion on the effectiveness of the ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) in children with lumbosacral myelomeningocele. Forty patients with normal tibial rotation and 18 patients with excessive external tibial torsion were evaluated with three-dimensional gait analysis at their comfortable walking speed. The group with normal tibial rotation showed significantly greater knee extension and lower mean extension moment compared with the group with external tibial torsion (p 20 degrees demand close inspection as candidates for derotation osteotomy. The AFO will continue to stabilize the ankle-foot complex, but improved knee motion, knee-extensor activity, and ultimately walking efficiency may be compromised.
Sierevelt, I N; Beimers, L; van Bergen, C J A; Haverkamp, D; Terwee, C B; Kerkhoffs, G M M J
The aim of this study was to develop a Dutch language version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS-DLV) and evaluate its measurement properties according to the definitions of the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). After a standard forward-backward translation procedure, the Dutch version of the FAOS was evaluated for reliability and validity in 110 patients with various hind foot and ankle complaints. Reliability was evaluated by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, and the smallest detectable change (SDC). Construct validity of the FAOS was assessed by calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients with similar and dissimilar domains of the SF-36 health survey, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle and Hindfoot Scale, and visual analogue scales for pain and disability. Dimensionality was tested with confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of the FAOS-DLV was good. The ICC of the subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.88. The minimal value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.76. The SDC at individual level ranged from 18 to 21 and at group level between 2.1 and 2.5. Construct validity was supported by confirmation of 85 % of the hypothesized correlations. Unidimensionality of the FAOS-DLV domains was moderate. The Dutch version of the FAOS seems to have acceptable measurement properties. The questionnaire can be used for functional assessment of patients with varying hindfoot and ankle symptoms. It is, however, more suitable for clinical evaluation at group level than for monitoring a specific patient. Diagnostic study, Level I.
Background and purpose A questionnaire was introduced by the New Zealand Arthroplasty Registry for use when evaluating the outcome of total ankle replacement surgery. We evaluated the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the modified Swedish version of the questionnaire (SEFAS) in patients with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis before and/or after their ankle was replaced or fused. Patients and methods The questionnaire was translated into Swedish and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. It was sent to 135 patients with ankle arthritis who were scheduled for or had undergone surgery, together with the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS), the short form 36 (SF-36) score, and the EuroQol (EQ-5D) score. Construct validity was evaluated with Spearman’s correlation coefficient when comparing SEFAS with FAOS, SF-36, and EQ-5D, content validity by calculating floor and ceiling effects, test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha (n = 62), agreement by Bland-Altman plot, and responsiveness by effect size and standardized response mean (n = 37). Results For construct validity, we correlated SEFAS with the other scores and 70% or more of our predefined hypotheses concerning correlations could be confirmed. There were no floor or ceiling effects. ICC was 0.92 (CI 95%: 0.88–0.95), Cronbach’s alpha 0.96, effect size was 1.44, and the standardized response mean was 1.00. Interpretation SEFAS is a self-reported foot and ankle score with good validity, reliability and responsiveness, indicating that the score can be used to evaluate patients with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis of the ankle and outcome of surgery. PMID:22313352
Peixoto, J.; Flores, P.; Souto, A. P.
This paper concerns the development of a new approach for orthopaedic footwear to apply in KAFO orthosis (acronym for Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis). This procedure starts with full characterization of the problem with the purpose to characterize a plantar of a patient’s foot with polio. A 3D Scanner was used to collect their feet’s data to produce an anatomic insole. After this step, the patient performs a study of his gait using a static and dynamic study with the aim of characterizing the parameters to improve quality in the footwear. The insole was produced using a 3D printing technology. It was essential to optimize manufacturing processes and it was developed a footwear prototype with innovative characteristics, which is 25% lighter, allowing the user to consume less energy in daily routines.
Hung, Man; Baumhauer, Judith F; Latt, L Daniel; Saltzman, Charles L; SooHoo, Nelson F; Hunt, Kenneth J
In 2012, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society(®) established a national network for collecting and sharing data on treatment outcomes and improving patient care. One of the network's initiatives is to explore the use of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) for patient-level outcome reporting. We determined whether the CAT from the NIH Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®)) Physical Function (PF) item bank provides efficient, reliable, valid, precise, and adequately covered point estimates of patients' physical function. After informed consent, 288 patients with a mean age of 51 years (range, 18-81 years) undergoing surgery for common foot and ankle problems completed a web-based questionnaire. Efficiency was determined by time for test administration. Reliability was assessed with person and item reliability estimates. Validity evaluation included content validity from expert review and construct validity measured against the PROMIS(®) Pain CAT and patient responses based on tradeoff perceptions. Precision was assessed by standard error of measurement (SEM) across patients' physical function levels. Instrument coverage was based on a person-item map. Average time of test administration was 47 seconds. Reliability was 0.96 for person and 0.99 for item. Construct validity against the Pain CAT had an r value of -0.657 (p foot and ankle surgery. Further validation of the PROMIS(®) item banks may ultimately provide a valid and reliable tool for measuring patient-reported outcomes after injuries and treatment.
Karatepe, Altinay Göksel; Günaydin, Rezzan; Kaya, Taciser; Karlibaş, Uğur; Özbek, Gülriz
The objective is to develop a Turkish version of the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS) and to investigate its validity and reliability. The Turkish version of FAOS was developed after the translation and back-translation. The translated version was pretested on 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Then, the Turkish FAOS was administered to 55 patients having foot and ankle problems. They were also evaluated by using the four subscales of the Turkish version of AIMS2, and the Turkish version of SF-36 questionnaire to test validity. Fifty patients filled out the FAOS for second time to determine test–retest reliability. Construct validity was investigated with use of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Test–retest reliability was assessed with use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha score. The psychometric properties of the Turkish FAOS were generally similar to the original FAOS. The random ICC for the five subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.96. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ranged from 0.79 to 0.97. Construct validity of the FAOS was good. The Turkish FAOS correlated with the SF-36 and AIMS2 scales. The Turkish version of FAOS was valid and reliable instrument to assess the foot and ankle related problems. However, to assess its responsiveness further studies are needed.
Pothrat, Claude; Authier, Guillaume; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume
Biomechanical models representing the foot as a single rigid segment are commonly used in clinical or sport evaluations. However, neglecting internal foot movements could lead to significant inaccuracies on ankle joint kinematics. The present study proposed an assessment of 3D ankle kinematic outputs using two distinct biomechanical models and their application in the clinical flat foot case. Results of the Plug in Gait (one segment foot model) and the Oxford Foot Model (multisegment foot model) were compared for normal children (9 participants) and flat feet children (9 participants). Repeated measures of Analysis of Variance have been performed to assess the Foot model and Group effects on ankle joint kinematics. Significant differences were observed between the two models for each group all along the gait cycle. In particular for the flat feet group, opposite results between the Oxford Foot Model and the Plug in Gait were revealed at heelstrike, with the Plug in Gait showing a 4.7° ankle dorsal flexion and 2.7° varus where the Oxford Foot Model showed a 4.8° ankle plantar flexion and 1.6° valgus. Ankle joint kinematics of the flat feet group was more affected by foot modeling than normal group. Foot modeling appeared to have a strong influence on resulting ankle kinematics. Moreover, our findings showed that this influence could vary depending on the population. Studies involving ankle joint kinematic assessment should take foot modeling with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dingenen, Bart; Peeraer, Louis; Deschamps, Kevin; Fieuws, Steffen; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip
Participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) use an altered neuromuscular strategy to shift weight from double-legged to single-legged stance. Shoes and foot orthoses may influence these muscle-activation patterns. To evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on onset times of lower extremity muscle activity in participants with CAI during the transition from double-legged to single-legged stance. Cross-sectional study. Musculoskeletal laboratory. A total of 15 people (9 men, 6 women; age = 21.8 ± 3.0 years, height = 177.7 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 14.6 kg) who had CAI and wore foot orthoses were recruited. A transition task from double-legged to single-legged stance was performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. Both limbs were tested in 4 experimental conditions: (1) barefoot (BF), (2) shoes only, (3) shoes with standard foot orthoses, and (4) shoes with custom foot orthoses (SCFO). The onset of activity of 9 lower extremity muscles was recorded using surface electromyography and a single force plate. Based on a full-factorial (condition, region, limb, vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a condition effect (F(3,91.8) = 9.39, P shoes-only (P = .02) and shoes-with-standard-foot-orthoses (P = .03) conditions than in the BF condition. No differences were observed for the hip muscles. Earlier onset of muscle activity was most apparent in the SCFO condition for ankle and knee muscles but not for hip muscles during the transition from double-legged to single-legged stance. These findings might help clinicians understand how shoes and foot orthoses can influence neuromuscular control in participants with CAI.
Anderson, Michael R; Houck, Jeff R; Saltzman, Charles L; Hung, Man; Nickisch, Florian; Barg, Alexej; Beals, Timothy; Baumhauer, Judith F
A recent publication reported preoperative Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Instrumentation System (PROMIS) scores to be highly predictive in identifying patients who would and would not benefit from foot and ankle surgery. Their applicability to other patient populations is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the validation and generalizability of previously published preoperative PROMIS physical function (PF) and pain interference (PI) threshold t scores as predictors of postoperative clinically meaningful improvement in foot and ankle patients from a geographically unique patient population. Prospective PROMIS PF and PI scores of consecutive patient visits to a tertiary foot and ankle clinic were obtained between January 2014 and November 2016. Patients undergoing elective foot and ankle surgery were identified and PROMIS values obtained at initial and follow-up visits (average, 7.9 months). Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in PROMIS scores before and after surgery. The distributive method was used to estimate a minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine thresholds for achieving and failing to achieve MCID. To assess the validity and generalizability of these threshold values, they were compared with previously published threshold values for accuracy using likelihood ratios and pre- and posttest probabilities, and the percentages of patients identified as achieving and failing to achieve MCID were evaluated using χ 2 analysis. There were significant improvements in PF ( P < .001) and PI ( P < .001) after surgery. The area under the curve for PF (0.77) was significant ( P < .01), and the thresholds for achieving MCID and not achieving MCID were similar to those in the prior study. A significant proportion of patients (88.9%) identified as not likely to achieve MCID failed to achieve MCID ( P = .03). A significant proportion of patients (84.2%) identified
Mani, Sriniwasan B; Brown, Haydée C; Nair, Pallavi; Chen, Lan; Do, Huong T; Lyman, Stephen; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J
The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score has been under recent scrutiny. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is an alternative subjective survey, assessing outcomes in 5 subscales. It is validated for lateral ankle instability and hallux valgus patients. The aim of our study was to validate the FAOS for assessing outcomes in flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). Patients from the authors' institution diagnosed with flexible AAFD from 2006 to 2011 were eligible for the study. In all, 126 patients who completed the FAOS and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) on the same visit were included in the construct validity component. Correlation was deemed moderate if the Spearman's correlation coefficient was .4 to .7. Content validity was assessed in 63 patients by a questionnaire that asked patients to rate the relevance of each FAOS question, with a score of 2 or greater considered acceptable. Reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in 41 patients who completed a second FAOS survey. In 49 patients, preoperative and postoperative FAOS scores were compared to determine responsiveness. All of the FAOS subscales demonstrated moderate correlation with 2 physical health related SF-12 domains. Mental health related domains showed poor correlation. Content validity was high for the Quality of Life (QoL; mean 2.26) and Sports/Recreation subscales (mean 2.12). All subscales exhibited very good test-retest reliability, with ICCs of .7 and above. Symptoms, QoL, pain, and daily activities (ADLs) were responsive to change in postoperative patients (P validated the FAOS for AAFD with acceptable construct and content validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Given its previous validation for patients with ankle instability and hallux valgus, the additional findings in this study support its use as an alternative to less reliable outcome surveys. Level II, prospective comparative study.
Ibrahim, Talal; Beiri, Almoghera; Azzabi, Mohamed; Best, Alistair J; Taylor, Grahame J; Menon, Dipen K
This study evaluates the criterion validity of the subjective component of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) clinical rating scales by correlating scores obtained with these rating scales to scores obtained with the Foot Function Index (FFI) in patients with foot and ankle conditions. To date, the AOFAS scoring scales have not been shown to provide valid information despite their popularity. The FFI, on the other hand, has previously been shown to provide valid information in regard to conditions affecting the foot and ankle. A moderately strong inverse criterion validity correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient = -0.68) was shown when preoperative patients were administered both the AOFAS and FFI questionnaires, and the resultant scores were compared. Test-retest reliability measurements showed no significant difference (P = .27) between preoperative AOFAS scale scores measured at least 2 weeks apart. Construct validity was shown (P = .006) when dependent preoperative and postoperative (at least 3 months) AOFAS scale scores were compared, indicative of the clinical rating scales' ability to discriminate and predict quality of life related to foot and ankle conditions. The moderate level of correlation, satisfactory degree of reliability, and responsiveness (ability to distinguish differences between preoperative and postoperative conditions in the same patient) observed in this study suggest that the subjective component of the AOFAS clinical rating scales provides quality-of-life information that conveys acceptable validity regarding conditions affecting the foot and ankle.
Geerse, Daphne; Coolen, Bert; Kolijn, Detmar; Roerdink, Melvyn
The Kinect v2 sensor may be a cheap and easy to use sensor to quantify gait in clinical settings, especially when applied in set-ups integrating multiple Kinect sensors to increase the measurement volume. Reliable estimates of foot placement locations are required to quantify spatial gait parameters. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of distance from the sensor, side and step length on estimates of foot placement locations based on Kinect's ankle body points. Subjects (n = 12) performed stepping trials at imposed foot placement locations distanced 2 m or 3 m from the Kinect sensor (distance), for left and right foot placement locations (side), and for five imposed step lengths. Body points' time series of the lower extremities were recorded with a Kinect v2 sensor, placed frontoparallelly on the left side, and a gold-standard motion-registration system. Foot placement locations, step lengths, and stepping accuracies were compared between systems using repeated-measures ANOVAs, agreement statistics and two one-sided t -tests to test equivalence. For the right side at the 2 m distance from the sensor we found significant between-systems differences in foot placement locations and step lengths, and evidence for nonequivalence. This distance by side effect was likely caused by differences in body orientation relative to the Kinect sensor. It can be reduced by using Kinect's higher-dimensional depth data to estimate foot placement locations directly from the foot's point cloud and/or by using smaller inter-sensor distances in the case of a multi-Kinect v2 set-up to estimate foot placement locations at greater distances from the sensor.
Paterson, K L; Kasza, J; Hunter, D J; Hinman, R S; Menz, H B; Peat, G; Bennell, K L
To investigate whether foot and/or ankle symptoms increase the risk of developing (1) knee symptoms and (2) symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). 1020 Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants who were at-risk of knee OA, but were without knee symptoms or radiographic knee OA, were investigated. Participants indicated the presence and laterality of foot/ankle symptoms at baseline. The main outcome was development of knee symptoms (pain, aching or stiffness in and around the knee on most days of the month for at least 1 month in the past year). A secondary outcome was development of symptomatic radiographic knee OA (symptoms plus Kellgren and Lawrence [KL] grade ≥2), over the subsequent 4 years. Associations between foot/ankle symptoms and study outcomes were assessed by logistic regression models. Foot/ankle symptoms in either or both feet significantly increased the odds of developing knee symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.19), and developing symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.69 to 6.37). Based on laterality, contralateral foot/ankle symptoms were associated with developing both knee symptoms (adjusted OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.68) and symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 8.98), whilst bilateral foot/ankle symptoms were associated with developing symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.76 to 9.17). In individuals at-risk of knee OA, the presence of contralateral foot/ankle symptoms in particular increases risk of developing both knee symptoms and symptomatic radiographic knee OA. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nie, Bingbing; Forman, Jason L; Mait, Alexander R; Donlon, John-Paul; Panzer, Matthew B; Kent, Richard W
Ligament sprains, defined as tearing of bands of fibrous tissues within ligaments, account for a majority of injuries to the foot and ankle complex in field-based sports. External rotation of the foot is considered the primary injury mechanism of syndesmotic ankle sprains with concomitant flexion and inversion/eversion associated with particular patterns of ligament trauma. However, the influence of the magnitude and direction of loading vectors to the ankle on the in situ stress state of the ligaments has not been quantified in the literature. The objective of the present study was to search for the maximum injury tolerance of a human foot with an acceptable subfailure distribution of individual ligaments. We used a previously developed and comprehensively validated foot and ankle model to reproduce a range of combined foot rotation experienced during high-risk sports activities. Biomechanical computational investigation was performed on initial foot rotation from [Formula: see text] of plantar flexion to [Formula: see text] of dorsiflexion, and from [Formula: see text] of inversion to [Formula: see text] of eversion prior to external rotation. Change in initial foot rotation shifted injury initiation among different ligaments and resulted in a wide range of injury tolerances at the structural level (e.g., 36-125 Nm of rotational moment). The observed trend was in agreement with a parallel experimental study that initial plantar flexion decreased the incidence of syndesmotic injury compared to a neutral foot. A mechanism of distributing even loads across ligaments subjected to combined foot rotations was identified. This mechanism is potential to obtain the maximum load-bearing capability of a foot and ankle while minimizing the injury severity of ligaments. Such improved understanding of ligament injuries in athletes is necessary to facilitate injury management by clinicians and countermeasure development by biomechanists.
Baker, Jonathan C; Hoover, Eric G; Hillen, Travis J; Smith, Matthew V; Wright, Rick W; Rubin, David A
In ice hockey players, serious bone injuries in the foot and ankle, especially those attributed to impact from the moving puck, may be radiographically occult and underrecognized. The purpose of this research was to study foot and ankle bone injuries detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that occurred in elite hockey players. The hypothesis was that these injuries predominate medially, especially when caused by the impact from the puck, and are associated with prolonged lost playing time. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Three independent observers, blinded to the mechanism of injury, retrospectively reviewed foot and ankle MRI examinations acquired after 31 acute injuries that occurred in 27 elite ice hockey players who had no radiographically visible fractures. Bone abnormalities were classified as fractures or varying degrees of contusion based on predetermined definitions. Interobserver agreement was analyzed with kappa statistics. The association between the injury mechanism and the bones involved was examined with the Fisher exact test. A t test was applied to determine if MRI evidence of a severe bone injury (defined as either a fracture or a high-grade bone contusion) was associated with longer recovery times, when return-to-play information was available. The observers identified at least 1 bone injury in 27 of the 31 MRI examinations, including 10 with radiographically occult fractures. Agreement among the 3 observers for injury categorization was substantial (κ = 0.76). Seventeen injuries were caused by a direct blow (15 from a moving puck, 2 from an uncertain source), resulting in 6 fractures and 6 high-grade bone contusions, with 14 of the 17 involving a medial bone (medial malleolus, navicular, or first metatarsal base). Compared with other mechanisms, direct impaction was statistically more likely to result in a severe bone injury and to involve the medial foot and ankle. In 20 injuries where return-to-play information was available
Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ming
Introduction Foot and ankle impact injury is common in geriatric trauma and often leads to fracture of rearfoot, including calcaneus and talus. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of foot impact on the risk of calcaneus and talus fracture via finite element analysis. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of foot and ankle was constructed based on magnetic resonance images of a female aged 28. The foot sustained a 7-kg passive impact through a foot plate. The simulated impact velocities were from 2.0 to 7.0 m/s with 1.0 m/s interval. Results At 5.0 m/s impact velocity, the maximum von Mises stress of the trabecular calcaneus and talus were 3.21MPa and 2.41MPa respectively, while that of the Tresca stress were 3.46MPa and 2.55MPa. About 94% and 84% of the trabecular calcaneus and talus exceeded the shear yielding stress, while 21.7% and 18.3% yielded the compressive stress. The peak stresses were distributed around the talocalcaneal articulation and the calcaneal tuberosity inferiorly, which corresponded to the common fracture sites. Conclusions The prediction in this study showed that axial compressive impact at 5.0 m/s could produce considerable yielding of trabecular bone in both calcaneus and talus, dominantly by shear and compounded with compression that predispose the rearfoot in the risk of fracture. This study suggested the injury pattern and fracture mode of high energy trauma that provides insights in injury prevention and fracture management. PMID:27119740
Duo Wai-Chi Wong
Full Text Available Foot and ankle impact injury is common in geriatric trauma and often leads to fracture of rearfoot, including calcaneus and talus. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of foot impact on the risk of calcaneus and talus fracture via finite element analysis.A three-dimensional finite element model of foot and ankle was constructed based on magnetic resonance images of a female aged 28. The foot sustained a 7-kg passive impact through a foot plate. The simulated impact velocities were from 2.0 to 7.0 m/s with 1.0 m/s interval.At 5.0 m/s impact velocity, the maximum von Mises stress of the trabecular calcaneus and talus were 3.21MPa and 2.41MPa respectively, while that of the Tresca stress were 3.46MPa and 2.55MPa. About 94% and 84% of the trabecular calcaneus and talus exceeded the shear yielding stress, while 21.7% and 18.3% yielded the compressive stress. The peak stresses were distributed around the talocalcaneal articulation and the calcaneal tuberosity inferiorly, which corresponded to the common fracture sites.The prediction in this study showed that axial compressive impact at 5.0 m/s could produce considerable yielding of trabecular bone in both calcaneus and talus, dominantly by shear and compounded with compression that predispose the rearfoot in the risk of fracture. This study suggested the injury pattern and fracture mode of high energy trauma that provides insights in injury prevention and fracture management.
Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ming
Foot and ankle impact injury is common in geriatric trauma and often leads to fracture of rearfoot, including calcaneus and talus. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of foot impact on the risk of calcaneus and talus fracture via finite element analysis. A three-dimensional finite element model of foot and ankle was constructed based on magnetic resonance images of a female aged 28. The foot sustained a 7-kg passive impact through a foot plate. The simulated impact velocities were from 2.0 to 7.0 m/s with 1.0 m/s interval. At 5.0 m/s impact velocity, the maximum von Mises stress of the trabecular calcaneus and talus were 3.21MPa and 2.41MPa respectively, while that of the Tresca stress were 3.46MPa and 2.55MPa. About 94% and 84% of the trabecular calcaneus and talus exceeded the shear yielding stress, while 21.7% and 18.3% yielded the compressive stress. The peak stresses were distributed around the talocalcaneal articulation and the calcaneal tuberosity inferiorly, which corresponded to the common fracture sites. The prediction in this study showed that axial compressive impact at 5.0 m/s could produce considerable yielding of trabecular bone in both calcaneus and talus, dominantly by shear and compounded with compression that predispose the rearfoot in the risk of fracture. This study suggested the injury pattern and fracture mode of high energy trauma that provides insights in injury prevention and fracture management.
Radtka, Sandra A; Skinner, Stephen R; Johanson, M Elise
This study compared the effects of solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) on the gait of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who ambulate with excessive ankle plantar flexion during stance. Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP wore no AFOs for an initial 2-week period, solid AFOs for 1 month, no AFOs for 2 weeks, and hinged AFOs for 1 month. Lower extremity muscle timing, knee and ankle joint motions, moments and powers, and temporal-distance characteristics were measured during ambulation for an initial barefoot baseline test, and with solid and hinged AFOs for the other two tests. Both orthoses increased stride length, reduced abnormal ankle plantar flexion during initial contact, midstance and terminal stance (TST), and increased ankle plantar flexor moments closer to normal during TST. Hinged AFOs increased ankle dorsiflexion at TST and increased ankle power generation during preswing (PSW) as compared to solid AFOs, and increased ankle dorsiflexion at loading compared to no AFOs. No other significant differences were found for the gait variables when comparing these orthoses. Either AFO could be used to reduce the excessive ankle plantar flexion without affecting the knee position during stance. The hinged AFO would be recommended to produce more normal dorsiflexion during TST and increased ankle power generation during PSW in children with spastic diplegic CP.
Smolen, Chris; Quenneville, Cheryl E
The foot/ankle complex is frequently injured in many types of debilitating events, such as car crashes. Numerical models used to assess injury risk are typically minimally validated and do not account for ankle posture variations that frequently occur during these events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a finite element model of the foot and ankle accounting for these positional changes. A model was constructed from computed tomography scans of a male cadaveric lower leg and was evaluated by comparing simulated bone positions and strain responses to experimental results at five postures in which fractures are commonly reported. The bone positions showed agreement typically within 6° or less in all anatomical directions, and strain matching was consistent with the range of errors observed in similar studies (typically within 50% of the average strains). Fracture thresholds and locations in each posture were also estimated to be similar to those reported in the literature (ranging from 6.3 kN in the neutral posture to 3.9 kN in combined eversion and external rotation). The least vulnerable posture was neutral, and all other postures had lower fracture thresholds, indicating that examination of the fracture threshold of the lower limb in the neutral posture alone may be an underestimation. This work presents an important step forward in the modeling of lower limb injury risk in altered ankle postures. Potential clinical applications of the model include the development of postural guidelines to minimize injury, as well as the evaluation of new protective systems.
Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.
The capacity of flexing one's ankle is an indispensible segment of gait re-learning, as imbalance, wrong compensatory use of other joints and risk of falling may depend on the so-called drop-foot. The rehabilitation of ankle dorsiflexion may be achieved through active exercising of the relevant musculature (especially tibialis anterior, TA). This can be troublesome for patients affected by weakness and flaccid paresis. Thus, as needs evolve during patient's improvements, a therapeutic device should be able to guide and sustain gradual recovery by providing commensurate aid. This includes exploiting even initial attempts at voluntary motion and turns those into effective workout. An active orthosis powered by two rotary actuators containing NiTi wire was designed to obtain ankle dorsiflexion. A computer routine that analyzes the electromyographic (sEMG) signal from TA muscle is used to control the orthosis and trigger its activation. The software also provides instructions and feed-back for the patient. Tests on the orthosis proved that it can produce strokes up to 36° against resisting torques exceeding 180 Ncm. Three healthy subjects were able to control the orthosis by modulating their TA sEMG activity. The movement produced in the preliminary tests is interesting for lower limb rehabilitation, and will be further improved by optimizing body-orthosis interface. It is hoped that this device will enhance early rehabilitation and recovery of ankle mobility in stroke patients.
Mahmoud, Wael Hussein
Soft tissue defects around the foot and ankle region often present an awkward problem for plastic surgeons. The medial plantar artery flap raised from the non-weightbearing instep of the plantar foot offers a thick, sensorial, durable, and glabrous skin. The reversed sural artery flap offers a reliable option for coverage with the advantages of a wide arc of rotation, adequate dimensions, and a reliable blood supply. The present study compared the outcomes of the medial plantar artery flap and the distally based sural artery flap in foot and ankle reconstruction. The present comparative cross-sectional study included 30 adult patients with soft tissue defects in the foot and around the ankle, who were divided into 2 equal groups. One group underwent reconstruction with the proximally based island medial plantar artery flap (MPAF). The second group underwent reconstruction with the reversed sural artery flap (RSAF). The operative time and complications were carefully recorded. The surgical outcomes in terms of flap survival, durability of coverage, and functional outcome were assessed for all patients. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in age, sex, etiology, or site of the defect. The defect size was significantly smaller in the MPAF group than in the RSAF group (22 ± 2.7 cm 2 versus 66.2 ± 7.7 cm 2 ; p foot and ankle reconstruction. However, the MPAF offers better functional outcomes with a lower frequency of postoperative complications. Thus, the sensate MPAF is recommended for reconstruction of moderate-size defects of the foot and ankle region. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Kota Z; Stanhope, Steven J
Over the last half-century, the field of prosthetic engineering has continuously evolved with much attention being dedicated to restoring the mechanical energy properties of ankle joint musculatures during gait. However, the contributions of 'distal foot structures' (e.g., foot muscles, plantar soft tissue) have been overlooked. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total mechanical energy profiles (e.g., power, work, and work-ratio) of the natural ankle-foot system (NAFS) by combining the contributions of the ankle joint and all distal foot structures during stance in level-ground steady state walking across various speeds (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 statures/s). The results from eleven healthy subjects walking barefoot indicated ankle joint and distal foot structures generally performed opposing roles: the ankle joint performed net positive work that systematically increased its energy generation with faster walking speeds, while the distal foot performed net negative work that systematically increased its energy absorption with faster walking speeds. Accounting for these simultaneous effects, the combined ankle-foot system exhibited increased work-ratios with faster walking. Most notably, the work-ratio was not significantly greater than 1.0 during the normal walking speed of 0.8 statures/s. Therefore, a prosthetic design that strategically exploits passive-dynamic properties (e.g., elastic energy storage and return) has the potential to replicate the mechanical energy profiles of the NAFS during level-ground steady-state walking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arbab, Dariusch; Schneider, Lisa-Maria; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; Eysel, Peer; König, Dietmar Pierre
Background Hallux valgus is one of the most prevalent foot deformities, and surgical treatment of Hallux valgus is one of the most common procedures in foot and ankle surgery. Diagnostic and treatment standards show large variation despite medical guidelines and national foot and ankle societies. The aim of this nationwide survey is a description of the current status of diagnostics and therapy of Hallux valgus in Germany. Material and Methods A nationwide online questionnaire survey was sent to two German foot and ankle societies. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire of 53 questions with four subgroups (general, diagnostics, operation, preoperative management). Surgical treatment for three clinical cases demonstrating a mild, moderate and severe Hallux valgus deformity was inquired. Results 427 foot and ankle surgeons answered the questionnaire. 388 participants were certified foot and ankle surgeons from one or both foot and ankle societies. Medical history (78%), preoperative radiographs (100%) and preoperative radiographic management (78%) are of high or very high importance for surgical decision pathway. Outcome scores are used by less than 20% regularly. Open surgery is still the gold standard, whereas minimally invasive surgery is performed by only 7%. Conclusion Our survey showed that diagnostic standards are met regularly. There is a wide variation in the type of procedures used to treat Hallux valgus deformity. TMT I arthrodesis is preferred in severe Hallux valgus, but also used to treat moderate and mild deformities. Minimally invasive surgery is still used by a minority of surgeons. It remains to be seen, to what extent minimally invasive surgery will be performed in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
SooHoo, Nelson F; Samimi, David B; Vyas, Raj M; Botzler, Tin
There is uncertainty regarding which outcomes tools should be used to report the results of treatment for patients with foot and ankle disorders. This study evaluates the validity of the Foot Function Index (FFI) by examining its level of correlation to the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The SF-36 is an extensively validated outcomes tool that has been used as a benchmark in examining the validity of several orthopaedic outcomes tools. Seventy-three patients were recruited at a tertiary referral foot and ankle practice. Patients completed packets which included informed consent forms, the FFI, and the SF-36 questionnaires. The questionnaires were scored and Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between the three domains of the FFI and the eight SF-36 sub-scales, as well as the two SF-36 summary scales. Sixty-nine patients completed an adequate number of items to be included in the study. The mean age of the patient sample was 46 (range 16 to 82) years and 44 were women (64%). Twenty-one patients (30%) had conditions affecting the forefoot, while 48 patients (70%) had conditions affecting the ankle or hindfoot. All three FFI domains had moderate to high levels of correlation to many of the SF-36 scales. The Disability domain of the FFI had the most consistent level of correlation to the SF-36 with Pearson coefficients in the range of -0.23 to -0.69. The Activity Limitation (r=-0.28 to -0.64) and Pain domains (r=-0.10 to -0.61) also demonstrated moderate levels of correlation to several of the SF-36 scales. The consistently moderate to high levels of correlation of the FFI to the SF-36 seen in this study support the FFI as a valid measure of health status. This suggests that the FFI is a reasonable method to monitor patient outcomes. Future studies should focus on determining if the FFI improves responsiveness to clinical change when used in combination with generic instruments like the SF-36.
Lohman, M.; Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Kallio, P.
Objective. To assess MRI changes in the ankle and foot after physical exercise.Design and patients. Nineteen non-professional marathon runners and 19 age- and sex-matched controls volunteered for the study. All had ankle and foot MR images (1.5 T) taken in three perpendicular planes (STIR, T2F and T1FS sequences) within 3 h of running a full-length marathon (42.125 km). Three radiologists independently analysed the groups on a masked basis using a predefined form.Results. Severe bone marrow oedema was seen in one and slight bone marrow oedema in three marathon runners. Slight bone marrow oedema was found in three control subjects. Signal alteration within the soleus muscle, consistent with a grade 1 strain, was found in one marathon runner. Small punctate hyperintensities within the Achilles tendon were seen in 26% of the marathon runners and in 63% of controls (P=0.016). An increased amount of fluid in the retrocalcaneal bursa was found in one control and in none of the marathon runners. Small amounts of fluid in the retrocalcaneal bursa were seen in 68% of marathon runners and in 53% of controls. Grade 1 or 2 peritendinous joint fluid was found around 22% of tendons, among both marathon runners and controls, most often involving the tendon sheath of the flexor hallucis longus muscle. An increased amount of joint fluid was noted in 34% of the joints of the marathon runners, and in 18% of the controls.Conclusion. MRI shows several abnormalities in the ankle and foot both after marathon races and in asymptomatic physically active individuals without any preceding extraordinary strain. Recreational sports may lead to a number of positive MRI findings without correlation with clinical findings. (orig.)
Spanish Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire in Mexican-Americans With Traumatic Foot and Ankle Injuries.
Zelle, Boris A; Francisco, Ben S; Bossmann, James P; Fajardo, Roberto J; Bhandari, Mohit
Hispanics represent the largest minority group within the US population accounting for an estimated 55.4 million individuals. Enrolling Hispanics into clinical outcome studies is important in order for study populations to be externally valid and representative of the US population. Inclusion of Mexican-Americans in clinical studies is frequently limited by the lack of validated outcome measures. The goal of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire (AAOS-FAOQ) in Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure was performed by a committee of bilingual speakers using the following steps: (1) forward translation and adaptation, (2) synthesis, (3) back translation, (4) committee review, and (5) pilot testing. The validation was performed in 100 Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. A total of 41 females and 59 males were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 42.98 years (range 18-88). The Spanish version of the Global Foot and Ankle Scale of the AAOS-FAOQ showed statistically significant correlations with all 8 subscales of the Spanish SF-36 as well as the Physical Component Summary scale and the Mental Component Summary scale (P Foot and Ankle scale of the Spanish AAOS-FAOQ demonstrated a test-retest reliability of 0.68. We provide a Spanish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the AAOS-FAOQ. The instrument demonstrates appropriate psychometric properties in Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries.
Nauck, T; Lohrer, H
The evaluation of health-related quality of life and physical function is important for determining therapeutic strategies following ankle injuries. The Anglo-American Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid and reliable self-reported measure to detect functional deficits in chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the FAAM questionnaire for use with German-speaking patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. Preoperative and conservatively treated patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. Sport students and volleyball athletes served as control groups. The FAAM was forward and back translated, cross-culturally adapted and validated. The study population completed the FAAM-G questionnaire twice within 3-5 days. Additionally, the patients were scored with the Good ankle laxity classification system. Test-Retest reliability, construct validity and internal consistency were calculated. Reliability and validity of the FAAM-G were examined in presurgical chronic ankle instability patients (n=24), conservatively treated chronic ankle instability patients (n=17), university sport students (n=31) and volleyballers (n=37). Test-retest reliability revealed fair, good, or excellent reliability (inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.590-0.998; ρ=0.528-1.000). Construct validity, tested between the FAAM-G subscores and the Good et al ankle laxity classification system demonstrated strong correlations (ρ = -0.819 to -0.861). The original FAAM questionnaire was successfully translated and cross-culturally adapted from English to German. Corresponding to the Anglo-American version, the FAAM-G is a reliable and valid questionnaire for self-reported assessment of pain and disability in German-speaking patients suffering from chronic ankle instability.
Niclot, J; Stansal, A; Lazareth, I; Galloula, A; Duchatelle, V; Laurent-Bellue, A; Priollet, P
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that typically manifests as a typical crusted ulcer called the oriental sore. Its localization on the lower limbs can be mistaken for a leg ulcer. An 81-year-old male, native of Algeria, with type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and arteriopathy developed a chronic ulceration of the right ankle and foot compatible with the diagnosis of infectious diabetic foot. Non-improvement with antibiotics, local treatment and rest, and the absence of any hemodynamic arteriopathy led to skin biopsies. Polymerase chain reaction performed on biopsy samples for parasitological investigations yielded the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major. Complete healing was obtained with topical care alone, the patient having declined an etiological treatment. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the rare infectious etiologies of chronic leg ulcers. Several therapeutic options, including abstention, can be proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Jarvis Hannah L
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no consensus on which protocols should be used to assess foot and lower limb biomechanics in clinical practice. The reliability of many assessments has been questioned by previous research. The aim of this investigation was to (i identify (through consensus what biomechanical examinations are used in clinical practice and (ii evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of some of these examinations. Methods Part1: Using a modified Delphi technique 12 podiatrists derived consensus on the biomechanical examinations used in clinical practice. Part 2: Eleven podiatrists assessed 6 participants using a subset of the assessment protocol derived in Part 1. Examinations were compared between assessors. Results Clinicians choose to estimate rather than quantitatively measure foot position and motion. Poor inter-assessor reliability was recorded for all examinations. Intra-class correlation coefficient values (ICC for relaxed calcaneal stance position were less than 0.23 and were less than 0.14 for neutral calcaneal stance position. For the examination of ankle joint dorsiflexion, ICC values suggest moderate reliability (less than 0.61. The results of a random effects ANOVA highlight that participant (up to 5.7°, assessor (up to 5.8° and random (up to 5.7° error all contribute to the total error (up to 9.5° for relaxed calcaneal stance position, up to 10.7° for the examination of ankle joint dorsiflexion. Kappa Fleiss values for categorisation of first ray position and mobility were less than 0.05 and for limb length assessment less than 0.02, indicating slight agreement. Conclusion Static biomechanical assessment of the foot, leg and lower limb is an important protocol in clinical practice, but the key examinations used to make inferences about dynamic foot function and to determine orthotic prescription are unreliable.
Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis
The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers. Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity. Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age 75.09 ± 7.57 years; 12 fallers) and 16 controls (mean age 73.44 ± 8.35 years) took part. Within the stroke group, reduced 1st MPJ sensation (p = 0.016) and 1st MPJ ROM (p = 0.025) were observed in the affected foot in comparison to the non-affected foot; no other differences were apparent. Pooled data (for both feet) was used to explore between stroke/control (n = 78 feet) and stroke faller/non-faller (n = 46 feet) group differences. In comparison to the control group, stroke participants exhibited reduced sensation of the 1st MPJ (p = 0.020), higher Foot Posture Index scores (indicating greater foot pronation, p = 0.008) and reduced foot function (p = 0.003). Stroke fallers exhibited significantly greater foot pronation in comparison to non-fallers (p = 0.027). Results indicated differences in foot and ankle characteristics post stroke in comparison to healthy controls. These changes may negatively impact functional ability and the ability to preserve balance. Further research is warranted to explore the influence of foot problems on balance ability and falls in people with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot problems are common post stroke. As foot problems have been linked to increased fall risk among the general population we recommend that it would be beneficial to include foot and ankle assessments or a referral to a podiatrist for people with stroke who report foot problems. Further research is needed to explore if we can improve functional
Golightly, Yvonne M; Devellis, Robert F; Nelson, Amanda E
examined psychometric properties of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) subscales (pain, other symptoms, activities of daily living [ADL], sport and recreational function [Sport/Recreation], and foot and ankle related quality of life [QOL]) in a large, community-based sample of African American...
Ring, J; Talbot, C L; Clough, T M
We present a review of litigation claims relating to foot and ankle surgery in the NHS in England during the 17-year period between 1995 and 2012. A freedom of information request was made to obtain data from the NHS litigation authority (NHSLA) relating to orthopaedic claims, and the foot and ankle claims were reviewed. During this period of time, a total of 10 273 orthopaedic claims were made, of which 1294 (12.6%) were related to the foot and ankle. 1036 were closed, which comprised of 1104 specific complaints. Analysis was performed using the complaints as the denominator. The cost of settling these claims was more than £36 million. There were 372 complaints (33.7%) involving the ankle, of which 273 (73.4%) were related to trauma. Conditions affecting the first ray accounted for 236 (21.4%), of which 232 (98.3%) concerned elective practice. Overall, claims due to diagnostic errors accounted for 210 (19.0%) complaints, 208 (18.8%) from alleged incompetent surgery and 149 (13.5%) from alleged mismanagement. Our findings show that the incorrect, delayed or missed diagnosis of conditions affecting the foot and ankle is a key area for improvement, especially in trauma practice. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Carroll, Matthew; Joyce, William; Brenton-Rule, Angela; Dalbeth, Nicola; Rome, Keith
The foot and ankle are frequently affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of the negative consequences of RA on the physical function of patients is a decrease in muscle strength. However, little is known about foot and muscle strength in this population. The aim of the study was to evaluate significant differences in foot and ankle muscle strength between patients with established RA against age and sex-matched controls using hand-held dynamometry. The maximal muscle strength of ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion was assessed in 14 patients with RA, mean (SD) disease duration of 22 (14.1) years, and 20 age and sex-matched control participants using hand-held dynamometry. Significant differences were observed in muscle strength between the two groups in plantarflexion (p = 0.00), eversion (p = 0.04) and inversion (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found in dorsiflexion (p > 0.05). The patients with RA displayed a significantly lower plantarflexion-dorsiflexion ratio than the control participants (p = 0.03). The results from this study showed that the RA patients displayed a significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion when compared to the non-RA control group suggesting that foot and ankle muscle strength may be affected by the pathological processes in RA. This study is a preliminary step for the measurement of muscle impairments within the RA population.
Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Inst. de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Danus, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain)
Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)
Jastifer, James R; Gustafson, Peter A
A paucity of published data is available describing the methods for the integration of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology and surgical simulation into orthopedic surgery. The cost of this technology has decreased and the ease of use has increased, making routine use of 3D printed models and surgical simulation for difficult orthopedic problems a realistic option. We report the use of 3D printed models and surgical simulation for preoperative planning and patient education in the case of deformity correction in foot and ankle surgery using open source, free software. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shah, Rajiv; Shah, Shivam
Delayed presentation of injury cases is common in developing countries like India. It is prudent to study reasons for delayed presentations to focus preventive measures towards responsible factors. Since foot and ankle orthopaedics is in its infancy in India, it was deemed to be worthwhile to study reasons for delayed presentations of foot and ankle injuries. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 482 foot and ankle injuries treated at our three foot and ankle centres over past three years was undertaken. Delayed presentation was defined as cases presenting to us at or after 3 weeks of injury, but with complete records. Reasons for delayed presentations were analysed. There were ninety eight such cases who fulfilled the delayed presentation criteria and within this group there were twenty different varieties of foot and ankle injuries. Of these twenty six cases were never treated by qualified orthopaedic surgeons and were labelled as direct delayed presentations, and the remaining 72 cases who were treated by qualified orthopaedic surgeons, but could not be diagnosed and presented late, were labelled as indirect delayed presentations. Failure to suspect injury (5 cases) or failure to diagnose injury (67 cases) were reasons for indirect delayed presentations. Failure to diagnose injury on part of clinicians was either due to failure of clinical and radiological analysis (analytical failure - 15 cases) or due to failure to investigate case with further radiological investigations (investigative failure - 10 cases). Forty-two cases had combined failures. In developing countries like India, patients did neglect their foot and ankle injuries and presented late. In fact, by way of delayed diagnosis, clinicians were more responsible for indirect delayed presentations of foot and ankle injuries. This is contrary to the common belief that in developing countries like India, only patients would be solely responsible for delayed presentations after injury
Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A.; Danus, M.
Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)
Herb, C Collin; Chinn, Lisa; Hertel, Jay
Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in active individuals. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition that commonly occurs after LAS and is associated with long-term disability and a high risk of multiple ankle sprains. Ankle taping is a commonly used intervention for the prevention of ankle sprains. To analyze the ankle-joint coupling using vector coding during walking and jogging gait with the application of ankle tape and without ankle tape in young adults with and without CAI. Observational laboratory study design. Patients walked and jogged on an instrumented treadmill while taped and not taped. Fifteen strides for each subject were collected and analyzed using a vector-coding technique to compare magnitude coupled motion, ratio of coupled motion, and the variability (VCV) within groups. Within-group means and 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared between the taped and nontaped condition, and where the CIs did not overlap was considered significant. A 12-camera 3D motion-capture system with instrumented treadmill. 12 patients with CAI and 11 healthy controls. Magnitude to coupled motion, ratio of coupled motion, and the VCV of shank-rear-foot joint coupling. Magnitude of coupled motion and VCV were significantly lower in the taped condition than in the nontaped condition in both groups. Magnitude differences were identified near initial contact during walking and during swing phase of jogging. VCV differences were identified throughout the gait cycle at both walking and jogging. No differences were identified in theta between tape and nontaped conditions. A decrease in the magnitude of coupled motion and VCV may represent a protective mechanism of ankle taping in CAI and healthy patients during gait.
Thierfelder, K M; Gemescu, I N; Weber, M-A; Meier, R
Injuries of the ligaments and tendons of the ankle and foot are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries. A correct and precise description of the pathology and possible accompanying injuries is essential for treatment planning by trauma and orthopedic surgeons. While X‑ray is used to exclude fractures, ultrasound is a very useful tool to assess the ligaments and tendons. For the radiologist, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is invaluable regarding the correct assessment of (partial) ruptures, as well as for evaluating accompanying injuries. The aim of the present overview is to provide the most relevant facts for radiologists regarding injuries of ligaments and tendons of the ankle and foot. A description of expected MRI findings and possible pitfalls are presented. For each ligament complex or tendon, we review the anatomy, followed by relevant facts on biomechanics and typical findings in case of injury. The lateral and medial ligament complex, syndesmosis, spring ligament complex, and the Lisfranc ligament are shown in detail. The Achilles tendon and the peroneal tendons are also discussed.
Martinelli, Nicolò; Romeo, Giovanni; Bonifacini, Carlo; Viganò, Marco; Bianchi, Alberto; Malerba, Francesco
The purpose of this study was to translate the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OAFQ) into Italian, to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The Italian OAFQ was developed according to the recommended forward/backward translation protocol and evaluated in pediatric patients treated for symptomatic flatfoot deformity. Feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, construct validity [comparing OAFQ domains with Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) domains] and responsiveness to surgical treatment were assessed. A total of 61 children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Results showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency for both children and parent forms. The test-retest reliability was confirmed by high ICC values for both child and parents subscales. Good construct validity was showed by patterns of relationships consistent with theoretically related domains of the CHQ. After surgery, the mean OAFQ scores improved in all the domains after treatment with the subtalar arthroereisis, for both children and parent scales (p valid instrument in order to evaluate interventions used to treat children's foot or ankle problem, but needs further study on different clinical settings.
Abel, M F; Juhl, G A; Vaughan, C L; Damiano, D L
To evaluate the effectiveness of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy patients for whom orthoses were indicated to control equinus or pes planovalgus deformities. A retrospective, cross-sectional assessment was performed on diplegic subjects who had suitable barefoot and AFO gait trials on the same day. Thirty-five subjects with a mean age of 8.7 yrs were included. Eighteen wore braces to control equinus and 17 to control pes planovalgus and crouch. Gait data assessed in all subjects included temporal-distance factors and sagittal kinematics. Force plate data to determine joint moments and powers were obtained in 20. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare across conditions and indications. The cohort demonstrated increased velocity (10 cm/sec; p AFOs compared with barefoot gait. In braces, ankle excursion was reduced (p AFO significantly alter knee position in stance. Kinetic analysis showed a reduction of abnormal power burst (p AFOs. Differences in gait characteristics and bracing effects are shown for both indication groups. Compared with barefoot gait, AFOs enhanced gait function in diplegic subjects. Benefits resulted from elimination of premature plantar flexion and improved progression of foot contact during stance. Effects on proximal joint alignment were not significant.
Farber, Daniel C; Knutsen, Elisa J
Foot and ankle surgeons are in a unique position to educate patients about the importance of proper footwear. Neither their recommendations regarding shoe selection nor their own footwear patterns have previously been reported. A total of 866 members of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) were asked to complete a survey via the Internet. Topics included specific shoe brands recommended to patients, how attributes of footwear are communicated, and respondents' footwear habits. In all, 276 (32%) surgeons responded, and 64% recommended New Balance athletic shoes to patients; 26% did not recommend specific brands. It was found that 50% wear New Balance athletic shoes; 25% wear Nike. Rockport (27%) and SAS (27%) were the most recommended dress shoes. In all, 76% are familiar with AOFAS guidelines for proper shoe fit, but only 56% educated their patients about the guidelines; 43% do not consider what patients might think of their shoes when selecting what to wear in the clinical setting. Despite the multitude of different brands, several were commonly recommended. Respondents seem to be aware of the impact of their own shoe selection on patients' perspectives of footwear, but many do not consider themselves role models for proper footwear.
Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Pintar, Frank A; Uppal, Harmeeth; Schlick, Michael; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael
This purpose of this study was to replicate foot-ankle injuries seen in the military and derive human injury probability curves using the human cadaver model. Lower legs were isolated below knee from seventeen unembalmed human cadavers and they were aligned in a 90-90 posture (plantar surface orthogonal to leg). The specimens were loaded along the tibia axis by applying short-time duration pulses, using a repeated testing protocol. Injuries were documented using pre- and post-test X-rays, computed tomography scans, and dissection. Peak force-based risk curves were derived using survival analysis and accounted for data censoring. Fractures were grouped into all foot-ankle (A), any calcaneus (B), and any tibia injuries (C), respectively. Calcaneus and/or distal tibia/pilon fractures occurred in fourteen tests. Axial forces were the greatest and least for groups C and B, respectively. Times attainments of forces for all groups were within ten milliseconds. The Weibull function was the optimal probability distribution for all groups. Age was significant (p < 0.05) for groups A and C. Survival analysis-based probability curves were derived for all groups. Data are given in the body of paper. Age-based, risk-specific, and continuous distribution probability curves/responses guide in the creation of an injury assessment capability for military blast environments.
Sasadai, Junpei; Urabe, Yukio; Maeda, Noriaki; Shinohara, Hiroshi; Fujii, Eri
Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a common disorder in soccer players and ballet dancers. In soccer players, it is caused by the repetitive stress of ankle plantar flexion due to instep kicking. Protective ankle dorsiflexion taping is recommended with the belief that it prevents posterior ankle impingement. However, the relationship between ankle taping and ball-kicking performance remains unclear. To demonstrate the relationship between the restrictions of ankle taping and performance of an instep kick in soccer. Laboratory-based repeated-measures. University laboratory. 11 male university soccer players. The subjects' ankle plantar flexion was limited by taping. Four angles of planter flexion (0°, 15°, 30°, and without taping) were formed by gradation limitation. The subjects performed maximal instep kicks at each angle. The movements of the kicking legs and the ball were captured using 3 high-speed cameras at 200 Hz. The direct linear-transformation method was used to obtain 3-dimensional coordinates using a digitizing system. Passive ankle plantar-flexion angle, maximal plantar-flexion angle at ball impact, ball velocity, and foot velocity were measured. The data were compared among 4 conditions using repeated-measures ANOVA, and the correlations between ball velocity and foot velocity and between ball velocity and toe velocity were calculated. Ankle dorsiflexion taping could gradually limit both passive plantar flexion and plantar flexion at the impact. Furthermore, limitation of 0° and 15° reduced the ball velocity generated by instep kicks. Plantar-flexion-limiting taping at 30° has a potential to prevent posterior ankle impingement without decreasing the ball velocity generated by soccer instep kicks.
Fan, Ka Yuk; Lui, Tun Hing
A 17-year-old girl with bilateral ball-and-socket ankles reported left medial heel pain. Her left heel had gone into a varus position on tiptoeing, and a painful clunk had occurred when returning to normal standing. The clunk persisted after physiotherapy and treatment with an orthosis. Subtalar arthroscopy and peroneal tendoscopy showed mild diffuse synovitis of the ankle joint, especially over the posterior capsule, and a patch of inflamed and fibrotic synovium at the posterolateral corner of the subtalar joint. The clunk subsided immediately after arthroscopic synovectomy and had not recurred during 5 years of follow-up. We found no other reported cases of ankle and subtalar synovitis occurring in patients with a ball-and-socket ankle joint. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelly N. Salb
Full Text Available Ankle instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR measurements represent a more complete parameter for characterizing joint motion. However, few studies have implemented this measurement to study normal, injured, or pathological foot ankle biomechanics. A novel testing protocol was developed to simulate aspects of in vivo foot ankle mechanics during mid-stance gait in a human cadaveric specimen. A lower leg was mounted in a robotic testing platform with the tibia upright and foot flat on the baseplate. Axial tibia loads (ATLs were controlled as a function of a vertical ground reaction force (vGRF set at half body weight (356 N and a 50% vGRF (178 N Achilles tendon load. Two specimens were repetitively loaded over 10 degrees of dorsiflexion and 20 degrees of plantar flexion. Platform axes were controlled within 2 microns and 0.008 degrees resulting in ATL measurements within ±2 N of target conditions. Mean ATLs and IAR values were not significantly different between cycles of motion, but IAR values were significantly different between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. A linear regression analysis showed no significant differences between slopes of plantar flexion paths. The customized robotic platform and advanced testing protocol produced repeatable and accurate measurements of the IAR, useful for assessing foot ankle biomechanics under different loading scenarios and foot conditions.
Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Voo, Liming; DeVogel, Nicholas; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu
Biomechanical data from post mortem human subject (PMHS) experiments are used to derive human injury probability curves and develop injury criteria. This process has been used in previous and current automotive crashworthiness studies, Federal safety standards, and dummy design and development. Human bone strength decreases as the individuals reach their elderly age. Injury risk curves using the primary predictor variable (e.g., force) should therefore account for such strength reduction when the test data are collected from PMHS specimens of different ages (age at the time of death). This demographic variable is meant to be a surrogate for fracture, often representing bone strength as other parameters have not been routinely gathered in previous experiments. However, bone mineral densities (BMD) can be gathered from tested specimens (presented in this manuscript). The objective of this study is to investigate different approaches of accounting for BMD in the development of human injury risk curves. Using simulated underbody blast (UBB) loading experiments conducted with the PMHS lower leg-foot-ankle complexes, a comparison is made between the two methods: treating BMD as a covariate and pre-scaling test data based on BMD. Twelve PMHS lower leg-foot-ankle specimens were subjected to UBB loads. Calcaneus BMD was obtained from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) images. Fracture forces were recorded using a load cell. They were treated as uncensored data in the survival analysis model which used the Weibull distribution in both methods. The width of the normalized confidence interval (NCIS) was obtained using the mean and ± 95% confidence limit curves. The mean peak forces of 3.9kN and 8.6kN were associated with the 5% and 50% probability of injury for the covariate method of deriving the risk curve for the reference age of 45 years. The mean forces of 5.4 kN and 9.2kN were associated with the 5% and 50% probability of injury for the pre-scaled method. The NCIS
Galle, Samuel; Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; De Clercq, Dirk
A simple ankle-foot exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off can reduce the metabolic power during walking. This suggests that walking performance during a maximal incremental exercise could be improved with an exoskeleton if the exoskeleton is still efficient during maximal exercise intensities. Therefore, we quantified the walking performance during a maximal incremental exercise test with a powered and unpowered exoskeleton: uphill walking with progressively higher weights. Nine female subjects performed two incremental exercise tests with an exoskeleton: 1 day with (powered condition) and another day without (unpowered condition) plantarflexion assistance. Subjects walked on an inclined treadmill (15%) at 5 km h(-1) and 5% of body weight was added every 3 min until exhaustion. At volitional termination no significant differences were found between the powered and unpowered condition for blood lactate concentration (respectively, 7.93 ± 2.49; 8.14 ± 2.24 mmol L(-1)), heart rate (respectively, 190.00 ± 6.50; 191.78 ± 6.50 bpm), Borg score (respectively, 18.57 ± 0.79; 18.93 ± 0.73) and VO₂ peak (respectively, 40.55 ± 2.78; 40.55 ± 3.05 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Thus, subjects were able to reach the same (near) maximal effort in both conditions. However, subjects continued the exercise test longer in the powered condition and carried 7.07 ± 3.34 kg more weight because of the assistance of the exoskeleton. Our results show that plantarflexion assistance during push-off can increase walking performance during a maximal exercise test as subjects were able to carry more weight. This emphasizes the importance of acting on the ankle joint in assistive devices and the potential of simple ankle-foot exoskeletons for reducing metabolic power and increasing weight carrying capability, even during maximal intensities.
Cammack, Paul M; Donahue, Michael P; Manoli, Arthur
External fixation is a useful tool for treating severe traumatic injuries to the foot and ankle. External fixation, however, does have associated complications, such as inadequate fixation and pin tract infections. Temporary bridge plating of the medial, lateral, or both columns is a useful alternative to external fixation for treating multilevel foot injuries. This article describes the technique of temporary bridge plating which may be used as an alternative to external fixation.
Mendonca, Derick A; Cosker, Tom; Makwana, Nilesh K
Although vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a well-established technique in other surgical specialties, its use has not been established in the foot and ankle. The aims of this study were to determine if vacuum-assisted closure therapy (VAC) helps assist closure in diabetic foot ulcers and wounds secondary to peripheral vascular disease, if it helps debride wounds, and if it prevents the need for further surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients (18 wounds or ulcers) with primary diagnoses of diabetes (10 patients), chronic osteomyelitis (two patients), peripheral vascular disease (two patients), and spina bifida (one patient). Eleven of the 15 patients had serious comorbidities, such as peripheral neuropathy, renal failure, and wound dehiscence. All wounds were surgically debrided before VAC therapy was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The main outcome measures were time to satisfactory wound closure, changes in the wound surface area, and the need for further surgery. Satisfactory healing was achieved in 13 of the 18 wounds or ulcers at an average of 2.5 months. VAC therapy failed in five patients (five class III ulcers), three of whom required below-knee amputations. Wound or ulcer size decreased from an average of 7.41 cm(2) before treatment to an average of 1.58 cm(2) after treatment. VAC therapy is a useful adjunct to the standard treatment of chronic wound or ulcers in patients with diabetes or peripheral vascular disease. Its use in foot and ankle surgery leads to a quicker wound closure and, in most patients, avoids the need for further surgery.
Burger, Elise; Selles, Ruud; van Nieuwkasteele, Shelly; Bessems, Gert; Pollet, Virginie; Hovius, Steven; van Nieuwenhoven, Christianne
The purpose of this study is to develop a Dutch version of the Oxford Ankle and Foot Questionnaire for Children (OxAFQ-c) to allow evaluation of pediatric foot care. The OxAFQ-c was translated into Dutch, according to the ISPOR-guidelines. Children with different foot and ankle complaints completed the OxAFQ-c at baseline, after two weeks, and after 4-6 months. Measurement properties were assessed in terms of reliability, responsiveness, and construct validity. Test-retest reliability showed moderate intraclass correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement. After 4-6 months, the group that experienced improvement also showed improved questionnaire outcomes, indicating responsiveness. Moderate correlation between the OxAFQ-c and the Kidscreen and foot-specific VAS-scores were observed, indicating moderate construct validity. The Dutch OxAFQ-c showed moderate to good measurement properties. However, because we observed limited sensitivity to changes and wide limits of agreement in individual patients, we think the questionnaire should only be used in groups. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
González-Sánchez, Manuel; Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; Li, Guang Zhi; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I
To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Foot Function Index (FFI) questionnaire to develop the Chinese version. Three hundred and six patients with foot and ankle neuromusculoskeletal diseases participated in this observational study. Construct validity, internal consistency and criterion validity were calculated for the FFI Chinese version after the translation and transcultural adaptation process. Internal consistency ranged from 0.996 to 0.998. Test-retest analysis ranged from 0.985 to 0.994; minimal detectable change 90: 2.270; standard error of measurement: 0.973. Load distribution of the three factors had an eigenvalue greater than 1. Chi-square value was 9738.14 (p Foot Function Index (Taiwan Version), Short-Form 12 (Version 2) and EuroQol-5D were used for criterion validity. Factors 1 and 2 showed significant correlation with 15/16 and 14/16 scales and subscales, respectively. Foot Function Index Chinese version psychometric characteristics were good to excellent. Chinese researchers and clinicians may use this tool for foot and ankle assessment and monitoring. Implications for rehabilitation A cross-cultural adaptation of the FFI has been done from original version to Chinese. Consistent results and satisfactory psychometric properties of the Foot Function Index Chinese version have been reported. For Chinese speaking researcher and clinician FFI-Ch could be used as a tool to assess patients with foot disease.
Näslund, Annika; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Hirschfeld, Helga
To investigate the co-ordination between reaching, ground reaction forces and muscle activity in standing children with severe spastic diplegia wearing dynamic ankle-foot orthoses compared with typically developing children. Clinical experimental study. Six children with spastic diplegia (Gross Motor Function Classification System level III-IV) and 6 controls. Ground reaction forces (AMTI force plates), ankle muscle activity (electromyography and displacement of the hand (ELITE systems) were investigated while reaching for an object. For the children with severe spastic diplegia who were wearing dynamic ankle-foot orthoses, co-ordination between upward and forward reach velocity differed regarding the temporal sequencing and amplitude of velocity peaks. During reaching, these children lacked interplay of pushing force beneath the reach leg and braking force beneath the non-reach leg and co-ordinated ankle muscle activity, compared with controls. The results suggest differences in reach performance and postural adjustments for balance control during a reaching movement in standing between children with spastic diplegia Gross Motor Function Classification System level III-IV, wearing dynamic ankle-foot orthoses compared with typically developing children.
Mangwani, Jitendra; Sheikh, Nomaan; Cichero, Matthew; Williamson, David
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well documented complication following lower limb trauma and surgery. The incidence of VTE in hip and knee surgery has been well studied, whereas the incidence in foot and ankle surgery is less clear. There is debate as to which cases require prophylaxis and what is the most effective means by which this is achieved. We performed a systematic review of the published English literature on VTE prophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, without date restrictions up to December 2012. From 988 citations, 25 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusions were drawn on the incidence (symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE), location (distal vs. proximal), associated risk factors, timing of VTE, role of mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis and cost effectiveness of the treatment. Our review showed that the overall incidence of symptomatic VTE in foot and ankle surgery is low (0-0.55%). There is increased incidence in foot and ankle trauma patients with the highest incidence reported in tendo-achilles surgery. The reported risk factors include previous history of VTE, immobilisation, high BMI, age, co morbidities, contraceptive pill, and air-travel. There is a cumulative effect resulting in higher risk when two or more risk factors are present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brehm, Merel-Anne; Beelen, Anita; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Harlaar, Jaap; Nollet, Frans
Objective: To investigate the effects of total-contact fitted carbon-composite knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) on energy cost of walking in patients with former polio who normally wear a conventional leather/metal KAFO or plastic/metal KAFO. Design: A prospective uncontrolled study with a multiple
Hickey, Ben A; Cleves, Andrew; Alikhan, Raza; Pugh, Neil; Nokes, Len; Perera, Anthony
Our aim was to determine whether plasma levels of Tissue Factor (TF), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) or D-dimer after foot and ankle injury could predict which patients would develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients aged 18-60 years with acute foot and ankle injury had venous blood sample to measure TF, VCAM-1, IL-6 and D-dimer within 3 days of injury. Patients had bilateral lower limb venous ultrasound to assess for DVT on discharge from clinic. 21 of 77 patients were found to have DVT (27%). There was no statistically significant association between levels of TF, VCAM-1, IL-6 or D-dimer and subsequent development of DVT. Tissue Factor (TF), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer levels were not associated with development deep vein thrombosis in patients with acute foot and ankle injury. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arazpour, M; Hojjati, M J; Samadian, M; Bahramizadeh, M; Bani, M Ahmadi; Hutchins, S W
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of walking with isocentric reciprocating gait orthoses (IRGOs) utilizing two designs of ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) on specific outcome measures in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Four volunteer SCI subjects participated in this study, and were fitted with an IRGO equipped with either solid or dorsiflexion-assisted AFOs in a randomized order. Subjects walked at their self-selected speed along a flat walkway to enable a comparison of walking speed, endurance and the resulting physiological cost index (PCI) to be performed. Increased walking speed, increased distance walked and less PCI were demonstrated in walking with the IRGO incorporating dorsiflexion-assisted AFOs as compared to walking with an IRGO plus solid AFO as a control condition. This study demonstrated that people with SCI could walk at relatively higher speeds and with greater endurance and a reduced PCI when utilizing an IRGO with dorsiflexion-assisted AFO components compared to solid ones. It is therefore concluded that the IRGO incorporating dorsiflexion-assisted AFOs may be an effective alternative in helping to reduce the energy consumption experienced by people with SCI.
Menz Hylton B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot and ankle problems are highly prevalent in the general community and a substantial proportion of people seek surgical treatment to alleviate foot pain and deformity. However, the epidemiology of foot and ankle surgery has not been examined in detail. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine patterns and costs of private sector foot surgery provision in Australia. Methods Data pertaining to all foot and ankle surgical procedures for the calendar years 1997–2006 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS database and were cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number and type of procedures performed and to assess for temporal trends over the ten year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare of subsiding surgeons' fees in 2006 was also determined. Results During the 1997–2006 period, 996,477 surgical procedures were performed on the foot and ankle by private surgeons in Australia. Approximately equal numbers of procedures were performed on males (52% and females (48%. However, males were more likely to undergo toenail, ankle, clubfoot, tarsal coalition and congenital vertical talus surgery, whereas females were more likely to undergo lesser toe, first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ, neuroma, heel, rearfoot and lesser MPJ surgery. The total number of procedures was stable over the assessment period, however there was a relative increase in the number of procedures performed on people aged over 55 years. The total contribution of Medicare to subsiding surgeons' fees for procedures performed in 2006 was $14 M. Conclusion Foot and ankle surgery accounts for a considerable degree of healthcare expenditure in Australia, and the number of procedures in those aged over 55 years is increasing. Given the ageing demographics of the Australian population, the future public health and economic impact of foot morbidity is likely
Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B; Srivastava, Abhishek; Murali, Thyloth
To analyse long-term functional recovery, deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis (LLO) for locomotion in patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Neurological Rehabilitation unit of university hospital. Sixty-nine patients of GBS admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Thirty-five patients (M:F, 19:16) reporting after 1 year follow-up (50.72%) were included in study (between September 2005 and July 2009). Their residual deficits and requirement of LLO were recorded and analysed. Age ranged from 4 to 65 year (29.74 ± 15.75). Twenty-seven patients had typical GBS and eight patients had acute motor axonal neuropathy variant. Twenty-eight patients (80%) had neuropathic pain needing medication with 11 required more than one drug. Twenty-one patients (60%) had foot drop and advised ankle-foot orthosis-AFO (20 bilateral AFO). Thirty patients (85.71%) needed assistive devices also for locomotion at discharge. After 1 year, foot drop was still present in 12 patients (34.28%) using orthosis. Modified Barthel Index scores, Modified Rankin Scale and Hughes Disability Scale were used to assess functional disabilities. Significant recovery was observed at the time of discharge and after 1 year (p < 0.001 each). Patients with GBS continue to show significant functional recovery for long period. They have residual deficits even after 1 year with requirement of orthosis in large number of patients.
Maas, Josina C; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Oudshoorn, Bodil Y; Bolster, Eline A M; Huijing, Peter A; Jaspers, Richard T; Becher, Jules G
Purpose state: Orthotic wearing time may be an important confounder in efficacy studies of treatment in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). Most studies measure parent-reported wearing time (WT parent ) with questionnaires, but it is questionable whether this yields valid results. This study aims to compare WT parent with objectively measured wearing time (WT obj ) in children with SCP receiving orthotic treatment. Eight children with SCP participated in this observational study. For one year, they received knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) treatment. WT parent was measured using questionnaires. WT obj was measured using temperature sensor-data-loggers that were attached to the KAFOs. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles and median of differences between methods (per participant) were used to calculate limits of agreement and systematic differences. There was no systematic difference between WT parent and WT obj (0.1 h per week), but high inter-individual variation of the difference was found, as reflected by large limits of agreement (lower limit/2.5th percentile: -1.7 h/week; upper limit/97.5th percentile: 11.1 h/week). Parent-reported wearing time (WTparent) of a KAFO differs largely from objectively measured wearing time (WT obj ) using temperature sensors. Therefore, parent-reported wearing time (WT parent ) of KAFOs should be interpreted with utmost care. Implications for Rehabilitation Low wearing time of orthoses may be a cause of inefficacy of orthotic treatment and incorrect reported wearing time may bias results of efficacy studies. Results of this study show that parent-reported wearing time is not in agreement with objectively measured wearing time. Parent-reported wearing time of KAFOs should be interpreted with utmost care. Objective methods are recommended for measuring orthotic wearing time.
Bristow, Ivan R; Acland, Katharine
Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is an uncommon, cutaneous malignant tumour which may arise on the foot. Its relative rarity, atypical appearance and late presentation frequently serve as poor prognostic indicators. At a tertiary skin tumour centre, a retrospective review was undertaken of all patients diagnosed with the tumour at the level of ankle or below. Over a six year period, 27 cases (20 female, 7 male) were identified with positive histology confirming the disease. The age ranged from 35-96 years of age (mean 62.7 years). The majority of the cohort were white (59%) with plantar lesions (62%). 33% of patients were initially were diagnosed incorrectly. The average time taken from the point of recognition, by the patient, to the lesion being correctly diagnosed was around 13.5 months. Earlier diagnosis of ALM requires education at both a patient and practitioner level.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM is an uncommon, cutaneous malignant tumour which may arise on the foot. Its relative rarity, atypical appearance and late presentation frequently serve as poor prognostic indicators. Methods At a tertiary skin tumour centre, a retrospective review was undertaken of all patients diagnosed with the tumour at the level of ankle or below. Results Over a six year period, 27 cases (20 female, 7 male were identified with positive histology confirming the disease. The age ranged from 35–96 years of age (mean 62.7 years. The majority of the cohort were white (59% with plantar lesions (62%. 33% of patients were initially were diagnosed incorrectly. The average time taken from the point of recognition, by the patient, to the lesion being correctly diagnosed was around 13.5 months. Conclusion Earlier diagnosis of ALM requires education at both a patient and practitioner level.
Imoto, Aline Mizusaki; Peccin, Maria Stella; Rodrigues, Reynaldo; Mizusaki, Jorge Mitsuo
OBJETIVOS: (1) traduzir e validar a versão original da avaliação funcional de tornozelo e pé Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) da língua inglesa para a portuguesa em pacientes com história de entorse de tornozelo em inversão, (2) adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira e (3) correlacionar com o questionário de qualidade de vida SF-36. MÉTODO: O método de tradução e validação utilizado seguiu os critérios descritos por Guillemin et al. Foram incluídos 50 indivíduos com diagnóstico clíni...
Perruccio, Anthony V; Gandhi, Rajiv; Lau, Johnny T C; Syed, Khalid A; Mahomed, Nizar N; Rampersaud, Y Raja
Improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) necessitates an understanding of the influence of patient characteristics on, and interrelationship among, HRQoL domains. In osteoarthritis (OA), these associations have predominantly been examined in hip/knee populations. We investigated whether there were differences in these associations between foot/ankle and knee OA samples. Individuals seeking orthopedic care for foot/ankle or knee OA completed a questionnaire pre-consultation, including HRQoL domains (bodily pain [BP], physical [PF] and social functioning [SF], and mental [MH] and general health [GH]), obesity, comorbidity, and sociodemographic characteristics. Associations were examined via stratified path analysis (foot/ankle vs knee). Foot/ankle: n = 180, mean age = 55 (range: 25 to 82), 52% female. Knee: n = 253, mean age = 62 (range: 26 to 92), 51% female. The interrelationship among HRQoL domains was generally similar between groups. However, the influence of patient characteristics differed. Low educational status was associated with worse scores for GH, MH, and SF in the foot/ankle group, whereas no significant effects were found in the knee group. Obesity was associated with worse scores for SF, BP, and GH in the foot/ankle compared to the knee group. Patient characteristics explained considerably more of the variation in domain scores in the foot/ankle group. There are significant differences in the impact of patient characteristics on HRQoL domains in foot/ankle versus knee OA patients. Therefore, a universal approach to patient education/intervention to improve HRQoL in lower-extremity OA is not likely to achieve optimal results. Based on these findings, we recommend joint-specific patient education, with a particular emphasis on patient characteristics among the foot/ankle OA population. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cahalan, Roisin; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Kieran
Foot and ankle pain/injury (FAPI) is the most common musculoskeletal problem suffered in Irish dancing. A prospective examination of risk factors for FAPI in this cohort has never been performed. Prospective study over 1-year. 85 elite adult Irish dancers were screened at baseline for biopsychosocial factors and followed up prospectively each month for 1 year to evaluate FAPI rates and potential risk factors. Subjects who suffered from multiple incidences of FAPI (with no pain/injury reported elsewhere in the body) or at least one moderate episode of FAPI were allocated to the foot/ankle-injured (FAI) group (n=28, 25 F/3 M). Subjects reporting no pain/injury or only one minor FAPI were allocated to the non-injured group (n=21, 14 F/7 M). Baseline differences in variables between groups were tested with the independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test for skewed data, and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Baseline factors significantly associated with the FAI group included failing to always perform a warm-up (p=0.042), lower levels of energy (p=0.013), and more bothersome pain (p=0.021). Subjects also scored worse on two dimensions of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory: i.e., coping with adversity (p=0.035) and goal setting and mental preparation (p=0.009). Several biopsychosocial factors appear to be associated with FAPI in Irish dancers. Biopsychosocial screening protocols and prevention strategies may best identify and support at-risk dancers.
Segal, Ava D; Shofer, Jane B; Klute, Glenn K
Maintaining balance while walking is challenging for lower limb amputees. The effect of prosthetic foot stiffness on recovery kinetics from an error in foot placement may inform prescription practice and lead to new interventions designed to improve balance. Ten unilateral transtibial amputees were fit with two prosthetic feet with different stiffness properties in random order. After a 3-week acclimation period, they returned to the lab for testing before switching feet. Twelve non-amputees also participated in a single data collection. While walking on an instrumented treadmill, we imposed a repeatable, unexpected medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement by releasing a burst of air at the ankle just before heel strike. Three-dimensional motion capture, ground reaction force and center of pressure (COP) data were collected for two steps prior, the disturbed step and three steps after the disturbance. During undisturbed walking, coronal ankle impulse was lower by 42% for amputees wearing a stiff compared to a compliant foot (p=0.017); however, across steps, both prosthetic recovery patterns were similar compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Peak coronal hip moment was 15-20% lower for both foot types during undisturbed walking (p<0.001), with less change in response to the medial disturbance (p<0.001) compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Amputee prosthetic COP excursion was unaffected by the disturbance (2.4% change) compared to the sound limb (59% change; p<0.001) and non-amputees (55% change; p<0.001). These findings imply that a prosthetic foot-ankle system able to contribute to ankle kinetics may improve walking balance among amputees. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Van Lieshout, Esther M M; De Boer, A Siebe; Meuffels, Duncan E; Den Hoed, P Ted; Van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Verhofstad, Michael H J
The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring the outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It combines a clinician-reported and a patient-reported part. A valid Dutch version of this instrument is currently not available. Such a translated and validated instrument would allow objective comparison across hospitals or between patient groups, and with shown validity and reliability it may become a quality of care indicator in future. The main aims of this study are to translate and culturally adapt the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score questionnaire into Dutch according to international guidelines, and to evaluate the measurement properties of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score-Dutch language version (DLV) in patients with a unilateral ankle or hindfoot fracture. The design of the study will be a multicentre prospective observational study (case series) in patients who presented to the emergency department with a unilateral ankle or hindfoot fracture or (fracture) dislocation. A research physician or research assistant will complete the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score-DLV based on interview for the subjective part and a physical examination for the objective part. In addition, patients will be asked to complete the Foot Function Index (FFI) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), internal consistency, construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test-retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change) and responsiveness will be assessed for the AOFAS DLV. This study has been exempted by the Medical Research Ethics Committee (MREC) Erasmus MC (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Each participant will provide written consent to participate and remain anonymised during the study. The results of the study are planned to be published in an international, peer-reviewed journal. NTR5613. pre-result. Published
Sarfraz, A.H.; Masood, F.
This study highlights which injury has greatest burden, how frequent are the injuries of foot and ankle areas, which is an extremely neglected specialty in orthopedics and also the importance of proper diagnosis, classification of fractures, appropriate pre-operative planning and timely conservative as well as surgical intervention of ankle and foot fractures that resulted in a satisfactory outcome Despite the fact, foot and ankle is the most important locomotor unit of our lower limb, there have been few studies addressing the problem and treatment outcome of such fractures. Objective: To determine the occurrence, demography and pathomorphology of ankle and foot fractures, also evaluation of treatment outcome of calcaneal fractures. Methodology: This was a longitudinal interventional study which dealt with acute traumatic ankle and foot fracture patients coming to Accident and Emergency Department of MHL, DOST unit 1, with inclusion and exclusion criteria clearly defined. Results: Total 100 patients were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 35.71+-13.60 years. Minimum age of patients was 14 and maximum age of patients was 70 years respectively. Gender distribution of patients shows that 15 patients were female and the remaining 85 patients were male. Male patients were greater in number as compared to female patients ie. M: F, 6:1. Mechanism of the injury showed that there were 48 patients who suffered from RTA , 37 patients had trauma due to fall from height, 6 patients had industrial injuries, 5 patients had Fire Arm Injury, and 2 patients had injuries due to domestic activity, 1 had trauma due to sports activity and 1 had injury due to agricultural work. There were 41 patients with fractures of calcaneum and out of which 5 had bilateral fracture calcaneum. They were classified according to CT based Sanders classification. Out of these 22 patients were of Sanders type III, 12 patients were of Sander type II, 5 patients were of Sander type IV, 2
Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Dhillon, M S; Dhatt, Sarvdeep Singh
Ankle and foot fractures are amongst the most common injuries, and patterns may vary from primary care set up to tertiary hospitals. Severe foot injuries are projected to have significantly worse outcomes and surgical delays are thought to alter prognosis. All patients with foot and ankle trauma were prospectively evaluated at a Tertiary trauma centre over one year. The incidence, fracture patterns, risk factors, and outcomes were evaluated, and cases were divided into simple foot injuries (FASS ≤ 3) and severe foot injuries (FASS>3). Injury mechanisms, associated injuries, and delays in treatment were evaluated, and outcomes were analyzed using Visual-Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VASFA), Maryland Foot Score (MFS) and Foot and ankle disability index (FADI). 294 Foot and Ankle injuries (51 females, 243 males) were encountered in 2919 trauma cases (incidence of 10%). 80 patients (27.2%) had simple foot injuries and 214 (72.8%) had severe foot injuries. 29 patients (9.9%) were below 18 years; most (65.3%) patients were between 18 and 45 years age. Road traffic accident was most commonest mode of injury, with ankle fractures (30.6%) the most common. Metatarsal fractures (27.9%) and calcaneal fractures (21.4%) were 2nd and 3rd most common injuries in the foot. Surgical delay averaged 1 day in both severe and simple injuries. Injury led to 32 (10.9%) below knee amputations. Outcome evaluation in 127 (91 severe, 36 simple injuries) patients showed mean Maryland foot score of 89.30 in simple injury group and 84.87 in severe injury group. Mean VASFA score was 82.87 (simple) and 81.87 in severe injury, and mean FADI score was 93.13 (simple) and 91.05 (severe injury). More detailed analysis revealed that more good scores (64.4%) were documented in severe injuries group, and more excellent scores (52.8%) in simple injuries group. Foot injuries constitute 10% of all orthopaedic trauma at tertiary hospitals; Majority of them are severe foot injuries, with 68.7% being open
Gorst, Terry; Lyddon, Alison; Marsden, Jon; Paton, Joanne; Morrison, Stewart C; Cramp, Mary; Freeman, Jenny
To explore the nature and impact of foot and ankle impairments on mobility and balance in community-dwelling, chronic stroke survivors. A qualitative research design using face to face semi-structured, audio recorded interviews. Thirteen community-dwelling stroke survivors, all of whom had self-reported foot and ankle impairments, were interviewed (female n = 6, mean age = 67 years, SD = 12 years, mean time since stroke = 4 years, SD = 6 years, right stroke n = 7, left stroke n = 6). A framework analysis approach was used to analyse and interpret transcribed interviews. Three themes emerged: (1) Impact. The influence of foot and ankle impairments on mobility and balance. (2) Standing out. How participants felt they "stood out" because of their impairments and wanted to be normal. (3) Help. The specific help and advice participants received in managing their problems. Foot and ankle impairments such as pain, altered somatosensory input and weakness significantly contribute to problems with community ambulation, balance and fear of falling in people with chronic stroke. Specific foot and ankle impairments may also negatively contribute to perceptions of physical appearance and self-esteem. Therapeutic management approaches within clinical practice appear to focus mostly on the gross performance of the lower limb with little emphasis on the specific assessment or treatment of the foot or ankle. Foot pain, sensory impairments and muscle weakness in the foot and ankle can impact on community ambulation, balance and fear of falling following stroke. Foot and ankle function post-stroke should be routinely assessed and monitored. Clinicians should be aware of the potentially distressing negative perceptions associated with altered gait patterns, footwear and orthotic use.
Miller, Christopher P; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Walley, Kempland C; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Kwon, John Y
Weight-bearing radiographs are a critical component of evaluating foot and ankle pathology. An underlying assumption is that patients are placing 50% of their body weight on the affected foot during image acquisition. The accuracy of weight bearing during radiographs is unknown and, presumably, variable, which may result in uncertain ability of the resultant radiographs to appropriately portray the pathology of interest. Fifty subjects were tested. The percentage body weight through the foot of interest was measured at the moment of radiographic image acquisition. The subject was then instructed to bear "half [their] weight" prior to the next radiograph. The percentage body weight was calculated and compared to ideal 50% weight bearing. The mean percentage body weight in trial 1 and 2 was 45.7% ± 3.2% ( P = .012 compared to the 50% mark) and 49.2% ± 2.4%, respectively ( P = .428 compared to 50%). The mean absolute difference in percentage weight bearing compared to 50% in trials 1 and 2 was 9.3% ± 2.3% and 5.8% ± 1.8%, respectively ( P = .005). For trial 1, 18/50 subjects were within the "ideal" (45%-55%) range for weight bearing compared to 32/50 on trial 2 ( P = .005). In trial 1, 24/50 subjects had "appropriate" (>45%) weight bearing compared to 39/50 on trial 2 ( P = .002). There was substantial variability in the weight applied during radiograph acquisition. This study raises questions regarding the assumptions, reliability, and interpretation when evaluating weight-bearing radiographs. Level III, comparative study.
Mildren, Robyn L; Bent, Leah R
It has previously been shown that cutaneous sensory input from across a broad region of skin can influence proprioception at joints of the hand. The present experiment tested whether cutaneous input from different skin regions across the foot can influence proprioception at the ankle joint. The ability to passively match ankle joint position (17° and 7° plantar flexion and 7° dorsiflexion) was measured while cutaneous vibration was applied to the sole (heel, distal metatarsals) or dorsum of the target foot. Vibration was applied at two different frequencies to preferentially activate Meissner's corpuscles (45 Hz, 80 μm) or Pacinian corpuscles (255 Hz, 10 μm) at amplitudes ∼3 dB above mean perceptual thresholds. Results indicated that cutaneous input from all skin regions across the foot could influence joint-matching error and variability, although the strongest effects were observed with heel vibration. Furthermore, the influence of cutaneous input from each region was modulated by joint angle; in general, vibration had a limited effect on matching in dorsiflexion compared with matching in plantar flexion. Unlike previous results in the upper limb, we found no evidence that Pacinian input exerted a stronger influence on proprioception compared with Meissner input. Findings from this study suggest that fast-adapting cutaneous input from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint in a passive joint-matching task. These results indicate that there is interplay between tactile and proprioceptive signals originating from the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between static anthropometric measures or demographical information and overuse injuries in the lower leg, ankle and foot...
Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas
The present study focused on the effects of trunk extensor muscles fatigue on postural control during quiet standing under different somatosensory conditions from the foot and the ankle. With this aim, 20 young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible in two conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of trunk extensor muscles. In Experiment 1 (n = 10), somatosensation from the foot and the ankle was degraded by standing on a foam surface. In Experiment 2 (n = 10), somatosensation ...
Using the Oxford Foot Model to determine the association between objective measures of foot function and results of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the Foot Function Index: a prospective gait analysis study in Germany.
Kostuj, Tanja; Stief, Felix; Hartmann, Kirsten Anna; Schaper, Katharina; Arabmotlagh, Mohammad; Baums, Mike H; Meurer, Andrea; Krummenauer, Frank; Lieske, Sebastian
After cross-cultural adaption for the German translation of the Ankle-Hindfoot Scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS-AHS) and agreement analysis with the Foot Function Index (FFI-D), the following gait analysis study using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was carried out to show which of the two scores better correlates with objective gait dysfunction. Results of the AOFAS-AHS and FFI-D, as well as data from three-dimensional gait analysis were collected from 20 patients with mild to severe ankle and hindfoot pathologies.Kinematic and kinetic gait data were correlated with the results of the total AOFAS scale and FFI-D as well as the results of those items representing hindfoot function in the AOFAS-AHS assessment. With respect to the foot disorders in our patients (osteoarthritis and prearthritic conditions), we correlated the total range of motion (ROM) in the ankle and subtalar joints as identified by the OFM with values identified during clinical examination 'translated' into score values. Furthermore, reduced walking speed, reduced step length and reduced maximum ankle power generation during push-off were taken into account and correlated to gait abnormalities described in the scores. An analysis of correlations with CIs between the FFI-D and the AOFAS-AHS items and the gait parameters was performed by means of the Jonckheere-Terpstra test; furthermore, exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify common information structures and thereby redundancy in the FFI-D and the AOFAS-AHS items. Objective findings for hindfoot disorders, namely a reduced ROM, in the ankle and subtalar joints, respectively, as well as reduced ankle power generation during push-off, showed a better correlation with the AOFAS-AHS total score-as well as AOFAS-AHS items representing ROM in the ankle, subtalar joints and gait function-compared with the FFI-D score.Factor analysis, however, could not identify FFI-D items consistently related to these three
Li, Jing Xian; Xu, Dong Qing; Hoshizaki, Blaine
This study examined the proprioception of the foot and ankle complex in regular ice hockey practitioners, runners, and ballet dancers. A total of 45 young people with different exercise habits formed four groups: the ice hockey, ballet dancing, running, and sedentary groups. Kinesthesia of the foot and ankle complex was measured in plantarflexion (PF), dorsiflexion (DF), inversion (IV), and eversion (EV) at 0.4 degrees /s using a custom-made device. The results showed the following: (1) significantly better perceived passive motion sense in PF/DF was found as compared with the measurements in IV/EV within each group (P ballet groups perceived significantly better passive motion sense in IV/EV than the running (P ballet dancing on proprioception may be associated with their movement characteristics.
Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin
Summary Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25343083
Uematsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Shinozuka, Nobuyuki; Sunagawa, Norihiko; Fukubayashi, Toru
The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Cross-sectional study. Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Eighty-three collegiate athletes. All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however, the scores must be interpreted with caution, especially when applied to different populations and other types of
Grabowski, Alena M; D?Andrea, Susan
Background People with a lower-extremity amputation that use conventional passive-elastic ankle-foot prostheses encounter a series of stress-related challenges during walking such as greater forces on their unaffected leg, and may thus be predisposed to secondary musculoskeletal injuries such as chronic joint disorders. Specifically, people with a unilateral transtibial amputation have an increased susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis, especially in their unaffected leg. Previous studies hav...
Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart
Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.
Hetsroni, Iftach; Nyska, Meir; Ben-Sira, David; Arnson, Yoav; Buksbaum, Chen; Aliev, Elchan; Mann, Gideon; Massarwe, Sabri; Rozenfeld, Gal; Ayalon, Moshe
High-grade calcaneal fractures represent a complex injury, with limited data to support the advisability of open reduction. Restoration of foot and ankle kinematics during walking, which has been previously shown to be significantly limited after nonoperative treatment, has never been studied after the operation. This study was designed to address this lack of information to assess the advisability of the operation in this respect. Twenty patients with a minimum of 2 years after Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) for high-grade fractures were evaluated with a computerized gait analysis system, in addition to the radiographic assessment and functional questionnaires. Foot and ankle kinematic variables in the operated limbs were compared with contralateral limbs and with matched healthy control individuals. The kinematical gait analysis demonstrated recreation of normal ankle motions in operated patients. Subtalar motion demonstrated relative symmetry between operated and contralateral limbs, but it was still significantly limited compared with healthy controls. Bohler angle was between 15° and 35°. Functional questionnaires and rate of postoperative complications supported the generalizability of our operated group compared with previous literature assessing similar injuries. In high-grade calcaneal fractures, when recreation of gross calcaneal anatomy is obtained during the operation, walking ankle motion is recreated as well. However, subtalar motions, although recreated to a certain extent, still demonstrate limitations when compared with noninjured individuals. These results support the advisability of the operation in these complex injuries, but they demonstrate that subtalar motion is not completely normalized despite a favorable anatomic outcome.
Chen, Chih-Chi; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Wu, Katie Pei-Hsuan; Kang, Chao-Fu; Tang, Simon F
To evaluate the kinematic features of rear-foot motion during gait in hemiplegic stroke patients, using anterior ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), posterior AFOs, and no orthotic assistance. Crossover design with randomization for the interventions. A rehabilitation center for adults with neurologic disorders. Patients with hemiplegia due to stroke (n=14) and able-bodied subjects (n=11). Subjects with hemiplegia were measured walking under 3 conditions with randomized sequences: (1) with an anterior AFO, (2) with a posterior AFO, and (3) without an AFO. Control subjects were measured walking without an AFO to provide a normative reference. Rear-foot kinematic change in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. In the sagittal plane, compared with walking with an anterior AFO or without an AFO, the posterior AFO significantly decreased plantar flexion to neutral at initial heel contact (P=.001) and the swing phase (PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The foot is one of the most susceptible areas to get injured in flamenco dancing, due to footwork, characteristics of footwear and heel height. The aim of this article is to analyze the execution of high speed footwork in foot and/or ankle instability for determining differences regarding dance shoes. Ten professional flamenco dancers have taken part in this investigation, 5 female dancers (29,6+4,7 years, 55+3,5 kg, 163,8+7,3 cm and 5 male dancers (25,2+1,30 years, 61,4+7,2 kg, 171+3,1 cm. The participants had to repeat a dancing sequence consisting of 6 footworks for 15 s. This taping combined 4 different techniques. This sequence was repeated with both feet as many times as possible. The amount of footworks realized have been measured (female 171,2+7,40; male 180,6+11,8 as well as the percentage of cases carried out with ankle instability (female 9,2+1,3%; male 26,1+9,1%. Despite the female dance shoe has a higher heel, which is more associated to skin, toe and structural foot injuries, it is more stable than the flamenco boot. This is due to the necessary boot looseness to be put on/off, which causes a worse foot stability and more imbalance situations during the footwork.El pie es una de las zonas más susceptibles de lesión en el baile flamenco debido al gesto de zapateado, características del calzado y altura del tacón. El objetivo de este artículo es observar la ejecución de zapateados en situación de inestabilidad del pie y/o tobillo, para determinar diferencias en función del calzado de baile. Han participado en el estudio 10 profesionales de baile flamenco, 5 bailaoras (29,6+4,7 años, 55+3,5 kg, 163,8+7,3 cm y 5 bailaores (25,2+1,30 años, 61,4+7,2 kg, 171+3,1 cm. Los participantes debían repetir durante 15 s una secuencia de baile de 6 zapateados, que combinaban 4 gestos técnicos. Esta secuencia se repetía con ambos pies el mayor número de veces posible. Se han contabilizado el número zapateados realizados (bailaoras 171
Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Van Mulders, Benjamin; Verspecht, Julian; Degelaen, Marc
To improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy, ankle-foot orthoses are often prescribed. However, until now, little attention has been devoted to the effect of ankle-foot orthoses on the postural control during walking in children with cerebral palsy. The aim was to compare the differences in thorax, spine, and pelvis movements in children with cerebral palsy during walking barefoot and walking with ankle-foot orthoses. Clinical study with an intra subject design. A total of 15 children (12 boys and 3 girls; mean age, 8 ± 2 years) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (12 with Gross Motor Function Classification System I and 3 with Gross Motor Function Classification System II) performed a full-body three-dimensional gait analysis. Differences in the range of motion of the thorax, spine, and pelvis during walking barefoot and walking with bilateral ankle-foot orthoses were analyzed (SPSS v20, paired-samples t-test). Children with cerebral palsy showed a significantly larger range of motion of the thorax (flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation) and the spine (lateral bending) during walking with ankle-foot orthoses compared to walking barefoot. No significant differences were found in the range of motion of the pelvis between these two conditions. It can be concluded that wearing ankle-foot orthoses influences the postural control during walking in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Due to the increased range of motions, the movement pattern of the trunk diverges from the typically developing children. Clinical relevance Wearing ankle-foot orthoses not only gives more stability at the pelvis and ankle joint but also influences trunk motion. In order of the level of core stability of the child, compensations can be either seen in the lower back or the upper trunk. Clinicians should be aware of these compensations and should evaluate postural control in a more detailed evaluation.
Butler, P B; Farmer, S E; Stewart, C; Jones, P W; Forward, M
To identify the characteristics of children with cerebral palsy who benefited from tuning of their fixed ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) to create a screening tool. A retrospective review was conducted using video records of 21 independently walking children with cerebral palsy who were referred to a Gait Laboratory for AFO tuning. All showed a ground reaction vector (GRV) in front of the knee (extending) when barefoot. The stance phase was digitised to obtain kinematic and kinetic parameters. Effectiveness of AFO tuning was judged by optimisation of the GRV at the knee and statistical and scatter plot analysis sought to discriminate between those who tuned and those who did not. Analysis showed clear distinction between the two groups based on knee kinematics. Those who tuned showed flexion of no more than 20 degrees in the first third of stance combined with movement towards extension in the second third of stance to a minimum of 10 degrees flexion or less. This study has created a screening tool to identify children likely to benefit from AFO tuning based on kinematic data and which could be used in the community.
Nixon, Devon C; Cusworth, Brian M; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Klein, Sandra E
Identifying preoperative risk factors that may portend poorer operative outcomes remains a topic of current interest. In hip and knee arthroplasty patients, the presence of patient-reported allergies (PRAs) has been associated with worse pain and function after joint replacement. However, these results have not been replicated across studies, including in shoulder arthroplasty cases. The impact of PRAs on foot and ankle outcomes has yet to be studied. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether PRAs influence patient-reported outcome in foot and ankle surgery. To determine if PRAs are linked to poorer operative outcomes, we retrospectively identified 159 patients who underwent elective foot and ankle surgery. PRA data were obtained via chart review, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively via multiple domains, including Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function, pain interference, and depression measures. Consistent with prior methodology, we compared outcome measures (preoperative, postoperative, and the change in outcome scores) between patients without self-reported allergies to patients with at least 1 PRA. There were 159 patients studied; 79 patients had no allergies listed, and 80 patients had at least 1 PRA. Of the 80 patients with at least 1 PRA, there were a total of 170 possible allergies. There were no differences in preoperative, postoperative, or the change in outcome scores for all PROMIS measures (physical function, pain interference, and depression; P > .05) between patients with at least 1 PRA and those patients without any listed PRAs. We were unable to prove our hypothesis that PRAs were linked to poorer patient-reported outcomes following foot and ankle surgery. Closer review of the published reports linking PRAs to worse total joint arthroplasty outcomes revealed data that, while statistically significant, are likely not clinically relevant. Our negative
McGrath, Denise; Patterson, Matthew; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Caulfield, Brian
Researchers have reported increased variability in frontal-plane movement at the ankle during jumping in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), which may increase their risk of recurrent ankle sprain. It is not known if this behavior is present during running gait or how fatigue affects the amount of frontal-plane-movement variability in individuals with CAI. To investigate the amount of roll-angle variability at the foot during a fatiguing exercise protocol in participants with CAI. Controlled laboratory study. Motion-analysis research laboratory. A total of 18 volunteers with CAI (10 men, 8 women; age = 29.8 ± 9.2 years, height = 175.8 ± 11.2 cm, mass = 75.4 ± 10.7 kg) and 17 volunteers serving as controls (8 men, 9 women; age = 28.2 ± 6.3 years, height = 172.3 ± 10.6 cm, mass = 68.8 ± 12.9 kg). Kinematic data for foot position were collected while participants performed a functional fatigue protocol based on shuttle runs. Variability (ie, standard deviation) of the roll angle of the foot about the x-axis, corresponding to inversion-eversion, was measured at 2 discrete times: 50 milliseconds before foot strike and 65% of stance. No differences in roll-angle range or variability were observed between limbs in either group. At 65% of stance, we found a main effect for time, whereby both groups demonstrated decreased roll-angle ranges at the end of the fatigue protocol ( P = .01). A between-groups effect in the roll-angle variability at 65% of stance was noted ( P = .04), with the CAI group exhibiting higher levels of variability. No between-groups differences were observed at 50 milliseconds before foot strike. Chronic ankle instability is a complex, multifactorial condition that can affect patients in diverse ways. Identifying excessive foot-position variability in particular situations could potentially inform targeted rehabilitation programs.
Prenton, Sarah; Hollands, Kristen L; Kenney, Laurence P J; Onmanee, Pornsuree
To compare the randomized controlled trial evidence for therapeutic effects on walking of functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses for foot drop caused by central nervous system conditions. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, REHABDATA, PEDro, NIHR Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus and clinicaltrials.gov. One reviewer screened titles/abstracts. Two independent reviewers then screened the full articles. One reviewer extracted data, another screened for accuracy. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Eight papers were eligible; 7 involving participants with stroke and 1 involving participants with cerebral palsy. Two papes reporting different measures from the same trial were grouped, resulting in 7 synthesized randomized controlled trials (n= 464). Meta-analysis of walking speed at final assessment (p = 0.46), for stroke participants (p = 0.54) and after 4-6 weeks' use (p = 0.49) showed equal improvement for both devices. Functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses have an equally positive therapeutic effect on walking speed in non-progressive central nervous system diagnoses. The current randomized controlled trial evidence base does not show whether this improvement translates into the user's own environment or reveal the mechanisms that achieve that change. Future studies should focus on measuring activity, muscle activity and gait kinematics. They should also report specific device details, capture sustained therapeutic effects and involve a variety of central nervous system diagnoses.
De Boer, A Siebe; Meuffels, Duncan E; Van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Den Hoed, P Ted; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Van Lieshout, Esther M M
The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most used questionnaires for measuring functional recovery after a hindfoot injury. Recently, this instrument was translated and culturally adapted into a Dutch version. In this study, the measurement properties of the Dutch language version (DLV) were investigated in patients with a unilateral hindfoot fracture. Multicentre, prospective observational study. This multicentre study was conducted in three Dutch hospitals. In total, 118 patients with a unilateral hindfoot fracture were included. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Patients were asked to complete the AOFAS-DLV, the Foot Function Index and the Short Form-36 on three occasions. Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), reliability (ie, internal consistency), construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test-retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change (SDC)) and responsiveness were determined. Internal consistency was inadequate for the AOFAS-DLV total scale (α=0.585), but adequate for the function subscale (α=0.863). The questionnaire had adequate construct validity (82.4% of predefined hypotheses were confirmed), but inadequate longitudinal validity (70.6%). No floor effects were found, but ceiling effects were present in all AOFAS-DLV (sub)scales, most pronounced from 6 to 24 months after trauma onwards. Responsiveness was only adequate for the pain and alignment subscales, with a SDC of 1.7 points. The AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale DLV has adequate construct validity and is reliable, making it a suitable instrument for cross-sectional studies investigating functional outcome in patients with a hindfoot fracture. The inadequate longitudinal validity and responsiveness, however, hamper the use of the questionnaire in longitudinal studies and for assessing long-term functional outcome. NTR5613; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the
Best, Matthew J; Buller, Leonard T; Miranda, Alejandro
Foot and ankle arthrodesis reliably reduces pain and functional disability among patients with arthritis and deformity. Since its introduction in 1953, improvements in surgical technique have enhanced the outcomes and reduced complications. However, little is known regarding US national trends of foot and ankle arthrodesis. The present study sought to use the most recently available Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data to investigate changes in the usage of inpatient and ambulatory foot and ankle arthrodesis. Cases of foot and ankle arthrodesis were identified using the National Hospital Discharge Survey and National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, and the data were analyzed for trends in demographics, treatment, and usage. From 1994 to 2006, the population-adjusted rates of foot and ankle arthrodeses increased by 146% (8.2/100,000 capita to 20.2/100,000 capita). The number of outpatient arthrodeses performed with arthroscopic assistance increased by 858%. The population-adjusted rate of outpatient and inpatient procedures increased by 415% and 17%, respectively. The gender-adjusted rates increased by 59% for males and 209% for females. The age-adjusted rates increased among patients >35 years old in both settings. The use of peripheral nerve blocks during ambulatory procedures increased from 3.3% to 10.1%. Private insurance was the largest compensator. In conclusion, the rate of foot and ankle arthrodesis increased dramatically from 1990 to 2007 using the most up-to-date publicly available data. Knowledge of these national practice patterns could aid policy-makers and surgeons in appropriately allocating healthcare resources to ensure quality patient care. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Saeedi, Hassan; Head, John S
Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are orthotic devices that can be used to normalize the walking pattern of children with cerebral palsy (CP). One of the aims of orthotic management is to produce a more normal gait pattern by positioning joints in the proper position to reduce pathological reflex or spasticity. To conduct a systematic review of the literature and establish the effect of treatment with various types of AFOs on gait patterns of children with CP. PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 2007 and 2015 of studies of children with CP wearing the following AFOs: hinged (HAFO), solid (SAFO), floor reaction (FRO), posterior leaf spring (PLS) and dynamic (DAFO). Studies that combined treatment options were excluded. Outcomes investigated were a change in gait pattern and subsequent walking ability. The PEDro scale used to assess the methodological quality of relevant studies. We included 17 studies investigating a total of 1139 children with CP. The PEDro score was poor for most studies (3/10). Only 4 studies, of 209 children in total, were randomized controlled trials, for a good PEDro score (5, 7, 9/10) and an appropriate level of evidence. One study used a case-based series and the remainder a cross-sectional design. In general, the use of AFOs improved speed and stride length. The HAFO was effective for improving gait parameters and decreasing energy expenditure with hemiplegic CP as compared with the barefoot condition. It also improved stride length, speed of walking, single limb support and gait symmetry with hemiplegic CP. The plastic SAFO and FRO were effective in reducing energy expenditure with diplegic CP. With diplegic CP, the HAFO and SAFO improved gross motor function. For children with CP, use of specific types of AFOs improved gait parameters, including ankle and knee range of motion, walking speed and stride length. AFOs reduced energy expenditure in children
Ojeda-Jiménez, J; Méndez-Ojeda, M M; Martín-Vélez, P; Tejero-García, S; Pais-Brito, J L; Herrera-Pérez, M
The indiscriminate practice of radiographs for foot and ankle injuries is not justified and numerous studies have corroborated the usefulness of clinical screening tests such as the Ottawa Ankle Rules. The aim of our study is to clinically validate the so-called Shetty Test in our area. A cross-sectional observational study by applying the Shetty test to patients seen in the Emergency Department. We enrolled 100 patients with an average age of 39.25 (16-86). The Shetty test was positive on 14 occasions. Subsequent radiography revealed a fracture in 10 cases: 4 were false positives. The test was negative in the remaining 86 patients and radiography confirmed the absence of fracture (with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95.56%, positive predictive value of 71.40%, and negative predictive value of 100%). The Shetty test is a valid clinical screening tool to decide whether simple radiography is indicated for foot and ankle injuries. It is a simple, quick and reproducible test. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh
The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value
Background Complex foot and ankle fractures, such as calcaneum fractures or Lisfranc dislocations, are often associated with a poor outcome, especially in terms of gait capacity. Indeed, degenerative changes often lead to chronic pain and chronic functional limitations. Prescription footwear represents an important therapeutic tool during the rehabilitation process. Local Dynamic Stability (LDS) is the ability of locomotor system to maintain continuous walking by accommodating small perturbations that occur naturally during walking. Because it reflects the degree of control over the gait, LDS has been advocated as a relevant indicator for evaluating different conditions and pathologies. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in LDS induced by orthopaedic shoes in patients with persistent foot and ankle injuries. We hypothesised that footwear adaptation might help patients to improve gait control, which could lead to higher LDS: Methods Twenty-five middle-aged inpatients (5 females, 20 males) participated in the study. They were treated for chronic post-traumatic disabilities following ankle and/or foot fractures in a Swiss rehabilitation clinic. During their stay, included inpatients received orthopaedic shoes with custom-made orthoses (insoles). They performed two 30s walking trials with standard shoes and two 30s trials with orthopaedic shoes. A triaxial motion sensor recorded 3D accelerations at the lower back level. LDS was assessed by computing divergence exponents in the acceleration signals (maximal Lyapunov exponents). Pain was evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). LDS and pain differences between the trials with standard shoes and the trials with orthopaedic shoes were assessed. Results Orthopaedic shoes significantly improved LDS in the three axes (medio-lateral: 10% relative change, paired t-test p < 0.001; vertical: 9%, p = 0.03; antero-posterior: 7%, p = 0.04). A significant decrease in pain level (VAS score -29%) was observed
Caputo, Joshua M; Collins, Steven H
Robotic prostheses have the potential to significantly improve mobility for people with lower-limb amputation. Humans exhibit complex responses to mechanical interactions with these devices, however, and computational models are not yet able to predict such responses meaningfully. Experiments therefore play a critical role in development, but have been limited by the use of product-like prototypes, each requiring years of development and specialized for a narrow range of functions. Here we describe a robotic ankle-foot prosthesis system that enables rapid exploration of a wide range of dynamical behaviors in experiments with human subjects. This emulator comprises powerful off-board motor and control hardware, a flexible Bowden cable tether, and a lightweight instrumented prosthesis, resulting in a combination of low mass worn by the human (0.96 kg) and high mechatronic performance compared to prior platforms. Benchtop tests demonstrated closed-loop torque bandwidth of 17 Hz, peak torque of 175 Nm, and peak power of 1.0 kW. Tests with an anthropomorphic pendulum "leg" demonstrated low interference from the tether, less than 1 Nm about the hip. This combination of low worn mass, high bandwidth, high torque, and unrestricted movement makes the platform exceptionally versatile. To demonstrate suitability for human experiments, we performed preliminary tests in which a subject with unilateral transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill at 1.25 ms-1 while the prosthesis behaved in various ways. These tests revealed low torque tracking error (RMS error of 2.8 Nm) and the capacity to systematically vary work production or absorption across a broad range (from -5 to 21 J per step). These results support the use of robotic emulators during early stage assessment of proposed device functionalities and for scientific study of fundamental aspects of human-robot interaction. The design of simple, alternate end-effectors would enable studies at other joints or with
Vinci, P; Gargiulo, P
The aim of this study is to evaluate the compliance with ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) in patients previously prescribed and affected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Twenty-five Italian patients (8 males 17 females; mean age: 41.6 years, range 16-54) with severe bilateral footdrop (leg-sole angle alpha >105 degrees ) alone or associated with other problems (rotation, plantarflexor failure, knee flexor failure) were examined by a physiatrist (with measurement of the leg-sole angle alpha' with their footwear) and interviewed by a psychologist. Only 5 patients (20%) used AFOs (3 prefabricated polypropylene AFOs, 2 custom-made short AFOs incorporated in high-top boots) with satisfactory functional results (alpha' <=94 degrees ; reported increased mobility and no more falls). The interview revealed that all patients had a bad relationship with their own body. The 3 subjects using prefabricated AFOs said that they hated them and one of them complained of pain. Patients not using AFOs justified their decision with statements such as: ''I am not yet ready to accept them'' (n=3) or ''I can still manage without them for a while'' (n=2) or both (n=15). Four patients had experienced pain during the trial, 2 had not found proper shoes to accommodate them and 12 were absolutely not interested in AFOs and, therefore, had not gone to an orthotist. Compliance with AFOs is poor. Patients with CMT discard AFOs because they highlight their disability, are not essential for their limited daily walking and are uncomfortable. We suggest that prescription of AFOs be accompanied with psychological support and that research of more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable solutions for the problem of footdrop be stimulated.
Morris, Christopher; Doll, Helen; Davies, Neville; Wainwright, Andrew; Theologis, Tim; Willett, Keith; Fitzpatrick, Ray
To evaluate how scores from the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire change over time and with treatment using both distribution-based and anchor-based approaches. Eighty children aged 5-16 and their parent or career completed questionnaires at orthopaedic or trauma outpatient clinics. They were asked to complete and return a second set of questionnaires again within 2 weeks (retest), and then mailed a third set of questionnaires to complete again after 2 months (follow-up). The follow-up questionnaires included a global rating of change 'transition' item. Child- and parent-reported mean domain scores (Physical, School & Play, and Emotional) were all stable at retest, whereas positive mean changes were observed at follow-up. As we hypothesised, trauma patients had poorer scores than elective patients at baseline, and showed greater improvement at follow-up. For trauma patients, mean changes in per cent scores were large (scores improved between 40 and 56 for the Physical and School & Play domains, and 17 and 21 for Emotional); all effect sizes (ES) were large (>0.8). For elective patients, the mean improvement in per cent scores were more moderate (Physical: child 10, ES = 0.4, parent 11, ES = 0.5; School & Play child 0, ES = 0, parent 9 ES = 0.4; Emotional: child 6, ES = 0.2; parents 8, ES > 0.3). Minimal detectable change (MDC(90)), an indication of measurement error, ranged from 6 to 8. Half the standard deviation of baseline scores ranged from 11 to 18. Minimal important difference could only be calculated for elective patients (9 child and 13 parent ratings), these ranged from 7 to 17. The findings support the responsiveness and longitudinal validity of the scales. Changes in domain scores of, or exceeding, the MDC(90) (6-8) are likely to be beyond measurement error; further work is required to refine the estimate of change that can be considered important.
Kim, Eun Sil; Yoon, Yong-Soon; Sohn, Min Kyun; Kwak, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Jong Ho; Oh, Ji Sun
To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles (PKAFO). Twenty-three hemiplegic patients (age, 59.6±13.7 years) were assessed 19.7±36.6 months after brain lesion. The 10-m walking time was measured as a gait parameter while the individual walked on a treadmill. Walking speed (m/s), step cycle (cycle/s), and step length (m) were also measured on a treadmill with and without PKAFO, and before and after gait training. Clinical parameters measured before and after gait training included Korean version of Modified Bathel Index (K-MBI), manual muscle test (MMT), and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) of hemiplegic ankle. Gait training comprised treadmill walking for 20 minutes, 5 days a week for 3 weeks at a comfortable speed. The 10-m walking time, walking speed, step length, and step cycle were significantly greater with PKAFO than without PKAFO, and after gait training (both p<0.05). K-MBI was improved after gait training (p<0.05), but MMT and MAS were not. PKAFO may improve gait function in hemiplegic patients. It can be a useful orthosis for gait training in hemiplegic patients.
Vuillerme, N; Hlavackova, P; Franco, C; Diot, B; Demongeot, J; Payan, Y
This pilot study aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effectiveness of an electro Electro-tactile Vestibular Substitution System (EVSS) in patients with unilateral vestibular loss under normal and altered somatosensory conditions from the foot and ankle. Four unilateral vestibular-defective patients voluntarily participated in the experiment. They were asked to stand upright as still as possible with their eyes closed in two Normal and Altered foot and ankle sensory conditions. In the Normal condition, the postural task was executed on a firm support surface constituted by the force platform. In the Altered condition, a 2-cm thick foam support surface was placed under the participants' feet. These two foot and ankle sensory conditions were executed under two No EVSS and EVSS experimental conditions. The No EVSS condition served as a control condition. In the EVSS condition, participants executed the postural task using a biofeedback system whose underlying principle consisted of supplying them with additional information about their head orientation/motion with respect to gravitational vertical through electro-tactile stimulation of their tongue. Centre of foot pressure displacements (CoP) were recorded using the force platform. Results showed that, relative to the No EVSS condition, the EVSS condition decreased CoP displacements in both the Normal and the Altered foot and ankle sensory conditions. Interestingly, the stabilizing effect was more pronounced in the Altered than in the Normal foot and ankle sensory condition. These preliminary results suggest that patients with unilateral vestibular loss were able to take advantage to a head position-based electro-tactile tongue biofeedback to mitigate the postural perturbation induced by alteration of somatosensory input from the foot and the ankle.
... Overview of Foot & Ankle / Adult Foot Health Adult Foot Health Page Content The Normal Foot There are 26 bones and 33 joints in ... Pay attention to cuts and bruises of the foot. Like any other injury they should be cleansed ...
Singh, Dishan; Ferrero, Andrea; Rose, Barry; Goldberg, Andrew; Cullen, Nicholas
Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) is a condition characterized by pain and an increase interstitial fluid within the bone marrow in the absence of a definable cause. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the pattern of bone edema and quality of pain over time. In patients diagnosed with BMES of the foot and ankle, we investigated the benefit of treatment with bisphosphonates and immobilization in a pneumatic walking boot compared with immobilization in a boot alone. This study is a retrospective review of 18 consecutive patients (mean age 54 years) diagnosed with foot and ankle BMES. Twelve (67%) patients were female and 6 were male with a mean age of 60.1 and 43.0 years, respectively (P < .05). The minimum follow-up was 2 years (range 2-11 years, mean 5.75 years). Five females and no males were found to suffer from generalized osteoporosis. The average duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 22 weeks and the most common bone affected was the talus (56%). More than one bone was affected in 8 (44%) patients. All patients were given a walking boot at first attendance for 8 weeks. The mean time to resolution of pain in patients treated with a pneumatic walker alone (7 patients) was 25.6 weeks (range 8-36 weeks). In the 11 patients whose pain had not improved at their first follow-up, treatment with bisphosphonates led to a more rapid resolution of pain in 13.8 weeks if given intravenously, and 24.0 weeks if given orally. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant advantage in using a bisphosphonate versus a protected weightbearing alone (P < .01). Recurrence within the same foot and ankle occurred in 44% of patients at a mean interval of 15.6 months and migration to a different site occurred in 6% of patients. Therapeutic, Level III: Retrospective, comparative trial. © 2015 The Author(s).
Imai, Kan; Ikoma, Kazuya; Maki, Masahiro; Kido, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Yoshiro; Takatori, Ryota; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Inoue, Nozomu; Kubo, Toshikazu
It is difficult to evaluate the kinematics of flat foot from 2D images, and no definitive methods have so far been established to diagnose flat foot. This study evaluated hindfoot kinetics through the progression of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) in patients with stages II and III PTTD flat foot compared with those in normal patients under dorsiflexion and plantarflexion conditions using 3D computed tomography (CT) reconstruction images. CT images were taken of 26 normal and 32 flat feet in neutral, plantarflexion, and dorsiflexion positions of the ankle joint, from which 3D virtual models were made of each hindfoot bone. The 3D bone motion of these models was calculated using volume merge methods in three major planes. Tibiotalar-joint motion in ankle-joint plantarflexion became less plantarflexed (normal -41.2°, stage II -33.5°, stage III -25.3°) and less adducted (normal -13.9°, stage II -10.7°, stage III -5.6°) as the stage progressed. Talocalcaneal-joint motion in stage III became more plantarflexed (normal -0.8°, stage II -3.0°, stage III -8.7°) and more adducted (normal -0.3°, stage II -4.7°, stage III -10.3°) as the stage progressed. Talonavicular-joint motion in stage III became more plantarflexed (normal -7.2°, stage II -7.6°, stage III -14.9°) and more adducted (normal 1.0°, stage II -7.3°, stage III -17.9°) as the stage progressed. Tibiotalar-joint plantarflexion decreased and talocalcaneal and talonavicular-joint adduction increased in the maximal ankle-joint plantarflexion in stage II in comparison with normal cases. Tibiotalar-joint plantarflexion and adduction were decreased and of the talocalcaneal and talonavicular joints increased in stage III in comparison with stage II cases.
The translational potential of this article: Biomechanical variations resulted from total ankle arthroplasty may contribute to negative postoperative outcomes. The exploration of the biomechanical performance in this study might benefit the surgeons in the determination of surgical protocols to avoid complications. The analysis of the performance of the ankle prosthesis could enhance the knowledge of prosthetic design.
Jentzsch, Thorsten; Hasler, Anita; Renner, Niklas; Peterhans, Manuel; Sutter, Reto; Espinosa, Norman; Wirth, Stephan H
Lateral talar process fractures (LTPF) are often missed on conventional radiographs. A positive V sign is an interruption of the contour of the LTP. It has been suggested, but not proven to be pathognomonic for LTPF. The objective was to study whether the V sign is pathognomonic for LTPF and if it can be properly assessed in different ankle positions and varying fracture types. An experimental study was conducted. Two investigators assessed lateral radiographs (n = 108) of a foot and ankle model. The exposure variables were different ankle positions and fracture types. The primary outcome was the correct detection of a V sign. The secondary outcomes were the detection of the V sign depending on ankle position and fracture type as well as the uncertainty. The interobserver agreement on the V sign and type of fracture were fair (κ = 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.53, p sign were 77% (95% CI 67-86%), 59% (95% CI 39-78%), 85% (95% CI 75-92%), 46% (95% CI 29-63%), and 2. The mean uncertainty in the V sign detection was 38%. The V sign identification stratified by ankle position and fracture type showed significant better results with increasing inversion (p = 0.035 and p = 0.011) and type B fractures (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). The V sign may not be pathognomonic and is not recommended as the only modality for the detection of LTPF. It is better visualized with inversion, but does not depend on plantar flexion or internal rotation. It is also better seen in type B fractures. It is difficult to detect and investigator-dependent. It may be helpful in a clinical setting to point into a direction, but a CT scan may be used if in doubt about a LTPF.
Sheykhi-Dolagh, Roghaye; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mohammad; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Derayatifar, Amir A; Curran, Sarah
Flexible flat foot is described as a reduction in the height of the medial longitudinal arch and may occur from abnormal foot pronation. A foot orthosis is thought to modify and control excessive pronation and improve arch height. To compare the immediate effect of three types of orthoses on foot mobility and the arch height index in subjects with flexible flat feet. A quasi-experimental study. The dorsal arch height, midfoot width, foot mobility and arch height index were assessed in 20 participants with flexible flat feet (mean age = 23.2 ± 3 years) for three different foot orthosis conditions: soft, semi-rigid and rigid University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL). Maximum midfoot width at 90% with arch mobility in the coronal plane was shown in the semi-rigid orthosis condition. The semi-rigid orthosis resulted in the highest mean foot mobility in 90% of weight bearing, and the rigid orthosis (UCBL) had the lowest mean foot mobility. The soft orthosis resulted in foot mobility between that of the rigid and the semi-rigid orthosis. UCBL orthosis showed the highest arch height index, and the semi-rigid orthosis showed the lowest mean arch height index. Due to its rigid structure and long medial-lateral walls, the UCBL orthosis appears to limit foot mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to make an orthosis that facilitates foot mobility in the normal range of the foot arch. Future studies should address the dynamic mobility of the foot with using various types of foot orthoses. Although there are many studies focussed on flat foot and the use of foot orthoses, the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study explored foot mobility and the influence of foot orthoses and showed that a more rigid foot orthosis should be selected based on foot mobility. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Vogler, Joseph H; Csiernik, Alexander J; Yorgey, Marissa K; Harrison, Jerrod J; Games, Kenneth E
Reference: Hegedus EJ, McDonough SM, Bleakley C, Baxter D, Cook CE. Clinician-friendly lower extremity physical performance tests in athletes: a systematic review of measurement properties and correlation with injury. Part 2: the tests for the hip, thigh, foot, and ankle including the Star Excursion Balance Test. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(10):649-656. Do individual physical performance tests (PPTs) for the lower extremity have any relation to injury in athletes 12 years of age and older? The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to locate articles. Three databases were searched from inception to January 13, 2014: PubMed, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus. Search phrases were sport, athletics, athletes, and injuries combined with strength, power, endurance, agility, and function. Reference lists of all remaining articles and personal collections of the authors were then reviewed for any missing articles. Studies were included according to the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) presented as complete articles (ie, no abstracts or posters), and (3) involved human participants. Studies were excluded on the following criteria: (1) a combination of PPTs was examined, (2) the results were measured using equipment that was expensive or not readily available to the average clinician, (3) the PPTs examined impairment-level data, (4) the PPTs examined tasks not relevant to the lower extremity, or (5) the participants scored 4 or less on the Tegner Activity Scale. The final analysis involved 31 studies. The name of the PPT and methods were extracted. Each PPT was then critiqued using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments, a 4-point Likert scale. Data were also summarized using a score of unknown, strong, moderate, limited, or conflicting for the best evidence synthesis. A total of 14 PPTs were examined; however, names and methods of the PPTs were
Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Huang, Brady K; Resnick, Donald L
To evaluate the normal location of the peroneus longus tendon (PL) in the cuboid groove in various ankle-foot positions by ultrasonography in asymptomatic volunteers. Ultrasonographic assessment of the PL in the cuboid groove was performed in 20 feet of ten healthy volunteers. Each PL was examined in five ankle-foot positions (i.e., neutral, dorsiflexion, plantar-flexion, supination, and pronation). The PL location was qualitatively categorized as "inside" when the PL was entirely within the cuboid groove, as "overlying" when some part of the PL was perched on the cuboid tuberosity, and as "outside" when the PL was entirely on the cuboid tuberosity. For quantitative evaluation of the PL location, the distance between the PL and the cuboid groove was measured. The width of the cuboid groove was measured in the neutral position. The PL location did not significantly change with changes in the ankle-foot position. Qualitatively, an "overlying" PL was the most common type, regardless of the ankle-foot position. "Inside" PLs were found in only 35, 20, 30, 25, and 35% of feet in neutral, dorsiflexion, plantar-flexion, supination, and pronation positions, respectively. The quantitative PL location was also not significantly different among all ankle-foot positions and it was significantly negatively correlated with the cuboid groove width. In healthy volunteers, 65% or more of the PLs were partially or completely located outside of the cuboid groove, regardless of the ankle-foot position. The PL location relative to the cuboid groove was related to the cuboid groove width.
Warner, Meredith; Lasyone, Lukas
The primary aim of this study was to compare preoperative assessments with postoperative outcomes from patients undergoing foot and ankle revisions and/or complex reconstructions with tendon and/or nerve involvement using cryopreserved human amniotic membrane and umbilical cord (cHAM/UC). We hypothesized complex foot and ankle surgery using amniotic membrane would be an effective treatment leading to reduced pain and improved functional outcomes. Fourteen patients (6 male and 8 female) underwent open foot and ankle surgery during the study period. All 14 patients included in this cohort reported improvement, namely, lessened pain intensity both on the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the pain numeric rating scale (NRS), as well as improved functional status. The mean AOFAS score improved from 50 (range, 17-79) preoperatively to 85 (range, 67-100) postoperatively. The mean NRS score also improved from 8 (range, 4-10) preoperatively to 2 (range, 0-6) postoperatively with a mean percent change in pain NRS of 78% (range 17-100%). Both outcome-scoring systems showed statistically significant differences (p < .0001) when we compared the preoperative and postoperative results. All patients included in the cohort showed improvement in both outcome measures. Further study of long-term endpoints is warranted.
Patalak, John P; Stitzel, Joel D
Since 2000, numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNRs), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets, and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging. Though the drivers' legs are well contained for lateral and vertical crashes, they remain largely unrestrained in frontal and frontal oblique crashes. Sled testing was conducted for the evaluation of an energy-absorbing (EA) toe board material to be used as a countermeasure for leg and foot injuries. Testing included baseline rigid toe boards, tests with EA material-covered toe boards, and pretest positioning of the 50th percentile male frontal Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower extremities. ATD leg and foot instrumentation included foot acceleration and tibia forces and moments. The sled test data were evaluated using established injury criteria for tibial plateau fractures, leg shaft fractures, and calcaneus, talus, ankle, and midfoot fractures. A polyurethane EA foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system.
Dilandro, Anthony C; Chappell, Todd M; Panchani, Prakash N; Kozlowski, Piotr B; Tubbs, R Shane; Khan, Khurram H; D'Antoni, Anthony V
Many cadaver-based anatomy courses and surgical workshops use prosections to help podiatry students and residents learn clinically relevant anatomy. The quality of these prosections is variable and dependent upon the methods used to prepare them. These methods have not been adequately described in the literature, and few studies describe the use of chemicals to prepare prosections of the cadaveric foot and ankle. Recognizing the need for better teaching prosections in podiatric education, we developed a chemical application method with underwater dissection to better preserve anatomic structures of the cadaveric foot and ankle. We used inexpensive chemicals before, during, and after each step, which ultimately resulted in high-quality prosections that improved identification of anatomic structures relevant to the practice of podiatric medicine. Careful preservation of clinically important nerves, vessels, muscles, ligaments, and joints was achieved with these prosections. Although this method required additional preparation time, the resultant prosections have been repeatedly used for several years to facilitate learning among podiatry students and residents, and they have held up well. This method can be used by educators to teach podiatry students throughout their medical training and even into residency.
Martinkevich, P; Møller-Madsen, B; Gottliebsen, M; Kjeldgaard Pedersen, L; Rahbek, O
We present the validation of a translation into Danish of the Oxford ankle foot questionnaire (OxAFQ). We followed the Isis Pros guidelines for translation and pilot-tested the questionnaire on ten children and their parents. Following modifications we tested the validity of the final questionnaire on 82 children (36 boys and 45 girls) with a mean age of 11.7 years (5.5 to 16.0) and their parents. We tested the reliability (repeatability (test-retest), child-parent agreement, internal consistency), feasibility (response rate, time to completion, floor and ceiling effects) and construct validity. The generic child health questionnaire was used for comparison. We found good internal consistency for the physical and the school and play domains, but lower internal consistency for the emotional domain. Overall, good repeatability was found within children and parents as well as agreement between children and parents. The OxAFQ was fast and easy to complete, but we observed a tendency towards ceiling effects in the school and play and emotional domains. To our knowledge this is the first independent validation of the OxAFQ in any language. We found it valid and feasible for use in the clinic to assess the impact on children's lives of foot and/or ankle disorders. It is a valuable research tool. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Full Text Available This study was to report the comparison of outcomes between Ilizarov ring fixator (IRF and Taylor Spatial Frame® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tenn.; TSF in terms of the effectiveness of ankle-foot deformities correction, follow-up results, and complications. Fourteen patients with ankle-foot deformities were corrected using circular external fixation (IRF group = 7 patients; TSF group = 7 patients and related procedures. Baseline data and treatment variables were recorded. The patients’ mean age was 42.9 years. Mean follow-up time was 6.5 months. Most common cause of deformity/traumatic condition was posttraumatic equinus. There were successful results in 8 patients (57.1%, partial successful results in 5 patients (35.7%, and revision-needed in 1 patient (7.1%. TSF group demonstrated significantly higher rate of successful results than IRF group (P=0.033. A trend of lower complication rate was found in TSF group (P=0.286. Deformity corrections using TSF provided significantly better clinical scores and higher rate of successful outcome than conventional IRF.
Full Text Available Aim. To present the technique and efficacy of extended ankle and foot fasciotomy, as a surgical limb-salvage procedure associated with the successful revascularization after the gold interval. Method. A retrospective review of six patients at the age of 16−79 years (mean 39 in the period from 1996 to 2003, treated with the extended ankle and foot fasciotomy. There were four males undergoing the delayed treatment of war injuries to the lower extremity, and two females with atherosclerotic occlusive disease (a. illiacae dex and a. poplitealis dex.. The average ishemic time in the wounded patients was 22 hours (range, 14−30 hours, and ischemic time in occlusive disease (range, 48−72 hours. Clinical signs, indications, surgical access and the technique of extended ankle and foot fasciotomy was reported. Results. The obtained results were classified as early and late. There was no cases with lethal outcome. Incisional wounds closed 15 days after the intervention, using secondary suture or skin transplant sec. Thiersch. The satisfactory functional results were achieved in 4 of the patients, 1 had a small edema, while amputation was performed in 1 patient. Conclusion. In cases of prolonged foot ischemia with edema and paresthesia in the toes, extended ankle and foot fasciotomy should be performed as a surgical limb-salvage procedure.
Jagadamma, Kavi C; Coutts, Fiona J; Mercer, Thomas H; Herman, Janet; Yirrell, Jacqueline; Forbes, Lyndsay; van der Linden, Marietta L
Abstract Purpose: This exploratory trial investigated the effects of rigid ankle foot orthoses (AFO) with an optimally cast Angle of the Ankle in the AFO (AAAFO) on the gait of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), and whether tuning of the AFO - Footwear Combination (AFO-FC) further affected gait. Methods: Eight children with CP underwent gait analysis and tuning of their AFO-FCs using a 3-D motion analysis system. Comparisons were carried out for selected gait parameters between three conditions - barefoot, non-tuned AFO-FC and tuned AFO-FC. Results: In comparison to barefoot gait, walking with a non-tuned AFO-FC produced significant (p AFO-FC, on average a tuned AFO-FC produced a significant reduction in peak knee extension and knee ROM during gait. However, when examined as case studies, it was observed that the type of gait pattern demonstrated while wearing a non-tuned AFO-FC affected the outcomes of tuning. Conclusions: The findings of the current study indicate the potential benefits of using rigid AFO-FC with optimal AAAFO and tuning of AFO-FCs. This study emphasises the need for categorising children with CP based on their gait patterns when investigating the effects of interventions such as AFOs. Implications for Rehabilitation Rigid ankle foot orthoses (AFO) cast at an optimal angle to accommodate the length of gastrocnemius muscle may positively influence walking in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Tuning of the AFO-Footwear Combination (AFO-FC) has potential benefits to the walking of children with CP, depending on their gait abnormalities. When investigating the effects of interventions such as AFOs, it is important to categorise children with CP based on their gait abnormalities.
... away before the ligament is injured. Types of Sprains In young children, the ankle is the most commonly sprained joint, followed by ... A walking cast may be necessary if the ankle or foot injury has been severe. Most grade 1 sprains will heal within two weeks without subsequent complications. ...
Marty, Philippe; Rontes, Olivier; Chassery, Clément; Vuillaume, Corine; Basset, Bertrand; Merouani, Mehdi; Marquis, Constance; Bataille, Benoit; Chaubard, Martine; Mailles, Marie Claude; Ferré, Fabrice; Delbos, Alain
Among the different adjuvants, dexamethasone is one of the most accepted to prolong the effect of local anesthetics. This study aims to determine the superiority of perineural over systemic dexamethasone administration after a single-shot ankle block in metatarsal osteotomy. We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 100 patients presenting for metatarsal osteotomy with an ankle block were randomized into 2 groups: 30 mL ropivacaine 0.375% + perineural dexamethasone 4 mg (1 mL) + 2.5 mL of systemic saline solution (PNDex group, n = 50) and 30 mL ropivacaine 0.375% + 1 mL of perineural saline solution + intravenous dexamethasone 10 mg (2.5 mL) (IVDex group, n = 50). The primary end point was the duration of analgesia defined as the time between the performance of the ankle block and the first administration of rescue analgesia with tramadol. Time period to first rescue analgesia with tramadol was similar in the IVDex group and the PNDex group. Data are expressed as mean (SD) or median (range). Duration of analgesia was 23.2 (9.5) hours in the IVDex group and 19 (8.2) hours in the PNDex group (P = 0.4). Consumption of tramadol during the first 48 hours was 0 mg (0-150 mg) in the IVDex group versus 0 mg (0-250 mg) in the PNDex group (P = 0.59). Four (8%) and 12 (24%) patients reported nausea or vomiting in the IVDex group and the PNDex group, respectively (P = 0.03). In front-foot surgery, perineural and systemic administrations of dexamethasone are equivalent for postoperative pain relief when used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine ankle block. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02904538.
Bielska, Iwona A; Wang, Xiang; Lee, Raymond; Johnson, Ana P
Ankle and foot sprains and fractures are prevalent injuries, which may result in substantial physical and economic consequences for the patient and place a financial burden on the health care system. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to examine the direct and indirect costs of treating ankle and foot injuries (sprains, dislocations, fractures), as well as to provide an overview of the outcomes of full economic analyses of different treatment strategies. A systematic review was carried out among seven databases to identify English language publications on the health economics of ankle and foot injury treatment published between 1980 and 2014. The direct and indirect costs were abstracted by two independent reviewers. All costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2016 US dollars (USD). Among 2047 identified studies, 32 were selected for analysis. The direct costs of ankle sprain management ranged from $292 to $2268 per patient (2016 USD), depending on the injury severity and treatment strategy. The direct costs of managing ankle fractures were higher ($1908-$19,555). Foot fracture treatment had similar direct costs ranging from $998 to $21,801. The economic evaluations were conducted from the societal or payer's perspectives. The costs of treating ankle and foot sprains and fractures varied among the studies, mostly due to differences in injury type and study characteristics, which impacted the ability of directly comparing the financial burden of treatment. Nonetheless, the review showed that the costs experienced by the patient and the health care system increased with injury complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James
The analysis of internet search traffic may present the opportunity to gain insights into general trends and patterns in information seeking behaviour related to medical conditions at a population level. For prevalent and widespread problems such as foot and ankle pain, this information has the potential to improve our understanding of seasonality and trends within these conditions and their treatments, and may act as a useful proxy for their true incidence/prevalence characteristics. This study aimed to explore seasonal effects, general trends and relative popularity of internet search terms related to foot and ankle pain over the past decade. We used the Google Trends tool to obtain relative search engine traffic for terms relating to foot and ankle pain and common treatments from Google search and affiliated pages for major northern and southern hemisphere English speaking nations. Analysis of overall trends and seasonality including summer/winter differences was carried out on these terms. Searches relating to general foot pain were on average 3.4 times more common than those relating to ankle pain, and twice as common as searches relating to heel pain. Distinct seasonal effects were seen in the northern hemisphere, with large increases in search volumes in the summer months compared to winter for foot (p = 0.004, 95 % CI [22.2-32.1]), ankle (p = 0.0078, 95 % CI [20.9-35.5]), and heel pain (p = 0.004, 95 % CI [29.1-45.6]). These seasonal effects were reflected by data from Australia, with the exception of ankle pain. Annual seasonal effects for treatment options were limited to terms related to foot surgery and ankle orthoses (p = 0.031, 95 % CI [3.5-20.9]; p = 0.004, 95 % CI [7.6-25.2] respectively), again increasing in the summer months. A number of general trends and annual seasonal effects were found in time series internet search data for terms relating to foot and ankle pain. This data may provide insights into these conditions at
do Nascimento, Breno Gontijo; Vimieiro, Claysson Bruno Santos; Nagem, Danilo Alves Pinto; Pinotti, Marcos
Powered orthosis is a special class of gait assist device that employs a mechanical or electromechanical actuator to enhance movement of hip, knee, or ankle articulations. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) has been suggested as a pneumatic actuator because its performance is similar to biological muscle. The electromyography (EMG) signal interpretation is the most popular and simplest method to establish the patient voluntary control of the orthosis. However, this technique is not suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. For those cases, an alternative control strategy should be provided. The aim of the present study is to develop a gait assistance orthosis for lower limb powered by PAMs controlled by a voluntary activation method based on the angular behavior of hip joint. In the present study, an orthosis that has been molded in a patient was employed and, by taking her anthropometric parameters and movement constraints, the adaptation of the existing orthosis to the powered orthosis was planned. A control system was devised allowing voluntary control of a powered orthosis suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. A pilot clinical study was reported where a patient, victim of poliovirus, successfully tested a hip orthosis especially modified for the gait test evaluation in the parallel bar system. The hip orthosis design and the control circuitry parameters were able to be set to provide satisfactory and comfortable use of the orthosis during the gait cycle.
Kerkum, Y.L.; Harlaar, J.; Buizer, A.I.; van den Noort, J.C.; Becher, J.G.; Brehm, M.A.
Background: Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of
Kerkum, Yvette L.; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Brehm, Merel-Anne
Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy
Kerkum, Yvette L.; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Brehm, Merel-Anne
Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to promote gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The AFO prescription process is however largely dependent on clinical experience, resulting in confusing results regarding treatment efficacy. To maximize efficacy, the AFO's mechanical
Nikamp-Simons, Corien Diana Maria; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman; Geurts, Alexander C.H.; Buurke, Jaap
Background Ankle-foot orthoses are often provided to improve walking in stroke patients, although the evidence of effects on walking and balance control is still inconsistent. This could be caused by a lack of insight into the influence of orthoses on the underlying impairments. These impairments
Armannsdottir, Anna; Tranberg, Roy; Halldorsdottir, Gudfinna; Briem, Kristin
Following a transfemoral amputation (TFA), numerous changes in movement patterns during gait can occur. Frontal plane hip and pelvis compensatory strategies are recognized among individuals with a TFA, some thought to aid in safe foot clearance during the swing phase of gait. The aim of this case study was to evaluate the effect of an active ankle dorsiflexion provided by a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic foot, as well as the effect of individualized training on these parameters. In this case study, a 42-year-old male underwent 3 D gait analysis. Data were captured for two conditions; with a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic foot with active/inactive ankle dorsiflexion, during two sessions; before and after 6 weeks of individualized training. The main outcomes analyzed were frontal plane pelvis and hip kinematics. Prior to training, pelvic lift decreased slightly, coupled with an increase in hip abduction, during gait with the active ankle dorsiflexion of a prosthetic foot, compared to inactive dorsiflexion. After the training period, the pelvic lift was further decreased and an increase in hip adduction was concurrently seen. The results of this case study indicate a positive effect of the active dorsiflexion of the prosthetic foot but highlight the need for specific training after prescription of a microprocessor prosthetic foot. Implications for rehabilitation Decreased compensatory changes seen in this case study indicate a positive effect of the active dorsiflexion of the prosthetic foot, especially after a 6-week training period. Individualized training should be aimed at helping the user utilizing the benefits of the active dorsiflexion of the microprocessor prosthetic foot, implementing exercises that improve gait quality, technical training for this specific foot, strength training and balance exercises.
Cervera-Garvi, Pablo; Ortega-Avila, Ana Belen; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Cervera-Marin, Jose Antonio; Martin, Rob Roy; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel
The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) commonly used to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions for patients with foot and ankle pathologies and associated impairments of body function and structure, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the FAAM into Spanish. Cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the international guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Cronbach's alpha, test re-test reliability, and item-total and inter-item correlations were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to test construct validity. Pearson correlations were calculated to assess the convergent validity between FAAM and EuroQol-5. Spanish data set comprised 194 patients, with a mean age of 38.45 (16.04) and 130 (67.1%) were female, seeing a podiatrist with a wide variety of foot and ankle related disorders. CFA was carried out to test structure matrix (which has three factors). The test-retest reliability was high with global ICC of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93 to 0.98). A 15 items version of the FAAM-Sp Activities of Daily Living (ADL) obtained the best fit: relative chi-square ( x 2 /df) of 2.46, GFI 0.90 CFI 0.95, NFI 0.93, and RMSEA 0.08 (90% CI 0.04 to 0.09). For exploratory factor analysis for the FAAM-Sp Sport, a one factor solution was obtained, which explained 76.70% of total variance. CFA corroborated this model with an excellent goodness of fit:: relative chi-square ( x 2 /df) of 0.80, GFI 0.99 CFI 1.00, NFI 0.99, and RMSEA 0.00 (90% CI 0.00 to 0.75). This study validated a new 15-item FAAM-Sp ADL and FAAM-Sp Sport subscales, which can be used as a self-reported outcome measure in clinical practice and research for patients resident in Spain whose main language is Spanish.
... about common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... Foot Diagram Soccer Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from ...
Sun, Han; Lu, Pei-Pei; Zhou, Ping-Hui; Sun, Si-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yi-Jie; Yang, Xu; Shen, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Hui-Lin
Today, autogenous bone graft (ABG) is still considered as the gold standard for joint fusion. Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) which is of chemotactic and mitogenic to mesenchymal stem cells and possesses outstanding osteogenetic potentials has been used for ankle and foot fusion in recent years. The goal of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rhPDGF-BB versus ABG in foot and ankle fusion. The PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were systematic searched. Finally, three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 634 patients were enrolled in this study. Results of radiologic effectiveness which included CT and radiographic union rates revealed that there was no significant difference between rhPDGF-BB approach and ABG approach. Analysis of clinical results held the same outcomes expect that ABG group was superior in long-term Short Form-12 physical component scores. The pooled results also demonstrated that rhPDGF-BB was as safe as ABG in foot and ankle surgery. However, autograft harvesting procedure has some drawbacks such as donor-site pain and morbidity, additional operation time, blood loss, and scarring, which can be overcome by rhPDGF-BB. Thus, rhPDGF-BB is a viable alternative to autograft in foot and ankle fusion surgery. Yet, more high-quality RCTs with long-term follow-up are still required to make the final conclusion. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco; Schoettle, Philip B.; Vienne, Patrick; Bode, Beata
The influence of foot positioning on prevalence of the magic angle effect (MAE) in ankle tendons was investigated. In 30 asymptomatic volunteers and five cadaveric feet, MR imaging of the ankle was performed in the supine (neutral position of the foot) and prone (plantar-flexed foot) position. MAE was considered if increased T1-weighted signal at a certain site was seen in one position only. Histological correlation was obtained at 25 sites of the cadaveric posterior tibialis tendons (PTT). MAE occurred in 6/30 vs 1/30 (supine vs prone) anterior tibialis tendons (ATT), 30/30 vs 0/30 extensor hallucis longus and 27/30 vs 0/30 extensor digitorum longus tendons, 29/30 vs 0/30 PTTs, 30/30 vs 0/30 flexor digitorum and flexor hallucis longus tendons, 30/30 vs 1/30 peroneus brevis and 23/30 vs 1/30 peroneus longus tendons. At 12/25 cadaveric PTT sites where MAE was exclusively responsible for the increased signal, histology revealed normal tissue (11/12) or minimal degeneration (1/12). In conclusion, the supine body position with neutral position of the foot, a high prevalence (77-100%) of MAE in ankle tendons except for the ATT (20%) is seen. MAE is almost absent in the prone body position with plantar flexion of the foot. (orig.)
Jia, Yuanxi; Huang, Hsiaomin; Gagnier, Joel J
To identify currently available patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in patients with foot or ankle diseases; and to critically appraise, compare and synthesize the psychometric evidence for the identified PROMs. Literature searches were performed in Medline and EMBASE from their inception to January 25th, 2016. Methodological quality was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. The final rating of the methodological quality of each study for each property was the lowest rating among the items within that property. The psychometric evidence of the properties investigated in the included articles was assessed using the quality criteria established by Terwee et al. The methodological quality ratings and psychometric evidence assessments were synthesized using the method first proposed by Schellingerhout et al. In total, 3077 articles were identified by the literature search, from which 115 studies investigating 50 PRO instruments were included in the review process. The Foot Function Index (FFI) was the most explored instrument, while the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) demonstrated the best properties. Most PROMs on foot and ankle diseases have limited evidence for their psychometric properties. The MOXFQ, with the highest overall ratings, could be a useful PROM for evaluating patients with foot or ankle diseases, based on current available evidence. More research is needed to improve the quality of the standards used to assess PROMs and the studies making these assessments.
Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoettle, Philip B.; Vienne, Patrick [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Bode, Beata [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Zurich (Switzerland)
The influence of foot positioning on prevalence of the magic angle effect (MAE) in ankle tendons was investigated. In 30 asymptomatic volunteers and five cadaveric feet, MR imaging of the ankle was performed in the supine (neutral position of the foot) and prone (plantar-flexed foot) position. MAE was considered if increased T1-weighted signal at a certain site was seen in one position only. Histological correlation was obtained at 25 sites of the cadaveric posterior tibialis tendons (PTT). MAE occurred in 6/30 vs 1/30 (supine vs prone) anterior tibialis tendons (ATT), 30/30 vs 0/30 extensor hallucis longus and 27/30 vs 0/30 extensor digitorum longus tendons, 29/30 vs 0/30 PTTs, 30/30 vs 0/30 flexor digitorum and flexor hallucis longus tendons, 30/30 vs 1/30 peroneus brevis and 23/30 vs 1/30 peroneus longus tendons. At 12/25 cadaveric PTT sites where MAE was exclusively responsible for the increased signal, histology revealed normal tissue (11/12) or minimal degeneration (1/12). In conclusion, the supine body position with neutral position of the foot, a high prevalence (77-100%) of MAE in ankle tendons except for the ATT (20%) is seen. MAE is almost absent in the prone body position with plantar flexion of the foot. (orig.)
Fong Daniel TP
Full Text Available Abstract This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing – a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms. Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60–90 ms. The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41–45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100209.htm Ankle sprain - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The ankle joint connects the foot with the leg. The ...
Kwon, Yong Ung; Arnold, Brent L; Powell, Douglas W; Williams, D S Blaise
The purpose of this study was to determine whether different rest intervals affect performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and whether foot-tibia coordination can be associated factors that may help discriminate between individuals with and without CAI during the SEBT. Participants included forty-eight individuals with (n = 24) and without CAI (n = 24). Subjects completed 3 trials in each of the 3 reach directions (anteromedial, medial, posteromedial) in random order. A total of three visits were required to complete the 3 rest interval conditions (10, 20, 40 s). Coupling angles (CA) of tibial internal rotation/dorsiflexion (TIR/DF) and tibial internal rotation/eversion (TIR/EV) were calculated and compared between groups in each direction for each rest interval. Individuals with CAI showed greater CAs of TIR/DF in the M direction (p = 0.01) and of TIR/EV in the P direction (p = 0.04) than healthy individuals in 20 s rest interval time. Overall, joint CAs were different between healthy individuals and those with CAI during the SEBT regardless of rest interval. Based on these results, rest interval and a natural result of CAI could alter ankle joint coordination in comparison of healthy individuals when performing the SEBT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bjornson, Kristie; Zhou, Chuan; Fatone, Stefania; Orendurff, Michael; Stevenson, Richard; Rashid, Sariya
To examine the effect of ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) on walking activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We used a randomized cross-over design with 11 children with bilateral CP, mean age 4.3 years. Subjects were randomized to current AFO-ON or AFO-OFF for 2 weeks and then crossed over. Walking activity (average total steps/day), intensity, and stride rate curves were collected via an ankle accelerometer. Group effects were examined with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and within-subject effects examined for more than 1 standard deviation change. No significant group difference was found in average total daily step count between treatment conditions (P = .48). For the AFO-ON condition, 2 subjects (18%) increased total steps/day; 4 (36%) increased walking time; 2 (18%) had more strides at a rate of more than 30 strides/min; and 2 (18%) reached higher peak intensity. Clinically prescribed AFO/footwear did not consistently enhance walking activity levels or intensity. Larger studies are warranted.
Marquez-Barrientos, C; Liu, X C; Lyon, R; Tassone, C; Thometz, J; Tarima, S
Several studies have attempted to measure how well external markers track internal bone movement using pins drilled into the foot, but this is too invasive for the pediatric population. This study investigated how well a six segment foot model (6SFM) using external markers was able to measure bone movement in the foot compared to MRI measurements. The foot was moved into different positions using a plastic foot jig and measurements were taken with both systems. The aims were to: (1) Look at the correlation between movement tracked with an Electronic Motion Tracking System (EMTS) and by measurements derived from MRI images, specifically the principal intercept angles (PIAs) which are the angles of intersection between principal axes of inertia of bone volumes. (2) To see how well external motion measured by the 6SFM could predict PIAs. Four bone pairs had their movement tracked: Tibia-Calcaneus, Calcaneus-Cuboid, Navicular-1st Metatarsal, and 1st Metatarsal-Hallux. The results showed moderate correlation between measured PIAs and those predicted at the Tibia-Calcaneus, Navicular-1st Metatarsal, and 1st Metatarsal-Hallux joints. Moderate to high correlation was found between the PIA and movement in a single anatomic plane for all four joints at several positions. The 6SFM using the EMTS allows reliable tracking of 3D rotations in the pediatric foot, except at the Calcaneus-Cuboid joint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Infantile tibia vara (ITV is an acquired form of tibial deformity associated with tibial varus and internal torsion. As there is currently insufficient data available on the effects of orthotics on gait parameters, this study aimed to document the influence of orthosis on walking. A male infant with bilateral tibia vara used orthoses for five months. Gait evaluations were performed pre- and posttreatment for both legs. The kinematic parameters were collected by using a motion analysis system. The orthotic design principle was used to correct the femur and tibia. Posttreatment gait parameters were improved compared to pretreatment parameters. After 5 months, there was remarkable change in the stance-phase degrees of frontal plane hip joint abduction and knee joint varus. We found that orthoses were an effective treatment for the infantile tibia vara gait characteristics in this patient. Full-time use of single, upright knee-ankle-foot orthosis with a drop lock knee joint and application of corrective forces at five points along the full length of the limb were effective.
Horas, Konstantin; Fraissler, Lukas; Maier, Gerrit; Jakob, Franz; Seefried, Lothar; Konrads, Christian; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias
Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMOS) is a phenomenon primarily affecting the lower extremity. It is characterized by a sudden onset of pain and an ill-defined osseous hyperintense signal in magnetic resonance imaging. The main cause of BMOS is still largely unknown. Its pathophysiology is presumably multifactorial and it has recently been demonstrated that it usually involves an increase in bone turnover and alterations within the bone microenvironment. Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in maintaining a healthy and well-balanced bone microenvironment. However, to date only limited information has been reported on vitamin D status in patients with BMOS. Moreover, it is still uncertain whether hypovitaminosis D is associated with the etiology and course of the disease. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin D levels (25(OH)D) of patients diagnosed with BMOS of the foot and ankle. Patients were identified and laboratory results collected by retrospective review of the medical records between year 2011 and 2015. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, the existence of prolonged foot pain, the presence of abnormal bone marrow signal intensity in T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient's medical history. All patients who demonstrated other concomitant diagnoses were excluded from the study. Overall, 31 patients were affected by BMOS with a mean age of 44.4 (range, 18-76) years. Notably, 84% of patients (26/31) had low vitamin D levels with a mean 25(OH)D level of 19.03 ng/mL. Specifically, 61% of patients (19/31) were vitamin D deficient, 23% (7/31) vitamin D insufficient, and only 5 patients (16%) had sufficient vitamin D levels. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference comparing vitamin D levels with patient age, sex, and time of diagnosis. Moreover, there was no correlation between vitamin D status and the number of bony foci or location of BMOS. We found a widespread rate of vitamin D deficiency in
Velazquez Miranda, S.; Munoz Carmona, D. M.; Ortyiz Seidel, M.; Gomez-Millan Barrachina, J.; Delgado Gil, M. M.; Ortega Rodriguez, M. J.; Dominguez Rodriguez, M.; Marquez Garcia Salazar, M.; Bayo Lozano, E.
Classic Kaposi sarcoma presents as asymptomatic red-violaceus plaques, usually on the legs below the knees, ankles and soles preferentially. When the disease is spread on the skin preferential treatment is radiation therapy at low doses. Homogeneous irradiation of the various lesions could be very complex due to the irregular geometry of the feet, interdigital lesions on different planes. To overcome this problem, and in the case of disseminated disease and low doses, we propose the technique of dipping the tip in Cuba expanded polystyrene filled with saline with a methacrylate plate 2 cm in depth and irradiation with parallel opposed fields.
Hayek, Shlomo; Hemo, Yoram; Chamis, Sam; Bat, Reuven; Segev, Eitan; Wientroub, Shlomo; Yzhar, Ziva
To evaluate the efficacy of ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) prescribed in the community for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-six children (32 boys and 24 girls, mean age 8.9 years, range 4-17) who were diagnosed as having CP were enrolled. They were grouped according to the type of CP, diplegic (n = 38) and hemiplegic (n = 18). Three-dimensional gait analyses while patient were barefoot and with AFOs were obtained and analyzed. The spatio-temporal findings were the most significantly changed as a result of AFO use. In the hemiplegic group, stride length was 11.7% (p = 0.001) longer with AFOs in both affected (10.2%) and non-affected (12.4%) legs, and cadence was reduced by 9.7%; walking speed was not affected. In the diplegic group, stride length with AFOs was 17.4% longer compared to barefoot (p AFOs also increased ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact in both groups. In the hemiplegic group, AFOs produced an average 9.4 degrees increase of dorsiflexion at initial contact (IC) on the affected side (p 0.001, respectively) and an increase of 6 degrees (p = 0.005) at swing. In the hemiplegic group of patients, knee flexion at initial contact on the affected side was reduced by 8.5 degrees (p = 0.032) while in the diplegic group we found no influence. The number of patients that reached symmetry at initial double support tripled (from 5.6 to 16.7%) with the use of AFOs. Our results showed that the use of AFOs improves spatio-temporal gait parameters and gait stability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. It has a lesser effect on proximal joint kinematics. Children with spastic hemiplegia display greater improvement than those with spastic diplegia.
Hawke, Fiona; Rome, Keith; Evans, Angela Margaret
The complex relationship between foot posture, flexibility, body mass and age in children is not well understood. The objectives of this post hoc analysis were to explore the relationships between foot posture, flexibility, body mass in children aged seven to 15 years. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic children (20 girls, 10 boys) aged 7 to 15 years with a mean age (SD) of 10.7 (2.3) years, were recruited through the Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Podiatry Clinic, Auckland, New Zealand. Clinical data were collected by a podiatrist with 20 years' experience and included: height and weight (for Body Mass Index), Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI), Beighton score, Lower Limb Assessment Scale score (LLAS); and ankle lunge angle. For this post hoc analysis, Pearson's test and Spearman's rho were used to explore relationships between variables. Statistical significance level was p posture between girls and boys (p = 0.21). In this sample of healthy, asymptomatic children age 7 to 15 years, children with a more pronated foot type exhibited greater lower limb and whole-body flexibility, but not greater ankle joint flexibility. There was strong agreement between lower-limb and whole-body flexibility. This study highlights the importance of assessing the paediatric flat foot in the context of a developing body.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb orthoses could reduce therapist labor during gait rehabilitation after neurological injury. However, it is not clear how patients respond to powered assistance during stepping. Patients might allow the orthoses to drive the movement pattern and reduce their muscle activation. The goal of this study was to test the effects of robotic assistance in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury using pneumatically powered ankle-foot orthoses. Methods Five individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (ASIA C-D participated in the study. Each subject was fitted with bilateral ankle-foot orthoses equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion. Subjects walked on a treadmill with partial bodyweight support at four speeds (0.36, 0.54, 0.72 and 0.89 m/s under three conditions: without wearing orthoses, wearing orthoses unpowered (passively, and wearing orthoses activated under pushbutton control by a physical therapist. Subjects also attempted a fourth condition wearing orthoses activated under pushbutton control by them. We measured joint angles, electromyography, and orthoses torque assistance. Results A therapist quickly learned to activate the artificial pneumatic muscles using the pushbuttons with the appropriate amplitude and timing. The powered orthoses provided ~50% of peak ankle torque. Ankle angle at stance push-off increased when subjects walked with powered orthoses versus when they walked with passive-orthoses (ANOVA, p Two of the five subjects were able to control the orthoses themselves using the pushbuttons. The other three subjects found it too difficult to coordinate pushbutton timing. Orthoses assistance and maximum ankle angle at push-off were smaller when the subject controlled the orthoses compared to when the therapist-controlled the orthoses (p Conclusion Mechanical assistance from powered ankle-foot orthoses improved ankle push-off kinematics without
Gibson, Kellie S; Woodburn, James; Porter, Duncan; Telfer, Scott
To investigate the mode-of-action and patient experience of functionally optimized foot orthoses in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted an investigation of 2 functionally optimized foot orthoses (selective laser sintering [SLS] and fused deposition modelling [FDM]) in 15 patients with RA of <2 years duration. The novel devices were optimized for 3 biomechanistic targets exploiting computer-aided design and additive manufacturing. A third standard device was used as the comparator (standard foot orthosis [SFO]). Foot and ankle biomechanical effects were compared. Adverse reactions, orthotic fit and comfort, and short-term symptom benefits were also monitored. Both FDM (P = 0.028) and SLS (P < 0.0001) orthoses significantly reduced peak rearfoot motion in comparison to shod. The average ankle internal moment was significantly decreased in the SFO (P = 0.010) and approached significance in the SLS (P = 0.052) orthosis. SFO, FDM, and SLS orthoses significantly increased the peak height of the medial foot arch between 3.6 to 4.4 mm (P < 0.001). Peak pressures in the medial (P = 0.018) and lateral forefoot (P = 0.022) regions of interest were significantly reduced for the SLS orthosis. SFO, FDM, and SLS orthoses significantly increased midfoot contact area (P < 0.001 for all conditions). In comparison to SFO, SLS and FDM orthoses provided equivalent or better patient experience. No adverse reactions were reported. Functional optimization is a feasible approach for orthoses prescription in early RA and has the potential to provide superior mode-of-action responses for biomechanical therapeutic targets compared to standard devices. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
DeMill, Shyler L; Granata, Jaymes D; McAlister, Jeffrey E; Berlet, Gregory C; Hyer, Christopher F
Cryopreserved amnion tissues derived from amniotic membrane/umbilical cord (AM/UC) have been used extensively in ophthalmology for minimizing postoperative inflammation, pain, and adhesion formation following various surgical procedures. There is limited data in the current literature regarding the use of amnion tissue product in foot and ankle surgery. The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the short-term safety profile after in vivo application of cryopreserved AM/UC tissue use in foot and ankle surgery. A retrospective consecutive case series was performed for cases where amnion tissue was used with a minimum follow-up of 120 days between 2011 and 2012. The clinical outcomes of interest were postoperative infections, delayed or nonhealing wounds, adverse surgical site reactions, and repeat surgery for formal irrigation and debridement. One hundred twenty-four patients qualified for inclusion. Cryopreserved AM/UC tissue was introduced into the surgical wound and placed adjacent to the compromised and repaired tendons, most frequently in peroneal and Achilles tendon repairs. In this level IV consecutive case series cohort, there was an overall wound complication rate of 5.64%, with a re-operation rate of 1.6% (2/124). In each of these cases, patients had an irrigation and debridement with ultimate successful wound healing. The results of this study demonstrate that the use of amnion tissue in the foot and ankle setting is safe with a decreasing trend in overall complication rates compared with historically published norms.
Opherk, J.P.; Rosenthal, H.; Galanski, M. [Medizinische Hochschule, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany)
Conventional radiography plays an essential role in the primary evaluation of acute ankle and foot trauma. In the case of complex injuries, however, subsequent computed tomography (CT) is nowadays recommended. In this connection, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with the conventional single-slice spiral CT. Multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional reconstruction of the acquired data sets are also helpful tools for critical assessment of therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the potential of the MDCT technique for accurate fracture classification, precise illustration of displaced components, and postoperative control of arrangement of typical lesions. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle Radiographie spielt bei der initialen Diagnostik akuter Verletzungen des oberen Sprunggelenks und des Fusses eine essenzielle Rolle. Im Falle komplexer Frakturen ist jedoch eine weiterfuehrende computertomographische Diagnostik empfehlenswert. Dabei ist die Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT) der konventionellen Einzeilencomputertomographie hinsichtlich Zeit-, Orts- und Kontrastaufloesung deutlich ueberlegen. Die multiplanare Reformation und dreidimensionale Rekonstruktion des akquirierten Datensatzes sind zudem bei der Beurteilung therapeutischer Interventionen aussagekraeftige Werkzeuge. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die exakte Frakturklassifikation, die praezise Abbildung dislozierter Komponenten und die postoperative Stellungskontrolle typischer Verletzungen mit dieser Technik. (orig.)
Kane, Kyra; Manns, Patricia; Lanovaz, Joel; Musselman, Kristin
Physiotherapists, orthotists, and physicians are involved in the prescription of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) for children with cerebral palsy (CP); however, little is known about how prescription decisions are made in practice. Therefore, the study objective was to identify current AFO prescription and clinical decision-making practices for children with CP in Canada. Focus groups were conducted in five pediatric rehabilitation facilities, with 32 clinicians. Semi-structured interviews focused on the goals and types of AFOs used, referral and follow-up processes, and clinical evaluation measures. Interpretive Description was used as a framework for analysis. Transcribed dialogue was imported into NVivo 11 for data coding and analysis. Three researchers participated in coding to establish categories and themes. Categories included: what is made, how it is used, and factors that either support or challenge outcomes. Strengths and challenges of the current prescription process were discussed, including funding, communication, and technology to enhance clinical evaluation. Throughout the interviews, the theme of prescription as a collaborative, iterative, and individualized process emerged. Processes, strengths, and challenges associated with AFO prescription in Canada were identified. This is a first step toward the development of guidelines to help clinicians improve AFO prescription for children with CP.
Figueiredo, Elyonara Mello; Ferreira, Gisela Bastos; Maia Moreira, Rodrigo César; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Fetters, Linda
To perform a literature review evaluating the quality of current research on the influence of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) on gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A qualitative systematic review of intervention studies including the following words/phrases in the title/abstract: children with CP, AFO, gait and inferential statistical analysis, and outcomes related to gait. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, OTSeeker, Lilacs, and Scielo. Level of evidence was graded using the PEDro Scale. Two between-group and 18 within-group studies met the inclusion criteria indicating a low level of evidence. Between-group studies each scored 4 on the PEDro Scale, and 17 within-group studies scored 3 and 1 scored 2, indicating low quality. Standard terminology for AFOs was not used and only 6 studies described functional status using appropriate instruments. Studies using high quality methods are still needed to support evidence-based decisions regarding the use of AFOs for this population.
... Ankle Sprain Treatment Page Content Article Body Acute ankle and foot injuries are common in athletes and other active young ... Phase I treatment involves resting and protecting the ankle to permit healing, to prevent further injury, and to control pain and swelling. Rest, protection ( ...
Nanjangud, Akshay; Gregg, Robert D.
Amputee locomotion can benefit from recent advances in robotic prostheses, but their control systems design poses challenges. Prosthesis control typically discretizes the nonlinear gait cycle into phases, with each phase controlled by different linear controllers. Unfortunately, real-time identification of gait phases and tuning of controller parameters limit implementation. Recently, biped robots have used phase variables and virtual constraints to characterize the gait cycle as a whole. Although phase variables and virtual constraints could solve issues with discretizing the gait cycle, the virtual constraints method from robotics does not readily translate to prosthetics because of hard-to-measure quantities, like the interaction forces between the user and prosthesis socket, and prosthesis parameters which are often altered by a clinician even for a known patient. We use the simultaneous stabilization approach to design a low-order, linear time-invariant controller for ankle prostheses independent of such quantities to enforce a virtual constraint. We show in simulation that this controller produces suitable walking gaits for a simplified amputee model. PMID:25554734
Discussion: RAFO led to a significant improvement in functional mobility in hemiplegic patients post stroke. This may be due to the positive effect of rocker modification on improving push off and transferring weight during the stance phase of gait.
Hachisuka, K; Arai, K; Arai, M
At the request of a polio survivor, a partially flexible thigh cuff made of leather and canvas for a carbon KAFO was devised to allow the wearer to feel more comfortable while sitting on a toilet seat. The original, acrylic resin, thigh cuff was partially excised to make an opening (15x10 cm), which was stuffed with rubber sponge, and was sealed with leather and canvas. The opening's surround was vertically and horizontally reinforced with carbon fibres. This modification provided relief to the polio survivor from the discomfort previously experienced while sitting on a toilet seat, and satisfied her needs in daily life.
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze precisely the dimensions, shapes, and variations of the insertional footprints of the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT at the medial cuneiform (MC and first metatarsal (MT1 base. Forty-one formalin-fixed human cadaveric specimens were dissected. After preparation of the TAT footprint, standardized photographs were made and the following parameters were evaluated: the footprint length, width, area of insertion, dorsoplantar location, shape, and additional tendon slips. Twenty feet (48.8% showed an equal insertion at the MC and MT1, another 20 feet (48.8% had a wide insertion at the MC and a narrow insertion at the MT1, and 1 foot (2.4% demonstrated a narrow insertion at the MC and a wide insertion at the MT1. Additional tendon slips inserting at the metatarsal shaft were found in two feet (4.8%. Regarding the dorsoplantar orientation, the footprints were located medial in 29 feet (70.7% and medioplantar in 12 feet (29.3%. The most common shape at the MT1 base was the crescent type (75.6% and the oval type at the MC (58.5%. The present study provided more detailed data on the dimensions and morphologic types of the tibialis anterior tendon footprint. The established anatomical data may allow for a safer surgical preparation and a more anatomical reconstruction.
Full Text Available Introduction: Proximal and distal factors to the knee joint can be assumed as etiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Some distal factors include excessive foot pronation and medial tibia torsion. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle musculature strength and rearfoot eversion in individuals with and without PFPS. Methods: Forty males (20 healthy and 20 patients voluntarily participated in this case-control study. Isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion range of motion (ROM, and Navicular depression were respectively evaluated by handheld dynamometer, goniometry, and Navicular Drop Test by a single examiner for both groups. To analyze the measurements, Independent Samples t test for parametric data and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data at P0.05. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between patients with PFPS and healthy counterparts regarding rearfoot eversion and Navicular depression (P>0.05. Conclusion: It can be deduced that isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion ROM, and foot pronation are not difference in patients with PFPS and healthy persons.
van Tulder Maurits W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency Departments (EDs are confronted with progressive overcrowding. As a consequence, the workload for ED physicians increases and waiting times go up with the risk of unnecessary complications and patient dissatisfaction. To cope with these problems, Specialized Emergency Nurses (SENs, regular ED-nurses receiving a short, injury-specific course, were trained to assess and treat minor injuries according to a specific protocol. Methods An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial comparing House Officers (HOs and SENs in their assessment of ankle and foot injuries. Cost prices were established for all parts of healthcare utilization involved. Total costs of health care utilization were computed per patient in both groups. Cost-effectiveness was investigated by comparing the difference in total cost between groups with the difference in sensitivity and specificity between groups in diagnosing fractures and severe sprains. Finally, cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated and presented on a cost-effectiveness plane. Results No significant differences were seen between treatment groups for any of the health care resources assessed. However, the waiting times for both first assessment by a treatment officer and time spent waiting between hearing the diagnosis and final treatment were significantly longer in the HO group. There was no statistically significant difference in costs between groups. The total costs were € 186 (SD € 623 for patients in the SEN group and € 153 (SD € 529 for patients in the HO group. The difference in total costs was € 33 (95% CI: – € 84 to € 155. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was € 27 for a reduction of one missed diagnosis and € 18 for a reduction of one false negative. Conclusion Considering the benefits of the SEN-concept in terms of decreased workload for the ED physicians, increased patient satisfaction and decreased waiting times
Iliou, Kalliopi; Paraskevas, George; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Barbouti, Alexandra; Vrettakos, Aristidis; Gekas, Christos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis
Objective To evaluate the correlation between the Manchester Grading Scale and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score in patients with a hallux valgus deformity. Subjects and Methods The study sample included 181 feet of 122 patients with hallux valgus and 424 feet of 212 individuals without hallux valgus deformity as the control group. The severity of hallux valgus, utilizing a relative nonmetric scale, the Manchester Grading Scale, and the metric AOFAS score, was determined for all individuals in the hallux valgus and control groups. SPSS version 18 (Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for data analysis. Results According to the Manchester Grading Scale, the 424 feet of the normal group were classified as ‘no deformity−. In the hallux valgus group, 85 feet were classified as ‘mild deformity−, 67 as ‘moderate deformity' and 29 as ‘severe deformity−. The AOFAS total score in the control group was 99.14. In the hallux valgus group, patients with mild or moderate deformity had total scores of 86.20 and 68.19, respectively. For those with severe hallux valgus, the total score was 44.69 and the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Using the Pearson correlation, strong negative correlations were found between the AOFAS score and the hallux valgus angle (HVA; r = −0.899, p = 0.000). Strong negative correlations were demonstrated between the AOFAS score and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA) as well (r = −0.748, p = 0.000). Conclusions The AOFAS score was negatively associated with the Manchester Grading Scale, HVA and first IMA. As the severity of hallux valgus increased, the AOFAS score seemed to decrease. PMID:26335050
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to build a suitable physiotherapy program for recovery of patients undergoing surgery in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy of the ankle joint, intended for implementation in the period of home treatment. This delineation of physiotherapy program contains an aim, the tasks set for realization of the aim and the used physiotherapy means. It is developed for the period of home treatment from postoperative week 2 (days 8-15 to the postoperative week 8 (days 56-63, the period that is very important for the normal recovery of the ankle/foot complex. The physiotherapy program is arranged into weeks and each of them contains the used physiotherapy means, the exercise duration and the therapeutic effect.
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.
Jones, Carl; Abbassian, Ali; Trompeter, Alex; Solan, Matthew
Driving is important in maintaining independence. Limb pain can significantly limit this ability. Automatic vehicles can restore independence to people with left lower or upper limb disability but those with right-sided pathology are disadvantaged in this respect. This is despite the fact that numerous centers across the UK specialize in modifying automatic cars such that they can be driven solely with the use of the left foot. The knowledge of this amongst patients and health professionals is lacking. In this study we aim to confirm this fact and discuss the legal and practical aspects of driving a modified car. We used patients who had undergone right-sided ankle and hind foot fusions or ankle replacements, as we believed they would have had a long period of right-sided leg pain that may have affected their driving ability. A consecutive series was identified from operative records over a 2 year period and patients contacted by telephone. We identified 33 patients, of these 22 were available for telephonic interview. The average duration of right leg disability was 7.5 years. All responders had seen at least two healthcare professionals but car modification had never been discussed at any stage. Only 3 were aware of such modifications and of these all had been informed by sources outside the health service. The availability of right to left modification of automatic cars is not widely known by patients and healthcare professionals alike with potential benefits of this simple adjunct not being exploited. More needs to be done to generate awareness of its existence as it may have a significant impact on patient independence. Copyright © 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ha, Seunggyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Yeon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Arya, Amitabh; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook
The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of SPECT/CT and MRI in patients with ankle and foot pain, with regard to the lesion types. Fifty consecutive patients with ankle and foot pain, who underwent 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Symptomatic lesions were determined based on clinical examination and response to treatment. On MRI and SPECT/CT, detected lesions were classified as bone, ligament/tendon, and joint lesions. Uptake on SPECT/CT was assessed using a 4-grade system. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SPECT/CT and MRI were evaluated in all detected lesions and each lesion type. Diagnostic value of uptake grade was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and diagnostic performance was compared using Chi-square or McNemar tests. In overall lesions, the sensitivity, PPV and NPV of SPECT/CT for symptomatic lesions were 93%, 56%, 91%, and they were 98%, 48%, 95% for MRI. There was no significant difference between SPECT/CT and MRI. However, the specificity of SPECT/CT was significantly higher than that of MRI (48% versus 24%, P = 0.016). Uptake grade on SPECT/CT was significantly higher in symptomatic lesions (P diagnostic performance for symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients. SPECT/CT and MRI exhibit different diagnostic specificity in different lesion types. SPECT/CT may be used as a complementary imaging method to MRI for enhancing diagnostic specificity.
Tradução e validação do questionário FAOS - FOOT and ankle outcome score para língua portuguesa Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of FOOT and ankle outcome score (FAOS questionnaire into portuguese
Aline Mizusaki Imoto
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: (1 traduzir e validar a versão original da avaliação funcional de tornozelo e pé Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS da língua inglesa para a portuguesa em pacientes com história de entorse de tornozelo em inversão, (2 adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira e (3 correlacionar com o questionário de qualidade de vida SF-36. MÉTODO: O método de tradução e validação utilizado seguiu os critérios descritos por Guillemin et al. Foram incluídos 50 indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de lesão ligamentar lateral do tornozelo por entorse. RESULTADOS: O questionário FAOS mostrou-se com reprodutibilidade de grau forte para todos os domínios intra e inter-examinador (pOBJECTIVE: (1 to translate and validate the original version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS questionnaire from English into Portuguese in patients with diagnosis of lateral ligament injuries with ankle sprain history,(2 to provide cultural adaptation for Brazilian patients (3 to correlate it with the quality of life SF_36 questionnaire. METHOD: The method of translation and validation followed the criteria described by Guillemin et al. Fifty patients with ankle sprain were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: FAOS questionnaire showed good reproducibility for patients with ankle sprain and good reliability for all intraand inter-interviewer sub-scales (p<0.05. The translation and cultural adaptation of FAOS questionnaire had its properties of assessment, reliability and validity measured, showing that this questionnaire is suitable for use in Brazilian patients with lateral ligament ankle injuries.
Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...
Zanetti, Marco [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)
The purpose of this article is to highlight the anatomical variants, technical pitfalls, and the prevalence of abnormal conditions in the asymptomatic population in magnetic resonance imaging of the foot and ankle. Special attention is drawn to the complex anatomy of the deltoid ligament (the superficial tibionavicular ligament, tibiospring ligament, the tibiocalcaneal ligament, and the deep anterior and posterior tibiotalar ligaments) and the posterior tibial tendon insertion including the magic angle artifact and the high prevalence of asymptomatic findings such as ''hypertrophied'' peroneal tubercle (abnormal only when larger than 5 mm), peroneus quartus (prevalence 17%), and cysts (vascular remnants) just inferior to the angle of Gissane. (orig.)
Dong, C-H; Wang, Z-M; Zhao, X-L; Wang, A-M
Talipes equinovarus is traditionally viewed in the literature as a congenital disease. We present here a case of the acquired talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) in a young adult patient that has developed the following osteomyelitis. We have successfully corrected this condition by fibula extension and correction of foot and ankle deformity, using external fixation device. The treatment period has extended over three years and involved two operations. This case report will increase awareness of adult orthopedists on acquired talipes equinovarus and propose orthopedic reconstructive strategies to rectify this condition.
Nixon, Devon C; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Klein, Sandra E
Traditional patient-reported outcome instruments like the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) quantify patient disability but often are limited by responder burden and incomplete questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) overcomes such obstacles through computer-adaptive technology and can capture outcome data from various domains including physical and psychosocial function. Prior work has compared the FAAM with PROMIS physical function; however, there is little evidence comparing the association between foot and ankle-specific tools like the FAAM with more general outcomes measures of PROMIS pain interference and depression in foot and ankle conditions. (1) We asked whether there was a relationship between FAAM Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores with PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and depression in patients with hallux valgus. (2) Additionally, we asked if we could identify specific factors that are associated with variance in FAAM and PROMIS physical function scores in patients with hallux valgus. Eighty-five new patients with either a primary or secondary diagnosis of hallux valgus based on clinic billing codes from July 2015 to February 2016 were retrospectively identified. Patients completed FAAM ADL paper-based surveys and electronic PROMIS questionnaires for physical function, pain interference, and depression from new patient visits at a single time. Spearman rho correlations were performed between FAAM ADL and PROMIS scores. Analyses then were used to identify differences in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function measures based on demographic variables. Stepwise linear regressions then determined which demographic and/or outcome variable(s) accounted for the variance in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function scores. FAAM scores correlated strongly with PROMIS physical function (r = 0.70, p hallux valgus. PROMIS tools allow for more-efficient data collection across multiple domains and, moving
The Cochrane collaboration has performed a meta-analysis of all studies found on the prevention of ankle ligament injuries, frequent in sports like soccer, European handball and basketball. Interventions include the use of modified footwear and associated supports, training programmes and health education. Five randomized trials totalling 3,954 participants were included. With the exception of ankle disc training, all prophylactic interventions entailed the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis, air-cast or high top shoes. The studies showed a significant reduction in the number of ankle sprains in individuals allocated to external ankle support. This reduction was greater for those with a previous history of ankle sprains.
Wulff Hauritz, Rasmus; Pedersen, E. M.; Linde, F. S.
Popliteal sciatic nerve catheters (PSNCs) are associated with a high frequency of displacement. We aimed to estimate the frequency of catheter displacement after 48 h with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with PSNCs after major foot and ankle surgery randomized to catheter insertion...... either with a short-axis in-plane (SAX-IP) approach perpendicular to the nerve or with a short-axis out-of-plane (SAX-OOP) approach parallel to the nerve. Forty patients were randomly allocated to SAX-IP or SAX-OOP PSNC. Ropivacaine 0.75% 20 ml was injected via the catheter followed by ropivacaine 0...... percentage points, 95% CI: 3-53 percentage points). The relative risk of displacement was four times larger (95% CI: 0.8-10, P foot...
Chimenti, Ruth L; Tome, Joshua; Hillin, Cody D; Flemister, Adolph S; Houck, Jeff
Cross-sectional laboratory study. To compare single-limb heel-rise performance and foot-ankle kinematics between persons with stage 2 adult-acquired flat foot deformity (AAFD) and healthy controls. The inability to perform a single-limb heel rise is considered a positive functional diagnostic test for AAFD. However, which foot motions contribute to poor performance of this task are not known. Fifty individuals participated in this study, 20 with stage 2 AAFD (mean ± SD age, 57.6 ± 11.3 years), and 15 older participants (age, 56.8 ± 5.3 years) and 15 younger participants (age, 22.2 ± 2.4 years) without AAFD as control groups. Forefoot (sagittal plane) and rear foot (sagittal and frontal planes) kinematics were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. Heel-rise performance (heel height) and kinematics (joint angles, excursions) were evaluated. One-way and 2-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in heel-rise performance and kinematics between groups. Individuals with AAFD and older controls demonstrated lower heel-rise height than those in the younger control group (Pfoot kinematics in the sagittal plane, as opposed to the frontal plane, contributed to the lower heel height in participants with stage 2 AAFD. Older controls demonstrated lower heel-rise height than younger controls, indicating that clinical expectations of heel-rise performance may need to be adjusted for age.
Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/or Foot; Disorder of Joint of Ankle and/or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot
Ouellette, H.; Salamipour, H.; Thomas, B.J.; Kassarjian, A.; Torriani, M. [Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
To determine the incidence, appearances and associated injuries of fractures affecting the anterior process of calcaneus from a general population with foot and ankle symptoms. A retrospective review of foot and ankle MR imaging procedures was performed for detection of cases with a fracture affecting the anterior process of calcaneus over a four year period. Radiographs, MR imaging studies, radiology reports, medical records, and operative notes were reviewed. Imaging analysis included fracture pattern, displacement, associated fractures, and presence of tendon and ligamentous injuries. The incidence of anterior process of calcaneus fracture on MR imaging was 0.5% (14/2577). Fractures were more common in female subjects (71%, 10/14). Fracture orientation was predominantly vertical (93%, 13/14). No comminuted fractures were seen and only three fractures were displaced. Three of the eight MR imaging evident fractures of anterior process of calcaneus were seen on radiographs. Associated fractures of the talus (n=5), navicular bone (n=3), cuboid (n=2), and calcaneal body (n=1) were noted. Associated injuries to the anterior talofibular ligament (n=3) and tears of the peroneus brevis (n=3) and peroneus longus (n=1) tendons were present. All fractures were treated non-operatively. Two patients had subtalar joint steroid injection for symptomatic relief.
Ouellette, H.; Salamipour, H.; Thomas, B.J.; Kassarjian, A.; Torriani, M.
To determine the incidence, appearances and associated injuries of fractures affecting the anterior process of calcaneus from a general population with foot and ankle symptoms. A retrospective review of foot and ankle MR imaging procedures was performed for detection of cases with a fracture affecting the anterior process of calcaneus over a four year period. Radiographs, MR imaging studies, radiology reports, medical records, and operative notes were reviewed. Imaging analysis included fracture pattern, displacement, associated fractures, and presence of tendon and ligamentous injuries. The incidence of anterior process of calcaneus fracture on MR imaging was 0.5% (14/2577). Fractures were more common in female subjects (71%, 10/14). Fracture orientation was predominantly vertical (93%, 13/14). No comminuted fractures were seen and only three fractures were displaced. Three of the eight MR imaging evident fractures of anterior process of calcaneus were seen on radiographs. Associated fractures of the talus (n=5), navicular bone (n=3), cuboid (n=2), and calcaneal body (n=1) were noted. Associated injuries to the anterior talofibular ligament (n=3) and tears of the peroneus brevis (n=3) and peroneus longus (n=1) tendons were present. All fractures were treated non-operatively. Two patients had subtalar joint steroid injection for symptomatic relief
... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... foot and ankle surgeons see an increase in ankle injuries among young athletes. Football, soccer and basketball are ...
Parthipun, Arum; Moser, Joanna; Mok, Wing; Paramithas, Anton; Hamilton, Paul; Sott, Andrea Helene
Pain relating to degenerative joint disease within the foot and ankle can be difficult to localize with clinical examination alone due to the complex anatomy of the joints. The aim of this study was to determine whether single-photon emission computed tomography combined with conventional computed tomography (SPECT-CT) could be used to localize the site of degenerative joint disease for intra-articular injection and thereby improve the clinical success of the procedure. A prospective study was performed involving 203 patients who had undergone triple-phase (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scans with SPECT-CT of the foot and ankle for degenerative joint disease. Fifty-two patients went on to have joint injections for degenerative joint disease, with clinical follow-up. Correlation with the clinical diagnosis and the outcome of intra-articular injections with 0.5% bupivacaine and 80 mg of Depo-Medrone was performed. A successful outcome was determined by an improvement in the visual analog pain score of at least 50%. In 19 (37%) patients, the site of degenerative joint disease determined by SPECT-CT differed from the initial clinical assessment and resulted in a change in management. Overall, 46 (88%) patients showed an improvement in symptoms. The study demonstrated a high clinical success rate for SPECT-CT-guided joint injections. The technique was useful in localizing degenerative joint disease of the ankle, hindfoot, and midfoot as an adjunct to clinical examination. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nikamp, Corien D M; Hobbelink, Marte S H; van der Palen, Job; Hermens, Hermie J; Rietman, Johan S; Buurke, Jaap H
Initial walking function is often limited after stroke, and regaining walking ability is an important goal in rehabilitation. Various compensatory movement strategies to ensure sufficient foot-clearance are reported. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are often prescribed to improve foot-clearance and may influence these strategies. However, research studying effects of actual AFO-provision early after stroke is limited. We conducted an explorative randomized controlled trial and aimed to study the short-term effects of AFO-provision on kinematic and spatiotemporal parameters in patients early after stroke. In addition, we studied whether timing of AFO-provision influenced these effects. Unilateral hemiparetic patients maximal six weeks post-stroke were randomly assigned to AFO-provision: early (at inclusion) or delayed (eight weeks later). Three-dimensional gait-analysis with and without AFO in randomized order was performed within two weeks after AFO-provision. Twenty subjects (8 early, 12 delayed) were analyzed. We found significant positive effects of AFO-provision for ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, foot-off and during swing (-3.6° (7.3) vs 3.0° (3.9); 0.0° (7.4) vs 5.2° (3.7); and -6.1° (7.8) vs 2.6° (3.5), respectively), all p<0.001. No changes in knee, hip and pelvis angles were found after AFO-provision, except for knee (+2.3°) and hip flexion (+1.6°) at initial contact, p≤0.001. Significant effects of AFO-provision were found for cadence (+2.1 steps/min, p=0.026), stride duration (-0.08s, p=0.015) and single support duration (+1.0%, p=0.002). Early or delayed AFO-provision after stroke did not affect results. In conclusion, positive short-term effects of AFO-provision were found on ankle kinematics early after stroke. Timing of AFO-provision did not influence the results. NTR1930. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kostuj, T; Preis, M; Walther, M; Aghayev, E; Krummenauer, F; Röder, C
Even though arthroplasty of the ankle joint is considered to be an established procedure, only about 1,300 endoprostheses are implanted in Germany annually. Arthrodeses of the ankle joint are performed almost three times more often. This may be due to the availability of the procedure - more than twice as many providers perform arthrodesis - as well as the postulated high frequency of revision procedures of arthroplasties in the literature. In those publications, however, there is often no clear differentiation between revision surgery with exchange of components, subsequent interventions due to complications and subsequent surgery not associated with complications. The German Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Association's (D. A. F.) registry for total ankle replacement collects data pertaining to perioperative complications as well as cause, nature and extent of the subsequent interventions, and postoperative patient satisfaction. The D. A. F.'s total ankle replacement register is a nation-wide, voluntary registry. After giving written informed consent, the patients can be added to the database by participating providers. Data are collected during hospital stay for surgical treatment, during routine follow-up inspections and in the context of revision surgery. The information can be submitted in paper-based or online formats. The survey instruments are available as minimum data sets or scientific questionnaires which include patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The pseudonymous clinical data are collected and evaluated at the Institute for Evaluative Research in Medicine, University of Bern/Switzerland (IEFM). The patient-related data remain on the register's module server in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The registry's methodology as well as the results of the revisions and patient satisfaction for 115 patients with a two year follow-up period are presented. Statistical analyses are performed with SAS™ (Version 9.4, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA
Zelik, Karl E; Takahashi, Kota Z; Sawicki, Gregory S
Measuring biomechanical work performed by humans and other animals is critical for understanding muscle-tendon function, joint-specific contributions and energy-saving mechanisms during locomotion. Inverse dynamics is often employed to estimate joint-level contributions, and deformable body estimates can be used to study work performed by the foot. We recently discovered that these commonly used experimental estimates fail to explain whole-body energy changes observed during human walking. By re-analyzing previously published data, we found that about 25% (8 J) of total positive energy changes of/about the body's center-of-mass and >30% of the energy changes during the Push-off phase of walking were not explained by conventional joint- and segment-level work estimates, exposing a gap in our fundamental understanding of work production during gait. Here, we present a novel Energy-Accounting analysis that integrates various empirical measures of work and energy to elucidate the source of unexplained biomechanical work. We discovered that by extending conventional 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) inverse dynamics (estimating rotational work about joints) to 6DOF (rotational and translational) analysis of the hip, knee, ankle and foot, we could fully explain the missing positive work. This revealed that Push-off work performed about the hip may be >50% greater than conventionally estimated (9.3 versus 6.0 J, P=0.0002, at 1.4 m s(-1)). Our findings demonstrate that 6DOF analysis (of hip-knee-ankle-foot) better captures energy changes of the body than more conventional 3DOF estimates. These findings refine our fundamental understanding of how work is distributed within the body, which has implications for assistive technology, biomechanical simulations and potentially clinical treatment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Pain - ankle ... Ankle pain is often due to an ankle sprain. An ankle sprain is an injury to the ligaments, which ... the joint. In addition to ankle sprains, ankle pain can be caused by: Damage or swelling of ...
Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to assess the influence of proper foot arch on electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of foot arch on the activity of selected muscles and to determine whether electromyography might help to identify types of flat feet resulting from muscle- or ligament-related causes.
Blanchette, Andreanne K; Noël, Martin; Richards, Carol L; Nadeau, Sylvie; Bouyer, Laurent J
Results obtained in a previous study (Gait Posture 34:358-363, 2011) have shown that, in non-disabled participants, a specific increase in ankle dorsiflexor (Tibialis anterior [TA]) activation can be induced by walking with a torque perturbation that plantarflexes the ankle during the swing phase. After perturbation removal, the increased TA activation persisted temporarily and was associated with a more dorsiflexed ankle during swing. The objective of the present case-series study was to verify if these results can be reproduced in persons post-stroke. Six participants who sustained a stroke walked on a treadmill before, during and after exposure to a torque perturbation applied at the ankle by a robotized ankle-foot orthosis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, ankle and knee kinematics, and the electromyographic activity of TA and Soleus were recorded. Mean amplitude of the TA burst located around toe off and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle during swing were compared across the 3 walking periods for each participant. At the end of the walking period with the perturbation, TA mean amplitude was significantly increased in 4 of the 6 participants. Among these 4 participants, modifications in TA activation persisted after perturbation removal in 3 of them, and led to a statistically significant increase in peak dorsiflexion during swing. This approach may be helpful to evaluate the residual adaptive capacity in the ankle dorsiflexors after a stroke and guide decision-making for the selection of optimal rehabilitation interventions. Future work will investigate the clinical impact of a multiple-session gait training based on this approach in persons presenting a reduced ankle dorsiflexion during the swing phase of walking.
Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Zhao, Xiaoke; Xiao, Nong; Li, Hongying; Du, Senjie
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treatment with hinged ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) during the day vs. during both the day and the night in young ambulant children with spastic diplegia. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 112 ambulatory children (70 boys and 42 girls; mean age, 2 yrs 6.93 mos; range, 1 yr 1 mo to 4 yrs 0 mo) with spastic diplegia participated. Forty-eight were classified at level I of the Gross Motor Function Classification System; the remaining 64 were at level II. Using stratified randomization, all children were assigned to either the day AFO-wearing group (n = 56, wearing AFOs all day) or the day-night AFO-wearing group (n = 56, wearing AFOs all day and all night). The two groups underwent conventional rehabilitative treatments five times a week for 8 wks. The primary outcomes measured were passive ankle dorsiflexion angle and sections D and E of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure; the root mean square of surface electromyography in the ventral and dorsal lower limb muscles was compared in a subgroup (ten from each group). Seven children did not complete the full intervention: three in the day AFO-wearing group and four in the day-night AFO-wearing group. Significant baseline-postintervention improvements were found for passive ankle dorsiflexion angle and the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure in both groups (P AFO-wearing group (P AFO-wearing group, whereas the muscles affected in the day-night AFO-wearing group were the gastrocnemius (P AFOs was more effective in improving Gross Motor Function Measure scores than the day-night use. In addition, the prolonged wearing of AFOs may influence muscle activity, which should be monitored in the clinic.
Full Text Available Passive ankle foot orthoses (AFOs are often prescribed for children with cerebral palsy (CP to assist locomotion, but predicting how specific device designs will impact energetic demand during gait remains challenging. Powered AFOs have been shown to reduce energy costs of walking in unimpaired adults more than passive AFOs, but have not been tested in children with CP. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of powered and passive AFOs on muscle demand and recruitment in children with CP and crouch gait. We simulated gait for nine children with crouch gait and three typically-developing children with powered and passive AFOs. For each AFO design, we computed reductions in muscle demand compared to unassisted gait. Powered AFOs reduced muscle demand 15-44% compared to unassisted walking, 1-14% more than passive AFOs. A slower walking speed was associated with smaller reductions in absolute muscle demand for all AFOs (r2 = 0.60-0.70. However, reductions in muscle demand were only moderately correlated with crouch severity (r2 = 0.40-0.43. The ankle plantarflexor muscles were most heavily impacted by the AFOs, with gastrocnemius recruitment decreasing 13-73% and correlating with increasing knee flexor moments (r2 = 0.29-0.91. These findings support the potential use of powered AFOs for children with crouch gait, and highlight how subject-specific kinematics and kinetics may influence muscle demand and recruitment to inform AFO design.
Rosenberg, Michael; Steele, Katherine M
Passive ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are often prescribed for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to assist locomotion, but predicting how specific device designs will impact energetic demand during gait remains challenging. Powered AFOs have been shown to reduce energy costs of walking in unimpaired adults more than passive AFOs, but have not been tested in children with CP. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of powered and passive AFOs on muscle demand and recruitment in children with CP and crouch gait. We simulated gait for nine children with crouch gait and three typically-developing children with powered and passive AFOs. For each AFO design, we computed reductions in muscle demand compared to unassisted gait. Powered AFOs reduced muscle demand 15-44% compared to unassisted walking, 1-14% more than passive AFOs. A slower walking speed was associated with smaller reductions in absolute muscle demand for all AFOs (r2 = 0.60-0.70). However, reductions in muscle demand were only moderately correlated with crouch severity (r2 = 0.40-0.43). The ankle plantarflexor muscles were most heavily impacted by the AFOs, with gastrocnemius recruitment decreasing 13-73% and correlating with increasing knee flexor moments (r2 = 0.29-0.91). These findings support the potential use of powered AFOs for children with crouch gait, and highlight how subject-specific kinematics and kinetics may influence muscle demand and recruitment to inform AFO design.
Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Souza, Thales R; Bayod, Javier; Barbosa de Las Casas, Estevam
A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon. A synergic work of the inversion-eversion tendons was predicted. Pulling from a peroneus or tibialis tendon stressed the antagonist tendons while reducing the stress in the agonist. Similar paired action was predicted for the Achilles tendon with the tibialis anterior. This behavior explains the complex control motion performed by the foot. Furthermore, the stress state at the plantar fascia, the talocrural joint cartilage, the plantar soft tissue and the tendons were estimated in the early and late midstance phase of walking. These estimations will help in the understanding of the functional role of the extrinsic muscle-tendon-units in foot pronation-supination. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the clinical outcome of modified Blair ankle fusion for ankle arthritis. Methods:Between November 2009 and June 2012, 28 patients with ankle arthritis were treated, among whom 11 had obvious foot varus deformity, and 17 were almost normal in appearance. There were 13 males and 15 females with an average age of 49.4 years (range, 23-67 years. The main symptoms included swelling, pain, and a limited range of motion of the ankles. The ankle joints functions were assessed by American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score and visual analog scale (VAS preoperatively and at 1 year follow-up. Results:Twenty-eight patients were followed up for 19.8 months on average (range, 1-2 years. Superficial wound infection occurred in 3 cases, and was cured after debridement; the other incisions healed by first intention without complications. All ankles were fused at 1 year follow-up after operation. The symptom was relieved completely in all patients at last follow-up without complication of implant failure, or nonunion. The postoperative AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score was 83.13±3.76, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative score (45.38±3.21, P<0.01. VAS was significantly decreased from 8.01±0.63 to 2.31±1.05 at 1 year follow-up (P<0.05. Conclusion:Modified Blair ankle fusion has the advantages of high feasiblity, less cost and rigid fixation. It shows high reliability in pain relief and may obtain a good clinical effectiveness. Key words: Ankle; Arthritis; Arthrodesis; Fracture fixation, intramedullary
Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Benard, M.R.; Harlaar, J.; Jaspers, R.T.; Becher, J.G.
Background: In spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), a limited range of motion of the foot (ROM), limits gait and other activities. Assessment of this limitation of ROM and knowledge of active mechanisms is of crucial importance for clinical treatment. Methods. For a comparison between spastic cerebral
Faraji, Elahe; Daneshmandi, Hassan; Atri, Ahmad Ebrahimi; Onvani, Vahid; Namjoo, Faride Rezaee
Purpose Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries among athletes and instability and injury to this joint is responsible for long time loss of physical and recreational activity. Also, it can impose high costs to sport teams. Prevention of this injury is an important concern of practice and rehabilitation. One way of reducing the possibility of ankle joint injury is using an ankle orthosis. The present study aimed at inspecting the effects of two ankle orthoses on dynamic and semi-dynam...
... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a) Identification. A limb orthosis (brace) is a device intended for medical purposes that is worn on the upper or lower... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and...
Gravel, Jocelyn; Roy, Michel; Carrière, Benoit
Studies have suggested that poor knowledge of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) limits its clinical impact. This study evaluated the ability of a mnemonic to improve knowledge of the OAR. This was a single-blind randomized controlled trial performed among residents and medical students doing a pediatric emergency medicine rotation. At baseline, all participants were tested for their baseline knowledge of the OAR. The intervention was a standardized information sheet providing a mnemonic of the OAR (44-55-66-PM), while control subjects received its classic description. Block randomization (medical student vs. type of resident) was used. Each participant answered the same questionnaire at the end of rotation (3 weeks later) and via a Web-based survey 5 to 9 months postrandomization. Main outcome measures were knowledge of the components of the ankle rule based on a 13-item criterion grid and the foot rule based on a 10-item criterion grid. All questionnaires were marked at the end of the study by two reviewers blinded to the randomization. Discrepancies in final scores were resolved by consensus. Student's t-test was performed to compare mean scores on the evaluation between groups using an intention-to-treat approach. Among the 206 eligible participants, 96 medical students and 94 residents were recruited and agreed to participate. Primary outcomes were measured in 95% of the participants at 3 weeks postrandomization and in 72% on the long-term follow-up. Participants in both groups were similar with regard to baseline characteristics and prior knowledge of the OAR. Both groups showed improvement in their knowledge of the rule during the study period. At mid-term, knowledge of the OAR was similar for the ankle components (score for mnemonic 10.9; control 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference = -0.3 to 1.7) and for the foot (mnemonic 7.6 vs. control 7.5; 95% CI for difference = -0.7 to 0.9). On the long term, randomization to the mnemonic was associated with a
Kerkum Yvette L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs, are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient’s gait deviations. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. Method/Design A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject’s optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12–20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. Discussion The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique
Kerkum, Yvette L; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Brehm, Merel-Anne
Ankle-Foot-Orthoses with a ventral shell, also known as Floor Reaction Orthoses (FROs), are often used to reduce gait-related problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), walking with excessive knee flexion. However, current evidence for the effectiveness (e.g. in terms of walking energy cost) of FROs is both limited and inconclusive. Much of this ambiguity may be due to a mismatch between the FRO ankle stiffness and the patient's gait deviations.The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FROs optimised for ankle stiffness on the walking energy cost in children with SCP, compared to walking with shoes alone. In addition, effects on various secondary outcome measures will be evaluated in order to identify possible working mechanisms and potential predictors of FRO treatment success. A pre-post experimental study design will include 32 children with SCP, walking with excessive knee flexion in midstance, recruited from our university hospital and affiliated rehabilitation centres. All participants will receive a newly designed FRO, allowing ankle stiffness to be varied into three configurations by means of a hinge. Gait biomechanics will be assessed for each FRO configuration. The FRO that results in the greatest reduction in knee flexion during the single stance phase will be selected as the subject's optimal FRO. Subsequently, the effects of wearing this optimal FRO will be evaluated after 12-20 weeks. The primary study parameter will be walking energy cost, with the most important secondary outcomes being intensity of participation, daily activity, walking speed and gait biomechanics. The AFO-CP trial will be the first experimental study to evaluate the effect of individually optimised FROs on mobility and participation. The evaluation will include outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, providing a unique set of data with which to assess relationships between outcome
Full Text Available Powered ankle-foot prostheses assist users through plantarflexion during stance and dorsiflexion during swing. Provision of motor power permits faster preferred walking speeds than passive devices, but use of active motor power raises the issue of control. While several commercially available algorithms provide torque control for many intended activities and variations of terrain, control approaches typically exhibit no inherent adaptation. In contrast, muscles adapt instantaneously to changes in load without sensory feedback due to the intrinsic property that their stiffness changes with length and velocity. We previously developed a “winding filament” hypothesis (WFH for muscle contraction that accounts for intrinsic muscle properties by incorporating the giant titin protein. The goals of this study were to develop a WFH-based control algorithm for a powered prosthesis and to test its robustness during level walking and stair ascent in a case study of two subjects with 4–5 years of experience using a powered prosthesis. In the WFH algorithm, ankle moments produced by virtual muscles are calculated based on muscle length and activation. Net ankle moment determines the current applied to the motor. Using this algorithm implemented in a BiOM T2 prosthesis, we tested subjects during level walking and stair ascent. During level walking at variable speeds, the WFH algorithm produced plantarflexion angles (range = −8 to −19° and ankle moments (range = 1 to 1.5 Nm/kg similar to those produced by the BiOM T2 stock controller and to people with no amputation. During stair ascent, the WFH algorithm produced plantarflexion angles (range −15 to −19° that were similar to persons with no amputation and were ~5 times larger on average at 80 steps/min than those produced by the stock controller. This case study provides proof-of-concept that, by emulating muscle properties, the WFH algorithm provides robust, adaptive control of level walking at
Baumbach, Sebastian Felix; Fasser, Mariette; Polzer, Hans; Sieb, Michael; Regauer, Markus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias; Blauth, Michael
Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. 60 patients, aged 18-40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for
Baumbach Sebastian Felix
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various
Jeong, Bi O; Kim, Tae Yong; Baek, Jong Hun; Jung, Hyuk; Song, Seung Hyun
This study aimed to assess radiological changes of the ankle joint, subtalar joint and foot following the correction of varus deformity of the knee with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It was hypothesized that following the correction of varus deformity by TKA, compensatory reactions would occur at the subtalar joint in accordance with the extent of the correction. For this prospective study, 375 knees of patients who underwent TKA between 2011 and 2012 were enrolled. The varus angle of the knee, talar tilt of the ankle joint (TT), ground-talar dome angle of the foot (GD), anterior surface angle of the distal tibia and lateral surface angle of the distal tibia, heel alignment ratio (HR), heel alignment angle (HA), and heel alignment distance (HD) were measured on radiographs obtained pre-operatively and at post-operative 6 months. The mean correction angle in varus deformity of the knee was 10.8 ± 4.1°. TT and GD changed significantly from 0.4 ± 1.9° and 6.5 ± 3.1° pre-operatively to 0.1 ± 1.8° and 0.2 ± 2.1°, respectively (p = 0.007, p varus whereas GD was oriented in valgus. Following the correction of varus deformity of the knee through TKA, significant compensatory changes occurred not only at the ankle and subtalar joints, but also at the foot. The findings of this study are useful in predicting the orientation of changes in the ankle and subtalar joints and the foot following TKA, and in determining the sequence of surgery when both the ankle and knee have a problem. In other words, changes in the parts of the lower extremity below the ankle joint following the correction of varus deformity of the knee must be considered when TKA is planned and performed. Patients who have problems at the ankle, subtalar, and foot joints in addition to varus deformity of the knee are recommended to undergo knee joint correction first. II.
Malcolm, Philippe; Galle, Samuel; Derave, Wim; De Clercq, Dirk
The bi-articular m. gastrocnemius and the mono-articular m. soleus have different and complementary functions during walking. Several groups are starting to use these biological functions as inspiration to design prostheses with bi-articular actuation components to replace the function of the m. gastrocnemius. Simulation studies indicate that a bi-articular configuration and spring that mimic the m. gastrocnemius could be beneficial for orthoses or exoskeletons. Our aim was to test the effect of a bi-articular and spring configuration that mimics the m. gastrocnemius and compare this to a no-spring and mono-articular configuration. We tested nine participants during walking with knee-ankle-foot exoskeletons with dorsally mounted pneumatic muscle actuators. In the bi-articular plus spring condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the thigh segment with an elastic cord. In the bi-articular no-spring condition the pneumatic muscles were also attached to the thigh segment but with a non-elastic cord. In the mono-articular condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the shank segment. We found the highest reduction in metabolic cost of 13% compared to walking with the exoskeleton powered-off in the bi-articular plus spring condition. Possible explanations for this could be that the exoskeleton delivered the highest total positive work in this condition at the ankle and the knee and provided more assistance during the isometric phase of the biological plantarflexors. As expected we found that the bi-articular conditions reduced m. gastrocnemius EMG more than the mono-articular condition but this difference was not significant. We did not find that the mono-articular condition reduces the m. soleus EMG more than the bi-articular conditions. Knowledge of specific effects of different exoskeleton configurations on metabolic cost and muscle activation could be useful for providing customized assistance for specific gait impairments. PMID:29551959
Full Text Available The bi-articular m. gastrocnemius and the mono-articular m. soleus have different and complementary functions during walking. Several groups are starting to use these biological functions as inspiration to design prostheses with bi-articular actuation components to replace the function of the m. gastrocnemius. Simulation studies indicate that a bi-articular configuration and spring that mimic the m. gastrocnemius could be beneficial for orthoses or exoskeletons. Our aim was to test the effect of a bi-articular and spring configuration that mimics the m. gastrocnemius and compare this to a no-spring and mono-articular configuration. We tested nine participants during walking with knee-ankle-foot exoskeletons with dorsally mounted pneumatic muscle actuators. In the bi-articular plus spring condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the thigh segment with an elastic cord. In the bi-articular no-spring condition the pneumatic muscles were also attached to the thigh segment but with a non-elastic cord. In the mono-articular condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the shank segment. We found the highest reduction in metabolic cost of 13% compared to walking with the exoskeleton powered-off in the bi-articular plus spring condition. Possible explanations for this could be that the exoskeleton delivered the highest total positive work in this condition at the ankle and the knee and provided more assistance during the isometric phase of the biological plantarflexors. As expected we found that the bi-articular conditions reduced m. gastrocnemius EMG more than the mono-articular condition but this difference was not significant. We did not find that the mono-articular condition reduces the m. soleus EMG more than the bi-articular conditions. Knowledge of specific effects of different exoskeleton configurations on metabolic cost and muscle activation could be useful for providing customized assistance for specific gait impairments.
Malcolm, Philippe; Galle, Samuel; Derave, Wim; De Clercq, Dirk
The bi-articular m. gastrocnemius and the mono-articular m. soleus have different and complementary functions during walking. Several groups are starting to use these biological functions as inspiration to design prostheses with bi-articular actuation components to replace the function of the m. gastrocnemius. Simulation studies indicate that a bi-articular configuration and spring that mimic the m. gastrocnemius could be beneficial for orthoses or exoskeletons. Our aim was to test the effect of a bi-articular and spring configuration that mimics the m. gastrocnemius and compare this to a no-spring and mono-articular configuration. We tested nine participants during walking with knee-ankle-foot exoskeletons with dorsally mounted pneumatic muscle actuators. In the bi-articular plus spring condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the thigh segment with an elastic cord. In the bi-articular no-spring condition the pneumatic muscles were also attached to the thigh segment but with a non-elastic cord. In the mono-articular condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the shank segment. We found the highest reduction in metabolic cost of 13% compared to walking with the exoskeleton powered-off in the bi-articular plus spring condition . Possible explanations for this could be that the exoskeleton delivered the highest total positive work in this condition at the ankle and the knee and provided more assistance during the isometric phase of the biological plantarflexors. As expected we found that the bi-articular conditions reduced m. gastrocnemius EMG more than the mono-articular condition but this difference was not significant. We did not find that the mono-articular condition reduces the m. soleus EMG more than the bi-articular conditions . Knowledge of specific effects of different exoskeleton configurations on metabolic cost and muscle activation could be useful for providing customized assistance for specific gait impairments.
Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yoon, Sung-Won; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho
Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic techni...
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Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of bipedal locomotion to generate stimulation pulses for activating muscles for paraplegic walking with wheel walker using functional electrical stimulation (FES with spring brake orthosis (SBO. A new methodology for paraplegic gait, based on exploiting natural dynamics of human gait, is introduced. The work is a first effort towards restoring natural like swing phase in paraplegic gait through a new hybrid orthosis, referred to as spring brake orthosis (SBO. This mechanism simplifies the control task and results in smooth motion and more-natural like trajectory produced by the flexion reflex for gait in spinal cord injured subjects. SBO can eliminate reliance on the withdrawal reflex and foot-ground clearance without extra upper body effort. The stored energy in the spring of SBO is used to replace stimulation pulses in knee flexion and reduce total required torque for the paraplegic walking with wheel walker. The study is carried out with a model of humanoid with wheel walker using the Visual Nastran (Vn4D dynamic simulation software. Stimulated muscle model of quadriceps is developed for knee extension. Fuzzy logic control (FLC is developed in Matlab/Simulink to regulate the muscle stimulation pulse-width required to drive FES-assisted walking gait and the computed motion is visualised in graphic animation from Vn4D. The simulation results show that SBO can be successfully used with FES for paraplegic walking with wheel walker with all the advantages discussed over the current hybrid orthoses available.
Kobayashi, Toshiki; Leung, Aaron K L; Akazawa, Yasushi; Hutchins, Stephen W
Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) have been reported to have positive effects on the temporal-spatial parameters and kinematics and kinetics of gait in patients with stroke. The center of mass (COM) may be used to represent whole body movement and energy cost in gait, and therefore COM movement would also be positively influenced with use of an appropriate AFO. To investigate the effect of AFOs on the sagittal plane displacement of the COM in patients with stroke hemiplegia. Five male subjects with stroke hemiplegia participated in this pilot study. The trajectory of the COM in the sagittal plane, gait speed, bilateral step length, step width, and bilateral stance time were analyzed while participants ambulated under 2 test conditions: with an AFO or with footwear only. The height of the 2 peaks of the vertical displacement of the COM in a gait cycle was subsequently measured and normalized to body height. Statistical analyses were conducted using a nonparametric Friedman test. Gait speed, bilateral step length, and the normalized peak height of the vertical COM trajectory during stance phase on the affected leg all revealed statistically significant increases (P < .05), and step width showed significant decreases (P < .05) under the AFO condition when compared to the footwear-only condition. An AFO may influence the vertical displacement of the COM in patients with stroke hemiplegia. The results of this pilot study therefore suggested that vertical movement of COM could potentially serve as a useful parameter to evaluate the effect of an AFO.
González-Sánchez, Manuel; Velasco-Ramos, Esther; Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I
The current study performed a cross-cultural adaptation to Spanish and examined the internal and external validation of the AAOS-FAM questionnaire. A direct translation (English to Spanish) and a reverse translation (Spanish to English) were performed by two independent professional native translators. Cronbach's α coefficients were calculated to analyse the internal consistency of the measure. The factor structure and construct validity were analysed after extraction by maximum likelihood (EML); extraction was necessary if the following three requirements were met: accounting for ≥10 % of variance, Eigenvalue >1.0 and a scree plot inflexion point. The standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change 90 (MDC90) were calculated. Criterion validity was calculated by analysing the correlation between the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons-Foot and Ankle Module (Spanish version) (AAOS-FAMsp) and Spanish versions of the questionnaires FFI and FHSQ. Regarding internal consistency, Cronbach's α was 0.877, and in the test-retest analysis, the ICC ranged between 0.899 and 0.942. Error measures were calculated by MDC90 and SEM, which showed values of 3.444 and 1.476 %, respectively. The analysis demonstrated a goodness of fit chi-squared value of 803.166 (p validity, the correlation value with FFIsp was r = 0.837 (p Spanish-speaking individuals into both research and clinical practice.
Eddison, N; Mulholland, M; Chockalingam, N
The purpose of this article is to determine how many of the current peer-reviewed studies of ankle foot or-thoses (AFOs) on children with cerebral palsy (CP) have included adequate details of the design and material of the AFO, to enable the study to be reproduced and outcomes clearly understood. A thorough search of studies published in English was conducted in March 2015, with no restriction on dates, within all major databases using relevant phrases. These searches were then supplemented by tracking all key references from the appropriate articles identified. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) population - children with CP; (2) intervention - AFOs; and (3) outcome measure. One reviewer extracted data regarding the characteristics of the included studies, with the extracted data checked for accuracy and completeness by a second reviewer. None of the studies reviewed gave adequate details of the AFOs. Only 3.6% (n = 2) of papers tested the stiffness. Many studies (54.5%) did not describe the material used nor the material thickness (72.7 %). None of them gave any clinical justification for the chosen design of AFO. There is a clear paucity of detail regarding the design and material used in AFOs on studies involving children with CP. Such a lack of detail has the potential to affect the validity of the reported outcomes, the ability to reproduce the studies and may misinform clinical practice.
Wesdock, Kimberly A; Edge, Annabel M
Effects of wedged shoes with solid ankle-foot orthoses (WAFOs) on standing balance (SB) were evaluated, as well as effects of AFOs alone on knee extension (KE) in children with cerebral palsy who crouch. Using a repeated-measures design, 11 children (four to 13 years old) were tested four times at two-week intervals. AFO intervention comprised the first four weeks and WAFO intervention the second four weeks. SB and KE were measured during three conditions at each visit: no orthoses (NO), AFO, and WAFO. Test-retest reliability and AFO effects on KE were examined after the first month. WAFO effects on SB were examined after the second month. Intraclass correlation coefficients for KE were 0.89 (NO), 0.83 (AFO), and 0.81 (WAFO), and for SB, they were 0.98 (NO), 0.98 (AFO), and 0.97 (WAFO). Paired t tests for KE after AFO intervention were not significant. Restricted maximum likelihood estimations for SB were not significant. A post hoc power analysis of 68% suggested a type II error. Further study is warranted to establish efficacy.
Jagadamma, Kavi C; Coutts, Fiona J; Mercer, Thomas H; Herman, Janet; Yirrel, Jacqueline; Forbes, Lyndsay; Van Der Linden, Marietta L
This pilot study investigated the feasibility of reducing stance phase knee hyperextension in children with cerebral palsy by tuning the ankle foot orthoses-footwear combination (AFO-FC) using different sizes of wedges. Five children with cerebral palsy underwent three dimensional gait analysis and tuning of their AFO-FC using wedges. Data analysis was carried out by comparing relevant gait parameters between the non-tuned and tuned prescription. Knee hyperextension during stance significantly decreased, and the shank to vertical angle was closer to normal after tuning. Although none of the other parameters showed statistically significant changes, the wide confidence intervals and lack of power indicated the likelihood of a type II error. Further, it was noted that the influence of tuning on temporal-spatial parameters was different between children with diplegia and those with hemiplegia. It was estimated that a sample size of 15 is required to detect significant changes at p = 0.05 and power of 0.8. The findings of this study clearly indicate the potential clinical utility of tuning using wedges to correct knee hyperextension during the stance phase in children with cerebral palsy. However, observations support the need for an adequately powered study to assess the long-term effects of tuning on gait parameters, activity level and quality of life.
Zubler, Veronika; Zanetti, Marco; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.; Mamisch-Saupe, Nadja; Espinosa, Norman
To prospectively compare T1-weighted fat-suppressed spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) sequences after gadolinium application (T1wGdFS) to STIR sequences in patients with acute and chronic foot pain. In 51 patients referred for MRI of the foot and ankle, additional transverse and sagittal T1wGdFS sequences were obtained. Two sets of MR images (standard protocol with STIR or T1wGdFS) were analysed. Diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and localization of the abnormality were noted. Standard of reference was established by an expert panel of two experienced MSK radiologists and one experienced foot surgeon based on MR images, clinical charts and surgical reports. Patients reported prospectively localization of pain. Descriptive statistics, McNemar test and Kappa test were used. Diagnostic accuracy with STIR protocol was 80% for reader 1, 67% for reader 2, with contrast-protocol 84%, both readers. Significance was found for reader 2. Diagnostic confidence for reader 1 was 1.7 with STIR, 1.3 with contrast-protocol; reader 2: 2.1/1.7. Significance was found for reader 1. Pain location correlated with STIR sequences in 64% and 52%, with gadolinium sequences in 70% and 71%. T1-weighted contrast material-enhanced fat-suppressed spin-echo magnetic resonance sequences improve diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic confidence and correlation of MR abnormalities with pain location in MRI of the foot and ankle. However, the additional value is small. (orig.)
Zubler, Veronika; Zanetti, Marco; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.; Mamisch-Saupe, Nadja [University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)
To prospectively compare T1-weighted fat-suppressed spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) sequences after gadolinium application (T1wGdFS) to STIR sequences in patients with acute and chronic foot pain. In 51 patients referred for MRI of the foot and ankle, additional transverse and sagittal T1wGdFS sequences were obtained. Two sets of MR images (standard protocol with STIR or T1wGdFS) were analysed. Diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and localization of the abnormality were noted. Standard of reference was established by an expert panel of two experienced MSK radiologists and one experienced foot surgeon based on MR images, clinical charts and surgical reports. Patients reported prospectively localization of pain. Descriptive statistics, McNemar test and Kappa test were used. Diagnostic accuracy with STIR protocol was 80% for reader 1, 67% for reader 2, with contrast-protocol 84%, both readers. Significance was found for reader 2. Diagnostic confidence for reader 1 was 1.7 with STIR, 1.3 with contrast-protocol; reader 2: 2.1/1.7. Significance was found for reader 1. Pain location correlated with STIR sequences in 64% and 52%, with gadolinium sequences in 70% and 71%. T1-weighted contrast material-enhanced fat-suppressed spin-echo magnetic resonance sequences improve diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic confidence and correlation of MR abnormalities with pain location in MRI of the foot and ankle. However, the additional value is small. (orig.)
Development and evaluation of interdisciplinary preoperative patient education in foot and ankle surgery: immediate effects on knowledge, satisfaction and anxiety / Entwicklung und erste Evaluation eines präoperativen interdisziplinären Schulungskonzeptes für Patienten/-innen der Fußchirurgie: unmittelbare Effekte auf Wissenszuwachs, Zufriedenheit und Angst
Full Text Available Foot and ankle surgery is increasing due to demographic and lifestyle changes. Most often, patients are required to unload their foot postoperatively, resulting in signifcant impairment of activities of daily living without adequate preparation for this situation. The aim of the study was the development and evaluation of a preoperative patient education intervention.
Kim, Eunkuk; Choi, Hokyung; Cha, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Taegyu
The aims of this study were to investigate the ankle position, the changes and persistence of ankle kinematics after neuromuscular training in athletes with chronic ankle instability (CAI). A total of 21 national women’s field hockey players participated (CAI = 12, control = 9). Ankle position at heel strike (HS), midstance (MS), and toe touch (TT) in the frontal plane during walking, running and landing were measured using 3D motion analysis. A 6-week neuromuscular training program was undertaken by the CAI group. Measurements of kinematic data for both groups were measured at baseline and the changes in kinematic data for CAI group were measured at 6 and 24 weeks. The kinematic data at HS during walking and running demonstrated that the magnitude of the eversion in the CAI group (−5.00° and −4.21°) was less than in the control group (−13.45°and −9.62°). The kinematic data at MS also exhibited less ankle eversion in the CAI group (−9.36° and −8.18°) than in the control group (−18.52° and −15.88°). Ankle positions at TT during landing were comparable between groups. Following the 6-week training, the CAI participants demonstrated a less everted ankle at HS during walking and running (−1.77° and −1.76°) compared to the previous positions. They also showed less ankle eversion at MS (−5.14° and −4.19°). Ankle orientation at TT changed significantly to an inverted ankle position (from −0.26° to 4.11°). The ankle kinematics were restored back to the previous positions at 24 weeks except for landing. It appeared that athletes with unstable ankle had a relatively inverted ankle position, and that 6-week neuromuscular training had an immediate effect on changing ankle orientation toward a less everted direction. The changed ankle kinematics seemed to persist during landing but not during walking and running. Key points Athletes with unstable ankles had a relatively inverted ankle position during the initial contact and midstance
Analysis of agreement between the German translation of the American Foot and Ankle Society's Ankle and Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS-AHS) and the Foot Function Index in its validated German translation by Naal et al. (FFI-D).
Kostuj, Tanja; Krummenauer, Frank; Schaper, Katharina; Stief, Felix; Zettersten, Kirsten; Baums, Mike H; Meurer, Andrea; Lieske, Sebastian
Despite its wide use in clinical outcome measurement, there is yet no validated German language version of the AOFAS-AHS available. After finishing cross-cultural adaption of the AOFAS-AHS according to the AAOS guidelines, an analysis of agreement was carried out. This was done by means of the 18-item Foot Function Index in its validated German translation by Naal et al. (FFI-D). The results of 91 orthopedic patients as well as healthy persons in both scores were then compared intraindividually. The cohort consisted of 46 individuals with hindfoot disorders and 45 persons without any hindfoot complaints. The FFI-D-Score was linearly transformed in the range 0-100 points of the AOFAS. Encouraging correlation was then found for the patients with hindfoot disorders (Spearman's correlation 0.73 (95% CI 0.52-0.85); a median deviation of -2 points (interquartile range -13 points; +13 points) in patients with hindfoot disorders implied good median intraindividual score concordance. However, with 30 of these 46 patients showing score deviations beyond or below a pre-specified ±10 points range of clinically tolerable deviations, the scores cannot be considered exchangeable. Although the agreement analysis was performed for the German translation of the two questionnaires, analogous results can be expected also for other languages. It should be noted that the results do not allow for judging which of the scores is better suited to give a valid statement on patient outcome in treatment of hindfoot disorders. To verify which of these two scores is better suited to represent hindfoot-dysfunction a subsequent study using instrumental gait analysis and surface EMG is being carried out.
Mojaver, Ali; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Aminian, Gholamreza; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Sharifi, Guive; Sherafatvaziri, Arash
Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are used by people with poliomyelitis to ambulate. Whist advances in orthotic knee joint designs for use in KAFOs such the provision of stance control capability have proven efficacy, little attention has been paid to shoe adaptations which may also improve gait. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration to the kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters of gait caused by the use of heel-to-toe rocker-soled footwear when ambulating with KAFOs. Nine adults with a history of poliomyelitis who routinely wore KAFOs participated in the study. A heel-to-toe rocker sole was added to footwear and worn on the affected side. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to quantify the resulting alteration to specific gait parameters. Maximum hip joint extension was significantly increased (p = 0.011), and hip abduction and adduction were both significantly reduced (p = 0.011 and p = 0.007, respectively) when walking with the rocker sole. A significant increase in stride length (p = 0.035) was demonstrated but there were no significant increases in either walking speed or cadence. A heel-to-toe rocker sole adaptation may be useful for walking in patients with poliomyelitis who use KAFOs. Implications for Rehabilitation The poor functionality and difficulty in walking when using an orthotic device such as a KAFO which keeps the knee locked during ambulation, plus the significant energy required to walk, are complications of orthoses using. Little evidence exists regarding the biomechanical effect of walking with a KAFO incorporating fixed knee joints, in conjunction with rocker-soled footwear. The main aim of walking with a heel-to-toe rocker sole is to facilitate forward progression of the tibia when used with an AFO or KAFO or to provide easier walking for patients who have undergone an ankle arthrodesis. In this study, a rocker sole profile adaptation produced no significant alteration to hip joint flexion
Kerkum, Yvette L; Harlaar, Jaap; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Brehm, Merel-Anne
Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to promote gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The AFO prescription process is however largely dependent on clinical experience, resulting in confusing results regarding treatment efficacy. To maximize efficacy, the AFO's mechanical properties should be tuned to the patient's underlying impairments. This study aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of a ventral shell AFO (vAFO) to reduce knee flexion and walking energy cost could be improved by individually optimizing AFO stiffness in children with CP walking with excessive knee flexion. Secondarily, the effect of the optimized vAFO on daily walking activity was investigated. Fifteen children with spastic CP were prescribed with a hinged vAFO with adjustable stiffness. Effects of a rigid, stiff, and flexible setting on knee angle and the net energy cost (EC) [Jkg(-1)m(-1)] were assessed to individually select the optimal stiffness. After three months, net EC, daily walking activity [stridesmin(-1)] and knee angle [deg] while walking with the optimized vAFO were compared to walking with shoes-only. A near significant 9% (p=0.077) decrease in net EC (-0.5Jkg(-1)m(-1)) was found for walking with the optimized vAFO compared to shoes-only. Daily activity remained unchanged. Knee flexion in stance was reduced by 2.4° (p=0.006). These results show that children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion show a small, but significant reduction of knee flexion in stance as a result of wearing individually optimized vAFOs. Data suggest that this also improves gait efficiency for which an individual approach to AFO prescription is emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kalinowski, Zbigniew; Bonikowski, Marcin
Background. Contracture of the triceps in the calf occurs in most CP children especially those with diplegia and spastic hemiplegia. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the effective of TB-A in the treatment of these contractures and the associated disturbances of the dynamic position of the foot in CP children. Material and methods. Thirty five CP children (19 with diplegia and 16 with hemiplegia) received botulinum toxin A (TBX-A-Dysport) for the dynamic contracture of the triceps surae muscle and secondary equinovarus foot deformity. These children ranged in age from 2-11 years (mean 4.6). Previous conservative treatment had failed to alleviate these conditions. Goniometric measurements of the passive range of motion and the evaluation of dynamie equinovarus foot were performed prior to injection of BTX-A to 54 gastrocnemius muscles, and again at 2, 6, and 12 weeks post injection. Results. The results showed high effectiveness for TBX-A, e.g. marked reduction in equinovarity in 47 and 49 ankle joints (68%- 78%) at 2 and 6 weeks respectively, and in 19 joints (35%) at 12 weeks post-treatment, and moderate reduction in 12 (22%), 8 (15%) and 14 (26%) joints respectively. These improvements were statistically significant. In some children the positive effect was present up to 16 and 20 weeks post injection. No change was found on follow-up in 5 ankle joints (9%) at 2 weeks and in 7 (13%) at 6 and 12 weeks. Reversion to baseline scores was observed in 14 ankle joints (26%). The TB-A therapy was cllosely integrated with physiotherapy and the use of AFO orthosis when necessary. Conclusions. Botulin toxin therapy is effective in the treatment contractures of the triceps of the calf and equinovarus foot in children with cerebral palsy.
Wybier, M; Hamze, B; Champsaur, P; Parlier, C
Ankle opacification dramatically increases the diagnostic value of CT examination of the foot and ankle. The procedure may be entirely performed on the CT table. The main results and indications of CT-arthrography of the ankle are presented. CT-tenography of the ankle which includes the opacification of a tendon sheath on the CT table, is also described.
The effectiveness of exercise on recovery and clinical outcomes of soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, and foot: A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
Woitzik, Erin; Jacobs, Craig; Wong, Jessica J; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Randhawa, Kristi; Sutton, Deborah; Southerst, Daniel