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Sample records for ankara vectors enhances

  1. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  2. Hazard Characterization of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector: What Are the Knowledge Gaps?

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    Malachy I. Okeke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is the vector of choice for human and veterinary applications due to its strong safety profile and immunogenicity in vivo. The use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines against human and animal diseases must comply with regulatory requirements as they pertain to environmental risk assessment, particularly the characterization of potential adverse effects to humans, animals and the environment. MVA and recombinant MVA are widely believed to pose low or negligible risk to ecosystem health. However, key aspects of MVA biology require further research in order to provide data needed to evaluate the potential risks that may occur due to the use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge gaps in the biology of MVA and recombinant MVA that are of relevance to its hazard characterization and discuss ongoing and future experiments aimed at providing data necessary to fill in the knowledge gaps. In addition, we presented arguments for the inclusion of uncertainty analysis and experimental investigation of verifiable worst-case scenarios in the environmental risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA. These will contribute to improved risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA vaccines.

  3. Strategies to obtain multiple recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vectors. Applications to influenza vaccines.

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    Barbieri, Andrea; Panigada, Maddalena; Soprana, Elisa; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Gubinelli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Valentina; Recagni, Marta; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria R; Siccardi, Antonio G

    2018-01-01

    As a vaccination vector, MVA has been widely investigated both in animal models and humans. The construction of recombinant MVA (rMVA) relies on homologous recombination between an acceptor virus and a donor plasmid in infected/transfected permissive cells. Our construction strategy "Red-to-Green gene swapping" - based on the exchange of two fluorescent markers within the flanking regions of MVA deletion ΔIII, coupled to fluorescence activated cell sorting - is here extended to a second insertion site, within the flanking regions of MVA deletion ΔVI. Exploiting this strategy, both double and triple rMVA were constructed, expressing as transgenes the influenza A proteins HA, NP, M1, and PB1. Upon validation of the harbored transgenes co-expression, double and triple recombinants rMVA(ΔIII)-NP-P2A-M1 and rMVA(ΔIII)-NP-P2A-M1-(ΔVI)-PB1 were assayed for in vivo immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge. In vivo responses were identical to those obtained with the reported combinations of single recombinants, supporting the feasibility and reliability of the present improvement and the extension of Red-to-Green gene swapping to insertion sites other than ΔIII. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing poxvirus vectors vaccine immunogenicity.

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    García-Arriaza, Juan; Esteban, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated recombinant poxvirus vectors expressing heterologous antigens from pathogens are currently at various stages in clinical trials with the aim to establish their efficacy. This is because these vectors have shown excellent safety profiles, significant immunogenicity against foreign expressed antigens and are able to induce protective immune responses. In view of the limited efficacy triggered by some poxvirus strains used in clinical trials (i.e, ALVAC in the RV144 phase III clinical trial for HIV), and of the restrictive replication capacity of the highly attenuated vectors like MVA and NYVAC, there is a consensus that further improvements of these vectors should be pursuit. In this review we considered several strategies that are currently being implemented, as well as new approaches, to improve the immunogenicity of the poxvirus vectors. This includes heterologous prime/boost protocols, use of co-stimulatory molecules, deletion of viral immunomodulatory genes still present in the poxvirus genome, enhancing virus promoter strength, enhancing vector replication capacity, optimizing expression of foreign heterologous sequences, and the combined use of adjuvants. An optimized poxvirus vector triggering long-lasting immunity with a high protective efficacy against a selective disease should be sought.

  5. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA) como vacunas preventivas y terapéuticas contra el SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Heeney, Jonathan L.; Mooij, Petra; Nájera García, José Luis; Jiménez, Victoria; Esteban, Mariano; Gómez, Carmen E.

    2005-01-01

    Vectores Recombinantes basados en el Virus Modificado de Ankara (MVA) como Vacunas Preventivas y Terapéuticas contra el SIDA. Losvirus recombinantes de la invención contienen secuencias que se encuentran insertadas en el mismo sitio de inserción del MVA y permiten la expresión simultánea de varios antígenos, una proteína Env del VIH-I consistente en una proteína gpl20 carente de secuencias correspondientes a la proteína gp41, y una proteína quiméricade fusión de Gag, Pol y Nef. Son virus esta...

  6. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Induces Specific Cellular and Humoral Responses in the Female Reproductive Tract, the Main HIV Portal of Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Romain; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Parenti, Matteo; Hocini, Hakim; Benjelloun, Fahd; Cannou, Claude; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Levy, Yves; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Le Grand, Roger; Menu, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the FRT of nonhuman primates after systemic vaccination. Memory T cells were preferentially found in the lower tract (vagina and cervix), whereas APCs and innate lymphoid cells were mainly located in the upper tract (uterus and fallopian tubes). This compartmentalization of immune cells in the FRT was supported by transcriptomic analyses and a correlation network. Polyfunctional MVA-specific CD8 + T cells were detected in the blood, lymph nodes, vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Anti-MVA IgG and IgA were detected in cervicovaginal fluid after a second vaccine dose. Thus, systemic vaccination with an MVA vector elicits cellular and Ab responses in the FRT. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Diseño y construcción de vectores de transferencia para la obtención de virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA recombinantes Design and construction of transfer vectors in order to obtain recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA

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    M. F. Ferrer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA constituye un buen candidato para el desarrollo de vectores virales de expresión no replicativos porque no replica en la mayoría de las células de mamíferos. Para la producción de MVA recombinantes es fundamental disponer de vectores de transferencia que, por recombinación homóloga con el genoma viral, permitan introducir los genes de interés en regiones no esenciales para la replicación in vitro. En este trabajo se diseñaron y obtuvieron los vectores de transferencia denominados VT-MHA y VT-MTK que portan las regiones correspondientes a las posiciones 1-303 y 608-948 del gen MVA165R y 1-244 y 325-534 del gen MVA086R, respectivamente, las que flanquean un sitio de clonado múltiple para la inserción de los genes foráneos. En dichos vectores se clonaron los casetes para la expresión de los genes lac Z o uid A, y la actividad de las enzimas marcadoras b-galactosidasa y b-glucuronidasa se confirmó in situ. Además, utilizando el vector denominado VT-MTK-GUS, se obtuvieron y aislaron MVA recombinantes puros que portan y expresan el gen uid A. Los resultados obtenidos constituyen las herramientas básicas para establecer la metodología de obtención de MVA recombinantes, con el propósito de desarrollar localmente vectores virales no replicativos candidatos a vacunas.Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA constitutes a good candidate for the development of non-replicative expression viral vectors because it does not replicate in most of mammalian cells. It is essential, for the production of recombinant MVA, the availability of transfer vectors which allow the introduction of desired genes into non-essential regions for in vitro viral replication, by homologous recombination with the viral genome. In the present work, the transfer vectors named VT-MHA and VT-MTK were designed and obtained. They carried genomic regions corresponding to 1- 303 and 608-948 positions of the MVA165R gene and 1-244 and

  8. Activation of cross-reactive mucosal T and B cell responses in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue in vitro by Modified Vaccinia Ankara-vectored influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Jennifer; Ahmed, Muhammed S; Sharma, Ravi; Upile, Navdeep; Beer, Helen; Achar, Priya; Puksuriwong, Suttida; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel; McNamara, Paul; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Zhang, Qibo

    2016-03-29

    Recent efforts have been focused on the development of vaccines that could induce broad immunity against influenza virus, either through T cell responses to conserved internal antigens or B cell response to cross-reactive haemagglutinin (HA). We studied the capacity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-vectored influenza vaccines to induce cross-reactive immunity to influenza virus in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in vitro. Adenotonsillar cells were isolated and stimulated with MVA vaccines expressing either conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1) (MVA-NP-M1) or pandemic H1N1 HA (MVA-pdmH1HA). The MVA vaccine uptake and expression, and T and B cell responses were analyzed. MVA-vectored vaccines were highly efficient infecting NALT and vaccine antigens were highly expressed by B cells. MVA-NP-M1 elicited T cell response with greater numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and tissue-resident memory T cells than controls. MVA-pdmH1HA induced cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies to a number of influenza subtypes, in an age-dependent manner. The cross-reactive antibodies include anti-avian H5N1 and mainly target HA2 domain. MVA vaccines are efficient in infecting NALT and the vaccine antigen is highly expressed by B cells. MVA vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens induce cross-reactive T and B cell responses in human NALT in vitro, suggesting the potential as mucosal vaccines for broader immunity against influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe

    2018-02-01

    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  10. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Worksheet to Enhance Students’ Conceptual Understanding in Vector Components

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    Wutchana, Umporn; Emarat, Narumon

    2017-09-01

    With and without physical context, we explored 59 undergraduate students’conceptual and procedural understanding of vector components using both open ended problems and multiple choice items designed based on research instruments used in physics education research. The results showed that a number of students produce errors and revealed alternative conceptions especially when asked to draw graphical form of vector components. It indicated that most of them did not develop a strong foundation of understanding in vector components and could not apply those concepts to such problems with physical context. Based on the findings, we designed a worksheet to enhance the students’ conceptual understanding in vector components. The worksheet is composed of three parts which help students to construct their own understanding of definition, graphical form, and magnitude of vector components. To validate the worksheet, focus group discussions of 3 and 10 graduate students (science in-service teachers) had been conducted. The modified worksheet was then distributed to 41 grade 9 students in a science class. The students spent approximately 50 minutes to complete the worksheet. They sketched and measured vectors and its components and compared with the trigonometry ratio to condense the concepts of vector components. After completing the worksheet, their conceptual model had been verified. 83% of them constructed the correct model of vector components.

  12. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

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    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported.Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination.Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern.These data demonstrate safety and good tolerability of the pSG2

  13. Traditional Sof Weavings of Ankara

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    Feriha Akpınarlı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Angora goat is an important goat breed which is specifically raised in Ankara and its surroundings. Mohair, a kind of fiber obtained from the Angora goat, has an important place in the textile industry, due to its length, strength, and brightness. Consumption patterns change every year according to current fashions. Mohair, which is the primary raw material for weaving and knitting, is also a source of income for people living in rural areas of Anatolia. Ankara sof is a type of fabric woven from mohair. Sof is made by spinning the mohair fiber into yarn, weaving the fabric from this yarn and then dyeing it. Sof fabric was preferred by the elite segments of society as a unique handcraft specific to Ankara and the Central Anatolia Region. Unfortunately, this is no longer woven and can now only be seen in museums. In this respect, Ankara sof has become part of the cultural heritage of the region.The literature review indicates that there are two samples of sof fabric in the Ankara Ethnographic Museum while in the Sadberk Hanım Museum there is one. However, a study conducted in the Ankara Ethnographic Museum revealed three more samples of sof fabric in addition to the two in the literature. Considering the above, sof is culturally important and should be protected even though it is no longer woven today. This study intends to analyze the characteristics of Ankara sof by examining the five sof fabric examples in the Ankara Ethnographic Museum in terms of width, height, weft-warp density, and weaving thickness. These characteristics are analyzed, documented and information about the weaving looms is also provided.

  14. Enhancers Are Major Targets for Murine Leukemia Virus Vector Integration

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    De Ravin, Suk See; Su, Ling; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Macpherson, Janet L.; Poidinger, Michael; Symonds, Geoff; Pond, Susan M.; Ferris, Andrea L.; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retroviral vectors have been used in successful gene therapies. However, in some patients, insertional mutagenesis led to leukemia or myelodysplasia. Both the strong promoter/enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors and the vector-specific integration site preferences played an important role in these adverse clinical events. MLV integration is known to prefer regions in or near transcription start sites (TSS). Recently, BET family proteins were shown to be the major cellular proteins responsible for targeting MLV integration. Although MLV integration sites are significantly enriched at TSS, only a small fraction of the MLV integration sites (integration map of more than one million integration sites from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a clinically relevant MLV-based vector. The integration sites form ∼60,000 tight clusters. These clusters comprise ∼1.9% of the genome. The vast majority (87%) of the integration sites are located within histone H3K4me1 islands, a hallmark of enhancers. The majority of these clusters also have H3K27ac histone modifications, which mark active enhancers. The enhancers of some oncogenes, including LMO2, are highly preferred targets for integration without in vivo selection. IMPORTANCE We show that active enhancer regions are the major targets for MLV integration; this means that MLV preferentially integrates in regions that are favorable for viral gene expression in a variety of cell types. The results provide insights for MLV integration target site selection and also explain the high risk of insertional mutagenesis that is associated with gene therapy trials using MLV vectors. PMID:24501411

  15. MOSQUES AND MASJIDS IN ANKARAANKARA STYLE”

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    Ayşe Ersay YÜKSEL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Ankara for the first time in the second half of the 11. century the Turkish land, a later period passing into the hands of the Byzantines again, century of 12 remained under the rule of the Anatolian Seljuks, after centruy of 14 remained under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and ıt attained status as the capital of the Republic of Turkey, the highest administrative history. In this process, from the 12th century, the city experienced many important events that occurred in the architectural style of a local tradition can say “Ankara style”.Ankara After the collapse of Seljuks the city under the rule of ahi-order and different principalities in the transition from the Ottoman domination. during this period, has started to create the core of the local architectural Ankara style. 13, 14 and even 15. until the beginning of the century, which was built in the mosques and masjids seen stylistic integrity continued in a subsequent period. Structural elements of mosques and masjids as a form, could not have the monumental apparently and architectural values of the classical Ottoman mosques. Usually elongated rectangular planned, with narthex, inside a flat wooden ceiling, covered with exterior tile roofs, a simple facade, based rubble, adobe or brick walls, the wooden door and window systems, plaster niches, wooden minbar, gathering place for woman, and wooden ceiling has become a tradition in almost every century. As a result, “Ankara style” that can be called has emerged an architectural style.

  16. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Especificamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antigenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficienciahumana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que see ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  17. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Específicamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antígenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que se ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  18. Reducing and filtering point clouds with enhanced vector quantization.

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    Ferrari, Stefano; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Piuri, Vincenzo; Borghese, N Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Modern scanners are able to deliver huge quantities of three-dimensional (3-D) data points sampled on an object's surface, in a short time. These data have to be filtered and their cardinality reduced to come up with a mesh manageable at interactive rates. We introduce here a novel procedure to accomplish these two tasks, which is based on an optimized version of soft vector quantization (VQ). The resulting technique has been termed enhanced vector quantization (EVQ) since it introduces several improvements with respect to the classical soft VQ approaches. These are based on computationally expensive iterative optimization; local computation is introduced here, by means of an adequate partitioning of the data space called hyperbox (HB), to reduce the computational time so as to be linear in the number of data points N, saving more than 80% of time in real applications. Moreover, the algorithm can be fully parallelized, thus leading to an implementation that is sublinear in N. The voxel side and the other parameters are automatically determined from data distribution on the basis of the Zador's criterion. This makes the algorithm completely automatic. Because the only parameter to be specified is the compression rate, the procedure is suitable even for nontrained users. Results obtained in reconstructing faces of both humans and puppets as well as artifacts from point clouds publicly available on the web are reported and discussed, in comparison with other methods available in the literature. EVQ has been conceived as a general procedure, suited for VQ applications with large data sets whose data space has relatively low dimensionality.

  19. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined......This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious

  1. Turkey: the smog buster is a big hit in Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalor, A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of Ankara's natural gas distribution system, and the closure of the city's lignite-burning town gas plants are discussed. The significant reduction in air pollution levels and reduced energy costs are noted, and the planned supply of gas to 450,000 dwelling in Ankara and the conversion of Ankara's buses to natural gas are considered. (UK)

  2. A Painted House In Ankara: Dedebayrak House

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    Muzaffer Karaaslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservative family lifestyle in the Ottoman State affected the ways that houses were planned and decorated. Different decorative programs emerged with major differences in each period. New techniques and styles began to be seen in the 18th century thanks to the influence of the West. This article will focus on the decoration of Dedebayrak House in Ankara. Decoration in the architecture found within the boundaries of Ankara consist mostly of geometrical or floral decorations and various inscriptions. The Dedebayrak House not only has these kind of decorations, but also it has these decorations in its architectural descriptions, so it makes this house the only one to have survived in Ankara. Moreover, this building is especially important as the décor included work belonging to Nakkaş Mustafa. However, these decorative features do not remain today. The situation in Turkey is such that architecture is not conserved, which leads to many historically important buildings vanishing. Neither local authorities, nor the owner of these buildings look after these buildings properly, leading their specific historical features to be lost. This situation both damages the urban fabric and harms the historical heritage of the city. Therefore, decorative features in the building will be analysed both on their own and compared to other buildings in Ankara in order to create an overall picture.

  3. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

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    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  4. Gene Therapy Vectors with Enhanced Transfection Based on Hydrogels Modified with Affinity Peptides

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    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Wesson, Paul J.; Wang, Christine E.; Stevans, Alyson C.; Holland, Samantha J.; Shikanov, Ariella; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative strategies for damaged tissue aim to present biochemical cues that recruit and direct progenitor cell migration and differentiation. Hydrogels capable of localized gene delivery are being developed to provide a support for tissue growth, and as a versatile method to induce the expression of inductive proteins; however, the duration, level, and localization of expression isoften insufficient for regeneration. We thus investigated the modification of hydrogels with affinity peptides to enhance vector retention and increase transfection within the matrix. PEG hydrogels were modified with lysine-based repeats (K4, K8), which retained approximately 25% more vector than control peptides. Transfection increased 5- to 15-fold with K8 and K4 respectively, over the RDG control peptide. K8- and K4-modified hydrogels bound similar quantities of vector, yet the vector dissociation rate was reduced for K8, suggesting excessive binding that limited transfection. These hydrogels were subsequently applied to an in vitro co-culture model to induce NGF expression and promote neurite outgrowth. K4-modified hydrogels promoted maximal neurite outgrowth, likely due to retention of both the vector and the NGF. Thus, hydrogels modified with affinity peptides enhanced vector retention and increased gene delivery, and these hydrogels may provide a versatile scaffold for numerous regenerative medicine applications. PMID:21514659

  5. Transcriptional Enhancers Induce Insertional Gene Deregulation Independently From the Vector Type and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruggi, Giulietta; Porcellini, Simona; Facchini, Giulia; Perna, Serena K; Cattoglio, Claudia; Sartori, Daniela; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher; Bonini, Chiara; Bovolenta, Chiara; Mavilio, Fulvio; Recchia, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    The integration characteristics of retroviral (RV) vectors increase the probability of interfering with the regulation of cellular genes, and account for a tangible risk of insertional mutagenesis in treated patients. To assess the potential genotoxic risk of conventional or self-inactivating (SIN) γ-RV and lentiviral (LV) vectors independently from the biological consequences of the insertion event, we developed a quantitative assay based on real-time reverse transcriptase—PCR on low-density arrays to evaluate alterations of gene expression in individual primary T-cell clones. We show that the Moloney leukemia virus long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer has the strongest activity in both a γ-RV and a LV vector context, while an internal cellular promoter induces deregulation of gene expression less frequently, at a shorter range and to a lower extent in both vector types. Downregulation of gene expression was observed only in the context of LV vectors. This study indicates that insertional gene activation is determined by the characteristics of the transcriptional regulatory elements carried by the vector, and is largely independent from the vector type or design. PMID:19293778

  6. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Alice T; Ball, Bret G; Weber, Erin; Gallaher, Timothy K; Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Anderson, French; Basile, Lena A

    2009-12-30

    Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T-cell lines. Further improvements

  7. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. Methods A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Results Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T

  8. Metrics for vector quantization-based parametric speech enhancement and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    Speech enhancement and separation algorithms sometimes employ a two-stage processing scheme, wherein the signal is first mapped to an intermediate low-dimensional parametric description after which the parameters are mapped to vectors in codebooks trained on, for exam- ple, individual noise...

  9. A Photographer From Ankara: Osman Darcan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülseren Mungan Yavuztürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces Osman Darcan, an important name in the history of Ankara photography studios. Darcan followed in the footsteps of famous Austrian photographer Othmar Pferschy, whom he met in Istanbul, to go on to create his own valuable work. On leaving the Public Press Authority Photo Film Center, where he worked as a newsreel photographer and film operator, in 1943 he began taking photographs at the Tatbikat Theater at the Ankara State Conservatoire, where he continued as the photographer for the State Theater until the end of his life. At the same time, this master photographer took the pictures of a select coterie of Ankara’s leading individuals and well-known performers at a studio he opened on Anafartalar Caddesi. In both these roles, his photographs evoke admiration thanks to Darcan’s professional abilities and level of artistry.

  10. Human bioclimatology analysis of Ankara urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Çalışkan; Necla Türkoğlu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET) of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use...

  11. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  12. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle.

  13. Mechanical Vectors Enhance Fungal Entomopathogen Reduction of the Grasshopper Pest Camnula pellucida (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica J; Saums, Marielle; Belovsky, Gary E

    2015-02-01

    Mounting scientific evidence indicates that pathogens can regulate insect populations. However, limited dispersal and sensitivity to abiotic conditions often restricts pathogen regulation of host populations. While it is well established that arthropod biological vectors increase pathogen incidence in host populations, few studies have examined whether arthropod mechanical vectors (an organism that transmits pathogens but is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen) influence host-pathogen dynamics. The importance of mechanical dispersal by ant scavengers, Formica fusca (L.), in a grasshopper-fungal entomopathogen system was investigated. We examined the ability of ants to mechanically disperse and transmit the pathogen, Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) pathotype 1, to its host, the pest grasshopper Camnula pellucida (Scudder), in a series of laboratory experiments. Fungal spores were dispersed either externally on the ant's body surface or internally through fecal deposition. In addition, a third of all grasshoppers housed with fungal-inoculated ants became infected, indicating that ants can act as mechanical vectors of E. grylli. The effect of ant mechanical vectors on E. grylli incidence was also examined in a field experiment. Ant access to pathogen-exposed experimental grasshopper populations was restricted using organic ant repellent, thereby allowing us to directly compare mechanical and natural transmission. Ants increased grasshopper pathogen mortality by 58%, which led to greater pathogen reductions of grasshopper survival than natural transmission. Taken together, our results indicate that ants enhance E. grylli reduction of grasshopper pest numbers. Therefore, mechanical transmission of pathogens may be an important overlooking component of this grasshopper-fungal pathogen system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Literary Legacy Inherited by Ankara of the Republican Era: Literary Life and Milieux in Ankara until the Republic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Tonga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankara became one of the most important circles of literary activities after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. In this era, the most prevalent factor for this nourishment was that Ankara was chosen as the capital city and Turkey would be governed from Ankara from then on. Besides this fact, before being the capital, Ankara had a rich background in terms of literature. The city had a strong tradition of Divan and Sufi literature in the ruling periods of Seljuks and Ottomans. Many Divan poets and minstrels lived in Ankara throughout history. In those times, in addition to madrasahs, dervish lodges and mosques, there were taverns, inns, mansions, coffeehouses, vineyards and gardens that were used for gatherings where poems were recited and talks about literature took place. Before the establishment of the Republic, in the years between 1919 and 1922, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk proclaimed Ankara as the headquarters of the national movements. This choice brought out a liveliness to Ankara in terms of literature. In this period until the Republic, many places serving as dervish lodges, coffeehouses, restaurants, gardens, taverns, and shops, and newspaper editorials such as Tâceddin Dergâhı (Taceddin’s Lodge, Kuyulu Kahve (Coffee-shop, Merkez Kıraathanesi (Central coffee-shop, Hakimiyet-i Milliye and Yenigün Newspaper Editorial Offices, Anadolu Lokantası (Anadolu Restaurant, Teceddüt Lokantası (Teceddüt Restaurant, Abdullah Efendi Lokantası (Abdullah Efendi Restaurant, Muallimler Birliği (Teachers Union, Şehir Bahçesi (City Garden, Dayko’nun Tütüncü Dükkânı (Dayko’s Tobacco Shop and Efe Haydar’ın Meyhanesi (Efe Haydar’s Tavern were prominent gathering places that flourished in the literary activities of Ankara.

  15. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fault Diagnosis for Distribution Networks Using Enhanced Support Vector Machine Classifier with Classical Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fault diagnosis techniques based on time domain reflectometry (TDR method with pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS stimulus and support vector machine (SVM classifier has been investigated to recognize the different types of fault in the radial distribution feeders. This novel technique has considered the amplitude of reflected signals and the peaks of cross-correlation (CCR between the reflected and incident wave for generating fault current dataset for SVM. Furthermore, this multi-layer enhanced SVM classifier is combined with classical multidimensional scaling (CMDS feature extraction algorithm and kernel parameter optimization to increase training speed and improve overall classification accuracy. The proposed technique has been tested on a radial distribution feeder to identify ten different types of fault considering 12 input features generated by using Simulink software and MATLAB Toolbox. The success rate of SVM classifier is over 95% which demonstrates the effectiveness and the high accuracy of proposed method.

  17. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunogenicity of Viral Vectored Vaccines by the NKT Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide as Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailbala Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccination strategies, specifically viral vectors encoding vaccine immunogens are effective at priming strong immune responses. Mucosal routes offer practical advantages for vaccination by ease of needle-free administration, and immunogen delivery at readily accessible oral/nasal sites to efficiently induce immunity at distant gut and genital tissues. However, since mucosal tissues are inherently tolerant for induction of immune responses, incorporation of adjuvants for optimal mucosal vaccination strategies is important. We report here the effectiveness of alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a synthetic glycolipid agonist of natural killer T (NKT cells, as an adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of vaccine antigens delivered using viral vectors by mucosal routes in murine and nonhuman primate models. Significant improvement in adaptive immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues was observed by including α-GalCer adjuvant for intranasal immunization of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus vector encoding the model antigen ovalbumin and adenoviral vectors expressing HIV env and Gag antigens. Activation of NKT cells in systemic and mucosal tissues along with significant increases in adaptive immune responses were observed in rhesus macaques immunized by intranasal and sublingual routes with protein or adenovirus vectored antigens when combined with α-GalCer adjuvant. These results support the utility of α-GalCer adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of mucosal vaccines delivered using viral vectors.

  18. Efficient and Enhanced Diffusion of Vector Field for Active Contour Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqi; Sun, Lin; Liu, Shangwang

    2015-01-01

    Gradient vector flow (GVF) is an important external force field for active contour models. Various vector fields based on GVF have been proposed. However, these vector fields are obtained with many iterations and have difficulty in capturing the whole image area. On the other hand, the ability to converge to deep and complex concavity with these vector fields is also needed to improve. In this paper, by analyzing the diffusion equation of GVF, a normalized set is defined and a dynamically nor...

  19. Detection of urban heat island in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, I.; Dogan, U.

    2006-01-01

    Ankara is the second largest city in Turkey after Istanbul, and the rate of population increase and urbanization are quite high. In this study, the effects of urbanization on temperature variation due to urbanization in Ankara were investigated. The intensities of urban heat island (UHI) for long and short term were analyzed. Analysis of both long- and short-term data revealed that there is a significant increase in the intensity of UHI (AT(u-r)) in winter during the period analyzed. Analysis of data collected for period of October 2001-September 2002 shows that intensity of maximum UHI is in February. In this month, positive UHI was observed in 26 nights and on all these days wind speed was less than 0.5ms.1. UHI is positive in all seasons and frequency and intensity of UHI in winter are higher than in the other seasons. This characteristic makes Ankara different from other temperate latitude cities

  20. Use of a simian virus 40-based shuttle vector to analyze enhanced mutagenesis in mitomycin C-treated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roilides, E.; Munson, P.J.; Levine, A.S.; Dixon, K.

    1988-01-01

    When monkey cells were treated with mitomycin C 24 h before transfection with UV-irradiated pZ189 (a simian virus 40-based shuttle vector), there was a twofold increase in the frequency of mutations in the supF gene of the vector. These results suggest the existence of an enhancible mutagenesis pathway in mammalian cells. However, DNA sequence analysis of the SupF- mutants suggested no dramatic changes in the mechanisms of mutagenesis due to mitomycin C treatment of the cells

  1. Potential of cancer screening with serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and a support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S X; Zhang, Y J; Zeng, Q Y; Li, L F; Guo, Z Y; Liu, Z M; Xiong, H L; Liu, S H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the most common disease to threaten human health. The ability to screen individuals with malignant tumours with only a blood sample would be greatly advantageous to early diagnosis and intervention. This study explores the possibility of discriminating between cancer patients and normal subjects with serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a support vector machine (SVM) through a peripheral blood sample. A total of 130 blood samples were obtained from patients with liver cancer, colonic cancer, esophageal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, gastric cancer, as well as 113 blood samples from normal volunteers. Several diagnostic models were built with the serum SERS spectra using SVM and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The results show that a diagnostic accuracy of 85.5% is acquired with a PCA algorithm, while a diagnostic accuracy of 95.8% is obtained using radial basis function (RBF), PCA–SVM methods. The results prove that a RBF kernel PCA–SVM technique is superior to PCA and conventional SVM (C-SVM) algorithms in classification serum SERS spectra. The study demonstrates that serum SERS, in combination with SVM techniques, has great potential for screening cancerous patients with any solid malignant tumour through a peripheral blood sample. (letters)

  2. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Cottingham

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS99 12415-20. The genomic BAC clone was 'rescued' back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8(+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c mice, but deletion of B15R enhanced specific CD8(+ T cell responses to one of two endogenous viral epitopes (from the E2 and F2 proteins, in accordance with published work (Staib et al., 2005, J. Gen. Virol.86, 1997-2006. In addition, we found a higher frequency of triple-positive IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2 secreting E3-specific CD8+ T-cells 8 weeks after vaccination with MVA lacking B15R. Furthermore, a recombinant vaccine capable of inducing CD8(+ T cells against an epitope from Plasmodium berghei was created using GalK counterselection to insert an antigen expression cassette lacking a tandem marker gene into the traditional thymidine kinase locus of MVA-BAC. MVA continues to feature prominently in clinical trials of recombinant vaccines against diseases such as HIV-AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate in proof-of-concept experiments that MVA-BAC recombineering is a viable route to more rapid and efficient generation of new candidate mutant and recombinant

  3. Cytomegalovirus vector expressing RAE-1γ induces enhanced anti-tumor capacity of murine CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tršan, Tihana; Vuković, Kristina; Filipović, Petra; Brizić, Ana Lesac; Lemmermann, Niels A W; Schober, Kilian; Busch, Dirk H; Britt, William J; Messerle, Martin; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonjić, Stipan

    2017-08-01

    Designing CD8 + T-cell vaccines, which would provide protection against tumors is still considered a great challenge in immunotherapy. Here we show the robust potential of cytomegalovirus (CMV) vector expressing the NKG2D ligand RAE-1γ as CD8 + T cell-based vaccine against malignant tumors. Immunization with the CMV vector expressing RAE-1γ, delayed tumor growth or even provided complete protection against tumor challenge in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Moreover, a potent tumor control in mice vaccinated with this vector can be further enhanced by blocking the immune checkpoints TIGIT and PD-1. CMV vector expressing RAE-1γ potentiated expansion of KLRG1 + CD8 + T cells with enhanced effector properties. This vaccination was even more efficient in neonatal mice, resulting in the expansion and long-term maintenance of epitope-specific CD8 + T cells conferring robust resistance against tumor challenge. Our data show that immunomodulation of CD8 + T-cell responses promoted by herpesvirus expressing a ligand for NKG2D receptor can provide a powerful platform for the prevention and treatment of CD8 + T-cell sensitive tumors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Lisa

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. METHODS: Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-alpha-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. RESULTS: The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-alpha-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate

  5. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Lisa

    2011-03-07

    Abstract Introduction A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. Methods Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. Results The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. Conclusions Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate

  6. A Non-static Data Layout Enhancing Parallelism and Vectorization in Sparse Grid Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Buse, Gerrit; Pfluger, Dirk; Murarasu, Alin; Jacob, Riko

    2012-01-01

    performance and facilitate the use of vector registers for our sparse grid benchmark problem hierarchization. Based on the compact data structure proposed for regular sparse grids in [2], we developed a new algorithm that outperforms existing implementations

  7. Targeted Adenoviral Vector Demonstrates Enhanced Efficacy for In Vivo Gene Therapy of Uterine Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed; Sherif, Lotfy; ElKhiary, Mostafa; Nair, Sanjeeta; Shalaby, Shahinaz; Mohamed, Sara; Eziba, Noura; El-Lakany, Mohamed; Curiel, David; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-04-01

    Gene therapy is a potentially effective non-surgical approach for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. We demonstrated that targeted adenovirus vector, Ad-SSTR-RGD-TK/GCV, was highly effective in selectively inducing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation of human leiomyoma cells in vitro while sparing normal myometrial cells. An in-vivo study, to compare efficacy and safety of modified adenovirus vector Ad-SSTR-RGD-TK/GCV versus untargeted vector for treatment of leiomyoma. Female nude mice were implanted with rat leiomyoma cells subcutaneously. Then mice were randomized into three groups. Group 1 received Ad-LacZ (marker gene), Group 2 received untargeted Ad-TK, and Group 3 received the targeted Ad-SSTR-RGD-TK. Tumors were measured weekly for 4 weeks. Then mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Evaluation of markers of apoptosis, proliferation, extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis was performed using Western Blot & Immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA. Dissemination of adenovirus was assessed by PCR. In comparison with the untargeted vector, the targeted adenoviral vector significantly shrank leiomyoma size (P leiomyoma lesions with both targeted and untargeted adenovirus. Targeted adenovirus, effectively reduces tumor size in leiomyoma without dissemination to other organs. Further evaluation of this localized targeted strategy for gene therapy is needed in appropriate preclinical humanoid animal models in preparation for a future pilot human trial. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. LMethyR-SVM: Predict Human Enhancers Using Low Methylated Regions based on Weighted Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingting; Hu, Hong; Dai, Yang

    The identification of enhancers is a challenging task. Various types of epigenetic information including histone modification have been utilized in the construction of enhancer prediction models based on a diverse panel of machine learning schemes. However, DNA methylation profiles generated from the whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) have not been fully explored for their potential in enhancer prediction despite the fact that low methylated regions (LMRs) have been implied to be distal active regulatory regions. In this work, we propose a prediction framework, LMethyR-SVM, using LMRs identified from cell-type-specific WGBS DNA methylation profiles and a weighted support vector machine learning framework. In LMethyR-SVM, the set of cell-type-specific LMRs is further divided into three sets: reliable positive, like positive and likely negative, according to their resemblance to a small set of experimentally validated enhancers in the VISTA database based on an estimated non-parametric density distribution. Then, the prediction model is obtained by solving a weighted support vector machine. We demonstrate the performance of LMethyR-SVM by using the WGBS DNA methylation profiles derived from the human embryonic stem cell type (H1) and the fetal lung fibroblast cell type (IMR90). The predicted enhancers are highly conserved with a reasonable validation rate based on a set of commonly used positive markers including transcription factors, p300 binding and DNase-I hypersensitive sites. In addition, we show evidence that the large fraction of the LMethyR-SVM predicted enhancers are not predicted by ChromHMM in H1 cell type and they are more enriched for the FANTOM5 enhancers. Our work suggests that low methylated regions detected from the WGBS data are useful as complementary resources to histone modification marks in developing models for the prediction of cell-type-specific enhancers.

  9. The Problems Detected in Mushroom Cultivation in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürüvvet Ulusoy Deniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the cultivated mushroom farming which began to be produced in the 1960s in Turkey, has been more faster in the Mediterranean region than other regions. The development of mushroom cultivation has began to seen Marmara and İç Anadolu regions in recent years. The mushroom production which is very important for human health and nutrition, has been changing year to year (sometimes increase, sometimes decrease in the province of Ankara. The first private mushrrom cultivation company had been established in1963. Up to date, the number of private enterprises has changed over the years in Ankara. This study was carried out by doing a survey with an active 12 enterprises which the annual production capacity of 10-600 ton. The enterprises were visited and problems were determined during the cultivation. As a result of the study, It was observed that there are problems in production and marketing phases and with surface soil material

  10. Enhancing Attraction of African Malaria Vectors to a Synthetic Odor Blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mweresa, Collins K.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Omusula, Philemon; Otieno, Bruno; Loon, van Joop J.A.; Takken, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of odor-baited tools for sampling and controlling malaria vectors is limited by a lack of potent synthetic mosquito attractants. A synthetic mixture of chemical compounds referred to as “the Mbita blend” (MB) was shown to attract as many host-seeking malaria mosquitoes as attracted

  11. Role of mammalian immune responses in vector-enhanced orbiviral transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are vectors of several emerging and re-emerging orbiviruses including bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness viruses. They feed primarily on domestic sheep and cattle, but opportunistically feed on a variety of wildlife and on humans...

  12. Ankara National Textiles [Turkish] Incorporated Company (1916-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bülent Varlık

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide brief information on the foundation, activities and closing down of Ankara National Textiles Incorporated Company, which was founded by a group of local tradesmen in Ankara within the scope of the “National Economy Policy” implemented by the Union and Progress Association. The aforementioned local tradesmen undertook the first steps to establish a factory in mid-1913, and as a result of these efforts, the aforementioned incorporated Company was founded in 1916. This Company, probably due to a low quality production, was closed down, possibly around the years 1921-1922. In 1925, a reconstruction process was initiated with the intervention of the politics and bureaucracy of Ankara, and the capital of the Company was increased. However, these attempts failed and finally, the Company was closed down in 1928. The factory was acquired by Türkiye İş Bankası in 1930, and after the endeavors, it continued its activities as a new company under the name Yün-İş.

  13. Improvement of AD Biosynthesis Response to Enhanced Oxygen Transfer by Oxygen Vectors in Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqiu; Shen, Yanbing; Gao, Tian; Luo, Jianmei; Wang, Min

    2017-08-01

    In steroid biotransformation, soybean oil can improve the productivity of steroids by increasing substrate solubility and strengthen the cell membrane permeability. However, little is known of its role as oxygen carrier and its mechanism of promoting the steroid biotransformation. In this work, soybean oil used as oxygen vector for the enhancement of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979 (MNR) was investigated. Upon the addition of 16% (v/v) soybean oil, the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) value increased by 44%, and the peak molar yield of AD (55.76%) was achieved. Analysis of intracellular cofactor levels showed high NAD + , ATP level, and a low NADH/NAD + ratio. Meanwhile, the two key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, namely, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, were upregulated after incubation with soybean oil. These enhancements induced by the increasing of oxygen supply showed positive effects on phytosterol (PS) bioconversion. Results could contribute to the understanding of effects of soybean oil as oxygen vector on steroid biotransformation and provided a convenient method for enhancing the efficiency of aerobic steroid biocatalysis.

  14. An enhanced method for sequence walking and paralog mining: TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Thomas M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although technological advances allow for the economical acquisition of whole genome sequences, many organisms' genomes remain unsequenced, and fully sequenced genomes may contain gaps. Researchers reliant upon partial genomic or heterologous sequence information require methods for obtaining unknown sequences from loci of interest. Various PCR based techniques are available for sequence walking - i.e., the acquisition of unknown DNA sequence adjacent to known sequence. Many such methods require rigid, elaborate protocols and/or impose narrowly confined options in the choice of restriction enzymes for necessary genomic digests. We describe a new method, TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR (or TVL-PCR that innovatively integrates available tools and familiar concepts to offer advantages as a means of both targeted sequence walking and paralog mining. Findings TVL-PCR exploits the ligation efficiency of the pCR®4-TOPO® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California vector system to capture fragments of unknown sequence by creating chimeric molecules containing defined priming sites at both ends. Initially, restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is end-repaired to create 3' adenosine overhangs and is then ligated to pCR4-TOPO vectors. The ligation product pool is used directly as a template for nested PCR, using specific primers to target orthologous sequences, or degenerate primers to enable capture of paralogous gene family members. We demonstrated the efficacy of this method by capturing entire coding and partial promoter sequences of several strawberry Superman-like genes. Conclusions TVL-PCR is a convenient and efficient method for DNA sequence walking and paralog mining that is applicable to any organism for which relevant DNA sequence is available as a basis for primer design.

  15. Support vector data description for fusion of multiple health indicators for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W; Guo, Wei; Miao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis is developed by fusion of multiple health indicators through support vector data description. First, the Comblet transform is used to identify gear residual error signals from the raw signal. Second, based on the observation of gear residual error signals, a total of 11 gear health indicators are identified, and are categorized into two types of indicators. The first and second types of indicators are for fault diagnosis and prognosis, respectively. The first type has six indicators, which are sensitive to impulsive signals triggered by anomalous impacts. The second type has five indicators, which are suitable for tracking degradation of faults. Third, through the support vector data description, the first six health indicators are fused into type one indicators for fault diagnosis. The remaining five indicators are fused into type two indicators for fault prognosis. Finally, a Gaussian kernel is designed to enhance the performance of type one and two indicators by optimal range of width size. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through experiments. The new method has been proven to be superior to methods that use unfused indicators individually

  16. Performance enhancement for a GPS vector-tracking loop utilizing an adaptive iterated extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiying; Xu, Yuan

    2014-12-09

    This paper deals with the problem of state estimation for the vector-tracking loop of a software-defined Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. For a nonlinear system that has the model error and white Gaussian noise, a noise statistics estimator is used to estimate the model error, and based on this, a modified iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) named adaptive iterated Kalman filter (AIEKF) is proposed. A vector-tracking GPS receiver utilizing AIEKF is implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through road tests, it is shown that the proposed method has an obvious accuracy advantage over the IEKF and Adaptive Extended Kalman filter (AEKF) in position determination. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of position (including longitude, latitude and altitude). Comparing with EKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 45.1%, 40.9% and 54.6% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Comparing with IEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 25.7%, 19.3% and 35.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Compared with AEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 21.6%, 15.5% and 30.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively.

  17. An Investigation on Satisfaction of Domestic Tourist from Ankara Shopping Fest under the Tourism of Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TAYFUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of Tourism mostly in coastal of Turkey, in certain centers and in summer season stands out as a major problem. A tourism mobility that, spread over 12 months, and including inner zones is emphasized also in 2023 Tourism Strategy of Turkey. Therefore, increasing the diversity of tourism such as festivals, which started to increase number of events. Hence, investigated in this study, satisfaction levels from Ankara Shopping Fest of domestic tourists, who came to Ankara during "Ankara Shopping Fest" which, organized in Ankara on 8 June to 1 July 2012 period. Descriptive research method used in the study. The aims in this study, determination of the views of local tourists about Ankara Shopping Fest and to investigate the satisfaction from the festival. 336 domestic tourists as visitors during the festival in Ankara were the sample of research. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection technique. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, the first section was demographic variables. The second section was located expressions for Ankara Shopping Fest. Some statical analysis made to data in the result of research. These analyses were frequecy analysis, t tests and ANOVA tests. As a result of the t-tests and ANOVA tests significant differences were found between gender, age, level of income and civil staus of domestic tourists who came to Ankara during the festival.

  18. Enhanced p53 gene transfer to human ovarian cancer cells using the cationic nonviral vector, DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong-Kook; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Sung-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Haider, Khawaja Hasnain; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2003-08-01

    Previously we have formulated a new cationic liposome, DDC, composed of dioleoyltrimethylamino propane (DOTAP), 1,2-dioeoyl-3-phosphophatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and cholesterol (Chol), and it efficiently delivered plasmid DNA into ovarian cancer cells. Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common molecular genetic abnormalities to be described in ovarian cancer. However, there has been so far no report of nonviral vector-mediated p53 gene deliveries in ovarian cancer. In this study, wild-type p53 DNA was transfected into the ovarian cancer cells, using the DDC as a nonviral vector and the expression and activity of p53 gene were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. DDC liposomes were prepared by mixing DOTAP:DOPE:Chol in a 1:0.7:0.3 molar ratio using the extrusion method. Plasmid DNA (pp53-EGFP) and DDC complexes were transfected into ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3 cells) and gene expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis of DDC-mediated p53 transfection were assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin-V staining, respectively. The OVCAR-3 cells treated with DDC/pp53-EGFP complexes were inoculated into female balb/c nude mice and tumor growth was observed. The transfection of liposome-complexed p53 gene resulted in a high level of wild-type p53 mRNA and protein expressions in OVCAR-3 cells. In vitro cell growth assay showed growth inhibition of cancer cells transfected with DDC/pp53-EGFP complexes compared with the control cells. The reestablishment of wild-type p53 function in ovarian cancer cells restored the apoptotic pathway. Following the inoculation of DDC/pp53-EGFP complexes, the volumes of tumors in nude mice were significantly reduced more than 60% compared to the control group. The DDC-mediated p53 DNA delivery may have the potential for clinical application as nonviral vector-mediated ovarian cancer therapy due to its

  19. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, John B.; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.; Moore, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP142, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delive...

  20. Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, Using an Enhanced Spatiotemporal Surveillance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen J.; Aldstadt, Jared; Jarman, Richard G.; Buddhari, Darunee; Yoon, In-Kyu; Richardson, Jason H.; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Scott, Thomas W.; Rothman, Alan L.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lambrechts, Louis; Endy, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics was studied in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, using an enhanced spatiotemporal surveillance of 93 hospitalized subjects with confirmed dengue (initiates) and associated cluster individuals (associates) with entomologic sampling. A total of 438 associates were enrolled from 208 houses with household members with a history of fever, located within a 200-m radius of an initiate case. Of 409 associates, 86 (21%) had laboratory-confirmed DENV infection. A total of 63 (1.8%) of the 3,565 mosquitoes collected were dengue polymerase chain reaction positive (PCR+). There was a significant relationship between spatial proximity to the initiate case and likelihood of detecting DENV from associate cases and Aedes mosquitoes. The viral detection rate from human hosts and mosquito vectors in this study was higher than previously observed by the study team in the same geographic area using different methodologies. We propose that the sampling strategy used in this study could support surveillance of DENV transmission and vector interactions. PMID:25986580

  1. A Non-static Data Layout Enhancing Parallelism and Vectorization in Sparse Grid Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Buse, Gerrit

    2012-06-01

    The name sparse grids denotes a highly space-efficient, grid-based numerical technique to approximate high-dimensional functions. Although employed in a broad spectrum of applications from different fields, there have only been few tries to use it in real time visualization (e.g. [1]), due to complex data structures and long algorithm runtime. In this work we present a novel approach inspired by principles of I/0-efficient algorithms. Locally applied coefficient permutations lead to improved cache performance and facilitate the use of vector registers for our sparse grid benchmark problem hierarchization. Based on the compact data structure proposed for regular sparse grids in [2], we developed a new algorithm that outperforms existing implementations on modern multi-core systems by a factor of 37 for a grid size of 127 million points. For larger problems the speedup is even increasing, and with execution times below 1 s, sparse grids are well-suited for visualization applications. Furthermore, we point out how a broad class of sparse grid algorithms can benefit from our approach. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Genetic modification of adeno-associated viral vector type 2 capsid enhances gene transfer efficiency in polarized human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, April F; Mazur, Marina; Sorscher, Eric J; Zinn, Kurt R; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2008-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease characterized by defects in the expression of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Gene therapy offers better hope for the treatment of CF. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are capable of stable expression with low immunogenicity. Despite their potential in CF gene therapy, gene transfer efficiency by AAV is limited because of pathophysiological barriers in these patients. Although a few AAV serotypes have shown better transduction compared with the AAV2-based vectors, gene transfer efficiency in human airway epithelium has still not reached therapeutic levels. To engineer better AAV vectors for enhanced gene delivery in human airway epithelium, we developed and characterized mutant AAV vectors by genetic capsid modification, modeling the well-characterized AAV2 serotype. We genetically incorporated putative high-affinity peptide ligands to human airway epithelium on the GH loop region of AAV2 capsid protein. Six independent mutant AAV were constructed, containing peptide ligands previously reported to bind with high affinity for known and unknown receptors on human airway epithelial cells. The vectors were tested on nonairway cells and nonpolarized and polarized human airway epithelial cells for enhanced infectivity. One of the mutant vectors, with the peptide sequence THALWHT, not only showed the highest transduction in undifferentiated human airway epithelial cells but also indicated significant transduction in polarized cells. Interestingly, this modified vector was also able to infect cells independently of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptor. Incorporation of this ligand on other AAV serotypes, which have shown improved gene transfer efficiency in the human airway epithelium, may enhance the application of AAV vectors in CF gene therapy.

  3. Attenuation and immunogenicity of host-range extended modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Sharon; Wyatt, Linda S; Kastenmayer, Robin J; Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-23

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is being widely investigated as a safe smallpox vaccine and as an expression vector to produce vaccines against other infectious diseases and cancer. MVA was isolated following more than 500 passages in chick embryo fibroblasts and suffered several major deletions and numerous small mutations resulting in replication defects in human and most other mammalian cells as well as severe attenuation of pathogenicity. Due to the host range restriction, primary chick embryo fibroblasts are routinely used for production of MVA-based vaccines. While a replication defect undoubtedly contributes to safety of MVA, it is worth considering whether host range and attenuation are partially separable properties. Marker rescue transfection experiments resulted in the creation of recombinant MVAs with extended mammalian cell host range. Here, we characterize two host-range extended rMVAs and show that they (i) have acquired the ability to stably replicate in Vero cells, which are frequently used as a cell substrate for vaccine manufacture, (ii) are severely attenuated in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse strains following intranasal infection, (iii) are more pathogenic than MVA but less pathogenic than the ACAM2000 vaccine strain at high intracranial doses, (iv) do not form lesions upon tail scratch in mice in contrast to ACAM2000 and (v) induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses similar to MVA. The extended host range of rMVAs may be useful for vaccine production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Vectorization of biomacromolecules into cells using extracellular vesicles with enhanced internalization induced by macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Ikuhiko; Noguchi, Kosuke; Fujii, Ikuo; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-10-17

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs, exosomes) are approximately 30- to 200-nm-long vesicles that have received increased attention due to their role in cell-to-cell communication. Although EVs are highly anticipated to be a next-generation intracellular delivery tool because of their pharmaceutical advantages, including non-immunogenicity, their cellular uptake efficacy is low because of the repulsion of EVs and negatively charged cell membranes and size limitations in endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate a methodology for achieving enhanced cellular EV uptake using arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to induce active macropinocytosis. The induction of macropinocytosis via a simple modification to the exosomal membrane using stearylated octaarginine, which is a representative CPP, significantly enhanced the cellular EV uptake efficacy. Consequently, effective EV-based intracellular delivery of an artificially encapsulated ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin, in EVs was attained.

  5. Modified vaccinia virus ankara recombinants are as potent as vaccinia recombinants in diversified prime and boost vaccine regimens to elicit therapeutic antitumor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James W; Poole, Diane J; Aarts, Wilhelmina M; Gómez Yafal, Alicia; Gritz, Linda; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2003-11-15

    Cancer vaccine regimens use various strategies to enhance immune responses to specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including the increasing use of recombinant poxviruses [vaccinia (rV) and fowlpox (rF)] for delivery of the TAA to the immune system. However, the use of replication competent vectors with the potential of adverse reactions have made attenuation a priority for next-generation vaccine strategies. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a replication defective form of vaccinia virus. Here, we investigated the use of MVA encoding a tumor antigen gene, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in addition to multiple costimulatory molecules (B7-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 designated TRICOM). Vaccination of mice with MVA-CEA/TRICOM induced potent CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific for CEA. MVA-CEA/TRICOM could be administered twice in vaccinia naïve mice and only a single time in vaccinia-immune mice before being inhibited by antivector-immune responses. The use of MVA-CEA/TRICOM in a diversified prime and boost vaccine regimen with rF-CEA/TRICOM, however, induced significantly greater levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific for CEA than that seen with rV-CEA/TRICOM prime and rF-CEA/TRICOM boost. In a self-antigen tumor model, the diversified MVA-CEA/TRICOM/rF-CEA/ TRICOM vaccination regimen resulted in a significant therapeutic antitumor response as measured by increased survival, when compared with the diversified prime and boost regimen, rV-CEA/TRICOM/rF-CEA/TRICOM. The studies reported here demonstrate that MVA, when used as a prime in a diversified vaccination, is clearly comparable with the regimen using the recombinant vaccinia in both the induction of cellular immune responses specific for the "self"-TAA transgene and in antitumor activity.

  6. Deletion of the LTR enhancer/promoter has no impact on the integration profile of MLV vectors in human hematopoietic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Moiani

    Full Text Available Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived gamma-retroviral vectors integrate preferentially near transcriptional regulatory regions in the human genome, and are associated with a significant risk of insertional gene deregulation. Self-inactivating (SIN vectors carry a deletion of the U3 enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR, and show reduced genotoxicity in pre-clinical assays. We report a high-definition analysis of the integration preferences of a SIN MLV vector compared to a wild-type-LTR MLV vector in the genome of CD34(+ human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. We sequenced 13,011 unique SIN-MLV integration sites and compared them to 32,574 previously generated MLV sites in human HSPCs. The SIN-MLV vector recapitulates the integration pattern observed for MLV, with the characteristic clustering of integrations around enhancer and promoter regions associated to H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 histone modifications, specialized chromatin configurations (presence of the H2A.Z histone variant and binding of RNA Pol II. SIN-MLV and MLV integration clusters and hot spots overlap in most cases and are generated at a comparable frequency, indicating that the reduced genotoxicity of SIN-MLV vectors in hematopoietic cells is not due to a modified integration profile.

  7. Disruption of Microtubules Post-Virus Entry Enhances Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping-Jie; Mitchell, Angela M.; Huang, Lu; Li, Chengwen; Samulski, R. Jude

    2016-01-01

    Perinuclear retention of viral particles is a poorly understood phenomenon observed during many virus infections. In this study, we investigated whether perinuclear accumulation acts as a barrier to limit recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) transduction. After nocodazole treatment to disrupt microtubules at microtubule-organization center (MT-MTOC) after virus entry, we observed higher rAAV transduction. To elucidate the role of MT-MTOC in rAAV infection and study its underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that rAAV's perinuclear localization was retained by MT-MTOC with fluorescent analysis, and enhanced rAAV transduction from MT-MTOC disruption was dependent on the rAAV capsid's nuclear import signals. Interestingly, after knocking down RhoA or inhibiting its downstream effectors (ROCK and Actin), MT-MTOC disruption failed to increase rAAV transduction or nuclear entry. These data suggest that enhancement of rAAV transduction is the result of increased trafficking to the nucleus via the RhoA-ROCK-Actin pathway. Ten-fold higher rAAV transduction was also observed by disrupting MT-MTOC in brain, liver, and tumor in vivo. In summary, this study indicates that virus perinuclear accumulation at MT-MTOC is a barrier-limiting parameter for effective rAAV transduction and defines a novel defense mechanism by which host cells restrain viral invasion. PMID:26942476

  8. Heat Shock Protein 70 Enhances Mucosal Immunity against Human Norovirus When Coexpressed from a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanmei; Duan, Yue; Wei, Yongwei; Liang, Xueya; Niewiesk, Stefan; Oglesbee, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (NoV) accounts for 95% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine available to combat human NoV as it is not cultivable and lacks a small-animal model. Recently, we demonstrated that recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing human NoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) induced strong immunities in mice (Y. Ma and J. Li, J. Virol. 85:2942–2952, 2011). To further improve the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was inserted into the rVSV-VP1 backbone vector. A second construct was generated in which the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene was inserted in place of HSP70 as a control for the double insertion. The resultant recombinant viruses (rVSV-HSP70-VP1 and rVSV-Luc-VP1) were significantly more attenuated in cell culture and viral spread in mice than rVSV-VP1. At the inoculation dose of 1.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 triggered significantly higher vaginal IgA than rVSV-VP1 and significantly higher fecal and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-Luc-VP1, although serum IgG and T cell responses were similar. At the inoculation dose of 5.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 stimulated significantly higher T cell, fecal, and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-VP1. Fecal and vaginal IgA responses were also significantly increased when combined vaccination of rVSV-VP1 and rVSV-HSP70 was used. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) insertion of an additional gene (HSP70 or Luc) into the rVSV-VP1 backbone further attenuates the VSV-based vaccine in vitro and in vivo, thus improving the safety of the vaccine candidate, and (ii) HSP70 enhances the human NoV-specific mucosal and T cell immunities triggered by a VSV-based human NoV vaccine. IMPORTANCE Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for more than 95% of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine for this virus. Development of a live attenuated vaccine for human NoV has not been possible because it is

  9. Coprodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs from Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Gönenç, Bahadır; Sarımehmetoğlu, Oğuz; Özbakış, Gökben

    2017-08-15

    The present study were undertaken to compare two isolation techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation) for recovering taeniid eggs from faecal samples, to identify E. granulosus DNA from taeniid eggs by PCR, and to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs in villages. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dogs in Ankara province. Taenia spp. eggs were found in 27% of dogs faeces. Echinococcus granulosus-specific PCR was obtained in 14 (51.85%) of the taeniid eggs-positive samples. As well as finding Taenia eggs in dogs' faeces, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Filaroides sp., Dioctophyme renale, Linguatula serrata, hookworm, Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp. and Ascaridia galli. Significantly, more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the sedimentation method (n=27) as compared to the flotation method (n=10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of visitor profiles and motivations at Ankara museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Gürel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums all over the world appear to be targeting their visitors for resources, thanks to diminishing state support. The purpose of this study is to recognize the profiles and motivations of visitors to museums in Ankara, in order to provide for the development of strategies that will help translate these visits to regular active participation. The results of the study conducted at Ankara’s five principal museums show that these museums play a significant part in education for the visitors. Certain internal and external factors – such as advertising and promotion – are essential to boost museum visits. Study results call attention to external factors in particular, as driving forces for recurrent museum visitors.

  11. The Usage Analysis of Databases at Ankara University Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Arslantekin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The development in information and communication technologies has changed and improved resources and services diversity in libraries. These changes continue to develop rapidly throughout the world. As for our country, remarkable developments, especially in university and special libraries, in this field are worth consideration. In order to take benefit of the existing and forthcoming developments in the field of electronic libraries the databases used by clients should be well-demonstrated and followed closely. The providing wide use of electronic databases leads to increasing the productivity of scientific and social information that that is the ultimate goal. The article points out electronic resources management and the effect of consortia developments in the field first, and then evaluates the results of the survey on the use of electronic libraries assessment questionnaires by faculty members at Ankara University.

  12. Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Plan, its Characteristics, and Rationales for its Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tuncer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a comprehensive evaluation of the 1: 5000 Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development Plan and the 1: 1000 Conservation Implementation Plans, which have become a matter of litigation against the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, filed by various non-governmental organizations, universities, the Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers (TMMOB and public institutions; in terms of the environment, transportation and traffic as regards the entirety of the planned location, and the integrity of the plan, based on conservation-reclamation planning essentials and public interest. Thus the Ulus Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development and Implementation Plan and Plan Notes as ratified by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and Conservation Board, are examined in this context in terms of restoration site, protected site, conservation site, interaction and transition sites and historic and cultural properties.

  13. Multifunctional non-viral gene vectors with enhanced stability, improved cellular and nuclear uptake capability, and increased transfection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Cao, Zhong; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Di; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Luo, Huiyan; Jiang, Qing; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell for nanoparticle stabilization, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and mTAT (a cell-penetrating peptide) for accelerated cellular uptake, and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS) for enhanced intracellular transport of DNA to the nucleus. In vitro study showed that coating of the binary PPMS/DNA polyplex with γ-PGA promotes cellular uptake of the polyplex particles, particularly by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive cells through the GGT-mediated endocytosis pathway. Conjugating PEG to the γ-PGA led to the formation of a ternary PPMS/DNA/PGA-g-PEG polyplex with decreased positive charges on the surface of the polyplex particles and substantially higher stability in serum-containing aqueous medium. The cellular uptake rate was further improved by incorporating mTAT into the ternary polyplex system. Addition of the NLS peptide was designed to facilitate intracellular delivery of the plasmid to the nucleus--a rate-limiting step in the gene transfection process. As a result, compared with the binary PPMS/LucDNA polyplex, the new mTAT-quaternary PPMS/LucDNA/NLS/PGA-g-PEG-mTAT system exhibited reduced cytotoxicity, remarkably faster cellular uptake rate, and enhanced transport of DNA to the nucleus. All these advantageous functionalities contribute to the remarkable gene transfection efficiency of the mTAT-quaternary polyplex both in vitro and in vivo, which exceeds that of the binary polyplex and commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000/DNA lipoplex. The multifunctional mTAT-quaternary polyplex system with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity represents a new type of promising non-viral vectors for the delivery of therapeutic genes to treat tumors.We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell

  14. QSPR studies for predicting polarity parameter of organic compounds in methanol using support vector machine and enhanced replacement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, H; Dashtbozorgi, Z

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, enhanced replacement method (ERM) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of polarity parameter (p) of various organic compounds in methanol in reversed phase liquid chromatography based on molecular descriptors calculated from the optimized structures. Diverse kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to encode the molecular structures of compounds, such as geometric, thermodynamic, electrostatic and quantum mechanical descriptors. The variable selection method of ERM was employed to select an optimum subset of descriptors. The five descriptors selected using ERM were used as inputs of SVM to predict the polarity parameter of organic compounds in methanol. The coefficient of determination, r 2 , between experimental and predicted polarity parameters for the prediction set by ERM and SVM were 0.952 and 0.982, respectively. Acceptable results specified that the ERM approach is a very effective method for variable selection and the predictive aptitude of the SVM model is superior to those obtained by ERM. The obtained results demonstrate that SVM can be used as a substitute influential modeling tool for QSPR studies.

  15. A UNIFIED APPROACH FOR DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF DDOS ATTACKS USING ENHANCED SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES AND FILTERING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbulakshmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks were considered to be a tremendous threat to the current information security infrastructure. During DDoS attack, multiple malicious hosts that are recruited by the attackers launch a coordinated attack against one host or a network victim, which cause denial of service to legitimate users. The existing techniques suffer from more number of false alarms and more human intervention for attack detection. The objective of this paper is to monitor the network online which automatically initiates detection mechanism if there is any suspicious activity and also defense the hosts from being arrived at the network. Both spoofed and non spoofed IP’s are detected in this approach. Non spoofed IP’s are detected using Enhanced Support Vector Machines (ESVM and spoofed IP’s are detected using Hop Count Filtering (HCF mechanism. The detected IP’s are maintained separately to initiate the defense process. The attack strength is calculated using Lanchester Law which initiates the defense mechanism. Based on the calculated attack strength any of the defense schemes such as Rate based limiting or History based IP filtering is automatically initiated to drop the packets from the suspected IP. The integrated online monitoring approach for detection and defense of DDoS attacks is deployed in an experimental testbed. The online approach is found to be obvious in the field of integrated DDoS detection and defense.

  16. Application of support vector machine model for enhancing the diagnostic value of tumor markers in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Huang Gang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the early diagnostic value of tumor markers for gastric cancer using support vector machine (SVM) model. Methods: Subjects involved in the study consisted of 262 cases with gastric cancer, 156 cases with benign gastric diseases and 149 healthy controls. From those subjects, five tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate (CA) 125, CA19-9, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and CA50, were assayed and collected to make the datasets. To modify SVM model to fit the diagnostic classifiers, radial basis function was adopted and kernel function was optimized and validated by grid search and cross validation. For comparative study, methods of combination tests of five markers, Logistic regression, and decision tree were also used. Results: For gastric cancer, the diagnostic accuracy of the combination tests, Logistic regression, decision tree and SVM model were 46.2%, 64.5%, 63.9% and 95.1% respectively. SVM model significantly elevated the diagnostic value comparing with other three methods. Conclusion: The application of SVM model is of high value in enhancing the tumor marker for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  17. Intranasal boosting with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine markedly enhances protection by parenteral Mycobacterium bovis BCG immunization against pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, Michael; McCormick, Sarah; Zhang, Xizhong; Zganiacz, Anna; Xing, Zhou

    2006-08-01

    Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A (AdAg85A) as a boost vaccine. Since we recently demonstrated that a single intranasal but not intramuscular immunization with AdAg85A was able to induce potent protection from pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge in a mouse model, we compared the protective effects of parenteral and mucosal booster immunizations following subcutaneous BCG priming. Protection by BCG prime immunization was not effectively boosted by subcutaneous BCG or intramuscular AdAg85A. In contrast, protection by BCG priming was remarkably boosted by intranasal AdAg85A. Such enhanced protection by intranasal AdAg85A was correlated to the numbers of gamma interferon-positive CD4 and CD8 T cells residing in the airway lumen of the lung. Our study demonstrates that intranasal administration of AdAg85A represents an effective way to boost immune protection by parenteral BCG vaccination.

  18. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Utilization by Syrian Refugees Residing in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıner, Ali Osman; Yeşil, Sıdıka Tekeli

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Many Syrians have left their country and migrated to other countries since March 2011, due to the civil war. As of March 2016, a total of 2,747,946 Syrian refugees had immigrated to Turkey. Some Syrian refugees have been living in camps, while 2,475,134 have been living in metropolitan areas, such as Ankara. Study Objective This study investigated Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization among Syrian refugees residing in Ankara. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional database analysis using data obtained from the Department of EMS of the Ankara Provincial Health Directorate. Five stations in the Altındağ region of Ankara responded to 42% of all calls from Syrian refugees. Prehospital EMS in Ankara have been used mostly by Syrian refugees younger than 18-years-old. Study findings also suggest that medical staff in regions where Syrian refugees are likely to be treated should be supported and provided with the ability to overcome language barriers and cultural differences. Altıner AO , Tekeli Yeşil S . Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization by Syrian refugees residing in Ankara, Turkey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):160-164.

  19. An Italian Architect’s First Visit to Ankara: Giulio Mongeri – 1897

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bornovalı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Giulio Mongeri is an Italian architect credited as behind some of the most important structures all across Turkey, but foremost in Istanbul and Ankara. He served the Ottoman state in the first quarter of the 20th century, and provided a noteworthy contribution to Ankara in the Early Republican era. Mongeri carried out his first visit to Ankara in 1897. His observations of the era are extremely interesting. Mongeri’s notes on this visit were published over a few weeks in the 25th volume of Illustrazione Italiana journal, which rarely sees daylight nowadays and is barely spoken of in the Ankara research literature. As a contribution to Turkish publications about Ankara, this study aims to evaluate this visit and compare it from various perspectives to other publications and the Ankara of today.First of all, new digital imaging was carried out in place of the low-resolution digitalized copies published by the Italian Ministry of Culture and Tourism, then a field examination of Mongeri’s route was carried out, and following study comparing this to historical sources, it was made ready for detailed investigations to be carried out by later researchers. On certain issues, Mongeri was not well informed, but on many others his deep interest in history emerges thanks to the education he had received in Milan. These travel notes may catch the eye as showing from an earlier age the basics of the historicist approach he would take in his professional life as a historian..

  20. Recombinant vaccines against T. gondii: comparison between homologous and heterologous vaccination protocols using two viral vectors expressing SAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Érica Araújo; Fonseca, Flavio G; Casério, Bárbara M; Colina, Janaína P; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Caetano, Braulia C

    2013-01-01

    The use of recombinant viral vectors expressing T. gondii antigens is a safe and efficient approach to induce immune response against the parasite and a valuable tool for vaccine development. We have previously protected mice from toxoplasmosis by immunizing the animals with an adenovirus expressing the protein SAG1 (AdSAG1) of T. gondii. We are now looking for ways to improve the vaccination strategy and enhance protection. One limitation of homologous vaccinations (sequential doses of the same vector) is induction of anti-vector immune response that blocks cell transduction, restricts transgene expression and, consequently, compromises the overall outcome of vaccination. One way to avert the effects of anti-vector response is to use different viruses in prime and boost (heterologous vaccination). Bearing this in mind, we generated a modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara encoding SAG1 (MVASAG1), to be tested as boost agent after prime with AdSAG1. Although minor differences were observed in the magnitude of the anti-SAG1 immune response induced by each vaccination protocol, the heterologous immunization with AdSAG1 followed by MVASAG1 resulted in improved capacity to control brain cyst formation in a model of chronic toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice.

  1. Recombinant vaccines against T. gondii: comparison between homologous and heterologous vaccination protocols using two viral vectors expressing SAG1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Araújo Mendes

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant viral vectors expressing T. gondii antigens is a safe and efficient approach to induce immune response against the parasite and a valuable tool for vaccine development. We have previously protected mice from toxoplasmosis by immunizing the animals with an adenovirus expressing the protein SAG1 (AdSAG1 of T. gondii. We are now looking for ways to improve the vaccination strategy and enhance protection. One limitation of homologous vaccinations (sequential doses of the same vector is induction of anti-vector immune response that blocks cell transduction, restricts transgene expression and, consequently, compromises the overall outcome of vaccination. One way to avert the effects of anti-vector response is to use different viruses in prime and boost (heterologous vaccination. Bearing this in mind, we generated a modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara encoding SAG1 (MVASAG1, to be tested as boost agent after prime with AdSAG1. Although minor differences were observed in the magnitude of the anti-SAG1 immune response induced by each vaccination protocol, the heterologous immunization with AdSAG1 followed by MVASAG1 resulted in improved capacity to control brain cyst formation in a model of chronic toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice.

  2. Enhanced Protein Production in Escherichia coli by Optimization of Cloning Scars at the Vector-Coding Sequence Junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzadeh, Kiavash; Martinez, Virginia; Toddo, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    are poorly expressed even when they are codon-optimized and expressed from vectors with powerful genetic elements. In this study, we show that poor expression can be caused by certain nucleotide sequences (e.g., cloning scars) at the junction between the vector and the coding sequence. Since these sequences...

  3. Immunogenicity of heterologous recombinant adenovirus prime-boost vaccine regimens is enhanced by circumventing vector cross-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorner, Anna R.; Lemckert, Angelique A. C.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Lynch, Diana M.; Ewald, Bonnie A.; Denholtz, Matthew; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) in human populations has led to the development of recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors derived from rare Ad serotypes as vaccine candidates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens. Vaccine vectors have

  4. Eliminating HIV-1 Packaging Sequences from Lentiviral Vector Proviruses Enhances Safety and Expedites Gene Transfer for Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Conrad A; Counsell, John R; Perocheau, Dany P; Karda, Rajvinder; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Brugman, Martijn H; Galla, Melanie; Schambach, Axel; McKay, Tristan R; Waddington, Simon N; Howe, Steven J

    2017-08-02

    Lentiviral vector genomic RNA requires sequences that partially overlap wild-type HIV-1 gag and env genes for packaging into vector particles. These HIV-1 packaging sequences constitute 19.6% of the wild-type HIV-1 genome and contain functional cis elements that potentially compromise clinical safety. Here, we describe the development of a novel lentiviral vector (LTR1) with a unique genomic structure designed to prevent transfer of HIV-1 packaging sequences to patient cells, thus reducing the total HIV-1 content to just 4.8% of the wild-type genome. This has been achieved by reconfiguring the vector to mediate reverse-transcription with a single strand transfer, instead of the usual two, and in which HIV-1 packaging sequences are not copied. We show that LTR1 vectors offer improved safety in their resistance to remobilization in HIV-1 particles and reduced frequency of splicing into human genes. Following intravenous luciferase vector administration to neonatal mice, LTR1 sustained a higher level of liver transgene expression than an equivalent dose of a standard lentivirus. LTR1 vectors produce reverse-transcription products earlier and start to express transgenes significantly quicker than standard lentiviruses after transduction. Finally, we show that LTR1 is an effective lentiviral gene therapy vector as demonstrated by correction of a mouse hemophilia B model. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Archaeometric exploration at Akköprü in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akın Akyol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The archaeometric exploration was conducted by surveying and sampling studies on the stone, and mortar samples from Akköprü in Ankara. Spot salt test and conductometric analysis were applied to get water soluble salt content of stone samples. The aggregate and binder part of the mortars were determined by the analyses of acidic aggregate & binder, aggregate granulometry, thin section optic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the physical conditions of the stones were determined by some physical tests. The results of archaeometrical data showed that the constructive stone material was mainly andesite besides ignimbrite and dacite, and the original binder material was lime mortar. The cement content of the binder of mortars reveals the recent interventions on Akköprü. In the light of petrographic studies it was understood that the source of the original constructive raw material reflects the local formation. The high soluble salt content and the bad physical conditions of some stones also showed that they are undergoing a decomposition process of different degrees.

  6. HEALTH BEHAVIOURS OF THE PERSONNEL OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife AK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of study is to define the health behaviour profile of the personnel of primary schools as well as to define the topics to be given priority in health education activities. The research population consisted of all personnel of 564 primary schools in Ankara province. The study group (30 schools was estimated by cluster sampling method. The Health Behaviours Questionnaire, which consists of 47 items on health behaviours and demographic characteristics, was used for data collection. In the study, 849 school workers (67,5% female were interviewed. Teachers constituted the largest group (82,3% while the cleaning staff (7.0%, school administrators (6.3%, and other personnel (4.4% were sharing the rest in small proportions. Of the study group 41,7 % are cigarette smokers and of them 67.3% smoke every time and 11,9% sometime in school. Very few school personnel (14,8% do physical exercise regularly. Majority of school personnel (71,3% stated that they brush their teeth at least twice a day regularly. However, only 23,7% of school personnel go to have regular dental control. All results were discussed in details considering the effects of health behaviours of school personnel on students, and some recommendations were developed for health education activities in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 83-93

  7. Globalisation Reflected onto Architecture: Tall Buildings of Ankara-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanju Gültekin, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Policy switching, radical socioeconomic changes, integration and globalisation were started in 1980s. New urban space developments have been accelerated in 1990s and provided urban space identity policies in 2000s. Luxurious shopping malls, hotels, and ultra-posh residences within the city and gated communities on city peripheries have been formed. Thus, the urban geography, urban silhouette and urban identity are being converted through tall buildings that signify the created prestige, status, and power in competition with the global capital. By the globalisation foresight the cities which have gotten ahead of the nation-state was seen. The buildings that converted into a symbolic (iconic) global product leads to an advantage in the race for attracting global investments and tourism, on behalf of the cities/urban districts. This process, which was initiated haphazardly in Turkey in the 1980s, has been on-going throughout the 1990s and especially in 2000s by means of the re-structuring of the government on a neo-liberal basis. The process is concurrently observable through the tall buildings and/or building blocks which match with urban regeneration projects, urban zoning plan revisions and fragmented zoning plans. In this study, the new global world order is evaluated by their status and architectural properties of selected tall and iconic/ultra-modern buildings in Ankara.

  8. Phytoplasma protein effector SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sugio, Akiko; Kingdom, Heather N.; MacLean, Allyson M.; Grieve, Victoria M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria that can alter plant morphology and the longevity and reproduction rates and behavior of their insect vectors. There are various examples of animal and plant parasites that alter the host phenotype to attract insect vectors, but it is unclear how these parasites accomplish this. We hypothesized that phytoplasmas produce effectors that modulate specific targets in their hosts leading to the changes in plant development and insect per...

  9. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  10. Vector-free and transgene-free human iPS cells differentiate into functional neurons and enhance functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohamad

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

  11. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John B; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J; Moore, Anne C

    2014-08-21

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP1₄₂, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP1₄₂ also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP1₄₂ using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies.

  12. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John B.; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.; Moore, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP142, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP142 also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP142 using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies. PMID:25142082

  13. [Construction and Function Verification of a Novel Shuttle Vector Containing a Marker Gene Self-deletion System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Wang, Zhan; Zhou, Yubai; Zhang, Fang; Shen, Sisi; Li, Zelin; Zeng, Yi

    2015-09-01

    For rapid and accurate screening of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) that satisfied the quality standards of clinical trials, a novel shuttle vector that can delete the marker gene automatically during virus propagation was construted: pZL-EGFP. To construct the pZL-EGFP, the original shuttle vector pSC11 was modified by replacing the LacZ marker gene with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and then inserting homologous sequences of TKL into the flank regions of EGFP. Baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells were cotransfected with pZL-EGFP and MVA, and underwent ten passages and one plaque screening to obtain the EGFP-free rMVA carrying the exogenous gene. Resulting rMVA was tested by polymerase chain reaction and western blotting to verify pZL-EGFP function. A novel shuttle vector pZL-EGFP containing an EGFP marker gene which could be deleted automatically was constructed. This gene deletion had no effect on the activities of rMVA, and the exogenous gene could be expressed stably. These results suggest that rMVA can be packaged efficiently by homologous recombination between pZL-EGFP and MVA in BHK-21 cells, and that the carried EGFP gene can be removed automatically by intramolecular homologous recombination during virus passage. Meanwhile, the gene deletion had no influence on the activities of rMVA and the expression of exogenous target gene. This study lays a solid foundation for the future research.

  14. DEET microencapsulation: a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Knols, B.G.J.; Pennetier, C.; Rowland, M.

    2008-01-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the

  15. A Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Vectored by a Stable Chimeric and Replication-Deficient Sendai Virus Protects Mice without Inducing Enhanced Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Marian Alexander; Gori-Savellini, Gianni; Gandolfo, Claudia; Papa, Guido; Kaufmann, Christine; Felder, Eva; Ginori, Alessandro; Disanto, Maria Giulia; Spina, Donatella; Cusi, Maria Grazia

    2017-05-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe respiratory infections in children and elderly people, and no marketed vaccine exists. In this study, we generated and analyzed a subunit vaccine against RSV based on a novel genome replication-deficient Sendai virus (SeV) vector. We inserted the RSV F protein, known to be a genetically stable antigen, into our vector in a specific way to optimize the vaccine features. By exchanging the ectodomain of the SeV F protein for its counterpart from RSV, we created a chimeric vectored vaccine that contains the RSV F protein as an essential structural component. In this way, the antigen is actively expressed on the surfaces of vaccine particles in its prefusion conformation, and as recently reported for other vectored vaccines, the occurrence of silencing mutations of the transgene in the vaccine genome can be prevented. In addition, its active gene expression contributes to further stimulation of the immune response. In order to understand the best route of immunization, we compared vaccine efficacies after intranasal (i.n.) or intramuscular (i.m.) immunization of BALB/c mice. Via both routes, substantial RSV-specific immune responses were induced, consisting of serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies, as well as cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, i.n. immunization was also able to stimulate specific mucosal IgA in the upper and lower respiratory tract. In virus challenge experiments, animals were protected against RSV infection after both i.n. and i.m. immunization without inducing vaccine-enhanced disease. Above all, the replication-deficient SeV appeared to be safe and well tolerated. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory diseases in young children and elderly people worldwide. There is a great demand for a licensed vaccine. Promising existing vaccine approaches based on live-attenuated vaccines or viral vectors have suffered from unforeseen drawbacks related to immunogenicity

  16. Phytoplasma protein effector SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; Kingdom, Heather N; MacLean, Allyson M; Grieve, Victoria M; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-11-29

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria that can alter plant morphology and the longevity and reproduction rates and behavior of their insect vectors. There are various examples of animal and plant parasites that alter the host phenotype to attract insect vectors, but it is unclear how these parasites accomplish this. We hypothesized that phytoplasmas produce effectors that modulate specific targets in their hosts leading to the changes in plant development and insect performance. Previously, we sequenced and mined the genome of Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) and identified 56 candidate effectors. Here, we report that the secreted AY-WB protein 11 (SAP11) effector modulates plant defense responses to the advantage of the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus. SAP11 binds and destabilizes Arabidopsis CINCINNATA (CIN)-related TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS 1 and 2 (TCP) transcription factors, which control plant development and promote the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes involved in jasmonate (JA) synthesis. Both the Arabidopsis SAP11 lines and AY-WB-infected plants produce less JA on wounding. Furthermore, the AY-WB insect vector produces more offspring on AY-WB-infected plants, SAP11 transgenic lines, and plants impaired in CIN-TCP and JA synthesis. Thus, SAP11-mediated destabilization of CIN-TCPs leads to the down-regulation of LOX2 expression and JA synthesis and an increase in M. quadrilineatus progeny. Phytoplasmas are obligate inhabitants of their plant host and insect vectors, in which the latter transmits AY-WB to a diverse range of plant species. This finding demonstrates that pathogen effectors can reach beyond the pathogen-host interface to modulate a third organism in the biological interaction.

  17. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  18. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  19. Hypoxia-response plasmid vector producing bcl-2 shRNA enhances the apoptotic cell death of mouse rectum carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takashi; Matsunaga, Naoya; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced gene expression frequently occurs in malignant solid tumors because they often have hypoxic areas in which circulation is compromised due to structurally disorganized blood vessels. Hypoxia-response elements (HREs) are responsible for activating gene transcription in response to hypoxia. In this study, we constructed a hypoxia-response plasmid vector producing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic factor. The hypoxia-response promoter was made by inserting tandem repeats of HREs upstream of cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (HRE-CMV). HRE-CMV shbcl-2 vector consisted of bcl-2 shRNA under the control of HRE-CMV promoter. In hypoxic mouse rectum carcinoma cells (colon-26), the production of bcl-2 shRNA driven by HRE-CMV promoter was approximately 2-fold greater than that driven by CMV promoter. A single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of 40 microg HRE-CMV shbcl-2 to colon-26 tumor-bearing mice caused apoptotic cell death, and repetitive treatment with HRE-CMV shbcl-2 (40 microg/mouse, i.t.) also significantly suppressed the growth of colon-26 tumor cells implanted in mice. Apoptotic and anti-tumor effects were not observed in tumor-bearing mice treated with CMV shbcl-2. These results reveal the ability of HRE-CMV shbcl-2 vector to suppress the expression of bcl-2 in hypoxic tumor cells and suggest the usefulness of our constructed hypoxia-response plasmid vector to treat malignant tumors. [Supplementary Figures: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.10054FP].

  20. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); I. Kondova (Ivanela); R.F. van Lavieren (Rob); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); L. Mateo (Luis); P.J. Chaplin (Paul); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and

  1. Service Quality of State Universities in Turkey: The Case of Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is determine the service quality perceptions of students being educated at state universities in Ankara. The sample of the study is composed of final grade students of faculties of Economics and Administrative Sciences. The sample of the study is composed of a total of randomly selected students. There were 416 returned…

  2. Internet Use Habits of Students of the Department of Information Management, Hacettepe University, Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, Nazan Ozenc

    2007-01-01

    The frequency and other characteristics of Internet use of students studying at the Department of Information Management at Hacettep University in Ankara, Turkey, are examined. According to the findings, students prefer electronic media to printed media, they find the easy accessibility of the information more important than the other qualities,…

  3. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management methods: Ankara case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeler, D; Yetiş, U; Demirer, G N

    2006-04-01

    Different solid waste management system scenarios were developed and compared for the Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Ankara by using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The solid waste management methods considered in the scenarios were collection and transportation of wastes, source reduction, Material Recovery Facility (MRF)/Transfer Stations (TS), incineration, anaerobic digestion and landfilling. The goal of the study was to determine the most environmentally friendly option of MSWM system for Ankara. The functional unit of the study was the amount of solid waste generated in the system area of concern, which are the districts of Ankara. The life cycle inventory analysis was carried out by IWM Model-1. The inputs and outputs of each management stage were defined and the inventory emissions calculated by the model were classified in to impact categories; non-renewable energy sources exhausting potential, final solid waste as hazardous and non-hazardous, global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity. The impacts were quantified with the weighing factors of each category to develop the environmental profiles of each scenario. In most of the categories, Source Reduction Scenario was found to be the most feasible management method, except the global warming category. The lowest contribution to GWP was calculated for the anaerobic digestion process. In the interpretation and improvement assessment stage, the results were further evaluated and recommendations were made to improve the current solid waste management system of Ankara.

  4. A New Understanding of Ankara Music within the Context of Global Cultural Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider a new understanding of the complex and multilayered structure of Ankara music, which is situated between tradition and modernity and has become an important form of popular culture in the region, in the context of local and global relationships.. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Appadurai’s “global cultural flow” model. The ethnoscape, finanscape, mediascape, technoscape and ideoscape of Ankara music is examined in accordance with this approach to reveal the dynamics that make this music different. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the ethnoscape of Ankara music is based on a broad demographic coalition that has created an independent music industry with a finanscape depending on production, distribution and consumption. While this type of music is represented through a network-based social structure, it gains legitimacy outside its bounds within the media environment. The “Ankara” genre and its quest for authenticity described in this work reveal the ideoscape of the new Ankara music.

  5. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School Life in Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen; Bilasa, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to measure the perception of middle school students in Ankara regarding the quality of school life. According to the findings obtained, the students have moderate level perceptions about the quality of school life. Their perceptions about sub-dimensions vary. While the students have the highest perceptions about…

  6. Modeling of gas demand using degree-day concept: case study for Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumrah, F.; Katircioglu, D.; Aykan, Y.; Okumus, S.; Kilincer, N.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for natural gas is rapidly increasing in Turkey, as it is in the rest of the world. However, natural gas reserves and production are rather limited in Turkey.The bulk of the Turkish gas demand is met by imports. Russia currently accounts for 69% of Turkey's gas supplies. Physical shortages might occur; supplies for industrial production and household consumption could temporarily run short. Also, fluctuations in consumption might occur due to climatic reasons or peak daily industrial energy demand. Underground gas storage is a necessity in order to regulate these seasonal, daily, and hourly fluctuations. In order to effectively design and utilize underground gas storage, it is necessary to identify the market requirements. In this study, Ankara was chosen as a pilot region due to its strategical importance of being the capital city of Turkey, and a wide range of marketing surveys for the last seven years was performed. All of the factors influencing the gas consumption and the relationships between these factors were analyzed. How does gas demand behave in extremely cold weather? How does the industrial part of the city act in the consumption behavior? What are the plans of the Municipality of Ankara, responsible for the execution of the natural gas distribution project in Ankara? A model was developed based on degree-day (DD) concept, including the annual number of customers, average DDs, and the usage per customer. A history matching study was performed to verify the results of the model with the measured consumption data for the last seven years. Comparisons showed that the calculated consumption by DD model and measured daily consumption were in good agreement. Finally, by using the developed approach, the gas demand was forecasted for Ankara up to 2005. The results of this study can be used to design underground gas storage facility near Ankara. (author)

  7. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  8. A predictive model of chemical flooding for enhanced oil recovery purposes: Application of least square support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying chemical flooding in petroleum reservoirs turns into interesting subject of the recent researches. Developing strategies of the aforementioned method are more robust and precise when they consider both economical point of views (net present value (NPV and technical point of views (recovery factor (RF. In the present study huge attempts are made to propose predictive model for specifying efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoirs. To gain this goal, the new type of support vector machine method which evolved by Suykens and Vandewalle was employed. Also, high precise chemical flooding data banks reported in previous works were employed to test and validate the proposed vector machine model. According to the mean square error (MSE, correlation coefficient and average absolute relative deviation, the suggested LSSVM model has acceptable reliability; integrity and robustness. Thus, the proposed intelligent based model can be considered as an alternative model to monitor the efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoir when the required experimental data are not available or accessible.

  9. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  10. Two Engaged Utopias of Young Turkish Republic and Their Transformations; Ankara and Atatürk Experimental Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Kamil Ülkenli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankara is not only a spatial engineering project but also one of the comprehensive social engineering utopian projects of the early Turkish Republic. The experimental Atatürk Forest Farm (AOÇ on the other hand, is an important urban spatial utopian project in Ankara that cannot be reduced to being a simple urban recreation area. It has been physically shaped together with Ankara from the beginning, then later became an important urban entity in the metropolitan macro-form. This article aims to deal with Ankara and AOÇ as interacting and active urban utopias. And to deal with the causes of spatial changes and changing conceptions of the public interest within Ankara metropolitan area by the help of readings of a private photo archive with oral history records about three main components in AOÇ site; Ateliers, Etimesgut (Ahi Mesud Japanese Rose Oil Plants and “Steering Wheel Pub”. The conclusion aims to start a discussion of the projects’ public identity; whether the concept of AOÇ has transformed into a “urban area for the public—despite of the public?” and about the negative effects blocking and affecting the process of applying the Ankara Plan, which began just after 1938. The main resources are an unpublished private photo achieve, private oral history documentation and institutional publications from the AOÇ dated 1933, 1935 and 1953.

  11. Classifying low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer using label-free serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjiao; Lai, Xiaoping; Zeng, Qiuyao; Li, Linfang; Lin, Lin; Li, Shaoxin; Liu, Zhiming; Su, Chengkang; Qi, Minni; Guo, Zhouyi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer (BC) patients using serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. Serum SERS spectra are acquired from 88 serum samples with silver nanoparticles as the SERS-active substrate. Diagnostic accuracies of 96.4% and 95.4% are obtained when differentiating the serum SERS spectra of all BC patients versus normal subjects and low-grade versus high-grade BC patients, respectively, with optimal SVM classifier models. This study demonstrates that the serum SERS technique combined with SVM has great potential to noninvasively detect and classify high-grade and low-grade BC patients.

  12. Evaluation of the Current States of Older Employees: The Case in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Ertan Yesari Hastürk; Dr.Sc. Murat Uzel

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed on the older employees who work in small and medium sized enterprises in Ankara in Turkey. This study involved a survey consisting of 16 questions that applied to the employees. 61 females and 103 males within a total 164 employees who were aged over 55 participated in the survey. Current situations which were about the demographic structures, working conditions, problems of workplace and health problems of the employees, were determined by the survey. 63% of the empl...

  13. Location preferences of groups in public leisure spaces: the case of Likya Cafe in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Altay, Can

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references. In this study, public leisure spaces are examined considering the social and spatial behavior of occupant groups. After an introduction to the concepts of leisure, its types, its relations with public life and cultural concepts, the study discusses leisure ...

  14. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...

  15. Migrations to Ankara by Railway and Settlement Policy (1890-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Seddar Kaynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anatolian Railway began running between Ankara and Haydarpaşa in Istanbul via İzmit and Eskişehir in early 1893, making transportation from Istanbul to the interior of Anatolia very easy. In late 1892, before the railroad was opened, policymakers prepared official reports on the resettlement of migrants along the rail route from Eskişehir to Ankara; and made regulations accordingly. This studyexamines the route of this migration, which first run to the port of İzmit by sea and then reached Ankara by rail. This article discusses the politics of resettlement and the conditions of migrants settled on the railway route during the twenty-year period between 1890 and 1910, when the Balkan Wars provoked mass migration to Anatolia from the Balkans. It analyzes the locations of the new settlements, the conditions in newly founded villages, and the habitability of the wasteland along the railway route. Daily rations, state aid for housing, types of production, agricultural styles, and the position of artisans will also be considered.

  16. Giulio Mongeri, an Architect Efficient in the Building of Capital City Ankara and his Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla Çinici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is about Giulio Mongeri (1873 – 1951 who was the architect of Ottoman Bank (1926, Ziraat Bank (1926 – 1929, Monopolies Chief Directorate (1928 and Türkiye İş Bank (1929 buildings in Ankara in the first years of the Republic. Giulio Mongeri was one of the architects prominent in architectural activities both in the last years of Ottoman Empire and first years of the Republic and undertook an effective role in the architectural understanding of the next generation by raising the architects of the future as an instructor of the Academy of Fine Arts. In the study, it is aimed to gain especially the sketches and photos obtained from his diary and not published anywhere else to the scientific world as a new contribution to the knowledge in the available publications. Giulio Mongeri himself, his family and environs in which he was raised, his personality and attitude as a trainer have been appraised in the light of new information. The buildings of Mongeri in Ankara have been studied comparatively with the other buildings in Ankara in this period and an attempt is made to assess the differences in his approach.

  17. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in Ankara, Turkey: an analysis of diagnostic criteria and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nesrin Helvaci; Akbostanci, Muhittin Cenk; Oto, Aycan; Aykac, Ozlem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS), in Ankara, Turkey; (2) to determine the predictive values of diagnostic criteria; and (3) to determine the frequency of physician referrals and the frequency of getting the correct diagnosis. A total of 815 individuals, from randomly selected addresses, above the age of 15, were reached using the questionnaire composed of the four diagnostic criteria. Individuals who responded by answering 'yes' for at least one question were interviewed by neurologists for the diagnosis of RLS. Frequency of physician referrals and frequency of getting the correct diagnosis of RLS were also determined for patients getting the final diagnoses of RLS. Prevalence of RLS in Ankara was 5.52 %; 41.0 % of the individuals diagnosed with RLS had replied 'yes' to either one, two or three questions asked by interviewers. However, only 21.3 % of individuals who replied 'yes' to all four questions received the diagnosis of RLS. Among the patients who had the final diagnosis of RLS, 25.7 % had referred to a physician for the symptoms and 22.2 % got the correct diagnosis. The RLS prevalence in Ankara was somewhere between Western and Far East countries compatible with the geographical location. Diagnostic criteria may not be fully predictive when applied by non-physician pollsters. Physician's probability of correctly diagnosing RLS is still low.

  18. A novel structural risk index for primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Ankara Numune Risk Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Yucel; Peri, Neslihan Gulay; Kocer, Bulent; Kaplan, Tevfik; Alhan, Aslihan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to reveal a novel risk index as a structural risk marker for primary spontanoeus pneumothorax using body mass index and chest height, structural risk factors for pneumothorax development. Records of 86 cases admitted between February 2014 and January 2015 with or without primary spontaneous pneumothorax were analysed retrospectively. The patients were allocated to two groups as Group I and Group II. The patients were evaluated with regard to age, gender, pneumothorax side, duration of hospital stay, treatment type, recurrence, chest height and transverse diameter on posteroanterior chest graphy and body mass index. Body mass index ratio per cm of chest height was calculated by dividing body mass index with chest height. We named this risk index ratio which is defined first as 'Ankara Numune Risk Index'. Diagnostic value of Ankara Numune Risk Index value for prediction of primary spontaneous pneumothorax development was analysed with Receiver Operating Characteristics curver. Of 86 patients, 69 (80.2%) were male and 17 (19.8%) were female. Each group was composed of 43 (50%) patients. When Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis was done for optimal limit value 0.74 of Ankara Numune Risk Index determined for prediction of pneumothorax development risk, area under the curve was 0.925 (95% Cl, 0.872-0.977, p pneumothorax development however it is insufficient for determining recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Elizaga

    Full Text Available Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines.Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls, and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine.Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12% had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine.Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.

  20. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga, Marnie L; Vasan, Sandhya; Marovich, Mary A; Sato, Alicia H; Lawrence, Dale N; Chaitman, Bernard R; Frey, Sharon E; Keefer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls), and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12%) had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.

  1. Viral Vector Mediated Over-Expression of Estrogen Receptor–α in Striatum Enhances the Estradiol-induced Motor Activity in Female Rats and Estradiol Modulated GABA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N.; von Esenwein, Silke A.; Hu, Ming; Bennett, Amy L.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Musatov, Sergei; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Kaplitt, Michael G.; Young, Larry J.; Becker, Jill B.

    2009-01-01

    Classical estrogen receptor signaling mechanisms involve estradiol binding to intracellular nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ)) to promote changes in protein expression. Estradiol can also exert effects within seconds to minutes, however, a timescale incongruent with genomic signaling. In the brain, estradiol rapidly potentiates stimulated dopamine release in the striatum of female rats and enhances spontaneous rotational behavior. Furthermore, estradiol rapidly attenuates the K+- evoked increase of GABA in dialysate. We hypothesize that these rapid effects of estradiol in the striatum are mediated by ERα located on the membrane of medium spiny GABAergic neurons. This experiment examined whether over-expression of ERα in the striatum would enhance the effect of estradiol on rotational behavior and the K+- evoked increase in GABA in dialysate. Ovariectomized female rats were tested for rotational behavior or underwent microdialysis experiments after unilateral intrastriatal injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the human ERα cDNA (AAV.ERα) into the striatum; controls received either the same vector into areas outside the striatum or an AAV containing the human alkaline phosphatase gene into the striatum (AAV.ALP). Animals that received AAV.ERα in the striatum exhibited significantly greater estradiol-induced contralateral rotations compared to controls and exhibited behavioral sensitization of contralateral rotations induced by a low dose of amphetamine. ERα over-expression also enhanced the inhibitory effect of estradiol on K+- evoked GABA release suggesting that disinhibition of dopamine release from terminals in the striatum resulted in the enhanced rotational behavior. PMID:19211896

  2. Viral vector-mediated overexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha in striatum enhances the estradiol-induced motor activity in female rats and estradiol-modulated GABA release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N; von Esenwein, Silke A; Hu, Ming; Bennett, Amy L; Kennedy, Robert T; Musatov, Sergei; Toran-Allerand, C Dominique; Kaplitt, Michael G; Young, Larry J; Becker, Jill B

    2009-02-11

    Classical estrogen receptor-signaling mechanisms involve estradiol binding to intracellular nuclear receptors [estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta)] to promote changes in protein expression. Estradiol can also exert effects within seconds to minutes, however, a timescale incongruent with genomic signaling. In the brain, estradiol rapidly potentiates stimulated dopamine release in the striatum of female rats and enhances spontaneous rotational behavior. Furthermore, estradiol rapidly attenuates the K(+)-evoked increase of GABA in dialysate. We hypothesize that these rapid effects of estradiol in the striatum are mediated by ERalpha located on the membrane of medium spiny GABAergic neurons. This experiment examined whether overexpression of ERalpha in the striatum would enhance the effect of estradiol on rotational behavior and the K(+)-evoked increase in GABA in dialysate. Ovariectomized female rats were tested for rotational behavior or underwent microdialysis experiments after unilateral intrastriatal injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the human ERalpha cDNA (AAV.ERalpha) into the striatum; controls received either the same vector into areas outside the striatum or an AAV containing the human alkaline phosphatase gene into the striatum (AAV.ALP). Animals that received AAV.ERalpha in the striatum exhibited significantly greater estradiol-induced contralateral rotations compared with controls and exhibited behavioral sensitization of contralateral rotations induced by a low-dose of amphetamine. ERalpha overexpression also enhanced the inhibitory effect of estradiol on K(+)-evoked GABA release suggesting that disinhibition of dopamine release from terminals in the striatum resulted in the enhanced rotational behavior.

  3. Enhanced land use/cover classification of heterogeneous tropical landscapes using support vector machines and textural homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Mas, Jean-François; Moré, Gerard; Cristóbal, Jordi; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Luz, Ana Catarina; Guèze, Maximilien; Macía, Manuel J.; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2013-08-01

    Land use/cover classification is a key research field in remote sensing and land change science as thematic maps derived from remotely sensed data have become the basis for analyzing many socio-ecological issues. However, land use/cover classification remains a difficult task and it is especially challenging in heterogeneous tropical landscapes where nonetheless such maps are of great importance. The present study aims at establishing an efficient classification approach to accurately map all broad land use/cover classes in a large, heterogeneous tropical area, as a basis for further studies (e.g., land use/cover change, deforestation and forest degradation). Specifically, we first compare the performance of parametric (maximum likelihood), non-parametric (k-nearest neighbor and four different support vector machines - SVM), and hybrid (unsupervised-supervised) classifiers, using hard and soft (fuzzy) accuracy assessments. We then assess, using the maximum likelihood algorithm, what textural indices from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix lead to greater classification improvements at the spatial resolution of Landsat imagery (30 m), and rank them accordingly. Finally, we use the textural index that provides the most accurate classification results to evaluate whether its usefulness varies significantly with the classifier used. We classified imagery corresponding to dry and wet seasons and found that SVM classifiers outperformed all the rest. We also found that the use of some textural indices, but particularly homogeneity and entropy, can significantly improve classifications. We focused on the use of the homogeneity index, which has so far been neglected in land use/cover classification efforts, and found that this index along with reflectance bands significantly increased the overall accuracy of all the classifiers, but particularly of SVM. We observed that improvements in producer's and user's accuracies through the inclusion of homogeneity were different

  4. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  5. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  6. Darker eggs of mosquitoes resist more to dry conditions: Melanin enhances serosal cuticle contribution in egg resistance to desiccation in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnesi, Luana C; Vargas, Helena C M; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L

    2017-10-01

    Mosquito vectors lay their white eggs in the aquatic milieu. During early embryogenesis water passes freely through the transparent eggshell, which at this moment is composed of exochorion and endochorion. Within two hours the endochorion darkens via melanization but even so eggs shrink and perish if removed from moisture. However, during mid-embryogenesis, cells of the extraembryonic serosa secrete the serosal cuticle, localized right below the endochorion, becoming the third and innermost eggshell layer. Serosal cuticle formation greatly reduces water flow and allows egg survival outside the water. The degree of egg resistance to desiccation (ERD) at late embryogenesis varies among different species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus eggs can survive in a dry environment for ≥ 72, 24 and 5 hours, respectively. In some adult insects, darker-body individuals show greater resistance to desiccation than lighter ones. We asked if egg melanization enhances mosquito serosal cuticle-dependent ERD. Species with higher ERD at late embryogenesis exhibit more melanized eggshells. The melanization-ERD hypothesis was confirmed employing two Anopheles quadrimaculatus strains, the wild type and the mutant GORO, with a dark-brown and a golden eggshell, respectively. In all cases, serosal cuticle formation is fundamental for the establishment of an efficient ERD but egg viability outside the water is much higher in mosquitoes with darker eggshells than in those with lighter ones. The finding that pigmentation influences egg water balance is relevant to understand the evolutionary history of insect egg coloration. Since eggshell and adult cuticle pigmentation ensure insect survivorship in some cases, they should be considered regarding species fitness and novel approaches for vector or pest insects control.

  7. Equivalent Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  8. A glycolipid adjuvant, 7DW8-5, enhances CD8+ T cell responses induced by an adenovirus-vectored malaria vaccine in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padte, Neal N; Boente-Carrera, Mar; Andrews, Chasity D; McManus, Jenny; Grasperge, Brooke F; Gettie, Agegnehu; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Li, Xiangming; Wu, Douglass; Bruder, Joseph T; Sedegah, Martha; Patterson, Noelle; Richie, Thomas L; Wong, Chi-Huey; Ho, David D; Vasan, Sandhya; Tsuji, Moriya

    2013-01-01

    A key strategy to a successful vaccine against malaria is to identify and develop new adjuvants that can enhance T-cell responses and improve protective immunity. Upon co-administration with a rodent malaria vaccine in mice, 7DW8-5, a recently identified novel analog of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), enhances the level of malaria-specific protective immune responses more strongly than the parent compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether 7DW8-5 could provide a similar potent adjuvant effect on a candidate human malaria vaccine in the more relevant non-human primate (NHP) model, prior to committing to clinical development. The candidate human malaria vaccine, AdPfCA (NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA), consists of two non-replicating recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vectors, one expressing the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and another expressing the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) of Plasmodium falciparum. In several phase 1 clinical trials, AdPfCA was well tolerated and demonstrated immunogenicity for both humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the study described herein, 25 rhesus macaques received prime and boost intramuscular (IM) immunizations of AdPfCA alone or with an ascending dose of 7DW8-5. Our results indicate that 7DW8-5 is safe and well-tolerated and provides a significant enhancement (up to 9-fold) in malaria-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after both priming and boosting phases, supporting further clinical development.

  9. A glycolipid adjuvant, 7DW8-5, enhances CD8+ T cell responses induced by an adenovirus-vectored malaria vaccine in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal N Padte

    Full Text Available A key strategy to a successful vaccine against malaria is to identify and develop new adjuvants that can enhance T-cell responses and improve protective immunity. Upon co-administration with a rodent malaria vaccine in mice, 7DW8-5, a recently identified novel analog of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, enhances the level of malaria-specific protective immune responses more strongly than the parent compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether 7DW8-5 could provide a similar potent adjuvant effect on a candidate human malaria vaccine in the more relevant non-human primate (NHP model, prior to committing to clinical development. The candidate human malaria vaccine, AdPfCA (NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA, consists of two non-replicating recombinant adenoviral (Ad vectors, one expressing the circumsporozoite protein (CSP and another expressing the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 of Plasmodium falciparum. In several phase 1 clinical trials, AdPfCA was well tolerated and demonstrated immunogenicity for both humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the study described herein, 25 rhesus macaques received prime and boost intramuscular (IM immunizations of AdPfCA alone or with an ascending dose of 7DW8-5. Our results indicate that 7DW8-5 is safe and well-tolerated and provides a significant enhancement (up to 9-fold in malaria-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after both priming and boosting phases, supporting further clinical development.

  10. Performance Appraisal at Four and Five Star Hotels: Ankara Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Arslantürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism establishments developing human resources and motivating will make it easier to reach their goals and those who cannot mange to do this will be obsolete in the ever-changing nature of the tourism business. The most important feature of the tourism sector is that it is based on human element and it s labor-intensive. Hence, human element is of great importance. This being the case, the customer satisfaction in accommodation establishments will be greatly dependent on the success of the personnel. Performance appraisal in this regard is a tool used to measure the performance of the employees in establishing job satisfaction and enhancing success. Performance appraisal indicates the performance of the individuals and gives insights as to what should be done to improve the performance. As well as promoting the communication between the employees and the establishment. From the perspectives of the managers, it paves the way for an efficient information flow about the performance of the personnel and makes job planning more rationally. This study first examines performance and performance appraisal. Then, through a field study, deficiencies in the application of performance appraisal were determined in the four and five star hotel establishments. According to the results obtained, some suggestions were put forward.

  11. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Listeria Spp. Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Foods in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİRELİ, Ufuk Tansel; GÜCÜKOĞLU, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this study the presence of Listeria spp. is tested in 100 ready-to-eat food samples purchased from different stores and traditional food shops in the province of Ankara. The tested materials were 20 each of the following: mayonnaise based salad, kadınbudu köfte (fried meatball), fried liver, rice stuffed mussel, and green salad. Microbiological analyzes showed that 13 of 100 salad samples (13%) were contaminated with Listeria spp. while 10 of 100 salad samples (10%) were contaminated with ...

  12. An Assessment for Soft Drink Consumption of Individuals in Centre Town of Ankara Province

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Gözener; Murat Sayılı

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Central district of Ankara (Çankaya, Etimesgut, Gölbaşı, Keçiören, Mamak, Polatlı, Sincan and Yenimahalle districts) carbonated drink consumption situation of consumers were examined. The data obtained from questionnaires conducted with 272 families were used in this study. Data were collected in April-May 2012.Between carbonated drink consumption and some demographic characteristics of consumers were tested by chi-square analysis of whether a statistical association. Accor...

  13. A model from the First National Architecture Period in Ankara: Hotel Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fevzi Çügen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As Ankara became the capital, the emerging problem of accommodation required a change in the function of some dwellings in the city. In the 1930s, the Hotel Erzurum was one of the buildings involved in this change. Hotel Erzurum was located in the Ulus district, right next to the Hotel Europe which was next door to the city’s wholesale produce market. In this study information is given about the construction and architectural features of Hotel Erzurum, which was built in the neo-classical style and was one of the examples with the salient features of the First National Architecture Period structures.

  14. Discrimination against teenagers in the mall environment: a case from Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugan, Guliz; Erkip, Feyzan

    2009-01-01

    Teenagers spend much of their leisure time at shopping malls which is a result of factors such as parental constraints due to the incivility of the streets, financial dependence, and limited financial resources. Migros, a shopping mall in Ankara was chosen as the site for this research with the main purpose of studying discrimination patterns against teenagers in the mall environment. The research was carried out through observation and in-depth interviews with 104 teenagers. Results indicate that, although they have some complaints, most of the teenagers do not perceive discrimination in the mall, unlike their foreign counterparts.

  15. Study on spectral parameters and the support vector machine in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of serum for the detection of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Yao, Jun; Wang, Deli; Li, Siqi; Song, Youtao; Ding, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been recognized as an effective tool for the analysis of tissue samples and biofluids. In this work, a total of 27 spectral parameters were chosen and compared using SERS. Four parameters with the highest prediction ability were selected for further support vector machine (SVM) analysis. As a comparison, principal component analysis (PCA) was used on the same dataset for feature extraction. SVM was used with the above two data reduction methods separately to differentiate colon cancer and the control groups. Serum taken from 52 colon cancer patients and 60 healthy volunteers were collected and tested by SERS. The accuracy for Parameter-SVM was 95.0%, the sensitivity was 96.2%, and the specificity was 95.5%, which was much higher than the results using only one parameter, while for PCA-SVM, the results are 93.3%, 92.3%, and 92.9%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the SERS analysis method can be used to identify serum differences between colon cancer patients and normal people. (letter)

  16. [Immunization with Bifidobacterium bifidum-vectored OprI vaccine of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Wengui

    2017-08-01

    Objective To study the pulmonary bacterial loads, splenocyte proliferation, distributions of T cell subsets and cell apoptosis in mice immunized with Bifidobacterium bifidum-vectored OprI (Bb-OprI) vaccine of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and challenged with P. aeruginosa PA01 strain. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with 5×10 9 CFUs of vaccine by intragastric administration, 3 times a week for 3 weeks, and challenged intranasally with 5×10 6 CFUs of PA01 strain at the fourth week after the first immunization. At the second week after the challenge, all mice were sacrificed to separate their lungs and spleens, and the pulmonary bacterial loads were counted. The proliferation of the splenocytes was determined by MTT assay. The splenic CD4 + , CD8 + T cell subsets and the apoptotic rate of splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results The number of pulmonary bacterial colonies in the mice immunized with the vaccine and challenged with PA01 strain decreased, while the proliferation of splenocytes and the proportion of CD4 + T cells markedly increased, and the apoptosis of splenocytes was notably reduced. Conclusion The intragastric vaccination of recombinant Bb-OprI vaccine can increase the proportion of CD4 + T cells and enhance the inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa.

  17. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  18. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  19. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Rodríguez

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs carrying the CD8(+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI of the circumsporozoite (CS protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS, and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV vectors from the Western Reserve (WR and modified virus Ankara (MVA strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.

  20. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Dolores; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Rodríguez, Juan R; Vijayan, Aneesh; Gherardi, Magdalena; Rueda, Paloma; Casal, J Ignacio; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) carrying the CD8(+) T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI) of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS), and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+) T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors from the Western Reserve (WR) and modified virus Ankara (MVA) strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.

  1. Nitrogen utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and eventually to identify the best N fertilizer rate greenhouse experiments were conducted for two years. Yazgi F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be the suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. Five N treatments [N 0 =0, N 1 =150, N 2 =300, and N 3 =450 kg/ha; also, soil N application treatment (N soil ) equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 300 kg/ha was included for tomato and pepper, however N rates for cucumber was 131, 266 and 339 kg N/ha; N soil being 266 kg N/ha] were investigated using 15 N labeled urea fertilizer. Significantly higher marketable fresh fruit and total dry matter yields and N uptakes values were obtained from N 3 treatments for tomato and cucumber, but from N 2 treatment for pepper. Also, significantly higher yields, N uptakes and % NUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. (author)

  2. Re-use Adaptation Proposal for Hatipoğlu Mansion in Ankara Citadel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydanur Yenel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulus Citadel region is the most significant urban focus which consitutes the historical core of the capital Ankara and which locates the historical buildings of the old settlement. Although the current position of Kaleiçi has undergone tremendous changes in its configuration; histocial continuity, the marks of the past and physical values continue while, at the same time, they serve to the traditional part of the city. The purpose of this article is to present how Hatipoglu mansion’s could transfer to the future while its traditional speciality is preserved, it is sustainability suited to present conditions by providing comfort conditions with user’s needs to be repaired in accordance with restoration principle in order to continue cultural heritage Hatipoglu mansion’s existence which has been built in the historical city center of Angora (Ankara. Within the scope of Hatipoglu mansion’s preservation and its historic fabric which is preserved its traditional specialties; the street- parcel- structure relationships and building’s architectural specifications have been examined after investigating castle physical texture. Phases that Hatipoglu mansion’s has been experienced was given while evaluating obtained sources and using 1929 cadastral map, all these works have been directed to restitution and restoration decisions of the structure.

  3. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  4. Prevalence and Demographics of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Turkish Women in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Erkuran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization during the first six months of life. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more for optimal growth, development and health while it is suggested to start supplementary foods beginning from seventh month. The study aimed to determine frequency and examine the affecting factors of EBF in infants who were admitted to a pediatric outpatient clinic in Ankara, Turkey.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six months period among 603 breastfeeding mothers, with infants aged 6–24 months, who attended to the well-baby clinic. Mothers’ perceptions about breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and demographic characteristics were collected by interviewing with mothers.Results: Six months EBF rate was 38%. Median week of EBF was 16 weeks (1-40 weeks. Mothers giving birth at younger (≤19 or older (≥35 ages, and mothers having chronic diseases had shorter median week of EBF (p<0.05. Median duration of breastfeeding was 9 months (0-24 months. When mothers who interrupted EBF were asked why they had introduced supplementary foods early, the most frequent reason was mother’s perceptions of having inadequate breast milk (42.5%.Conclusions: The study indicates that frequency of 6 month EBF (38% and median duration of breastfeeding (16 weeks are low in our region, in Ankara. We must develop a local strategy to overcome mothers’ negative perceptions about EBF.

  5. Plastic Surgery Management of Victims of Terrorist Violence in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İğde, Murat; Kaplan, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year. The total number of patients involved in both cases was 434. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital is a tertiary health care institution and one of the most important trauma centers in the region. A total of 178 Patients exposed to these events referred to our hospital. Of the total, 34 patients were completely or partially treated in the plastic and reconstructive surgery clinic. In this study, we tried to discuss the difficulties encountered in the classification of patients and plastic surgery during the treatment period of patients who experienced these attacks.Data were obtained from The National News Agency, hospital, and our own clinic registries. Patient classification was based on the injured parts of the body. Statistical analysis was performed for all data. In conclusion, the role and the importance of plastic surgery department especially in trauma management have been emphasized in the light of our findings.

  6. Trihalomethanes and associated potential cancer risks in the water supply in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokmak, Burcu; Capar, Goksen; Dilek, F.B.; Yetis, Ulku

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the water supply in the Ankara, Turkey was investigated. Total THMs and total organic carbon measurements were carried seasonally in the samples collected form 22 different districts along with the samples taken from the Ivedik Water Treatment Plant serving 90% of the city. The average summer nonpurgeable organic carbon (NPOC) concentration in the raw water was 4.2 mg/L, and the NPOC removal achieved in the treatment plant was 31%. The concentration of total THMs ranged from 25 to 74 μg/L, from 28 to 73 μg/L, and from 25 to 110 μg/L in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. In all of the samples chloroform existed at the highest concentrations, while bromoform was almost absent. The total THM concentrations were highest in summer for all districts. However, none of the concentrations detected exceeded the USEPA's Stage I limit of 80 μg/L and the EU's limit of 100 μg/L. However, the total THM level in 64% of the districts exceeded the USEPA's Stage II limit of 40 μg/L. The risk estimations carried out indicated that each year 1 of the 5 million Ankara residents could get cancer from the daily intake of water, mainly because of exposure to chloroform through oral ingestion

  7. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  8. An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joag, Pramod S

    2016-01-01

    Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.

  9. Enhancing spatial resolution of 18F positron imaging with the Timepix detector by classification of primary fired pixels using support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhen; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Shi, Kuangyu

    2015-01-01

    Position-sensitive positron cameras using silicon pixel detectors have been applied for some preclinical and intraoperative clinical applications. However, the spatial resolution of a positron camera is limited by positron multiple scattering in the detector. An incident positron may fire a number of successive pixels on the imaging plane. It is still impossible to capture the primary fired pixel along a particle trajectory by hardware or to perceive the pixel firing sequence by direct observation. Here, we propose a novel data-driven method to improve the spatial resolution by classifying the primary pixels within the detector using support vector machine. A classification model is constructed by learning the features of positron trajectories based on Monte-Carlo simulations using Geant4. Topological and energy features of pixels fired by 18 F positrons were considered for the training and classification. After applying the classification model on measurements, the primary fired pixels of the positron tracks in the silicon detector were estimated. The method was tested and assessed for [ 18 F]FDG imaging of an absorbing edge protocol and a leaf sample. The proposed method improved the spatial resolution from 154.6   ±   4.2 µm (energy weighted centroid approximation) to 132.3   ±   3.5 µm in the absorbing edge measurements. For the positron imaging of a leaf sample, the proposed method achieved lower root mean square error relative to phosphor plate imaging, and higher similarity with the reference optical image. The improvements of the preliminary results support further investigation of the proposed algorithm for the enhancement of positron imaging in clinical and preclinical applications. (paper)

  10. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Song (Fei); R. Fux (Robert); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A. Volz (Asisa); M. Eickmann; S. Becker (Stephan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); G. Suttera (Gerd)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic

  11. Enhanced vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses to malaria antigen ME-TRAP by fusion to MHC class ii invariant chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Spencer

    Full Text Available The orthodox role of the invariant chain (CD74; Ii is in antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, but enhanced CD8+ T cells responses have been reported after vaccination with vectored viral vaccines encoding a fusion of Ii to the antigen of interest. In this study we assessed whether fusion of the malarial antigen, ME-TRAP, to Ii could increase the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response. Following single or heterologous prime-boost vaccination of mice with a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAd63, or recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, higher frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed, with the largest increases observed following a ChAd63-MVA heterologous prime-boost regimen. Studies in non-human primates confirmed the ability of Ii-fusion to augment the T cell response, where a 4-fold increase was maintained up to 11 weeks after the MVA boost. Of the numerous different approaches explored to increase vectored vaccine induced immunogenicity over the years, fusion to the invariant chain showed a consistent enhancement in CD8+ T cell responses across different animal species and may therefore find application in the development of vaccines against human malaria and other diseases where high levels of cell-mediated immunity are required.

  12. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165-transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimas, Silvia; Manasseri, Benedetto; Cuccia, Giuseppe; Stagno d'Alcontres, Francesco; Geuna, Stefano; Pattarini, Lucia; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Colonna, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen-glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  13. The Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigen α-Fetoprotein Is Enhanced by a Fusion with a Transmembrane Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vector to induce an immune response against a well-tolerated self-antigen. Methods. rMVA vectors expressing different form of α-fetoprotein (AFP were produced and characterized. Naïve mice were vaccinated with MVA vectors expressing the AFP antigen in either a secreted, or a membrane-bound, or an intracellular form. The immune response was monitored by an IFNΓ ELISpot assay and antibody detection. Results. Vaccination with the membrane-associated form of AFP induced a stronger CD8+ T-cell response compared to the ones obtained with the MVA encoding the secreted or the intracellular forms of AFP. Moreover, the vaccination with the membrane-bound AFP elicited the production of AFP-specific antibodies. Conclusions. The AFP transmembrane form is more immunogenic. Expressing a membrane-bound form in the context of an MVA vaccination could enhance the immunogenicity of a self-antigen.

  14. Neonatal outcomes of Syrian refugees delivered in a tertiary hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüktiryaki, Mehmet; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Alyamaç Dizdar, Evrim; Okur, Nilüfer; Kadıoğlu Şimşek, Gülsüm

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all Syrian immigrants from the TurkishSyrian border who delivered the Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity and Teaching Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Ankara, Turkey. Between January 2013 and December 2014 a total of 36,346 women gave birth at this center. Of these, 457 women were Syrian immigrants, comprising 1.2 % (457/36,346) of all deliveries. The number of births among Syrian refugees in Turkey appears to be increasing. Further research is needed to understand the relative morbidity of babies born to Syrian refugees compared to the local population, as well as the economic impact on facilities treating these cases.

  15. [Medical manuscripts in the library of the Deontology Department of the Ankara University Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, B

    1998-01-01

    At every academical platform on medical history and its instruction, lack of Turkish medical historiography is mainly emphasized. There are two main factors determining the situation: 1-There isn't any comprehensive Turkish medical history textbook. 2-There are difficulties in reaching the primary sources in this field. Everybody agrees with the importance of reaching medical manuscripts easily and reading and evaluating them in medical history. For this reason, it is important to know where we can find them. In this article, medical manuscripts which are available in the library of the Deontology Department of Ankara University Medical School are introduced. The manuscripts have been listed in alphabetical order of the authors' name. The bibliographic items, such as the size, writing style, and type of paper used, are mentioned.

  16. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.

    2014-01-01

    Turkish Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANA) was founded in 2005. In 2014 the company PTW Freiburg in cooperation with VF Cerna Hora started the construction of a comprehensive national metrology laboratories of ionizing radiation 'Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory' (SSDL). The laboratory will be located in the area of 'Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center' in Ankara in Turkey. SSDL will be equipped with metrology departments for calibration and measurement of standard required quantities of metrology of ionizing radiation: - Neutron workplace; Gamma workplace (low-energy X-ray, gamma Standard Cs-137 and high dose rate, Co-60); - Beta workplace; - Control system of metrology laboratories and irradiation VF DARS; - Radiation monitoring system VF RMS; - Camera and security system; - Measuring instruments (ionization chambers, electrometers, monitors for environmental measurements ...) with the appropriate phantoms and other systems.

  17. Production of recombinant AAV vectors encoding insulin-like growth factor I is enhanced by interaction among AAV rep regulatory sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilley Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are promising tools for gene therapy. Currently, their potential is limited by difficulties in producing high vector yields with which to generate transgene protein product. AAV vector production depends in part upon the replication (Rep proteins required for viral replication. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the start codon and upstream regulatory elements of Rep78/68 in AAV helper plasmids can regulate recombinant AAV (rAAV vector production. We further tested whether the resulting rAAV vector preparation augments the production of the potentially therapeutic transgene, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. Results We constructed a series of AAV helper plasmids containing different Rep78/68 start codon in combination with different gene regulatory sequences. rAAV vectors carrying the human IGF-I gene were prepared with these vectors and the vector preparations used to transduce HT1080 target cells. We found that the substitution of ATG by ACG in the Rep78/68 start codon in an AAV helper plasmid (pAAV-RC eliminated Rep78/68 translation, rAAV and IGF-I production. Replacement of the heterologous sequence upstream of Rep78/68 in pAAV-RC with the AAV2 endogenous p5 promoter restored translational activity to the ACG mutant, and restored rAAV and IGF-I production. Insertion of the AAV2 p19 promoter sequence into pAAV-RC in front of the heterologous sequence also enabled ACG to function as a start codon for Rep78/68 translation. The data further indicate that the function of the AAV helper construct (pAAV-RC, that is in current widespread use for rAAV production, may be improved by replacement of its AAV2 unrelated heterologous sequence with the native AAV2 p5 promoter. Conclusion Taken together, the data demonstrate an interplay between the start codon and upstream regulatory sequences in the regulation of Rep78/68 and indicate that selective mutations in Rep78/68 regulatory elements

  18. A study in three districts of Ankara of behaviors associated with irrational use of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Necmi İlhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To avoid the irrational use of medicines studies have to be conducted to evaluate the habits related to drug use. This study investigated the characteristics of individuals aged above 18 in using of medicines among in Family Health Care Centers in the city center of Ankara. Methods: This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was applied to 1990 individuals aged above 18 in several Family Health Care Centers in the city center of Ankara. Results: Less than half of the applicants stated that they attended a health care institution for a health problem; 78.6% stated that they keep medicine at home that 40.3% of those medicines were painkillers. 60.9% of the applicants claimed they read the instructions provided with the medicine; 57.0% of the applicants claimed to use the prescribed medicine exactly as instructed. 68.9% of those aged 55 and above of the applicants, 63.0% of the women, 63.3% of the married women, 71.2% of illiterates, 70.6% of housewives, 68.9% of those having monthly income between 1001-1500 TL, and 68.8% of those who had someone with chronic disease at home claimed that they would ask the doctor to prescribe the medicines they wanted (p<0.05. Conclusion: Almost half of the participants did not apply to a health care institution and a substantial portion of them used home remedies in case of a health problem. In order to reduce irrational drug use, public education for rational use of medicines needs to be implemented.Keywords: Rational use of medicine, prescription, descriptive

  19. Ankara Temple (Monumentum Ancyranum/Temple of Augustus and Rome restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gökdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temple of Augustus and Rome, also referred as Monumentum Ancyranum (Ankara Temple, is located near Haci Bayram Mosque in Ulus, Ankara. The temple which was built on behalf of Phrygian God ‘Men’ in 2nd century BC has been destroyed. The temple whose remains are present, on the other hand, was built for Roman Emperor ‘Augustus’ (Gaius Octavius in 25 BC in the name of a commitment sign by King Pilamenes, the son of King Amintos, of Galatia. The positions of the 4 columns in the doorways and 2 columns in the rear sides are recognizable. Currently, only the sidewalls and ornamented door part are remaining. The original testament of Augustus in Temple of Rome, which is written in Latin and Greek and is telling the achievements of Augustus, is imitated in the mosque that is neighboring the wall of Monumentum Ancyranum. Some parts of the patina are spilled because of the climatic parameters (wind, heat, precipitation, and frost. As a result of the petrographic analysis made on the spilled parts of patina, it is concluded that the temple, which has a great importance in the world history, has to be restorated. As a result of the analyses (scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis, EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, inner and outer sides of Naos are being constructed without mortar. In the parts, which are broken from the main body, calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 are detected. Besides, it is observed that the main body of the temple is mainly consisting of calcium mineral. If this temple will be restored in the future, it is important to watch out for the calcium mineral property of the building.

  20. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  1. Sociodemografic and Clinical Characteristics of Suicidal Cases who Attempted to Emergency Services in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma ERCAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the sociodemografic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempted cases who were admitted to the emergency departments of the hospitals in the first six months of 2010 in Ankara. Methods: Data were obtained by examining the suicide attempted registration forms that were filled out in the emergency services of hospitals working for the Ministry of Health retrospectively. Results: The incidence of suicide attempts in women (76.5% is higher than men (23.5%. Suicide attempts are high in 15-24 group of age (59.3 %. The rate of suicide attempts is high in patients who were single (57.9 % and students who were in education level of secondary (44.6 % and high school (40.2 %. The most common hospitals that were applied are Ankara Training and Researsch Hospital (29.8% and Kecioren Training and Research Hospital (12.4%. Also Mamak (19.7% and Kecioren (17.2% are towns that cases were seen mostly. The most applied method of suicide attempted is the usage of drugs and toxic substances with the 96.2%. The increment ratio of the suicide attempts is seen paticularly from January to June. Family (16.0% and psychiatric disorder (15.2% are mainly stressors leading to suicide attempted. Discussion: All attempted suicide patients who applied to Emergency Department should be directed to Crisis Intervention Unit immediately and following-up the cases with psychiatric consultation must become obligatory as well as medical treatments. The findings have been discussed with the literature. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 5-12

  2. The first Koç Han: Pioneering modern architecture in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Atalay Franck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Koç Holding is the most established conglomerate in Turkey. Th e company’s beginnings date from the mid 1920s, when Ahmet Vehbi Koç, founder of Koç Holding, had his first own company registered with the Ankara Chamber of Commerce. In 1932, Koç moved his business from his father’s store on Anafartalar Street to a new building, the first Koç Han, erected the same year on Çankırı Street Nr.13 in Ulus. Th e building’s designer was Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Arnold Egli, who had come to Turkey only five years earlier upon invitation by the government to work as chief architect of the Ministry of National Education. During his stay, which lasted from 1927 until 1940, Egli realized about 40 projects and worked on many more. Koç Han is the rare example of a commercial building by Egli. At a time when the urban aspect of the old town center of Ankara consisted mostly of one-or two-storeyed stone-and-wood houses, the first Koç Han represented an altogether new building type for the town, in being a multipurpose edifice with space for shops at street level, with large storage facilities below ground, and providing off ices and housing on the upper fl oors. Th e functional rigor of the plan and the sober modernism of the building’s facades contrasted strongly with the architecture of the time. In this respect, the first Koç Han was a strong statement regarding Ahmet Vehbi Koç’s belief in a modern Turkey and to the contribution of the building’s architect, Ernst Arnold Egli, to this project.

  3. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectors with Tat-PTD modified hexon and serotype 35 fiber show greatly enhanced transduction capacity of primary cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Yu

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 vectors represent one of the most efficient gene delivery vectors in life sciences. However, Ad5 is dependent on expression of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus-receptor (CAR on the surface of target cell for efficient transduction, which limits it's utility for certain cell types. Herein we present a new vector, Ad5PTDf35, which is an Ad5 vector having serotype 35 fiber-specificity and Tat-PTD hexon-modification. This vector shows dramatically increased transduction capacity of primary human cell cultures including T cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, pancreatic islets and exocrine cells, mesenchymal stem cells and tumor initiating cells. Biodistribution in mice following systemic administration (tail-vein injection show significantly reduced uptake in the liver and spleen of Ad5PTDf35 compared to unmodified Ad5. Therefore, replication-competent viruses with these modifications may be further developed as oncolytic agents for cancer therapy. User-friendly backbone plasmids containing these modifications were developed for compatibility to the AdEasy-system to facilitate the development of surface-modified adenoviruses for gene delivery to difficult-to-transduce cells in basic, pre-clinical and clinical research.

  4. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rhesus Monkeys of DNA Plasmid, Recombinant Vaccinia Virus, and Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors Expressing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gag Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Casimiro, Danilo R.; Chen, Ling; Fu, Tong-Ming; Evans, Robert K.; Caulfield, Michael J.; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Tang, Aimin; Chen, Minchun; Huang, Lingyi; Harris, Virginia; Freed, Daniel C.; Wilson, Keith A.; Dubey, Sheri; Zhu, De-Min; Nawrocki, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Cellular immune responses, particularly those associated with CD3+ CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), play a primary role in controlling viral infection, including persistent infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Accordingly, recent HIV-1 vaccine research efforts have focused on establishing the optimal means of eliciting such antiviral CTL immune responses. We evaluated several DNA vaccine formulations, a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector, and a replication-defecti...

  5. Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    . Extinction of long-term vector expression has been observed after implantation of transduced hematopoietic cells as well as fibroblasts, myoblasts and hepatocytes. Here we review the influence of vector structure, integration site and cell type on transcriptional silencing. While down-regulation of proviral...... transcription is known from a number of cellular and animal models, major insight has been gained from studies in the germ line and embryonal cells of the mouse. Key elements for the transfer and expression of retroviral vectors, such as the viral transcriptional enhancer and the binding site for the t......RNA primer for reverse transcription may have a major influence on transcriptional silencing. Alterations of these elements of the vector backbone as well as the use of internal promoter elements from housekeeping genes may contribute to reduce transcriptional silencing. The use of cell culture and animal...

  6. The Impacts of Gender Discrimination, Socio-Economic Capital & University Enrollment Plans: A Case Study in Ankara Distinct

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, M. Demet

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 726 non-clinical adolescents (aged 17-18 years) from high schools in Ankara/ Turkey, this study investigated the interacting relationships between Turkish adolescents’ university plans and personal capital variables such as gender, school achievement, self-esteem, anxiety/depression, goal setting, course attendance and family atmosphere such as parental supporting, parental monitoring, parental separation and socio-economic c...

  7. Soil erosion assessment using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study from Ankara-Guvenc Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.

  8. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  9. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  10. A proton irradiation test facility for space research in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, Ayşenur; Yiǧitoǧlu, Merve; Bilge Demirköz, Melahat; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation often affects the electronic components' performance during the mission duration. In order to ensure reliable performance, the components must be tested to at least the expected dose that will be received in space, before the mission. Accelerator facilities are widely used for such irradiation tests around the world. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) has a 15MeV to 30MeV variable proton cyclotron in Ankara and the facility's main purpose is to produce radioisotopes in three different rooms for different target systems. There is also an R&D room which can be used for research purposes. This paper will detail the design and current state of the construction of a beamline to perform Single Event Effect (SEE) tests in Ankara for the first time. ESA ESCC No.25100 Standard Single Event Effect Test Method and Guidelines is being considered for these SEE tests. The proton beam kinetic energy must be between 20MeV and 200MeV according to the standard. While the proton energy is suitable for SEE tests, the beam size must be 15.40cm x 21.55cm and the flux must be between 10 ^{5} p/cm ^{2}/s to at least 10 ^{8} p/cm ^{2}/s according to the standard. The beam size at the entrance of the R&D room is mm-sized and the current is variable between 10μA and 1.2mA. Therefore, a defocusing beam line has been designed to enlarge the beam size and reduce the flux value. The beam line has quadrupole magnets to enlarge the beam size and the collimators and scattering foils are used for flux reduction. This facility will provide proton fluxes between 10 ^{7} p/cm ^{2}/s and 10 ^{10} p/cm ^{2}/s for the area defined in the standard when completed. Also for testing solar cells developed for space, the proton beam energy will be lowered below 10MeV. This project has been funded by Ministry of Development in Turkey and the beam line construction will finish in two years and SEE tests will be performed for the first time in Turkey.

  11. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  12. Sex and the capital city: the political framing of syphilis and prostitution in early republican Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Emine Ö; Evered, Kyle T

    2013-04-01

    In its initial years, the nascent Turkish republic established the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance in order to promote public health. Beyond simply facilitating its modernizing agenda for the emergent nation-state as it sought to define itself against an Ottoman past, this institution was also geared toward remedying a self-defined population crisis by prioritizing and confronting particular diseases and health conditions. One of the maladies of utmost concern was syphilis. Based upon an analysis of official primary sources, this article engages with how the developing republic distinguished and consequently politically constructed-or framed-the syphilis problem from the vantage of its new forward capital, Ankara. Integral to this project of confronting this sexually transmitted disease, public health officials projected upon both this ailment and their understanding of the suitable means for its treatment their own views of what constituted appropriate sexual practices and relations. In doing so, certain subgroups of the population, especially prostitutes, were particularized as targets for surveillance and policing through regimes of licensing and compulsory medical examinations. Stemming from the state's framing of the disease-and its definition of appropriate sexual practices-this article also examines the subsequent legislative and public health education projects that followed.

  13. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear research center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  14. The main activities and scientific collaboration possibilities at Ankara Nuclear research and training center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, H.; Turhan, S.; Zararsiz, A.; Oksuz, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Founded in 1964, Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) conducts and facilitates the scientific activities including training (summer practice, MSc and Ph D studies in physics and chemistry, IAEA fellowship programs etc.), research and other studies in nuclear and related fields. As it's a part of main duties, ANRTC has analysis on the variety of samples, and radiation protection services commercially, for radiation workers in state, public and private sectors. Research, development and application projects implemented in this Center have mostly been supported by State Planning Organization (SPO) and Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In addition to the projects there are on going collaborative studies with some national Universities and International Atomic Energy Agency. The main activities carried out in ANRTC can be summarized as: studies on experimental nuclear physics, application of nuclear techniques such as XRF, XRD, Gamma, Alpha, etc. for environmental pollutants, archaeological and geological dating, elemental and crystal structural analyses, studies on the detection of irradiated foodstuff by ESR, development of accident dosimeters to be used in the case of a nuclear or radiological accident, and radiation matter interaction studies. In near future, for young scientists, there will be new collaboration possibilities related to accelerator-based applications, especially the new production methods of radioisotopes and their radiopharmaceuticals by using a cyclotron when our 30 MeV p / 15MeV d cyclotron facility project is underway

  15. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  16. Polycentric Development for Sustainable Cities: An Evaluation for the Ankara Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aydan Sat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban population growth and the accompanying urban growth and expansion are seen as the main problems of metropolitan cities; this keeps the issues of how to consider the social, economic, spatial and environmental dimensions of cities within the framework of a concept of sustainability, and how to shape cities within this context, on the agenda. In today’s world, cities are accepted as the main hubs of energy consumption and environmental pollution, as centers of capital, culture and innovation, and as the places of residence of millions of people. Expanding and sprawling urban forms are seen as unsustainable in terms of land use, energy and the consumption of environmental resources. Thus, the question ‘How should the urban development model be applied to create sustainable cities?’ is on the agenda of theorists, politicians and practitioners alike. Taking these discussions into consideration, this study searches for an answer to the question of whether the polycentric urban development model can be used as a tool for sustainable cities by taking into account the current literature and practices, and evaluating the case of the Ankara metropolitan area.

  17. Requests for emergency hyperbaric oxygen treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgök-Kangal, Münïre Kübra; Karatop-Cesur, Iclal; Akcali, Gökhan; Yildiz, Senol; Uzun, Günalp

    2016-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in Turkey. Our department is the main provider of emergency hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in Ankara and neighboring cities. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CO-poisoned patients who were referred by phone to our department for emergency HBOT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of phone consultations with emergency departments regarding the need for treatment of CO-poisoned patients with HBOT between 14 January 2014 and 14 January 2015. The following information was extracted from medical records: age, gender, CO source, exposure duration, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level, symptoms, electrocardiography (ECG) findings, cardiac enzymes, pregnancy, the distance of referring hospital to our centre, time between admission and consultation and HBOT decision. Over the one-year period, 562 patients with CO poisoning were referred for HBOT. We recommended HBOT for 289 (51%) patients. HBOT was recommended for 58% (n = 194) of the patients with COHb ≥ 25%, 72% (n = 163) of the patients with a history of syncope, 67% (n = 35) of the patients with ECG abnormality, and 67% (n = 14) of pregnant patients. Patients for whom HBOT was not recommended despite having positive signs of severe poisoning were referred significantly later compared to patients for whom HBOT was recommended. We found that the duration from admission to an emergency department to HBOT consultation affected our decision-making.

  18. The Use of Isotope Techniques to Separate of Hydrography Components. Case Study: Ankara-Guvenc Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekeli, Y.I.; Sorman, A.U.; Sayin, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this research, a stable environmental isotope study was carried out from analysis of water samples collected from rainfall, runoff (total discharge), springs (subsurface flows), and wells (ground waters)in Ankara-Guevenc basin having a drainage area of about 16.125 km 2 between 1996-2000. The aim of the study was to investigate the rainfall-runoff relationship for the basin. Recorded total ten discharge hydrographs are separated to their components using stable isotopes (Oxygen-18, Deuterium) contents. Among these samples, unit hydrographs from two one-peak storm hydrographs were derived using both isotope and graphical methods, and the derived unit hydrographs values including peaks were compared. Peak values of 10 and 20 minutes unit hydrographs of the basin derived by using isotope method (Q p = 1322 1/s and Q p = 1327 l/s) are compared with those of graphical method (Q p = 1656 1/s, and Q p = 1250 1/s) using Barnes semi-log approach. It was found out that, the contribution of subsurface flow which is component of total discharge hydrograph and originating from various sub layers are important in the total flow of basin using isotope method of approach

  19. Consumer Decision - Making Process in E - Commerce: Case of Salzburg - Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gürbüz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, companies need to track the changes occur in their internal and external stakeholders in order to develop consistent strategies, structures and systems for success in e-commerce. Tracking and researching the existing and potential customers and companies as external stakeholders has become very important. This study aims to reveal a scientific approach about the purchasing decisions of e-commerce companies’ customers, to carry the e-commerce applications in Austria to Turkey, to transfer the e-commerce applications in Turkey to Austria and to contribute for the development of e-commerce. To achieve this, in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 female e-commerce users in Ankara/Turkey and in Salzburg/Austria to reveal the similarities and differences between the purchasing decision processes of different countries’ citizens. Similarities and differences in the purchasing decision process of customers were determined for the dimensions of price compatibility, practicality, accessibility, speed, comfort, convenience and cost and suggestions are offered for the development of e-commerce in Turkey.

  20. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  1. A report on the study of algorithms to enhance Vector computer performance for the discretized one-dimensional time-dependent heat conduction equation: EPIC research, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, A.; Makowitz, H.

    1987-10-01

    With the development of modern vector/parallel supercomputers and their lower performance clones it has become possible to increase computational performance by several orders of magnitude when comparing to the previous generation of scalar computers. These performance gains are not observed when production versions of current thermal-hydraulic codes are implemented on modern supercomputers. It is our belief that this is due in part to the inappropriateness of using old thermal-hydraulic algorithms with these new computer architectures. We believe that a new generation of algorithms needs to be developed for thermal-hydraulics simulation that is optimized for vector/parallel architectures, and not the scalar computers of the previous generation. We have begun a study that will investigate several approaches for designing such optimal algorithms. These approaches are based on the following concepts: minimize recursion; utilize predictor-corrector iterative methods; maximize the convergence rate of iterative methods used; use physical approximations as well as numerical means to accelerate convergence; utilize explicit methods (i.e., marching) where stability will permit. We call this approach the ''EPIC'' methodology (i.e., Explicit Predictor Iterative Corrector methods). Utilizing the above ideas, we have begun our work by investigating the one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. We have developed several algorithms based on variations of the Hopscotch concept, which we discuss in the body of this report. 14 refs

  2. Chikungunya Virus Vaccines: Viral Vector-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Katrin; Tangy, Frédéric

    2016-12-15

    In 2013, a major chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic reached the Americas. In the past 2 years, >1.7 million people have been infected. In light of the current epidemic, with millions of people in North and South America at risk, efforts to rapidly develop effective vaccines have increased. Here, we focus on CHIKV vaccines that use viral-vector technologies. This group of vaccine candidates shares an ability to potently induce humoral and cellular immune responses by use of highly attenuated and safe vaccine backbones. So far, well-described vectors such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara, complex adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, alphavirus-based chimeras, and measles vaccine Schwarz strain (MV/Schw) have been described as potential vaccines. We summarize here the recent data on these experimental vaccines, with a focus on the preclinical and clinical activities on the MV/Schw-based candidate, which is the first CHIKV-vectored vaccine that has completed a clinical trial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  4. Raster images vectorization system

    OpenAIRE

    Genytė, Jurgita

    2006-01-01

    The problem of raster images vectorization was analyzed and researched in this work. Existing vectorization systems are quite expensive, the results are inaccurate, and the manual vectorization of a large number of drafts is impossible. That‘s why our goal was to design and develop a new raster images vectorization system using our suggested automatic vectorization algorithm and the way to record results in a new universal vectorial file format. The work consists of these main parts: analysis...

  5. Kochen-Specker vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Mladen; Merlet, Jean-Pierre; McKay, Brendan; Megill, Norman D

    2005-01-01

    We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, H n , n≥3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in R n , on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found

  6. The Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Factors in a Kindergarten in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Yabanci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obesity among preschool-age children and identify its associated factors. METHOD: This research has two steps, involving 375 preschool-age children ranging from 5 to 6 years-old, registered to a public kindergarten in Kecioren, Ankara. In the first step, measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were taken, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated, BMI according to age and gender was classified considering the reference data of WHO-2007, the results were evaluated ≥85-<95. percentile as overweight, and ≥95.percentile as obese. In the second stage, forms prepared by the researchers were given to parents and the data obtained were assessed by statistical methods. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight was 8.3%; the overall prevalence of obesity was 10.1%. The prevalence of overweight was higher in boys than in girls. The circumference of waist and hip of overweight/obese children were higher than other children (p<0.001. Negative and significant correlation was obtained (p<0.05 between the body weight and daily sportive activities of children and also between the period of exclusive breastfeeding. Moreover, positive correlation (p<0.01 was found between the body weight of children and the body weight of their parents. CONCLUSION: Obesity among preschool children is an important health problem. To evaluate obesity of children and encouraging them for having healthy eating behaviors and for doing sportive activities could contribute to prevent them to develop obesity in later ages. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 397-404

  7. Recognition of cigarette brand names and logos by primary schoolchildren in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, S; Bağci, T; Karakoca, Y; Bariş, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the smoking behaviour of primary schoolchildren and their ability to recognise brand names and logos of widely advertised cigarettes, compared with other commercial products intended for children. Cross-sectional survey in classroom settings using a questionnaire designed to measure attitudes towards smoking and the recognition of brand names and logos for 16 food, beverage, cigarette, and toothpaste products. Ankara, Turkey. 1093 children (54.6% boys, 44.4% girls) aged 7-13 years (mean = 10, SD = 1), from grades 2-5. The student sample was taken from three primary schools--one school in each of three residential districts representing high, middle, and low income populations. Prevalence of ever-smoking, recognition of brand names and logos. Prevalence of ever-smoking was 11.7% overall (13.9% among boys and 9.1% among girls; p Brand recognition rates ranged from 58.1% for Chee-tos (a food product) to 95.2% for Samsun (a Turkish cigarette brand). Recognition rates for cigarette brand names and logos were 95.2% and 80.8%, respectively, for Samsun; 84.0% and 90.5%, respectively, for Camel; and 92.1% and 69.5%, respectively, for Marlboro. The Camel logo and the Samsun and Marlboro brand names were the most highly recognised of all product logos and brand names tested. The high recognition of cigarette brand names and logos is most likely the result of tobacco advertising and promotion. Our results indicate the need to implement comprehensive tobacco control measures in Turkey.

  8. An Example of a Gentrification: Unintended Consequences of an in Situ Rehabilitation Project in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Varlı Görk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about an early example of gentrification processes in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. A unique form of the gentrification process is examined using a case study of a small inner-city neighborhood on Koza Street through the monitoring of the area between 1998 and 2016, and giving voice to both the gentrifiers and gentrified. Almost ninety percent of the population in the area was displaced despite the inclusionary principles of an in situ Rehabilitation Project which has led to a large scale transformation of the physical space of the street. The study includes four field studies conducted at different time intervals (1998, 2001, 2004, 2009 and a follow-up visit (2016 to the neighborhood, to critically assess the progression of gentrification in Turkey through its phases. Even though gentrification usually refers to the middle class invasion of urban land originally inhabited by the less privileged, our case reveals the effects of successive modes of a gentrification process which starts as an in situ rehabilitation project of a squatter prevention area initiated by a social democratic municipality with the “participation of local groups”, and turns into “gentrification by choice” in the successive years in the shadow of “Third Way” values. What is currently happening could be regarded as “gentrification by force” following urban renewal. In our case, however, the line between the two major components of gentrification, i.e., the “gentrifier” and the “gentrified”, seems to have become ambiguous, which calls for a further analysis of Turkey’s unique political and spatial dynamics.

  9. A survey of violence against staff working in the emergency department in ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Melek Serpil; Kocaöz, Semra; Akgüç, Selma

    2011-12-01

    Workplace violence in the emergency department is a significant problem world wide. The aims of this study were to identify the proportion of staff subjected to the types of violence, its sources, factors affecting violence experiences, reporting the incidence and the emotions of the victims after violence. This descriptive study was conducted between March and August 2009 in the the emergency department of six hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected from 270 staff working in various emergency settings. The instrument was a 36-item questionnaire on types of violence, its sources, feelings, and ways to cope with violent behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. The results showed 85.2% of participants had been subjected to at least one kind of violence: 41.1% to physical assault, 79.6% to verbal abuse, 55.5% to verbal threats and 15.9% to sexual harassment. Patients' companions (90.9%) were identified as the primary perpetrators of violence. The rates of violence types were highest towards security officers and housekeepers. The most common reactions to violence were sadness and anger. "Did nothing and keeping silent" was the coping method used most commonly by the staff. Participants exposed to physical assaults and verbal threat did not report the incidence of violence to managers were at 43.3% and 65.3% respectively. Based on results of the study, it is suggested that every hospital institute reliable reporting procedures that staff members feel comfortable using, and also provide a comprehensive program of support services for staff that has been assaulted. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melike; Karadeniz, Gulistan; Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Kaya, Halide; Yenibertiz, Derya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sen, Velat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 ± 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit. PMID:26785961

  11. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Demir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001. The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5% among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5% among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

  12. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Holgado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R; or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R. The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b+/IFN-γ+ and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential.

  13. Vector regression introduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Tik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study formulates regression of vector data that will enable statistical analysis of various geodetic phenomena such as, polar motion, ocean currents, typhoon/hurricane tracking, crustal deformations, and precursory earthquake signals. The observed vector variable of an event (dependent vector variable is expressed as a function of a number of hypothesized phenomena realized also as vector variables (independent vector variables and/or scalar variables that are likely to impact the dependent vector variable. The proposed representation has the unique property of solving the coefficients of independent vector variables (explanatory variables also as vectors, hence it supersedes multivariate multiple regression models, in which the unknown coefficients are scalar quantities. For the solution, complex numbers are used to rep- resent vector information, and the method of least squares is deployed to estimate the vector model parameters after transforming the complex vector regression model into a real vector regression model through isomorphism. Various operational statistics for testing the predictive significance of the estimated vector parameter coefficients are also derived. A simple numerical example demonstrates the use of the proposed vector regression analysis in modeling typhoon paths.

  14. Indoor radon concentrations and radon doses at three districts of Ankara, Turkey and raising public awareness on the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Kildir; Inci Goekmen; Ali Goekmen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations at METU, CIGDEM and DOSTLAR in Ankara were measured using electrets. The statistical analysis of the data indicated a lognormal distribution of radon concentrations, with no significant difference between CIGDEM and DOSTLAR with geometric means of GM = 87.5 and 54.5 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations did not change seasonally at CIGDEM which contain modern buildings, but at the slum district DOSTLAR, with poor insulation of houses a seasonal variation was observed. Annual effective radon doses were estimated (0.4-8.4 mSv). Public awareness about indoor radon was raised. (author)

  15. The 2005 - 2007 Bala (Ankara, central Turkey) earthquakes: a case study for strike-slip fault terminations

    OpenAIRE

    Esat, K.; Çivgin, B.; Kaypak, B.; Isik, V.; Ecevitoglu, B.; Seyitoglu, G.

    2014-01-01

    An intense seismic activity has been observed after the Bala (Ankara, NW central Turkey) earthquakes (30 July 2005: Mw=5.3, 20 December 2007: Mw=5.4, and 26 December 2007: Mw=5.3), continuing up to the present. The epicenters and the focal mechanism solutions of the earthquakes indicate that the right lateral strike-slip Afşar fault, trending N55-60°W, is responsible for the main shocks. The Afşar fault is thought to be the NW continuation of the Tuzgölü fault zone, which is one of the main n...

  16. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  17. A Glycolipid Adjuvant, 7DW8-5, Enhances CD8+ T Cell Responses Induced by an Adenovirus-Vectored Malaria Vaccine in Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Padte, Neal N.; Boente-Carrera, Mar; Andrews, Chasity D.; McManus, Jenny; Grasperge, Brooke F.; Gettie, Agegnehu; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G.; Li, Xiangming; Wu, Douglass; Bruder, Joseph T.; Sedegah, Martha; Patterson, Noelle; Richie, Thomas L.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Ho, David D.

    2013-01-01

    A key strategy to a successful vaccine against malaria is to identify and develop new adjuvants that can enhance T-cell responses and improve protective immunity. Upon co-administration with a rodent malaria vaccine in mice, 7DW8-5, a recently identified novel analog of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), enhances the level of malaria-specific protective immune responses more strongly than the parent compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether 7DW8-5 could provide a similar potent ad...

  18. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  19. Generalization of concurrence vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, based on the generalization of concurrence vectors for bipartite pure state with respect to employing tensor product of generators of the corresponding rotation groups, we generalize concurrence vectors to the case of mixed states; a new criterion of separability of multipartite pure states is given out, for which we define a concurrence vector; we generalize the vector to the case of multipartite mixed state and give out a good measure of free entanglement

  20. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  1. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE STUDENTS IN A MEDICAL FACULTY IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul VAIZOÐLU

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The reseach is conducted to evaluate the environmental consciousness of the students in a medical faculty in Ankara. Materials and Methods: Of the 412 students, 342 (83.0% participated this cross-sectional study. Data were collected in August 2000 with ?Environmental Consciousness Research Form?, the questionnaire prepared by the researchers and analysed using EPI INFO 6.0, a statistical package programme. Results: Mean age of the study group was 23.71 and 54.7% were male. Most of the students (74.4% reported that they would go to school/work by bycle, bus or on foot, and 87.1 percent of them told they would prefer train. Of the participants, 72.3% think environmental problems are not the issues only governments would care about. While most of them (81.8% reported that they would give up buying the products harmful to the environment, only 18.8% told they would want to deliver brochures about environment to each house. Nearly half of the students reported that they wouldn?t spend their money for the solution of environmental problems. Most of the students reported that they didn?t admit to any official institution to get information on environmental pollution (90.3%, never attended a meeting on environment (85.6% and never subscribed to a publication about the environment (91.4%. The students knew the products containing mercury, the substances which do not dissepear in the ocean and about the ozone layer depletion. Environmental consciousness scores are calculated by grading the questions about environmental consciousness. Mean score was 27.47. Nearly half of the students (53.2% had a score over 28. Students reported that deforestation (10.1%, air pollution (8.0%, population explosion (7.8%, nuclear weapons (7.3% and industrial wastes (7.1% would be the most important problems in 21. century. Conclusion: Complementing the lack of knowledge determined in the study by planning educational programmes, considering the environmental

  3. EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCİOUSNESS OF THE STUDENTS IN A MEDICAL FACULTY IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay GÜLER

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The reseach is conducted to evaluate the environmental consciousness of the students in a medical faculty in Ankara. Materials and Methods: Of the 412 students, 342 (83.0% participated this cross-sectional study. Data were collected in August 2000 with ?Environmental Consciousness Research Form?, the questionnaire prepared by the researchers and analysed using EPI INFO 6.0, a statistical package programme. Results: Mean age of the study group was 23.71 and 54.7% were male. Most of the students (74.4% reported that they would go to school/work by bycle, bus or on foot, and 87.1 percent of them told they would prefer train. Of the participants, 72.3% think environmental problems are not the issues only governments would care about. While most of them (81.8% reported that they would give up buying the products harmful to the environment, only 18.8% told they would want to deliver brochures about environment to each house. Nearly half of the students reported that they wouldn?t spend their money for the solution of environmental problems. Most of the students reported that they didn?t admit to any official institution to get information on environmental pollution (90.3%, never attended a meeting on environment (85.6% and never subscribed to a publication about the environment (91.4%. The students knew the products containing mercury, the substances which do not dissepear in the ocean and about the ozone layer depletion. Environmental consciousness scores are calculated by grading the questions about environmental consciousness. Mean score was 27.47. Nearly half of the students (53.2% had a score over 28. Students reported that deforestation (10.1%, air pollution (8.0%, population explosion (7.8%, nuclear weapons (7.3% and industrial wastes (7.1% would be the most important problems in 21. century. Conclusion: Complementing the lack of knowledge determined in the study by planning educational programmes, considering the environmental

  4. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  5. Determining residential energy consumption-based CO2 emissions and examining the factors affecting the variation in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Melike; Akan, Perihan; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Gullu, Gulen

    2017-11-01

    Energy demand of Turkey has been showing a remarkable increase in the last two decades due to rapid increase in population and changes in consumption trends. In parallel to the increase in energy demand, the CO2 emissions in Turkey are also increasing dramatically due to high usage of fossil fuels. CO2 emissions from the residential sector covers almost one fourth of the total sectoral emissions. In this study, CO2 emissions from the residential sector are estimated, and the factors affecting the emission levels are determined for the residential sector in Ankara, Turkey. In this study, detailed surveys are conducted to more than 400 households in Ankara. Using the information gathered from the surveys, the CO2 emissions associated with energy consumption of the households are calculated using the methodology outlined at IPCC. The statistical analyses are carried out using household income, dwelling characteristics, and household economic and demographic data to determine the factors causing the variation in emission levels among the households. The results of the study present that the main factors impacting the amount of total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions are household income, dwelling construction year, age, education level of the household, and net footage of the dwelling.

  6. Convexity and Marginal Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we construct sets of marginal vectors of a TU game with the property that if the marginal vectors from these sets are core elements, then the game is convex.This approach leads to new upperbounds on the number of marginal vectors needed to characterize convexity.An other result is that

  7. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  8. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Jeffrey R; Ngauy, Viseth; de Souza, Mark S; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Cox, Josephine H; Polonis, Victoria R; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Peel, Sheila; Slike, Bonnie; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Paris, Robert M; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L; Marovich, Mary A

    2010-11-15

    We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand. MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7) or 10(8) pfu) or intradermally (ID; 10(6) or 10(7) pfu) at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2). Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51)Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i) moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6) PBMC at 10(8) pfu IM), but high in response rate (70% (51)Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8) pfu IM); (ii) predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+) T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route); (iv) dose- and route-dependent with 10(8) pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8) pfu IM). MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  9. Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity evaluation of ADMVA, a multigenic, modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 B'/C candidate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a Phase I dose-escalation trial of ADMVA, a Clade-B'/C-based HIV-1 candidate vaccine expressing env, gag, pol, nef, and tat in a modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating HIV-1 recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADMVA in human volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ADMVA or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 6 to 50 healthy adult volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. In each dosage group [1x10(7 (low, 5x10(7 (mid, or 2.5x10(8 pfu (high] volunteers were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive ADMVA or placebo in a double-blinded design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events including cardiac adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA, immunoflourescent staining, and HIV-1 neutralization. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Anti-vaccinia binding titers were measured by ELISA. ADMVA was generally well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events or cardiac adverse events. Local or systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 77% and 78% of volunteers, respectively. The majority of events were of mild intensity. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rate to any HIV antigen was 0/12 (0% in the placebo group, 3/12 (25% in the low dosage group, 6/12 (50% in the mid dosage group, and 8/13 (62% in the high dosage group. Responses were often multigenic and occasionally persisted up to one year post vaccination. Antibodies to gp120 were detected in 0/12 (0%, 8/13 (62%, 6/12 (50% and 10/13 (77% in the placebo, low, mid, and high dosage groups, respectively. Antibodies persisted up to 12 months after vaccination, with a trend toward agreement

  10. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Currier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand.MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7 or 10(8 pfu or intradermally (ID; 10(6 or 10(7 pfu at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2. Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6 PBMC at 10(8 pfu IM, but high in response rate (70% (51Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8 pfu IM; (ii predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+ T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route; (iv dose- and route-dependent with 10(8 pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8 pfu IM.MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  11. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  12. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (∼ 179 Ma and ∼ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (∼ 67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shale-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and Pb, and initial ɛNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons) in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the northern

  13. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  14. Supergravity inspired vector curvaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    It is investigated whether a massive Abelian vector field, whose gauge kinetic function is growing during inflation, can be responsible for the generation of the curvature perturbation in the Universe. Particle production is studied and it is shown that the vector field can obtain a scale-invariant superhorizon spectrum of perturbations with a reasonable choice of kinetic function. After inflation the vector field begins coherent oscillations, during which it corresponds to pressureless isotropic matter. When the vector field dominates the Universe, its perturbations give rise to the observed curvature perturbation following the curvaton scenario. It is found that this is possible if, after the end of inflation, the mass of the vector field increases at a phase transition at temperature of order 1 TeV or lower. Inhomogeneous reheating, whereby the vector field modulates the decay rate of the inflaton, is also studied

  15. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  16. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Custodial vector model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads T.; Hapola, Tuomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum and interactions with the standard model fields lead to distinct signatures at the LHC in the diboson, dilepton, and associated Higgs channels.

  18. Vector Differential Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    HITZER, Eckhard MS

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the fundamentals of the vector differential calculus part of universal geometric calculus. Geometric calculus simplifies and unifies the structure and notation of mathematics for all of science and engineering, and for technological applications. In order to make the treatment self-contained, I first compile all important geometric algebra relationships,which are necesssary for vector differential calculus. Then differentiation by vectors is introduced and a host of major ve...

  19. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  20. The Effects of Using Geography Information Systems in Social Studies on Students Attitudes about Information Technology: Case of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ŞİMŞEK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The motivation and attention of students in the classroom are on the increase of using different methods. Like other lectures, in social studies using computers and information technologies is one of the methods that keeps the interest of students alive and increases participation of them. This study, aiming at measuring attitudes of 6th grade students to information technologies is conducted by using qualitative and quasi-experimental methods. The sample of this study is comprised by students of Cizmeci Elementary School, located in Ankara Kecioren. 33 students were chosen for experimental group and 35 students were chosen for control group, comprising a total of 68 students. As a result of the study, a significant difference between total computer attitude scale points of the pre and post-tests in both experimental and control groups was determined

  1. Examining Diverse World Examples in Transit Fare Collection Systems for Bus and a Model System for Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Hatipoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The migration from the rural to urban areas since Industrial Revolution up to present has resulted in a global and significant urbanization phenomenon. Transportation, due to the increasing population in the cities, stands out as one of the major problems. Convenient transportation in the cities depends primarily on an efficient and productive public transportation system. Enable to use public transportation system in efficient, pricing varieties and fare payment options/ medias are applied in the transportation are very important. In order public transportation system to be efficient pricing variations and fare payment collection methods should be considered. Pricing varieties increase demands for public transportation and the ease of fare payment increases speed and capacity of public transportation. In this study, bus pricing policies and fare payment options in the cities of Geneva, London, Tokyo and Curitiba which are prominent with successful public transportation policies are examined and practice proposals are presented for the city of Ankara City.

  2. Vectorized Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the global algorithms and local kernels of conventional general-purpose Monte Carlo codes shows that multigroup Monte Carlo methods have sufficient structure to permit efficient vectorization. A structured multigroup Monte Carlo algorithm for vector computers is developed in which many particle events are treated at once on a cell-by-cell basis. Vectorization of kernels for tracking and variance reduction is described, and a new method for discrete sampling is developed to facilitate the vectorization of collision analysis. To demonstrate the potential of the new method, a vectorized Monte Carlo code for multigroup radiation transport analysis was developed. This code incorporates many features of conventional general-purpose production codes, including general geometry, splitting and Russian roulette, survival biasing, variance estimation via batching, a number of cutoffs, and generalized tallies of collision, tracklength, and surface crossing estimators with response functions. Predictions of vectorized performance characteristics for the CYBER-205 were made using emulated coding and a dynamic model of vector instruction timing. Computation rates were examined for a variety of test problems to determine sensitivities to batch size and vector lengths. Significant speedups are predicted for even a few hundred particles per batch, and asymptotic speedups by about 40 over equivalent Amdahl 470V/8 scalar codes arepredicted for a few thousand particles per batch. The principal conclusion is that vectorization of a general-purpose multigroup Monte Carlo code is well worth the significant effort required for stylized coding and major algorithmic changes

  3. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  4. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  5. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age ( 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  6. Vector-Vector Scattering on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, Fernando; Urbach, Carsten; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present an extension of the LüScher formalism to include the interaction of particles with spin, focusing on the scattering of two vector particles. The derived formalism will be applied to Scalar QED in the Higgs Phase, where the U(1) gauge boson acquires mass.

  7. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  8. Brane vector phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter; Xiong, C.

    2009-01-01

    Local oscillations of the brane world are manifested as massive vector fields. Their coupling to the Standard Model can be obtained using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher-dimensional space-time symmetries, and to an extent, are model independent. Phenomenological limits on these vector field parameters are obtained using LEP collider data and dark matter constraints

  9. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  10. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  11. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) com vacunas preventivas y terapeúticas contra la hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Mariano; Gómez, Carmen E.; Perdiguero, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Los virus recombinantes de la invención contienen secuencias que se encuentran insertadas en el mismo sitio de inserción del MVA y que permiten la expresión simultáneamente de varios antígenos del VHC, concretamente las proteínas maduras estructurales (Core, E1, E2 y p7) y no estructurales (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A más los 201 aminoácidos de la región N-terminal de NS5B). Con ello se consiguen virus recombinantes estables, que permiten el desencadenamiento de una respuesta inmune contr...

  12. Vector potential quantization and the photon wave-particle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meis, C; Dahoo, P R

    2016-01-01

    The quantization procedure of the vector potential is enhanced at a single photon state revealing the possibility for a simultaneous representation of the wave-particle nature of the photon. Its relationship to the quantum vacuum results naturally. A vector potential amplitude operator is defined showing the parallelism with the Hamiltonian of a massless particle. It is further shown that the quantized vector potential satisfies both the wave propagation equation and a linear time-dependent Schrödinger-like equation. (paper)

  13. Fractal vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field.

  14. The Usage Analysis of Databases at Ankara University Digital Library Ankara Üniversitesi Elektronik Kütüphanesi Veri Tabanlarının Kullanım Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Arslantekin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The development in information and communication technologies has changed and improved resources and services diversity in libraries. These changes continue to develop rapidly throughout the world. As for our country,remarkable developments, especially in university and special libraries, in this field are worth consideration. In order to take benefit of the existing and forthcoming developments in the field of electronic libraries the databases used by clients should be well-demonstrated and followed closely. The providing wide use of electronic databases leads to increasing the productivity of scientific and social information that that is the ultimate goal. The article points out electronic resources management and the effect of consortia developments in the field first, and then evaluates the results of the survey on the use of electronic libraries assessment questionnaires by faculty members at Ankara University. Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmeler bilgi kaynakları ile birlikte bilgi merkezlerinin hizmetlerini de çok yönlü olarak değiştirmiş ve geliştirmiştir. Bu gelişmeler dünyada hızlı bir gelişim izlemektedir. Ülkemizde ise başta üniversite ve araştırma kütüphaneleri olmak üzere elektronik kütüphaneler konusunda dikkate değer gelişmeler izlenmektedir. Bu gelişim süreci içinde yerini almaya çalışan elektronik kütüphanelerden istenilen düzeyde yarar sağlayabilmek için kullanılan elektronik bilgi içeren veri tabanlarının iyi tanıtılması ve kullanımının izlenmesi gerekmektedir. İstenilen düzeyde yararlanılan elektronik veri tabanları sonucu üretilen bilimsel bilginin artması da ulaşılmak istenen hedeftir. Bu makalede elektronik kaynak yönetimi ve konsorsiyumların etkisine kısaca değindikten sonra Ankara Üniversitesi öğretim elemanlarına elektronik kütüphane kullanımı konusunda yapılan anket değerlendirilecektir.

  15. Analysis of Long-Term Global Solar Radiation, Sunshine Duration and Air Temperature Data of Ankara and Modeling with Curve Fitting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YEŞİLBUDAK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The information about solar parameters is important in the installation of photovoltaic energy systems that are reliable, environmentally friendly and sustainable. In this study, initially, long-term global solar radiation, sunshine duration and air temperature data of Ankara are analyzed on the annual, monthly and daily basis, elaborately. Afterwards, three different empirical methods that are polynomial, Gaussian and Fourier are used for the purpose of modeling long-term monthly total global solar radiation, monthly total sunshine duration and monthly mean air temperature data. The coefficient of determination and the root mean square error are computed as statistical test metrics in order to compare data modeling performance of the mentioned empirical methods. The empirical methods that provide the best results enable to model the solar characteristics of Ankara more accurately and the achieved outcomes constitute the significant resource for other locations with similar climatic conditions.

  16. Acoustical comfort evaluation in enclosed public spaces with a central atrium : a case study in food court of CEPA Shopping Center, Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Dökmeci, Papatya Nur

    2009-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 2009. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2009. Includes bibliographical references leaves 79-83. Physical comfort requirements of users as thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort should be considered and studied in detail when designing and planning public spaces. The subjective auditory perception needs to be evaluated parallel...

  17. The Use of Alternate Ligno-cellulosic Raw Materials Banana (Musa sapientum) Ankara (Calotropis procera ) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus ) in Handmade Paper & their Blending with Waste Paper.

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The studies were made to established suitability of lingo-cellulosic raw materials namely leaf fibreBanana (Musa Sapientum), bast fibre Ankara (Calotropis Procera), & leaf fibre Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) for making pulps for handmade paper industry. This should help in providing a cost effective, good quality cellulosic raw material as an alternate to cost prohibitive traditionally used cotton hosiery waste traditionally used for manufacturing good quality handmade paper & it’s products. Th...

  18. FAMILY-WORK CONFLICT AND LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG WORKERS OF ANKARA YOUTH SERVICES AND PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE OF SPORTS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Önder; Burhan; Emrah

    2016-01-01

    In this study Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Life Satisfaction were carried out to indicate 329 staff’s relationship between each other, who work in Ankara Youth Services and Sports Province Management, by determining whether work-family conflict, family-work conflict and life satisfaction differientiate or not according to socio-demographic variables. According to obtained results, it was concluded that gender, age, having management position, number of children and duration ...

  19. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution...

  20. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  1. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  2. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory, together with his integral, dominate contemporary mathematics. ... directions belonging to Bartle and Dinculeanu (see [1], [6], [7] and [2]). ... in this manner, namely he integrated vector functions with respect to measures of bounded.

  3. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  4. Vector hysteresis models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel

    1991-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (1991), s. 281-292 ISSN 0956-7925 Keywords : vector hysteresis operator * hysteresis potential * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.cas.cz/~krejci/b15p.pdf

  5. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  6. Exotic composite vector boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, K.; Hattori, T.; Yasue, M.

    1991-01-01

    An exotic composite vector boson V is introduced in two dynamical models of composite quarks, leptons, W, and Z. One is based on four-Fermi interactions, in which composite vector bosons are regarded as fermion-antifermion bound states and the other is based on the confining SU(2) L gauge model, in which they are given by scalar-antiscalar bound states. Both approaches describe the same effective interactions for the sector of composite quarks, leptons, W, Z, γ, and V

  7. Vector borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo Fenech, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.

  8. The Vector Space as a Unifying Concept in School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, Timothy Andrew

    The purpose of this study was to show how the concept of vector space can serve as a unifying thread for mathematics programs--elementary school to pre-calculus college level mathematics. Indicated are a number of opportunities to demonstrate how emphasis upon the vector space structure can enhance the organization of the mathematics curriculum.…

  9. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-01-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  10. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Bilgi Okuryazarlığı Becerilerinin Değerlendirilmesi: Ankara Üniversitesi Örneği=Assessing Information Literacy Skills of Undergraduate Students: Sample of Ankara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Özel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilgi okuryazarlığı becerileri üniversitelerdeki öğrencilerin teknolojik yeniliklere ve değişime uyum sağlamaları, araştırma süreçlerini etkin bir biçimde yönetebilmeleri ve gelecekte yaşam boyu öğrenen bireyler olabilmeleri açısından oldukça önemlidir. Günümüz bilgi toplumunda bireylerin bilgi okuryazarı olması ve bu kapsamda bilgi gereksinimlerini tanımlayabilme, bilgi kaynaklarına erişebilme, bu kaynakları değerlendirebilme, yeni edinilen bilgiyi var olan bilgiyle bütünleştirebilme, bilgiyi uygun ve etik biçimde kullanabilme ve bilgiyi iletebilme/sunabilme becerilerine sahip olması beklenmektedir. Öğrencilerin bu becerilere sahip olmasında üniversite kütüphaneleri tarafından hazırlanacak bilgi okuryazarlığı eğitim programlarının önemli bir rolü bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmada, Ankara Üniversitesi lisans öğrencilerinin bilgi arama, erişim, değerlendirme, kullanma, iletme/sunma aşamalarında sahip oldukları becerileri ve bu konuya yönelik olarak onların eğitim alma durumlarını saptamak amaçlanmıştır. Betimleme yönteminin kullanıldığı araştırma, Ankara Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören 39.136 kişilik evrenden tabakalı rastgele örnekleme yoluyla seçilen 245 öğrenciden oluşan bir örneklem üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiş ve elde edilen veriler Predictive Analytics SoftWare 18 yazılımı yardımıyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda öğrencilerin ileri seviyedeki ve daha detaylı bilgi gerektiren konularda güçlüklerle karşılaştıkları, bilgi okuryazarlığı becerilerine yönelik olarak herhangi bir eğitim almadıkları ve bu konuda düzenlenecek eğitim etkinliklerine gereksinim duydukları saptanmıştır./ Information literacy skills are very important for students in universities in terms of technological innovations and change adaptability, effective management of research processes, and future life-long learning. In today's information

  11. Synthesis of star-branched PLA-b-PMPC copolymer micelles as long blood circulation vectors to enhance tumor-targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Li-xia [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Jin, E-mail: zhaojin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Ke; He, Li-gang; Qian, Xiao-ming; Liu, Chao-yong; Wang, Li-mei; Yang, Xin-qi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Jinjin [Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211 (China); Ren, Yu [Tianjin Research Center of Basic Medical Science, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Kang, Chun-sheng, E-mail: kang97061@yahoo.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Yuan, Xu-bo, E-mail: xbyuan@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer nanocarriers with high-density zwitterionic shell show great promise in drug delivery due to their controllable small size and excellent anti-biofouling properties. This gives the hydrophobic cargo with high stability and long blood circulation in vivo. In the present study, star-branched polylactic acid and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) copolymers with (AB{sub 3}){sub 3}–type architecture (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} were conceived as drug vectors, and the copolymers were synthesized by an “arm-first” approach via the combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and the click reaction. The self-assembled star-branched copolymer micelles (sCPM) had an average diameter of about 64.5 nm and exhibited an ultra-hydrophilic surface with an ultralow water contact angle of about 12.7°, which efficiently suppressed the adhesion of serum proteins. In vivo experiments showed that the sCPM loading strongly enhanced the blood circulation time of DiI and the plasma half-life of DiI in sCPM was 19.3 h. The relative accumulation concentration in tumor of DiI delivered by sCPM was 2.37-fold higher than that of PLA-PEG, at 4 h after intravenous injection. These results demonstrated that the star-branched copolymer (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} is a promising alternative carrier material for intravenous delivery versus classic PEG-modified strategies. - Highlights: • Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer micelles (sCPM) with zwitterionic shells were prepared. • sCPM possess an ultra-hydrophilic surface and thus inhibited the protein absorption. • sCPM can effectively prolong the cargo’s plasma circulation time. • sCPM can enhance the cargo’s passive tumor-targeted delivery.

  12. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Natural radioactivity and metal concentrations in soil samples taken along the Izmir - Ankara E-023 highway, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Bassari, A.; Erees, F; Cam, S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific activity and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K) were determined in roadside soil obtained from fifteen sites along Izmir-Ankara Highway, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The soil activity ranged from 42.6 to 47.3 Bqkg -1 for 238 U, 31.8 to 36.3 Bqkg -1 for 232 Th, and 432 to 488 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. The highest mean value of 238 U was found in the soil samples obtained from a site close to the intersection of the roads. The study yielded an annual effective dose equivalent in the range of 58 - 80 μSv. The average value falls within the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in UNSCEAR-2000 publications. Also Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr concentrations were determined in roadside soil. Rb, Sr, Zr and Zn concentrations in roadside soil around the intersection of the roads were higher than maximum concentration levels of these heavy metals in normal soil

  14. Determining the agent factors related with time management of responsible doctors and nurses in clinics at Ankara University hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuner, Ahmet Munir; Nilgun, Sarp; Cifteli, F Gulay

    2006-01-01

    This research has been planned and conducted as a descriptive scanning model field study in order to determine the agent factors related with time management of doctors and nurses in positions of responsibility at Ankara University hospitals. As data collection instruments; the "Personal Information Form" which has been developed to determine the socio-demographical characteristics of the research group, the questionnaire of "Determining the Time Management Attitudes and Behaviour of Managers, Time Management Opportunities of the Managers, Prodcutive Working Times of the Managers and the Factors Causing Them to Lose Time", developed by Erdem has been used. It has been determined that the time management attitudes and behaviour of doctors, nurses and nurse assistants responsible for clinics are all different. It was found that nurse assistants graduated from pre-undergraduate or high schools are the least conscious of time management. In particular, nurse assistants of 36 years old and over with 21 years of work experience and 11 years of management experience show little awareness of time management. The time losing factors of the research group were found to be unnecessary visitors, lack of materials and the excessive amount of time spent on obtaining the necessary equipment.

  15. Evaluation of Sun Protection Habits and Melanocytic Nevi of Population Screened in a Shopping Mall in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Öztürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The evaluation of sun protection habits, numbers and types of nevi in our community. Material and Method: A stand was built in a big mall in Ankara where 764 patients were screened for the presence of nevi in three working day periods during the month of May of 2005 and 2006. Lesions were evaluated with the help of digital dermatoscopy. In the study, sun protective practices, sunscreen using habits, dermatoscopic diagnosis of the lesions, numbers and the localization of the lesions were also recorded. Results: The study population consisted of 764 patients (438 female, 326 male with age ranging from 1 to 80 (33.7±13.7 years. 55.6% of them had skin type III, 47.3% had sunburn history. Most of the patients (44.1% were not using sunscreens. Hats and umbrellas (40.3% were the most common accessories used for protection. 904 lesions of 764 patients examined by dermatoscopy revealed that the most common diagnosis was nevi. Two patients were diagnosed with having cutaneous melanoma or basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Our findings have shown that the general population is not aware of the risks of sun exposure or the appropriate ways for sun protection and that there is a necessity for educational programmes or campaigns about sun protection and nevi in our general population.

  16. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  17. Estimating the Soil Erosion Risk Around Ankara-Bağlum Kösrelik Pond Using CORINE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel YALÇIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Rural Recreation Area of Kösrelik Pond in the Keçiören district of Ankara was studied. The maps of potential and actual soil erosion risk of about 65 ha of the environment surrounding the pond, which was planned as a rural recreation area, were investigated using CORINE methodology. Accordingly, the necessary physical and chemical soil analyses were performed on 10 surface samples and soil samples from 4 profiles additionally opened on the field, and the maps were created by CORINE methodology using GIS technologies. According to the results of the potential soil erosion risk map obtained in this study, no potential erosion risk was found in 10% whereas, low risk of potential erosion was determined in 9%. In addition medium risk of potential erosion was found in 66%, and high risk of potential erosion was found in 15% of the total area. Nevertheless, according to the results of the actual soil erosion risk map, no actual erosion risk was found in 10% whereas, low risk was found in 2%, medium risk was found in 24%. Moreover, high risk of actual erosion was found in 64% of the total area. It has been observed that the natural vegetation within the study area has substantially prevented erosion. The amount of erosion substantially increases due to the destruction of natural vegetation and soil cultivation of agricultural land

  18. Reflection of Information Technologies over the Information Professionals in Terms of Status: A Survey on the Librarians in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanur Öztemiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order not to succumb to technologies that carry out tasks similar to those performed by humans, modern professional understanding makes it essential to adopt reconciliatory approaches. Because it requires less effort, the partnership between manpower and technology allows professional activities to be carried out in a shorter time and results in greater product or service output. In addition, this partnership deeply affects the workforce responsible for professional implementation. Developing technologies have brought about various changes in education and job titles and particularly in the professional specifications for information professionals. This study aims to set forth the reflections of change on the status extent, based on the information professionals ’ experiences. This study is based on descriptive methodology and covers 106 information professionals working in public libraries, university libraries and in the libraries of those institutions attached to the Prime Ministry in the Turkish capital city Ankara. This research finds that changes in information technologies have had meaningful impacts in terms of indicators of social status such as value, respectability, financial income and professional interest.

  19. Vector models and generalized SYK models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Cheng [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence RI 02912 (United States)

    2017-05-23

    We consider the relation between SYK-like models and vector models by studying a toy model where a tensor field is coupled with a vector field. By integrating out the tensor field, the toy model reduces to the Gross-Neveu model in 1 dimension. On the other hand, a certain perturbation can be turned on and the toy model flows to an SYK-like model at low energy. A chaotic-nonchaotic phase transition occurs as the sign of the perturbation is altered. We further study similar models that possess chaos and enhanced reparameterization symmetries.

  20. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165–transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Moimas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen–glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  1. Vectorization in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the optimal vectorization algorithm for many steps (and sub-steps) in a typical ab initio calculation of molecular electronic structure is quite strongly dependent on the target vector machine. Details such as the availability (or lack) of a given vector construct in the hardware, vector startup times and asymptotic rates must all be considered when selecting the optimal algorithm. Illustrations are drawn from: gaussian integral evaluation, fock matrix construction, 4-index transformation of molecular integrals, direct-CI methods, the matrix multiply operation. A cross comparison of practical implementations on the CDC Cyber 205, the Cray-IS and Cray-XMP machines is presented. To achieve portability while remaining optimal on a wide range of machines it is necessary to code all available algorithms in a machine independent manner, and to select the appropriate algorithm using a procedure which is based on machine dependent parameters. Most such parameters concern the timing of certain vector loop kernals, which can usually be derived from a 'bench-marking' routine executed prior to the calculation proper

  2. Vector Fields on Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This short report establishes some basic properties of smooth vector fields on product manifolds. The main results are: (i) On a product manifold there always exists a direct sum decomposition into horizontal and vertical vector fields. (ii) Horizontal and vertical vector fields are naturally isomorphic to smooth families of vector fields defined on the factors. Vector fields are regarded as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions.

  3. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  4. Sums and Gaussian vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.

  5. Duality in vector optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Radu Ioan

    2009-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and comprehensive results regarding duality for scalar, vector and set-valued optimization problems in a general setting. After a preliminary chapter dedicated to convex analysis and minimality notions of sets with respect to partial orderings induced by convex cones a chapter on scalar conjugate duality follows. Then investigations on vector duality based on scalar conjugacy are made. Weak, strong and converse duality statements are delivered and connections to classical results from the literature are emphasized. One chapter is exclusively consecrated to the s

  6. Multithreading in vector processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi

    2018-01-16

    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  7. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  8. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  9. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  10. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for lung nodule detection in chest radiographs by means of two-stage nodule enhancement with support vector classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji; MacMahon, Heber

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) scheme for nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) with a high sensitivity and a low false-positive (FP) rate. Methods: The authors developed a CADe scheme consisting of five major steps, which were developed for improving the overall performance of CADe schemes. First, to segment the lung fields accurately, the authors developed a multisegment active shape model. Then, a two-stage nodule-enhancement technique was developed for improving the conspicuity of nodules. Initial nodule candidates were detected and segmented by using the clustering watershed algorithm. Thirty-one shape-, gray-level-, surface-, and gradient-based features were extracted from each segmented candidate for determining the feature space, including one of the new features based on the Canny edge detector to eliminate a major FP source caused by rib crossings. Finally, a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) with a Gaussian kernel was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. Results: To evaluate and compare the scheme to other published CADe schemes, the authors used a publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs. The CADe scheme based on the SVM classifier achieved sensitivities of 78.6% (110/140) and 71.4% (100/140) with averages of 5.0 (1165/233) FPs/image and 2.0 (466/233) FPs/image, respectively, in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the CADe scheme based on a linear discriminant analysis classifier had a sensitivity of 60.7% (85/140) at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. For nodules classified as ''very subtle'' and ''extremely subtle,'' a sensitivity of 57.1% (24/42) was achieved at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. When the authors used a database developed at the University of Chicago, the sensitivities was 83.3% (40/48) and 77.1% (37/48) at an FP rate of 5.0 (240/48) FPs/image and 2.0 (96/48) FPs /image, respectively. Conclusions: These results compare favorably to those described for

  11. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Okuma Alışkanlığı: Ankara Üniversitesi Örneği / Reading Habit of University Students: The Model of Ankara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Odabaş, Z. Canan Odabaş ve Coşkun Polat

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available [Turkish abstract]Okuma alışkanlığı, okuma eyleminin sürekli, düzenli ve eleştirel olarak sürdürülmesidir. Okuma alışkanlığının özünde sürdürülebilirlik yaklaşımı bulunmaktadır. Sürdürülebilir okuma alışkanlığı, bireyin yaşamının her döneminde okuma eylemini kalıcı ve düzenli olarak devam ettirmesini ifade eder. Türkiye’de okuma kültürünün gelişmiş ülke ortalamalarının oldukça altında olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu bakımdan çalışmanın temel amacı Türkiye’nin genel yapısında gözlemlenen bu olumsuz tablonun üniversite öğrencileri üzerine ne düzeyde yansıdığına ilişkin durum saptamasıdır. Çalışmada ilk olarak okuma alışkanlığı kavramsal olarak irdelenmekte, daha sonra Türkiye’de okuma alışkanlığının durumu ortaya konmakta ve son olarak da Ankara Üniversitesi lisans öğrencileri üzerinde yapılan anket uygulamasının sonuçları değerlendirilmektedir. Çıkan sonuçlar yüksek öğrenim boyunca öğrencilerin okuma becerisinde gelişme olduğunu, buna karşın yeterli okuma alışkanlığına sahip olmadıklarını göstermektedir. [English abstract] Reading habit is the realization of reading activity in a continuous, systematic and critical way. In the essence of this habit, the marking approach is sustainability. Sustainable reading habit is that an individual continues with his/her reading activity at every of his/her life’s phases, and in a permanent and proper form. It is known that, reading habit as a cultural attitude in Turkey is on the average lower than those being exercised in developed countries. This study aims at examining effects of this negative situation on university students. In the first part of the paper, conceptual analysis of reading habit is made and then, the intensity of the reading habit in Turkey is examined. Finally, the results of survey study conducted among Ankara University students are evaluated. Results reveal that

  12. Three-Year Durability of Immune Responses Induced by HIV-DNA and HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara and Effect of a Late HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost in Tanzanian Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Agricola; Munseri, Patricia J; Nilsson, Charlotta; Bakari, Muhammad; Aboud, Said; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Tecleab, Teghesti; Liakina, Valentina; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Robb, Merlin L; Earl, Patricia L; Moss, Bernard; Wahren, Britta; Mhalu, Fred; Ferrari, Guido; Sandstrom, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2017-08-01

    We explored the duration of immune responses and the effect of a late third HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in HIV-DNA primed and HIV-MVA boosted Tanzanian volunteers. Twenty volunteers who had previously received three HIV-DNA and two HIV-MVA immunizations were given a third HIV-MVA immunization 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. At the time of the third HIV-MVA, 90% of the vaccinees had antibodies to HIV-1 subtype C gp140 (median titer 200) and 85% to subtype B gp160 (median titer 100). The majority of vaccinees had detectable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies, 70% against CRF01_AE virus-infected cells (median titer 239) and 84% against CRF01_AE gp120-coated cells (median titer 499). A high proportion (74%) of vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses, 63% to Gag and 42% to Env, 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. After the third HIV-MVA, there was an increase in Env-binding antibodies and ADCC-mediating antibodies relative to the response seen at the time of the third HIV-MVA vaccination, p < .0001 and p < .05, respectively. The frequency of IFN-γ ELISpot responses increased to 95% against Gag or Env and 90% to both Gag and Env, p = .064 and p = .002, respectively. In conclusion, the HIV-DNA prime/HIV-MVA boost regimen elicited potent antibody and cellular immune responses with remarkable durability, and a third HIV-MVA immunization significantly boosted both antibody and cellular immune responses relative to the levels detected at the time of the third HIV-MVA, but not to higher levels than after the second HIV-MVA.

  13. Modified montmorillonite as vector for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Winston T K; Kuo, Tzang-Fu

    2006-06-01

    Currently, gene delivery systems can be divided into two parts: viral or non-viral vectors. In general, viral vectors have a higher efficiency on gene delivery. However, they may sometimes provoke mutagenesis and carcinogenesis once re-activating in human body. Lots of non-viral vectors have been developed that tried to solve the problems happened on viral vectors. Unfortunately, most of non-viral vectors showed relatively lower transfection rate. The aim of this study is to develop a non-viral vector for gene delivery system. Montmorillonite (MMT) is one of clay minerals that consist of hydrated aluminum with Si-O tetrahedrons on the bottom of the layer and Al-O(OH)2 octahedrons on the top. The inter-layer space is about 12 A. The room is not enough to accommodate DNA for gene delivery. In the study, the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) will be intercalated into the interlayer of MMT as a layer expander to expand the layer space for DNA accommodation. The optimal condition for the preparation of DNA-HDTMA-MMT is as follows: 1 mg of 1.5CEC HDTMA-MMT was prepared under pH value of 10.7 and with soaking time for 2 h. The DNA molecules can be protected from nuclease degradation, which can be proven by the electrophoresis analysis. DNA was successfully transfected into the nucleus of human dermal fibroblast and expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene with green fluorescence emission. The HDTMA-MMT has a great potential as a vector for gene delivery in the future.

  14. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  15. Production of lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto-Wilhelm Merten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors (LV have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented.

  16. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Gram-Schmidt process is one of the first things one learns in a course ... We might want to stay as close to the experimental data as possible when converting these vectors to orthonormal ones demanded by the model. The process of finding the closest or- thonormal .... is obtained by writing the matrix A = [aI, an], then.

  17. From vectors to mnesors

    OpenAIRE

    Champenois, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The mnesor theory is the adaptation of vectors to artificial intelligence. The scalar field is replaced by a lattice. Addition becomes idempotent and multiplication is interpreted as a selection operation. We also show that mnesors can be the foundation for a linear calculus.

  18. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  19. On vector equilibrium problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [G] Giannessi F, Theorems of alternative, quadratic programs and complementarity problems, in: Variational Inequalities and Complementarity Problems (eds) R W Cottle, F Giannessi and J L Lions (New York: Wiley) (1980) pp. 151±186. [K1] Kazmi K R, Existence of solutions for vector optimization, Appl. Math. Lett. 9 (1996).

  20. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  1. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  2. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  3. Evaluation on Living Public Spaces and Their Qualities - Case Study from Ankara Konur, Karanfil and Yüksel Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Nilüfer; Imren Güzel, Burcu; Kavak, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Public spaces constitute one of the main elements of the living cities. They stand out as places reflecting the social structure of the society and the past values. They appear as the places one can observe the changes and modernity of the society as well as socializing places. Following to private and semi-private spaces, public spaces such as streets, squares and parks provide people a chance to be together and contact with each other. In living and vibrant places with these random appointments they feel that they belong to social urban life. Therefore, well-designed living public spaces are important indicators of the quality of life and user satisfaction. In the scope of this paper the basic principles and design criteria that create living public spaces and their effects on user satisfaction are discussed. By analysing the spatial reflections of used design criteria it is aimed to relate the existing arrangements to user satisfaction. For these analysis, Yüksel Street located at Kızılay Square in Ankara centre and side streets of Karanfil and Konur (all car-free) were selected as case study area. This area is one of the most important and most densely used pedestrian zone of the capital with its green pattern, location and crossroads. At the beginning, basic design criteria and implementation methods are detailed with the literature survey. Then basic criteria and design principles are verified by using field studies including a survey with randomly asked 270 questionnaires. For defining the user satisfaction and bringing out the qualifications and failures in the case study area user surveys are analysed by field study observations and SPSS Statistics software. Finally, practical suggestions which are believed to be useful for this type of public places in developing and less developed countries are proposed

  4. Determination of the Burnout Levels of Workers and Factors Affecting It in a District Municipality, in Central Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Kucuk Bicer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the burnout levels of municipality workers and the factors affecting it. Method: The descriptive study was carried out in a municipality in Ankara. The data was collected under observation. A standart questionnaire composed of some descriptive features, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and General Health Survey-12 (GSA-12 questions was used. SPSS 15.0 statistical programme was used for analysis (alpha value was taken as 0.05. Also logistic regression was used in advanced analysis in order to determine the factors effecting burnout. Results: In the study, 48.0% of the workers were female and their age was between the ages of 20 to 61 years. Women, workers between 30-39 years old, who are in risk according to GHQ-12 and with chronical diseases got scores over median value from all three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (D and personal accomplishment (PA. According to logistic regression results, gender, graduation from college, chronical disease and GHQ-12 was related with EE, whereas marital status, number of children, GHQ-12 scores, EE and PA was related with D. PA was found related with GHQ-12 scores, number of children and D scores. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that burnout was found to be related with gender, chronical disease and mental health symptoms. Because this is a descriptive study precautionary approach to the results is needed. Determination of confounding factors by using similar models will be helpful to show the major effecting factors of burnout. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 673-680

  5. ANKARA’DA ERKEN BİZANS DÖNEMİ MEZAR ALANI KAZISI / EARLY BYZANTINE CEMETERY EXCAVATION IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut AYDIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roma Dönemi’nde Galatia Eyaleti’nin başkentliğini yapan Ankyra kentinin anıtsal yapıları ve diğer çarpıcı kalıntıları ile olası nekropol alanları genellikle Ankara’nın Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi imar faaliyetleri sırasında gerçekleşen hafriyat çalışmaları ile açığa çıkarılmıştır. Ankara Celal Bayar Bulvarı üzerindeki Gazi Üniversitesi Sıhhiye Kampüsünde inşa edilen Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesindeki yapılaşma faaliyetleri sırasında ortaya çıkarılan Maltepe Erken Bizans Dönemi Mezar Alanı olasılıkla Ankyra kentinin daha önce bir bölümü tespit edilen güney nekropolü’nün devamı niteliğindedir. Gerçekleştirilen kurtarma kazısı sonucunda bu alanda tahrip edilmiş olası bir kilisenin küçük bir kısmı ve kilise cemaatine ait olması muhtemel beşik tonozlu bir mezar yapısı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

  6. Progress toward a universal H5N1 vaccine: a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-expressing trivalent hemagglutinin vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mookkan Prabakaran

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza poses the greatest challenge in control of H5N1 infection by currently existing vaccines. To overcome this, an MVAtor vector expressing three H5HA antigens A/Vietnam/1203/04, A/Indonesia/669/06 and A/Anhui/01/05 (MVAtor-tri-HA vector was developed to elicit broad cross-protection against diverse clades by covering amino acid variations in the major neutralizing epitopes of HA among H5N1 subtypes.BALB/c mice and guinea pigs were immunized i.m. with 8×107 TCID50/animal of MVAtor-tri-HA vector. The immunogenicity and cross-protective immunity of the MVAtor-tri-HA vector was evaluated against diverse clades of H5N1 strains.The results showed that mice immunized with MVAtor-tri-HA vector induced robust cross-neutralizing immunity to diverse H5N1 clades. In addition, the MVAtor-tri-HA vector completely protected against 10 MLD50 of a divergent clade of H5N1 infection (clade 7. Importantly, the serological surveillance of post-vaccinated guinea pig sera demonstrated that MVAtor-tri-HA vector was able to elicit strong cross-clade neutralizing immunity against twenty different H5N1 strains from six clades that emerged between 1997 and 2012.The present findings revealed that incorporation of carefully selected HA genes from divergent H5N1 strains within a single vector could be an effective approach in developing a vaccine with broad coverage to prevent infection during a pandemic situation.

  7. AAV Vectorization of DSB-mediated Gene Editing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rachel J; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Recent work both at the bench and the bedside demonstrate zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), CRISPR/Cas9, and other programmable site-specific endonuclease technologies are being successfully utilized within and alongside AAV vectors to induce therapeutically relevant levels of directed gene editing within the human chromosome. Studies from past decades acknowledge that AAV vector genomes are enhanced substrates for homology-directed repair in the presence or absence of targeted DNA damage within the host genome. Additionally, AAV vectors are currently the most efficient format for in vivo gene delivery with no vector related complications in >100 clinical trials for diverse diseases. At the same time, advancements in the design of custom-engineered site-specific endonucleases and the utilization of elucidated endonuclease formats have resulted in efficient and facile genetic engineering for basic science and for clinical therapies. AAV vectors and gene editing technologies are an obvious marriage, using AAV for the delivery of repair substrate and/or a gene encoding a designer endonuclease; however, while efficient delivery and enhanced gene targeting by vector genomes are advantageous, other attributes of AAV vectors are less desirable for gene editing technologies. This review summarizes the various roles that AAV vectors play in gene editing technologies and provides insight into its trending applications for the treatment of genetic diseases.

  8. Ankara Vespidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) Türleri Üzerine Faunistik Çalışmalar ve Ekolojik Gözlemler

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZÜN, Ayla; KEKİLLİOĞLU, Aysel

    2003-01-01

    Bu araştırma, 1998-2001 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin başkenti Ankara ili civarında yapılan arazi çalışmaları sonucunda elde edilen 683 örneğe dayanmaktadır. Çalışma sonucunda 4 cinse ait (Vespa, Vespula, Dolichovespula, Polistes ) 9 tür ve 1 alt tür; Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Vespula (Paravespula) germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespula (Paravespula) vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Dolichovespula (Metavespula) slyvestris (Scopoli, 1763), Polistes (s.str.) gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767), Polistes (s...

  9. Investigation of Diatomite Properties from Ankara-Kızılcahamam and Çankırı-Çerkeş Regions

    OpenAIRE

    ARUNTAŞ, H. Yılmaz

    1998-01-01

    The physical properties, chemical and mineralogical compositions and microscopic structures of diatomites collected from Ankara-Kızılcahamam and Çankırı-Çerkeş regions were examined in this study. The diatomites were found to be pure, amorphous, usually soft and easily friable with particle size of 5-50 mm. It was determined that the diatomites were highly with a high water absorption capacity and contained plagioclase, smectite, and quartz minerals. The specific gravity was less th...

  10. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  11. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  12. Reciprocity in Vector Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Green’s Theorem to the left hand side of Equation (3.2) converts it to a surface integral that vanishes for the impedance boundary conditions one...There are situations where this assumption does not hold, such as at boundaries between layers or in an inhomogeneous layer , because the density gradient...instead of requiring one model run for each source location. Application of the vector-scalar reciprocity principle is demonstrated with analytic

  13. Tensor Calculus: Unlearning Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wha-Suck; Engelbrecht, Johann; Moller, Rita

    2018-01-01

    Tensor calculus is critical in the study of the vector calculus of the surface of a body. Indeed, tensor calculus is a natural step-up for vector calculus. This paper presents some pitfalls of a traditional course in vector calculus in transitioning to tensor calculus. We show how a deeper emphasis on traditional topics such as the Jacobian can…

  14. Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7

  15. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  16. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs......-agents for which the rate of introduction wasestimated to be very low, no further asse ssments were made. Due to the uncertainty related to someparameters used for the risk assessment or the instable or unpredictability disease situation in some ofthe source regions, it is recommended to update the assessment when...

  17. Scalar and vector Galileons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes. (paper)

  18. Vectors to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Vector Pipeline project linking the Chicago supply hub to markets in eastern Canada, the northeastern U.S. and the Mid-Atlantic states, is described. Subsidiary objectives of the promoters are to match market timing to upstream pipelines and market requirements, and to provide low cost expandability to complement upstream expandability. The presentation includes description of the project, costs, leased facilities, rates and tariffs, right of way considerations, storage facilities and a project schedule. Construction is to begin in March 1999 and the line should be in service in November 1999

  19. Vector-vector production in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of exclusive untagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 , /rho//phi/, K/sup *//bar K//sup */, and /rho/ω production and tagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 production in photon-photon interactions by the TPC/Two-Gamma experiment are reviewed. Comparisons to the results of other experiments and to models of vector-vector production are made. Fits to the data following a four quark model prescription for vector meson pair production are also presented. 10 refs., 9 figs

  20. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vector control in leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, K; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Das, P; Bhattacharya, S K

    2006-03-01

    Indoor residual spraying is a simple and cost effective method of controlling endophilic vectors and DDT remains the insecticide of choice for the control of leishmaniasis. However resistance to insecticide is likely to become more widespread in the population especially in those areas in which insecticide has been used for years. In this context use of slow release emulsified suspension (SRES) may be the best substitute. In this review spraying frequencies of DDT and new schedule of spray have been discussed. Role of biological control and environment management in the control of leishmaniasis has been emphasized. Allethrin (coil) 0.1 and 1.6 per cent prallethrin (liquid) have been found to be effective repellents against Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian kalaazar. Insecticide impregnated bednets is another area which requires further research on priority basis for the control of leishmaniasis. Role of satellite remote sensing for early prediction of disease by identifying the sandflygenic conditions cannot be undermined. In future synthetic pheromons can be exploited in the control of leishmaniasis.

  2. Experimental demonstration of vector E x vector B plasma divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The vector E x vector B drift due to an applied radial electric field in a tokamak with poloidal divertor can speed the flow of plasma out of the scrape-off region, and provide a means of externally controlling the flow rate and thus the width of the density fall-off. An experiment in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole, using vector E x vector B drifts alone, demonstrates divertor-like behavior, including 70% reduction of plasma density near the wall and 40% reduction of plasma flux to the wall, with no adverse effects on confinement of the main plasma

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara-based influenza A H5N1 vaccine: a randomised, double-blind phase 1/2a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Goeijenbier, Marco; Moesker, Fleur M; van den Dries, Lennert; Goeijenbier, Simone; De Gruyter, Heidi L M; Lehmann, Michael H; Mutsert, Gerrie de; van de Vijver, David A M C; Volz, Asisa; Fouchier, Ron A M; van Gorp, Eric C M; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-12-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising viral vector platform for the development of an H5N1 influenza vaccine. Preclinical assessment of MVA-based H5N1 vaccines showed their immunogenicity and safety in different animal models. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the MVA-haemagglutinin-based H5N1 vaccine MVA-H5-sfMR in healthy individuals. In a single-centre, double-blind phase 1/2a study, young volunteers (aged 18-28 years) were randomly assigned with a computer-generated list in equal numbers to one of eight groups and were given one injection or two injections intramuscularly at an interval of 4 weeks of a standard dose (10(8) plaque forming units [pfu]) or a ten times lower dose (10(7) pfu) of the MVA-H5-sfMR (vector encoding the haemagglutinin gene of influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 virus [H5N1 subtype]) or MVA-F6-sfMR (empty vector) vaccine. Volunteers and physicians who examined and administered the vaccine were masked to vaccine assignment. Individuals who received the MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine were eligible for a booster immunisation 1 year after the first immunisation. Primary endpoint was safety. Secondary outcome was immunogenicity. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, number NTR3401. 79 of 80 individuals who were enrolled completed the study. No serious adverse events were identified. 11 individuals reported severe headache and lightheadedness, erythema nodosum, respiratory illness (accompanied by influenza-like symptoms), sore throat, or injection-site reaction. Most of the volunteers had one or more local (itch, pain, redness, and swelling) and systemic reactions (rise in body temperature, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, malaise, and fatigue) after the first, second, and booster immunisations. Individuals who received the 10(7) dose had fewer systemic reactions. The MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine at 10(8) pfu induced significantly higher antibody responses after one and two immunisations than did 10(7) pfu when

  4. Measuring emotions in traffic : paper presented at the ESF Congress ‘Towards Safer Road Traffic in Southern Europe’, May 31st-June 2nd 2001, Ankara, Turkey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesken, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains the text of a presentation held at the European Science Foundation Congress ‘Towards Safer Road Traffic in Southern Europe’ (May 31st – June 2nd, 2001, Ankara , Turkey). In this paper, methods to measure emotions are reviewed and possible applications for traffic research are

  5. Video Vectorization via Tetrahedral Remeshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhu, Jie; Guo, Yanwen; Wang, Wenping

    2017-02-09

    We present a video vectorization method that generates a video in vector representation from an input video in raster representation. A vector-based video representation offers the benefits of vector graphics, such as compactness and scalability. The vector video we generate is represented by a simplified tetrahedral control mesh over the spatial-temporal video volume, with color attributes defined at the mesh vertices. We present novel techniques for simplification and subdivision of a tetrahedral mesh to achieve high simplification ratio while preserving features and ensuring color fidelity. From an input raster video, our method is capable of generating a compact video in vector representation that allows a faithful reconstruction with low reconstruction errors.

  6. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  7. Extended vector-tensor theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke, E-mail: rampei@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: naruko@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@th.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  8. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  9. Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed

  10. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  11. Vector properties in molecular photodissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.

    1999-12-01

    The technique of resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) of atomic and molecular species produced from a photofragmentation event combined with time-of flight (TOF) detection is used to examine scalar and vector properties following photodissociation. This technique is applied to the study of methyl bromide dissociation in a product state specific manner. We report measurements of the angular distributions and kinetic energy releases of the resulting bromine atoms in the ground and first spin-orbit excited state. Additionally we report measurements of the angular distributions and kinetic energy releases of the methyl fragment in the ground vibrational state, and also the excited state with one quanta in the ν 2 vibrational modes. These studies were carried out in the red wing of the absorption band at several wavelengths. For these measurements we were able to resolve the spin orbit state of the partner bromine fragment. From our observations we find new evidence for enhanced nonadiabatic curve crossing active in methyl bromide dissociation in comparison with earlier studies of methyl iodide. The atomic polarization produced following photodissociation of a diatomic molecule was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. We develop theoretical expressions relating the lab frame and molecular frame atomic polarization to the photoexcitation and subsequent dissociation of a diatomic molecule. This treatment includes both incoherent, coherent and non-adiabatic processes which may be active in the photodissociation process. We treat the general case of a polarized diatomic molecule yielding two fragments with non zero angular momentum. Experimentally, an investigation of the polarization of atomic Cl( 2 P 3/2 ) photofragments from the ∼330 nm photolysis of molecular chlorine using the REMPI-TOF technique is reported. We present a theoretical framework in which to treat such experiments allowing the extraction of parameters with direct physical

  12. Chameleon vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Ann E.; Walsh, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    We show that for a force mediated by a vector particle coupled to a conserved U(1) charge, the apparent range and strength can depend on the size and density of the source, and the proximity to other sources. This chameleon effect is due to screening from a light charged scalar. Such screening can weaken astrophysical constraints on new gauge bosons. As an example we consider the constraints on chameleonic gauged B-L. We show that although Casimir measurements greatly constrain any B-L force much stronger than gravity with range longer than 0.1 μm, there remains an experimental window for a long-range chameleonic B-L force. Such a force could be much stronger than gravity, and long or infinite range in vacuum, but have an effective range near the surface of the earth which is less than a micron.

  13. Architecture and Vector Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Knols, Bart GJ; Kirby, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    , closing of eaves and insecticide treated bednets. All of these interventions have an effect on the indoor climate. Temperature, humidity and airflow are critical for a comfortable climate. Air-conditioning and fans allow us to control indoor climate, but many people in Africa and Asia who carry the brunt...... of vector-borne diseases have no access to electricity. Many houses in the hot, humid regions of Asia have adapted to the environment, they are built of porous materials and are elevated on stilts features which allow a comfortable climate even in the presence of bednets and screens. In contrast, many...... buildings in Africa and Asia in respect to their indoor climate characteristics and finally, show how state-of-the-art 3D modelling can predict climate characteristics and help to optimize buildings....

  14. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Politi, Antonio; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi–Pasta–Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  15. Preclinical assessment of viral vectored and protein vaccines targeting the Duffy-binding protein region II of Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C de Cassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine development has largely focused on Plasmodium falciparum; however a reawakening to the importance of P. vivax has spurred efforts to develop vaccines against this difficult to treat and at times severe form of relapsing malaria, which constitutes a significant proportion of human malaria cases worldwide. The almost complete dependence of P. vivax red blood cell invasion on the interaction of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein region II (PvDBP_RII with the human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC, makes this antigen an attractive vaccine candidate against blood-stage P. vivax. Here, we generated both preclinical and clinically-compatible adenoviral and poxviral vectored vaccine candidates expressing the Salvador I allele of PvDBP_RII – including human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5, chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA vectors. We report on the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice or rabbits, either used alone in a viral vectored prime-boost regime, or in ‘mixed-modality’ adenovirus prime – protein-in-adjuvant boost regimes (using a recombinant protein PvDBP_RII protein antigen formulated in Montanide®ISA720 or Abisco®100 adjuvants. Antibodies induced by these regimes were found to bind to native parasite antigen from P. vivax infected Thai patients and were capable of inhibiting the binding of PvDBP_RII to its receptor DARC using an in vitro binding inhibition assay. In recent years, recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors have been quickly translated into human clinical trials for numerous antigens from P. falciparum as well as a growing number of other pathogens. The vectors reported here are immunogenic in small animals, elicit antibodies against PvDBP_RII and have recently entered clinical trials which will provide the first assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of the PvDBP_RII antigen in humans.

  16. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person’s understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  17. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke

    2017-12-01

    The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  18. Magnetic concentration of a retroviral vector using magnetite cationic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kameyama, Yujiro; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2009-03-01

    For tissue engineering purposes, retroviral vectors represent an efficient method of delivering exogenous genes such as growth factors to injured tissues because gene-transduced cells can produce stable and constant levels of the gene product. However, retroviral vector technology suffers from low yields. In the present study, we used magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force to concentrate the retroviral vectors to enhance the transduction efficiency and to enable their magnetic manipulation. Magnetite nanoparticles modified with cationic liposomes were added to a solution containing a retroviral vector pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The magnetic particles that captured the viral vectors were collected using a magnetic force and seeded into mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells. The viral titer was up to 55 times greater (up to 3 x 10(8) infectious units/mL). Additionally, the magnetically labeled retroviral vectors can be directed to the desired regions for infection by applying magnetic fields, and micro-patterns of gene-transduced cell regions could be created on a cellular monolayer using micro-patterned magnetic concentrators. These results suggest that this technique provides a promising approach to capturing and concentrating viral vectors, thus achieving high transduction efficiency and the ability to deliver genes to a specific injured site by applying a magnetic field.

  19. Ankara’daki Halk Kütüphanelerinde Halkla İlişkiler =Public Relations of Public Libraries in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadeniz, Şenol

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Ankara'daki halk kütüphanelerinin, kullanıcılarını sunulan hizmetler hakkında neden yeterince bilgilendiremedikleri ve kendilerini kullanıcılarına neden yeterince tanıtamadıkları konusu irdelenmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı, halk kütüphanelerinde uygulanabilecek halkla ilişkiler yöntemlerinin neler olduğunu, halk kütüphanelerinin planlı halkla ilişkiler faaliyetlerinde bulunmamalarının nedenlerini ve bu nedenlerin boyutunu, özelliklerini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın evrenini Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi sınırları içinde hizmet veren Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı'na bağlı halk ve çocuk kütüphaneleri oluşturmaktadır. Önceden yapılandırılmış görüşme kapsamında halk kütüphanesi yöneticileriyle görüşülmüş, ayrıca araştırma kapsamındaki kütüphanelerde gözlem tekniği uygulanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular ışığında, halk kütüphanelerinin sistematik halkla ilişkiler programları uygulamamaları nedeniyle, kütüphaneyi tanıtmada ve sunulan hizmetlere ilişkin kullanıcılarda olumlu görüş oluşturmada yetersiz kaldıkları anlaşılmıştır In this study the answers to the question "why the public libraries in Ankara could not inform their users about services off ered properly, and could not introduce themselves to users suffi ciently ?" were explicated. The goal of the study is to fi nd out which public relations methods can be used in libraries, and why libraries could not conduct planned public relations activities. The research universe consists of public libraries being administratively connected to Ministry of Culture and Tourism, which lie within the borders of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. For the collection of data, pre-confi gured talks were applied to the managers who were working for the public libraries, and moreover the fulfi llment of library activities were observed. The fi ndings of the study indicate that, since

  20. Comparison of Corporate Image a nd Patient Loyalty Perceptions of Outpatients and Inpatients: Example of a Training and Research Hospital in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Rıfkı Önder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of corporate image and patient loyalty of outpatients and inpatients who get services from a hospital and to evaluate the relationship between corporate images’ factors and patient loyalty. Totally 600 patients from a training and research hospitals in Ankara, formed the study sample. As a result, outpatients’ loyalty and image perceptions found medium level; while inpatients’ level found high. In addition, the effect of corporate image factors on patient loyalty was determined that there is a statistically significant , strong and positive correlation and 83% of patient loyalty is explained by corporate image factors. Based on the research findings, making improvements especially in quality and also physical, communication, social responsibility factors can obtain loyal patients. It is suggested to adopt different strategies to outpatients and inpatients while implementing these improvements.

  1. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  2. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA-vectored

  3. Simplified Representation of Vector Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    1999-01-01

    Vector field visualization remains a difficult task. Although many local and global visualization methods for vector fields such as flow data exist, they usually require extensive user experience on setting the visualization parameters in order to produce images communicating the desired insight. We

  4. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...... fields by means of stochastic relaxation implemented via the Gibbs sampler....

  5. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  6. Archimedeanization of ordered vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Emelyanov, Eduard Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the case of an ordered vector space with an order unit, the Archimedeanization method has been developed recently by V.I Paulsen and M. Tomforde. We present a general version of the Archimedeanization which covers arbitrary ordered vector spaces.

  7. Changing Cultural Spaces, Transformation of the Traditions: Hıdırellez Celebrations held in Ankara and Hamamönü Hıdırellez Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcan Gürçayır Teke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hıdırellez festival, one of the rituals that hails the start of summer, is celebrated widely across Anatolia. The belief thatwishes for the future will come true if certain actions are performed at Hıdırellez festival, may be seen as the basic motivation behind this ritual and the transmission of this tradition from generation to generation. Many practices at Hıdırellez are related to nature. The space to celebrate Hıdırellez is of the utmost importance due to the context of the ritual. There are many cultural spaces in Anatolia assigned for the celebration of Hıdırellez; these are selected based on the belief that they have been visited by Hızır. The cultural transmission of Hıdırellez celebrations is being hindered among an urbanizing population due to fewnew spaces being planned for them and a lack of protection for the existing spaces. This article focuses on the Hıdırellez festival spaces and the necessity of moving these spaces into cities in order to maintain the tradition. This article evaluates the basic importance of these spaces from the standpoint of sustainability and the formation of the tradition using the Hamamönü Hıdırellez festival, which is celebrated in Ankara. It discusses the variations of the participant profiles at the Sixth Hamamönü Hıdırellez festival, to be held in Ankara this year and the how their expectations have been shaped based on changing spaces. It concludes that besides the dimension of belief in the rituals, the dimension of entertainment is also prominent for participants at the Hamamönü Hıdırellez festival, and that various Hıdırellez traditions have found their way into popular culture.

  8. Residents’ Awareness of Urban and Social Living Quality: The Example of Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood in Çayyolu/Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tanju Gültekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, the dynamics of globalization have directed the processes of social, cultural, and political adjustment as well as those of economic integration and especially capital towards urban development, forming urban space. The wave of globalization in Turkey, within a process of economic change in the context of neo liberal policies, urban space has been turned into the most profitable area of investment in the unearned income (economic rent sector. The residential sector has been included in this process quickly and easily through effective and widespread marketing strategies. Over the last two decades of this development, the Ankara-Çayyolu District has become segregated economically and socially between its upper and upper-middle class residents in the urban context. This segregation is evident in residential areas with high-level physical and spatial quality. On the other hand, in addition to the measurable physical and spatial standards of housing quality, it is also important to find out if the quality of living meets the social and cultural expectations of its residents. Starting from this point of view, we examine residents’ perceptions of their physical and social environment in our chosen sample area in the Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood, and their demands and awareness of housing quality. The story of this neighborhood, which begins in 1980, at a time when neo liberal policies and the power to form urban space was all-important, is defined here by the residents’ quality of living and awareness of it. Our results obtained are expected to help guide the creation of liveable housing areas in the future.Keywords: Housing Users, Urban Living Quality, Social Living, Awareness, Ankara- Çayyolu-Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood.

  9. Changing Perspectives on the Planning of Ankara (1924-2007 and Lessons for a New Master-Planning Approach to Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgu Çalişkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the newly planned capitals in the 20th century – like Islamabad, Canberra and Brazil –, Ankara represents an original case in planning history: from shaping a new town under the influence of early European urbanism to the control of a dynamic metropolitan form by structural planning approaches. Forming its urban core according to the initial planning perspectives between the beginning of 1930s and the mid-1970s, the city has entered a rapid phase of space production in its extensions for about the last thirty years.In the current period of development, highly fragmented urban peripheral formation has being occurred in Ankara. Since the existing trend on the dispersion of urban form lacking spatial coherence at different scale-levels causes the dominance of the private domain and a loss of urbanity, this trend might at first glance be considered as a break with the European tradition and the emergence of Anglo-Americanization in Turkish planning system in terms of looser development control approach on urban form.Before, coming to such a critical end-point, the paper prefers a closer look into the changing dynamics of master plans of the city. It is aimed to reveal the developmental logic of the city by means of master plan analysis. The comprehensive outlook – called plan matrix – is integrated into each master plan schema by correlating the basic components like main policy directions, depth of control, settlement typology, and city structure and form. Such a framework has a potential to be utilized for any kind of plan analysis at metropolitan scale for different cases. At the end of the analysis, the paper tends to address an alternative master planning approach for the similar types of developing cities striving for keeping its urban character within a fragmented urban body.

  10. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  11. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  12. Image superresolution using support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Karl S; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2007-06-01

    A thorough investigation of the application of support vector regression (SVR) to the superresolution problem is conducted through various frameworks. Prior to the study, the SVR problem is enhanced by finding the optimal kernel. This is done by formulating the kernel learning problem in SVR form as a convex optimization problem, specifically a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem. An additional constraint is added to reduce the SDP to a quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problem. After this optimization, investigation of the relevancy of SVR to superresolution proceeds with the possibility of using a single and general support vector regression for all image content, and the results are impressive for small training sets. This idea is improved upon by observing structural properties in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain to aid in learning the regression. Further improvement involves a combination of classification and SVR-based techniques, extending works in resolution synthesis. This method, termed kernel resolution synthesis, uses specific regressors for isolated image content to describe the domain through a partitioned look of the vector space, thereby yielding good results.

  13. A static investigation of yaw vectoring concepts on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrier, B. L.; Mason, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The flow-turning capability and nozzle internal performance of yaw-vectoring nozzle geometries were tested in the NASA Langley 16-ft Transonic wind tunnel. The concept was investigated as a means of enhancing fighter jet performance. Five two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles were equipped for yaw-vectoring and examined. The configurations included a translating left sidewall, left and right sidewall flaps downstream of the nozzle throat, left sidewall flaps or port located upstream of the nozzle throat, and a powered rudder. Trials were also run with 20 deg of pitch thrust vectoring added. The feasibility of providing yaw-thrust vectoring was demonstrated, with the largest yaw vector angles being obtained with sidewall flaps downstream of the nozzle primary throat. It was concluded that yaw vector designs that scoop or capture internal nozzle flow provide the largest yaw-vector capability, but decrease the thrust the most.

  14. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  15. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  16. Violation of vector dominance in the vector manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Chihiro

    2003-01-01

    The vector manifestation (VM) is a new pattern for realizing the chiral symmetry in QCD. In the VM, the massless vector meson becomes the chiral partner of pion at the critical point, in contrast with the restoration based on the linear sigma model. Including the intrinsic temperature dependences of the parameters of the hidden local symmetry (HLS) Lagrangian determined from the underlying QCD through the Wilsonian matching together with the hadronic thermal corrections, we present a new prediction of the VM on the direct photon-π-π coupling which measures the validity of the vector dominance (VD) of the electromagnetic form factor of the pion. We find that the VD is largely violated at the critical temperature, which indicates that the assumption of the VD made in several analysis on the dilepton spectra in hot matter may need to be weakened for consistently including the effect of the dropping mass of the vector meson. (author)

  17. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases - Incidence through Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests - ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples

  18. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity...... on finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory, incorporating recent improvements by Kedlaya–Liu and by Scholze....

  19. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  20. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  1. Vectors of rickettsiae in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria, or viruses transmitted by the bites of hematophagous arthropods. In Africa, there has been a recent emergence of new diseases and the re-emergence of existing diseases, usually with changes in disease epidemiology (e.g., geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). In Africa, rickettsioses are recognized as important emerging vector-borne infections in humans. Rickettsial diseases are transmitted by different types of arthropods, ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. This review will examine the roles of these different arthropod vectors and their geographical distributions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Recommendation on vectors and vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

    2009-01-01

    In view of their increasing risk of introduction and their possible implications in causing major disease outbreaks, vectors, as well as vector-transmitted diseases like dengue, West Nile disease, Lyme disease and bluetongue need to be recognised as a threat to public and animal health and to the economy, also in the Netherlands. There has been an increase in the incidence of these diseases in the past two to three decades. Climate changes and changes in the use of land, water managemen...

  3. Vector manifestation and violation of vector dominance in hot matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masayasu; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2004-01-01

    We show the details of the calculation of the hadronic thermal corrections to the two-point functions in the effective field theory of QCD for pions and vector mesons based on the hidden local symmetry (HLS) in hot matter using the background field gauge. We study the temperature dependence of the pion velocity in the low-temperature region determined from the hadronic thermal corrections, and show that, due to the presence of the dynamical vector meson, the pion velocity is smaller than the speed of the light already at one-loop level, in contrast to the result obtained in the ordinary chiral perturbation theory including only the pion at one-loop. Including the intrinsic temperature dependences of the parameters of the HLS Lagrangian determined from the underlying QCD through the Wilsonian matching, we show how the vector manifestation (VM), in which the massless vector meson becomes the chiral partner of pion, is realized at the critical temperature. We present a new prediction of the VM on the direct photon-π-π coupling which measures the validity of the vector dominance (VD) of the electromagnetic form factor of the pion: we find that the VD is largely violated at the critical temperature, which indicates that the assumption of the VD made in several analyses on the dilepton spectra in hot matter may need to be weakened for consistently including the effect of the dropping mass of the vector meson

  4. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  5. Vectorization at the KENO-IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, K.; Higuchi, K.; Katakura, J.

    1986-01-01

    The multigroup criticality safety code KENO-IV has been vectorized and tested on the FACOM VP-100 vector processor. At first, the vectorized KENO-IV on a scalar processor was slower than the original one by a factor of 1.4 because of the overhead introduced by vectorization. Making modifications of algorithms and techniques for vectorization, the vectorized version has become faster than the original one by a factor of 1.4 on the vector processor. For further speedup of the code, some improvements on compiler and hardware, especially on addition of Monte Carlo pipelines to the vector processor, are discussed

  6. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  7. GRE Enzymes for Vector Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme data that were collected during the 2004-2006 EMAP-GRE program. These data were then used by Moorhead et al (2016) in their ecoenzyme vector...

  8. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  9. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  10. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  11. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  12. Recent Advances in Non-viral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Huang, Leaf

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Non-viral vectors, typically based on cationic lipids or polymers, are preferred due to safety concerns with viral vectors. So far, non-viral vectors can proficiently transfect cells in culture, but obtaining efficient nanomedicines is far from evident. To overcome the hurdles associated with non-viral vectors is significant for improving delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect of nucleic acid. The drawbacks include the strong interaction of cationic delivery vehicles with blood components, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), toxicity, targeting ability of the carriers to the cells of interest, and so on. PEGylation is the predominant method used to reduce the binding of plasma proteins with non-viral vectors and minimize the clearance by RES after intravenous administration. The nanoparticles that are not rapidly cleared from the circulation accumulate in the tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the targeting ligands attached to the distal end of the PEGylated components allow binding to the receptors on the target cell surface. Neutral or anionic liposomes have been also developed for systemic delivery of nucleic acids in experimental animal model. Designing and synthesizing novel cationic lipids and polymers, and binding nucleic acid with peptides, targeting ligands, polymers, or environmentally sensitive moieties also attract many attentions for resolving the problems encountered by non-viral vectors. The application of inorganic nanoparticles in nucleic acid delivery is an emerging field, too. Recently, different classes of non-viral vectors appear to be converging and the features of different classes of non-viral vectors could be combined in one strategy. More hurdles associated with efficient nucleic acid delivery therefore might be expected to be overcome. In this account, we will focus on these novel non-viral vectors, which are classified into multifunctional hybrid nucleic acid vectors, novel

  13. An exotic composite vector boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi; Yasue, Masaki.

    1990-08-01

    An exotic composite vector boson, V, is introduced in two dynamical models of composite quarks, leptons, W and Z. One is based on four Fermi interactions, in which composite vector bosons are regarded as fermion-antifermion bound states and the other is based on the confining SU(2) L gauge model, in which they are given by scalar-antiscalar bound states. Both approaches describe the same effective interactions for the sector of composite quarks, leptons, W, Z, γ and V. (author)

  14. Towards the Development of an Automated Learning Assistant for Vector Calculus: Integration over Planar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Yuzita; Wester, Michael; Steinberg, Stanly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a computer learning assistant ILMEV (Interactive Learning-Mathematica Enhanced Vector calculus) package with the purpose of helping students to understand the theory and applications of integration in vector calculus. The main problem for students using Mathematica is to convert a textbook description of a…

  15. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  16. Novel recombinant alphaviral and adenoviral vectors for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-06-01

    Although cellular immunotherapy based on autolgous dendritic cells (DCs) targeting antigens expressed by metastatic cancer has demonstrated clinical efficacy, the logistical challenges in generating an individualized cell product create an imperative to develop alternatives to DC-based cancer vaccines. Particularly attractive alternatives include in situ delivery of antigen and activation signals to resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which can be achieved by novel fusion molecules targeting the mannose receptor and by recombinant viral vectors expressing the antigen of interest and capable of infecting DCs. A particular challenge in the use of viral vectors is the well-appreciated clinical obstacles to their efficacy, specifically vector-specific neutralizing immune responses. Because heterologous prime and boost strategies have been demonstrated to be particularly potent, we developed two novel recombinant vectors based on alphaviral replicon particles and a next-generation adenovirus encoding an antigen commonly overexpressed in many human cancers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The rationale for developing these vectors, their unique characteristics, the preclinical studies and early clinical experience with each, and opportunities to enhance their effectiveness will be reviewed. The potential of each of these potent recombinant vectors to efficiently generate clinically active anti-tumor immune response alone, or in combination, will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Bii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types.

  18. Versatile generation of optical vector fields and vector beams using a non-interferometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Santosh; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2012-05-07

    We present a versatile, non-interferometric method for generating vector fields and vector beams which can produce all the states of polarization represented on a higher-order Poincaré sphere. The versatility and non-interferometric nature of this method is expected to enable exploration of various exotic properties of vector fields and vector beams. To illustrate this, we study the propagation properties of some vector fields and find that, in general, propagation alters both their intensity and polarization distribution, and more interestingly, converts some vector fields into vector beams. In the article, we also suggest a modified Jones vector formalism to represent vector fields and vector beams.

  19. Ankara’da ebeveynlerin rotavirüs hakkında bilgi düzeyleri ve çocukların rotavirüs aşılanma oranları

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKSAL, Ali Osman; KÖKSAL, Tülin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the information level of parents about rotavirus gastroenteritis, rotavirus vaccine, and the incidence of rotavirus vaccination in Ankara. 500 patients with the age of more than 4 months who admitted to our outpatient clinic in 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. We asked parents whether they have any information about rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus vaccine, and their children had the first dose of rotavirus vaccination or not. When the pa...

  20. Decays of the vector glueball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco; Sammet, Julia; Janowski, Stanislaus

    2017-06-01

    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons in the framework of a model of QCD. While absolute values of widths cannot be predicted because the corresponding coupling constants are unknown, some interesting branching ratios can be evaluated by setting the mass of the yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by quenched lattice QCD. We find that the decay mode ω π π should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain O →b1π →ω π π and through the direct coupling O →ω π π ). Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into π K K*(892 ) is sizable. Moreover, the decays into ρ π and K*(892 )K are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the ρ π puzzle of the charmonium state ψ (2 S ) thanks to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. If the width is sufficiently small (≲100 MeV ) it should not escape future detection. It should be stressed that the employed model is based on some inputs and simplifying assumptions: the value of glueball mass (at present, the quenched lattice value is used), the lack of mixing of the glueball with other quarkonium states, and the use of few interaction terms. It then represents a first step toward the identification of the main decay channels of the vector glueball, but shall be improved when corresponding experimental candidates and/or new lattice results will be available.

  1. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A.; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods. An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results. Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  2. Performance investigation of a wind turbine–solar photovoltaic panels–fuel cell hybrid system installed at İncek region – Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrim, Yılser; Bilir, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid system with a wind turbine, photovoltaic panels and a fuel cell was studied. • 3 kW wind turbine, 17.97 m 2 photovoltaics, 1.2 kW fuel cell and 4.7 kW electrolyzer was used. • The system can meet the entire demand of a residential house in Ankara, Turkey. • Only exception is in November, when the energy lack can be compensated from the grid. - Abstract: Renewable energy use in the world increases year by year. However, in many cases it is not possible to cover the electrical energy need of even a single house using only one renewable energy resource due to its intermittent nature. At this point, hybrid systems are applied to overcome this problem. This study focuses on the combination of photovoltaic solar panels, a small scale wind turbine, an electrolyzer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell hybrid system for electrical power generation for an average house of 150 m 2 located at İncek region of Ankara, Turkey. Solar and wind energies were used as primary sources and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used as the backup power. The hybrid system was modeled and the results indicate that the use of the selected wind turbine with a 3 kW capacity along with photovoltaic panels with 17.97 m 2 area is sufficient to provide the required 5 h operation of the electrolyzer, which in turn provides the necessary hydrogen and oxygen to the fuel cell. Since the daily energy needed by the investigated house was taken as 5 kW h, the fuel cell with a net power output of 1 kW supplies all electrical demand with its 5 h operation. The outcomes show that the hybrid system is capable to provide all electrical need of the house all year round, except November. The electrical energy production of the proposed system is considerably higher than the demand in many months and this surplus electricity can be used in order to support the cooling and heating system of the considered house.

  3. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  4. Stratigraphy and Folding in the Cenozoic Cover of a Fold-Thrust Belt in the Nallıhan Region (Ankara, Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaǧaç, Serdal; Koral, Hayrettin

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates stratigraphy and structural features in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence of the fold-thrust belt of the Nallıhan-Ankara region, located to the north of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. Permian-Triassic age marble intercalated with schist-phyllites, the upper Jurassic-lower Cretaceous age limestone and the upper Cretaceous age sandstone-shale alternation compose the basement in the study area. These rocks are unconformably overlain by the Cenozoic age terrestrial sedimentary and volcanic units. The Cenozoic stratigraphy begins with the Paleocene-Eocene age coal-bearing, at times, volcanic intercalated conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone alternation of alluvial-fluvial origins (Aksaklar Formation) and the tuff intercalated with lacustrine limestone, bituminous limestone (Kabalar Formation). These units are conformably overlain by the Eocene age basalt-andesite and pyroclastic rocks (Meyildere volcanics). The Paleocene-Eocene aged units are unconformably overlain by the conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone-marl of a lower-middle Miocene lacustrine environment (Hançili Formation). The terrestrial conglomerate-sandstone alternation (Örencik Formation) is the youngest unit in the Cenozoic stratigraphy, and is assumed to be of Pliocene age based its stratigraphic position on older units. Field study shows existence of both folds and faults in the sedimentary cover. Stereographic projections of bedding measured in the field shows N25W/45NW and N60W/4SE-oriented fold axes in the Paleocene-Eocene age units. There are also N76W/12SE and N88E/8NE-oriented folds. The difference in fold-axis orientations suggests that some folds may have been rotated in blocks bound by faults during the post-Paleocene/Eocene period. Whereas, the lower-middle Miocene units manifest N88W/13SE-oriented fold axes. It is thus proposed that the observed difference in the azimuth of fold axes represent two different folding phases, one with NE-SW and the other with N

  5. Local Patch Vectors Encoded by Fisher Vectors for Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is image classification, whose purpose is to group images into corresponding semantic categories. Four contributions are made as follows: (i For computational simplicity and efficiency, we directly adopt raw image patch vectors as local descriptors encoded by Fisher vector (FV subsequently; (ii For obtaining representative local features within the FV encoding framework, we compare and analyze three typical sampling strategies: random sampling, saliency-based sampling and dense sampling; (iii In order to embed both global and local spatial information into local features, we construct an improved spatial geometry structure which shows good performance; (iv For reducing the storage and CPU costs of high dimensional vectors, we adopt a new feature selection method based on supervised mutual information (MI, which chooses features by an importance sorting algorithm. We report experimental results on dataset STL-10. It shows very promising performance with this simple and efficient framework compared to conventional methods.

  6. Learning with LOGO: Logo and Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Tom; Tipps, Steve

    1986-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part series on the general concept of vector space. Provides tool procedures to allow investigation of vector properties, vector addition and subtraction, and X and Y components. Lists several sources of additional vector ideas. (JM)

  7. Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-11

    We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.

  8. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  9. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  10. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  11. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  12. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Rubbia, C.; van der Meer, S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 15 years a new class of unified theories has been developed to describe the forces acting between elementary particles. The most successful of the new theories establishes a link between electromagnetism and the weak force. A crucial prediction of this unified electroweak theory is the existence of three massive particles called intermediate vector bosons. If these intermediate vector bosons exist and if they have properties attributed to them by electroweak theory, they should soon be detected, as the world's first particle accelerator with enough energy to create such particles has recently been completed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The accelerator has been converted to a colliding beam machine in which protons and antiprotons collide head on. According to electroweak theory, intermediate vector bosons can be created in proton-antiproton collisions. (SC)

  13. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajn, D.B.; Rubbia, K.; Meer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Problem of registration and search for intermediate vector bosons is discussed. According to weak-current theory there are three intermediate vector bosons with +1(W + )-1(W - ) and zero (Z 0 ) electric charges. It was suggested to conduct the investigation into particles in 1976 by cline, Rubbia and Makintair using proton-antiproton beams. Major difficulties of the experiment are related to the necessity of formation of sufficient amount of antiparticles and the method of antiproton beam ''cooling'' for the purpose of reduction of its random movements. The stochastic method was suggested by van der Meer in 1968 as one of possible cooling methods. Several large detectors were designed for searching intermediate vector bosons

  14. Ankara Üniversitesi Kriz Merkezine başvuran yas olguları üzerine bir çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENELMİŞ, Halil

    2006-01-01

    Ankara Üniversitesi Kriz Merkezi'ne BaşvuranYas Olguları Üzerine Bir ÇalışmaSosyal bir varlık olan insan yaşam süreci içerisinde zorlayıcı, yıpratıcı, tehdit edicibirçok olay ve sorunla karşılaşır. Her zaman sorunlar karşısında kullandığı çözüm yollarınınişe yaramadığını gören kişi, kendisini çaresiz hisseder. Bu yaşanan bir kriz durumudur. Krizçeşitli duygusal zorlanmalar sonunda meydana gelen akut ve süresi sınırlı bir dengebozukluğudur.Kişinin yaşamı boyunca karşılaştı...

  15. E3L and F1L Gene Functions Modulate the Protective Capacity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Immunization in Murine Model of Human Smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asisa Volz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here, we tested MVA vaccine preparations on the basis of the deletion mutant viruses MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L for efficacy against ectromelia virus (ECTV challenge infections in mice. In non-permissive human tissue culture the MVA deletion mutant viruses produced reduced levels of the VACV envelope antigen B5. Upon mousepox challenge at three weeks after vaccination, MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L exhibited reduced protective capacity in comparison to wildtype MVA. Surprisingly, however, all vaccines proved equally protective against a lethal ECTV infection at two days after vaccination. Accordingly, the deletion mutant MVA vaccines induced high levels of virus-specific CD8+ T cells previously shown to be essential for rapidly protective MVA vaccination. These results suggest that inactivation of the anti-apoptotic genes F1L or E3L modulates the protective capacity of MVA vaccination most likely through the induction of distinct orthopoxvirus specific immunity in the absence of these viral regulatory proteins.

  16. Mucosal immunization with PLGA-microencapsulated DNA primes a SIV-specific CTL response revealed by boosting with cognate recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Sally; Hanke, Tomas; Tinsley-Bown, Anne; Dennis, Mike; Dowall, Stuart; McMichael, Andrew; Cranage, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Systemically administered DNA encoding a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) derived immunogen effectively primes a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in macaques. In this further pilot study we have evaluated mucosal delivery of DNA as an alternative priming strategy. Plasmid DNA, pTH.HW, encoding a multi-CTL epitope gene, was incorporated into poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles of less than 10 μm in diameter. Five intrarectal immunizations failed to stimulate a circulating vaccine-specific CTL response in 2 Mamu-A*01 + rhesus macaques. However, 1 week after intradermal immunization with a cognate modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine MVA.HW, CTL responses were detected in both animals that persisted until analysis postmortem, 12 weeks after the final boost. In contrast, a weaker and less durable response was seen in an animal vaccinated with the MVA construct alone. Analysis of lymphoid tissues revealed a disseminated CTL response in peripheral and regional lymph nodes but not the spleen of both mucosally primed animals

  17. Molecular and Cellular Dynamics in the Skin, the Lymph Nodes, and the Blood of the Immune Response to Intradermal Injection of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rosenbaum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. Integrated analysis of the data obtained from in vivo imaging, histology, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine, and transcriptomic analysis using tools derived from systems biology, such as co-expression networks, showed a strong early local and systemic inflammatory response that peaked at 24 h, which was then progressively replaced by an adaptive response during the installation of the host response to the vaccine. Granulocytes, macrophages, and monocytoid cells were massively recruited during the local innate response in association with local productions of GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP1α, MIP1β, and TNFα. We also observed a rapid and transient granulocyte recruitment and the release of IL-6 and IL-1RA, followed by a persistent phase involving inflammatory monocytes. This systemic inflammation was confirmed by molecular signatures, such as upregulations of IL-6 and TNF pathways and acute phase response signaling. Such comprehensive approaches improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal orchestration of vaccine-elicited immune response, in a live-attenuated vaccine model, and thus contribute to rational vaccine development.

  18. The Mediating Role of Job Stress on The Effect of Mobbing on Burnout: An Analysis of Social Security Organization Employees in The District of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Erol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, due to the influence of Mobbing (MO on Burnout (BU, the mediating role of Job Stress (JS on employees is examined. Hence, 826 employees of public and private institutions in Ankara were included in the sample. The data obtained by a questionnaire that prepared by Leymann (1996’s MO scale, and Maslach (1981's BU scale and Haynes (1996's JS scale. Data was evaluated by using One-Way ANOVA, correlation, regression, and multiple regression SPSS. As can be seen from the results of research, applied and perceived MO has a significant impact on employees' JS’s levels and becomes effective in the creation of JS. On the other hand, BU syndrome were seen as a consequence of the resulting JS. These conditions affect each other and existence of one within the organizational structure, results emergence of the other two. Therefore, management of organization, all levels of managers, and employees as individuals should be aware of these psychological states and conduct studies aimed for its prevention.In this research, meaningful relationships have been identified in the mediating role of JS at the impact of MO on BU. On the other hand in terms of demographic variables, significant variations were found in the levels of MO, BU, and JS

  19. Vector bileptons and the decays h→γγ,Zγ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Chong-Xing, E-mail: cxyue@lnnu.edu.cn; Shi, Qiu-Yang; Hua, Tian

    2013-11-21

    Taking into account of the constraints on the relevant parameters from the muon anomalous magnetic moment, we consider the contributions of the vector bileptons V{sup ±} and U{sup ±±} predicted by the reduced minimal 331 model to the Higgs decay channels h→γγ and Zγ. Our numerical results show that the vector bileptons can enhance the partial width Γ(h→γγ), while reduce the partial width Γ(h→Zγ), which are anti-correlated. With reasonable values of the relevant free parameters, the vector bileptons can explain the LHC data for the γγ signal. If the CMS data persists, the values of the free parameters λ{sub 2} and λ{sub 3} should be severe constrained.

  20. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  1. Vector mesons and chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The ambiguities in the off-shell behaviour of spin-1 exchange can be resolved to O(p 4 ) in the chiral low-energy expansion if the asymptotic behaviour of QCD is properly incorporated. As a consequence, the chiral version of vector (and axial-vector) meson dominance is model independent. Additional high-energy constraints motivated by QCD determine the V,A resonance couplings uniquely. In particular, QCD in its effective chiral realization sucessfully predicts Γ(ρ→2π). 10 refs. (Author)

  2. Topological vector spaces and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, John

    2012-01-01

    ""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o

  3. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  4. Generation of arbitrary vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2017-08-01

    Optical vector beams arise from point to point spatial variations of the electric component of an electromagnetic field over the transverse plane. In this work, we present a novel experimental technique to generate arbitrary vec- tor beams, and provide sufficient evidence to validate their state of polarization. This technique takes advantage of the capability of a Spatial Light Modulator to simultaneously generate two components of an electromagnetic field by halving the screen of the device and subsequently recombining them in a Sagnac interferometer. Our experimental results show the versatility and robustness of this technique for the generation of vector beams.

  5. Vector Higgs-portal dark matter and the invisible Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann

    2011-11-01

    The Higgs sector of the Standard Model offers a unique probe of the hidden sector. In this work, we explore the possibility of renormalizable Higgs couplings to the hidden sector vector fields which can constitute dark matter (DM). Abelian gauge sectors with minimal field content, necessary to render the gauge fields massive, have a natural Z 2 parity. This symmetry ensures stability of the vector fields making them viable dark matter candidates, while evading the usual electroweak constraints. We illustrate this idea with the Stueckelberg and Higgs mechanisms. Vector DM is consistent with the WMAP, XENON100, and LHC constraints, while it can affect significantly the invisible Higgs decay. Due to the enhanced branching ratio for the Higgs decay into the longitudinal components of the vector field, the vector Higgs portal provides an efficient way to hide the Higgs at the LHC. This could be the reason why the latest combined ATLAS/CMS data did not bring evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson. (orig.)

  6. Vector Higgs-portal dark matter and the invisible Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Oleg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lee, Hyun Min [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Mambrini, Yann [Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique

    2011-11-15

    The Higgs sector of the Standard Model offers a unique probe of the hidden sector. In this work, we explore the possibility of renormalizable Higgs couplings to the hidden sector vector fields which can constitute dark matter (DM). Abelian gauge sectors with minimal field content, necessary to render the gauge fields massive, have a natural Z{sub 2} parity. This symmetry ensures stability of the vector fields making them viable dark matter candidates, while evading the usual electroweak constraints. We illustrate this idea with the Stueckelberg and Higgs mechanisms. Vector DM is consistent with the WMAP, XENON100, and LHC constraints, while it can affect significantly the invisible Higgs decay. Due to the enhanced branching ratio for the Higgs decay into the longitudinal components of the vector field, the vector Higgs portal provides an efficient way to hide the Higgs at the LHC. This could be the reason why the latest combined ATLAS/CMS data did not bring evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson. (orig.)

  7. Vector Higgs portal dark matter and the invisible Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann

    2012-01-01

    The Higgs sector of the Standard Model offers a unique probe of the hidden sector. In this work, we explore the possibility of renormalizable Higgs couplings to the hidden sector vector fields which can constitute dark matter (DM). Abelian gauge sectors with minimal field content, necessary to render the gauge fields massive, have a natural Z 2 parity. This symmetry ensures stability of the vector fields making them viable dark matter candidates, while evading the usual electroweak constraints. We illustrate this idea with the Stückelberg and Higgs mechanisms. Vector DM is consistent with the WMAP, XENON100, and LHC constraints, while it can affect significantly the invisible Higgs decay. Due to the enhanced branching ratio for the Higgs decay into the longitudinal components of the vector field, the vector Higgs portal provides an efficient way to hide the Higgs at the LHC. This could be the reason why the latest combined ATLAS/CMS data did not bring evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson.

  8. Integrated vector management: the Zambian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Masaninga, Fred; Coleman, Michael; Sikaala, Chadwick; Katebe, Cecilia; Macdonald, Michael; Baboo, Kumar S; Govere, John; Manga, Lucien

    2008-08-27

    The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006-2011) which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase. IVM has created commitment for Legal and Regulatory policy review, monitoring, Research and a strong stewardship by the chemical suppliers. It has also leveraged additional resources, improved inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building and enhanced community participation which facilitated a steady scaling up in coverage and utilisation of key preventive interventions. Thus, markedly reducing malaria incidence and case fatalities in the country. Zambia has successfully introduced, consolidated and expanded IVM activities. Resulting in increased coverage and utilization of interventions and markedly reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality while ensuring a better protection of the environment.

  9. Quantum optimization for training support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Davide; Ridella, Sandro; Rivieccio, Fabio; Zunino, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    Refined concepts, such as Rademacher estimates of model complexity and nonlinear criteria for weighting empirical classification errors, represent recent and promising approaches to characterize the generalization ability of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The advantages of those techniques lie in both improving the SVM representation ability and yielding tighter generalization bounds. On the other hand, they often make Quadratic-Programming algorithms no longer applicable, and SVM training cannot benefit from efficient, specialized optimization techniques. The paper considers the application of Quantum Computing to solve the problem of effective SVM training, especially in the case of digital implementations. The presented research compares the behavioral aspects of conventional and enhanced SVMs; experiments in both a synthetic and real-world problems support the theoretical analysis. At the same time, the related differences between Quadratic-Programming and Quantum-based optimization techniques are considered.

  10. Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...

  11. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  12. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  13. The consequences of poor vectorization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk briefly discusses the vectorization problem and how it impacts scientific and engineering systems. A simple cost model of designing such system in context of different phases of software lifetime is considered. Finally a concept for scalable solution is presented.

  14. The Large Vector Multiplet Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ryb, Itai

    2007-01-01

    We discuss possible actions for the d=2, N=(2,2) large vector multiplet that gauges isometries of generalized Kahler geometries. We explore two scenarios that allow us to write kinetic and superpotential terms for the scalar field-strengths, and write kinetic terms for the spinor invariants that can introduce topological terms for the connections.

  15. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  16. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  17. Vector-meson dominance revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschlüsen Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.

  18. Vector fields on nonorientable surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Barza

    2003-01-01

    X, and the space of vector fields on X are proved by using a symmetrisation process. An example related to the normal derivative on the border of the Möbius strip supports the nontriviality of the concepts introduced in this paper.

  19. Distribution amplitudes of vector mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, V.M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2007-11-15

    Results are presented for the lowest moment of the distribution amplitude for the K{sup *} vector meson. Both longitudinal and transverse moments are investigated. We use two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions, together with a non-perturbative renormalisation of the matrix element. (orig.)

  20. Vectors and Rotations in 3-Dimensions: Vector Algebra for the C++ Programmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction This report describes 2 C++ classes: a Vector class for performing vector algebra in 3-dimensional...ARL-TR-7894•DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Vectors and Rotations in 3-Dimensions:Vector Algebra for the C++ Programmer by Richard Saucier...Army Research Laboratory Vectors and Rotations in 3-Dimensions:Vector Algebra for the C++ Programmer by Richard Saucier Survivability/Lethality

  1. Nonseparable closed vector subspaces of separable topological vector spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Leiderman, A. G.; Morris, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-47 ISSN 0026-9255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : locally convex topological vector space * separable topological space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00605-016-0876-2

  2. Viral vector-based tools advance knowledge of basal ganglia anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Rachel J; Seeger-Armbruster, Sonja; Hughes, Stephanie M; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

    2016-04-01

    Viral vectors were originally developed to deliver genes into host cells for therapeutic potential. However, viral vector use in neuroscience research has increased because they enhance interpretation of the anatomy and physiology of brain circuits compared with conventional tract tracing or electrical stimulation techniques. Viral vectors enable neuronal or glial subpopulations to be labeled or stimulated, which can be spatially restricted to a single target nucleus or pathway. Here we review the use of viral vectors to examine the structure and function of motor and limbic basal ganglia (BG) networks in normal and pathological states. We outline the use of viral vectors, particularly lentivirus and adeno-associated virus, in circuit tracing, optogenetic stimulation, and designer drug stimulation experiments. Key studies that have used viral vectors to trace and image pathways and connectivity at gross or ultrastructural levels are reviewed. We explain how optogenetic stimulation and designer drugs used to modulate a distinct pathway and neuronal subpopulation have enhanced our mechanistic understanding of BG function in health and pathophysiology in disease. Finally, we outline how viral vector technology may be applied to neurological and psychiatric conditions to offer new treatments with enhanced outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  4. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  5. Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...

  6. Araştırma Görevlilerinin Bilgi Okuryazarlığı Becerileri ve Eğitim Gereksinimleri: Ankara Üniversitesi Örneği=Information Literacy Skills of Research Assistants and Their Educational Needs: Sample of Ankara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Özel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin sürekli gelişimi, bilgi edinme ve öğrenme ortamlarının, bu ortamlar için kullanılan araçların, uygulamaların ve hizmetlerin yapısını yeniden şekillendirmektedir. Bu durum, yaşam boyu öğrenme kapsamında bireylerin bilgi okuryazarlığı becerilerine sahip olmasını zorunlu kılmaktadır. Belirtilen becerilerin bireylere kazandırılmasında kütüphaneler tarafından düzenlenecek eğitim etkinliklerinin önemli katkıları bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmada, Ankara Üniversitesi araştırma görevlilerinin kütüphanelerden yararlanma durumları ile bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri bağlamında bilgi okuryazarlığı beceri düzeylerini belirlemek ve bu konulara yönelik olarak eğitim beklentilerini saptamak amaçlanmıştır. Ankara Üniversitesi’nde görev yapan toplam 1028 araştırma görevlisinden çalışmaya katılan 556 kişi üzerinde gerçekleştirilen araştırmada betimleme yöntemi kullanılmış, veri toplama tekniği olarak anketten yararlanılmıştır. Veriler, PASW (Predictive Analytics SoftWare adlı yazılım yardımıyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, Ankara Üniversitesi araştırma görevlilerinin araştırma süreçlerinin tüm aşamalarında zorlandıkları ve kütüphaneler tarafından hazırlanacak bilgi okuryazarlığı eğitim etkinliklerine gereksinim duydukları saptanmıştır./The continuous development in information and communication technologies has directly affected the environment for acquisition of information and learning as well as reshaping the structure of this environment. Thus the resources, tools, applications and services applied in this environment have also changed and they have been digitally presented. These innovations have made individuals adapt to the new environments in the context of lifelong learning. In other words, it becomes necessary for people to be equipped with “information literacy skills” including

  7. Ankara Merkez İlçeleri ve Köylerinde Ev Konserveciliği Teknikleri ve Konservelerin Bazı Organoleptik ve Mikrobiyolojik Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Yazıcı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Ankara İlinin merkez ilçelerine bağlı köylerde yapılmakta olan ev konserveciliği uygulamalarına ait tekniklerin saptanması ve yapılan konservelerin organoleptik ve mikrobiyolojik analizlere dayanarak, bazı kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada Ankara İlinin merkez ilçelerine bağlı, 13 köyde, 154 deneğe anket uygulanmış ve ayrıca deneklerden toplanan 50 konserve örneği organoleptik ve mikrobiyolojik testlere tabi tutulmuştur. Araştırma bulgularına göre deneklerin %97.40’ı sebze konservesi kavanozlarını açık kazanda kaynatmaktadırlar. Deneklerin %48.00’i kavanozları boşluk bırakmadan, %30’u ise yarısına kadar doldurmaktadırlar. Kavanozların havasını alan deneklerin oranı %80.50’dir. Kaynatma işleminde süre tutan denekler %85.71 oranındadır. Bu deneklerin de %71.42’si kaynatma işlemi için yeterli süre uygulamaktadırlar. Konservelerde kaynatmadan sonra bozulma gören denekler %70.13, saklama sırasında bozulma görenler %40.91 oranındadır. Kaynatmadan sonra meydana gelen bozulmaların başında %73.14 oranı ile kapak atması gelmektedir. Toplam 50 konserve örneğinin organoleptik analizi sonucunda örneklerin %18’i renk, %30’u koku, %18’i genel görünüş bakımından kötü olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Mikrobiyolojik analizler sonucunda ise toplam 50 konserve örneğinin %20’sinde üreme görülmüştür. Alınan örneklerin, aerob koşullarda %14’ünde 35 oC de; %16’sında 55 oC’de; anaerob koşullarda ise %12’sinde 35 oC’de; %16’sında 55 oC’de üreme görülmüştür.

  8. Problems of vector Lagrangians in field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    A vector Lagrange approach to the Dirac spinor field and the relationship between the vector Lagrangians for the spinor and electromagnetic fields are considered. A vector Lagrange approach for the system of interacting electromagnetic B=(B μ υ)=(E-bar,H-bar) and spinor Ψ fields is constructed. New Lagrangians (scalar and vector) for electromagnetic field in terms of field strengths are found. The foundations of two new QED models are formulated

  9. Ankara Piyasasından Temin Edilen Sofralık Siyah Zeytin Salamuralarının Mikrobiyolojik Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Sarıkaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Ankara piyasasından temin edilen sofralık siyah zeytin salamuralarının mikrobiyolojik analizi yapıldı. Toplam 16 farklı semt pazarından sağlanan salamura örnekleri steril kavanozlara alındı, etiketlendi ve laboratuvara getirildi. Zeytin sularının desimal dilüsyonları uygun besiyerlerine ekildi ve inkübasyona bırakıldı. İnkübasyon sonrasında elde edilen koloni sayımlarına göre örneklerdeki laktik asit bakteri sayısı 8.1 x 101 - 9.1 x 105 kob/ml; toplam aerobik mezofilik bakteri sayısı 4.3 x 101 - 5.1 x 105 kob/ml; maya-küf sayısı 3.3 x 101 - 1.6 x 105 kob/ml arasında bulundu. Koliform bakteri üremesine incelenen örneklerin sadece bir tanesinde rastlandı (2.9 x 101 kob/ml. Örneklerdeki pH, tuz konsantrasyonu (% ve laktik asit değerleri (mol/L sırasıyla 3.12 - 5.15; 5.3 - 17; 0.27 - 1.36 arasında ölçüldü.

  10. Phase II trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4 and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitcham Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2 induces durable objective responses in a small cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC but the antigen(s responsible for tumor rejection are not known. 5T4 is a non-secreted membrane glycoprotein expressed on clear cell and papillary RCCs. A modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA encoding 5T4 was tested in combination with high-dose IL-2 to determine the safety, objective response rate and effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Methods 25 patients with metastatic RCC who qualified for IL-2 were eligible and received three immunizations every three weeks followed by IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg after the second and third vaccinations. Blood was collected for analysis of humoral, effector and regulatory T cell responses. Results There were no serious vaccine-related adverse events. While no objective responses were observed, three patients (12% were rendered disease-free after nephrectomy or resection of residual metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48% had stable disease which was associated with improved median overall survival compared to patients with progressive disease (not reached vs. 28 months, p = 0.0261. All patients developed 5T4-specific antibody responses and 13 patients had an increase in 5T4-specific T cell responses. Although the baseline frequency of Tregs was elevated in all patients, those with stable disease showed a trend toward increased effector CD8+ T cells and a decrease in Tregs. Conclusion Vaccination with MVA-5T4 did not improve objective response rates of IL-2 therapy but did result in stable disease associated with an increase in the ratio of 5T4-specific effector to regulatory T cells in selected patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN83977250

  11. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs, which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3 and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1, are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.

  12. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Nisancı

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  13. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Cevdetx C; Nisancı, Recep

    2008-05-19

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP) technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  14. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  15. Travel and disease vector ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, John W

    2011-03-01

    There are approximately twenty species of hard (ixodid) ticks worldwide that frequently affect human populations, many of which are associated with serious, sometimes fatal disease(s). When a tick travel souvenir is presented in the clinic, the risk must be immediately assessed by identifying the tick in question, ascertaining its disease vector status and determining if there has been the opportunity for the transfer of potential pathogens. This short review on identification of disease vector ticks and aspects of blood feeding and disease transmission includes the results of an examination of 59 specimens removed from UK domestic travellers and international travellers between 2002 and 2010. Sixteen tick species belonging to six genera were recorded and almost all showed evidence of blood feeding, which appears to contradict the view that because of their size, adult ticks are found early and therefore present an insignificant risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    years occurred in Peru in the northern departments bordering Ecuador in 1992-1994. Sylvatic plague is endemic in the southern provinces of Loja and... Ecuador ) Micrurus bocourti (Pacific lowlands of western Ecuador ) Micrurus catamayensis (Catamayo Valley, Loja Province) Micrurus dumerilii spp...Disease Vector Ecology Profile Ecuador -~· ""’ -.. ~ """ Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center’ Armed Forces Pest Management

  17. Plebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-30

    incriminated as vectors of Leishmania mexicana among rodents and/or humans from Mexico to the Amazon Basin. Specimens referable to L. olmeca olmeca...in the format similar to that given for the species group baityi included in this report. Additional phlebotomines from Tanzania, Brazil, Peru and...species group baityi included in this report. Additional phlebotomines from Tanzania, Brazil, Peru and Venezuela were slide-mounted and added to the

  18. Characterizing Convexity of Games using Marginal Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the relation between convexity of TU games and marginal vectors.We show that if specfic marginal vectors are core elements, then the game is convex.We characterize sets of marginal vectors satisfying this property, and we derive the formula for the minimum number of marginal

  19. Herbivore arthropods benefit from vectoring plant viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belliure, B.; Janssen, A.; Maris, P.C.; Peters, D.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants infected with pathogens often attract the pathogens' vectors, but it is not clear if this is advantageous to the vectors. We therefore quantified the direct and indirect (through the host plant) effects of a pathogen on its vector. A positive direct effect of the plant-pathogenic Tomato

  20. Vector fields and gravity on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of discretization of vector field on Regge lattice is considered. Our approach is based on geometrical interpretation of the vector field as the field of infinitesimal coordinate transformation. A discrete version of the vector field action is obtained as a particular case of the continuum action, and it is shown to have the true continuum limit

  1. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  2. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  3. Modeling vector nonlinear time series using POLYMARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Ray, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    A modified multivariate adaptive regression splines method for modeling vector nonlinear time series is investigated. The method results in models that can capture certain types of vector self-exciting threshold autoregressive behavior, as well as provide good predictions for more general vector

  4. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  5. Extremal vectors and rectifiability | Enflo | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extremal vectors and rectifiability. ... The concept of extremal vectors of a linear operator with a dense range but not onto on a Hilbert space was introduced by P. Enflo in 1996 as a new approach to study invariant subspaces ... We show that in general curves that map numbers to backward minimal vectors are not rectifiable.

  6. Twin Support Vector Machine: A review from 2007 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Tomar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM is an emerging machine learning method suitable for both classification and regression problems. It utilizes the concept of Generalized Eigen-values Proximal Support Vector Machine (GEPSVM and finds two non-parallel planes for each class by solving a pair of Quadratic Programming Problems. It enhances the computational speed as compared to the traditional Support Vector Machine (SVM. TWSVM was initially constructed to solve binary classification problems; later researchers successfully extended it for multi-class problem domain. TWSVM always gives promising empirical results, due to which it has many attractive features which enhance its applicability. This paper presents the research development of TWSVM in recent years. This study is divided into two main broad categories - variant based and multi-class based TWSVM methods. The paper primarily discusses the basic concept of TWSVM and highlights its applications in recent years. A comparative analysis of various research contributions based on TWSVM is also presented. This is helpful for researchers to effectively utilize the TWSVM as an emergent research methodology and encourage them to work further in the performance enhancement of TWSVM.

  7. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2014-01-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  8. Insulated piggyBac vectors for insect transgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ-line transformation of insects is now a widely used method for analyzing gene function and for the development of genetically modified strains suitable for pest control programs. The most widely used transposable element for the germ-line transformation of insects is piggyBac. The site of integration of the transgene can influence gene expression due to the effects of nearby transcription enhancers or silent heterochromatic regions. Position effects can be minimized by flanking a transgene with insulator elements. The scs/scs' and gypsy insulators from Drosophila melanogaster as well as the chicken β-globin HS4 insulator function in both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Results To minimize position effects we have created a set of piggyBac transformation vectors that contain either the scs/scs', gypsy or chicken β-globin HS4 insulators. The vectors contain either fluorescent protein or eye color marker genes and have been successfully used for germ-line transformation of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of the scs/scs' vectors contains the coral reef fluorescent protein marker genes AmCyan, ZsGreen and DsRed that have not been optimized for translation in human cells. These marker genes are controlled by a combined GMR-3xP3 enhancer/promoter that gives particularly strong expression in the eyes. This is also the first report of the use of the ZsGreen and AmCyan reef fluorescent proteins as transformation markers in insects. Conclusion The insulated piggyBac vectors should protect transgenes against position effects and thus facilitate fine control of gene expression in a wide spectrum of insect species. These vectors may also be used for transgenesis in other invertebrate species.

  9. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  10. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Constable, C. G.

    2003-03-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimodal) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  11. Mucosal delivery of a vectored RSV vaccine is safe and elicits protective immunity in rodents and nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angiolo Pierantoni

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is a leading cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. No vaccine is presently available to address this major unmet medical need. We generated a new genetic vaccine based on chimpanzee Adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV and Modified Vaccinia Ankara RSV (MVA-RSV encoding the F, N, and M2-1 proteins of RSV, for the induction of neutralizing antibodies and broad cellular immunity. Because RSV infection is restricted to the respiratory tract, we compared intranasal (IN and intramuscular (M administration for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in different species. A single IN or IM vaccination completely protected BALB/c mice and cotton rats against RSV replication in the lungs. However, only IN administration could prevent infection in the upper respiratory tract. IM vaccination with MVA-RSV also protected cotton rats from lower respiratory tract infection in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. Heterologous prime boost with PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and broad T-cell responses in nonhuman primates. In addition, animals primed in the nose developed mucosal IgA against the F protein. In conclusion, we have shown that our vectored RSV vaccine induces potent cellular and humoral responses in a primate model, providing strong support for clinical testing.

  12. Problems and worked solutions in vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shorter, LR

    2014-01-01

    ""A handy book like this,"" noted The Mathematical Gazette, ""will fill a great want."" Devoted to fully worked out examples, this unique text constitutes a self-contained introductory course in vector analysis for undergraduate and graduate students of applied mathematics.Opening chapters define vector addition and subtraction, show how to resolve and determine the direction of two or more vectors, and explain systems of coordinates, vector equations of a plane and straight line, relative velocity and acceleration, and infinitely small vectors. The following chapters deal with scalar and vect

  13. Different levels of immunogenicity of two strains of Fowlpox virus as recombinant vaccine vectors eliciting T-cell responses in heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; van Maurik, Andre; Zago, Manola; Newton, Angela T; Anderson, Richard J; Howard, M Keith; Schneider, Jörg; Skinner, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    The FP9 strain of F has been described as a more immunogenic recombinant vaccine vector than the Webster FPV-M (FPW) strain (R. J. Anderson et al., J. Immunol. 172:3094-3100, 2004). This study expands the comparison to include two separate recombinant antigens and multiple, rather than single, independent viral clones derived from the two strains. Dual-poxvirus heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens using individual clones of recombinant FP9 or FPW in combination with recombinant modified V Ankara expressing the same antigen were evaluated for their ability to elicit T-cell responses against recombinant antigens from Plasmodium berghei (circumsporozoite protein) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein). Gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays of the responses to specific epitopes confirmed the approximately twofold-greater cellular immunogenicity of FP9 compared to FPW, when given as the priming or boosting immunization. Equality of transgene expression in mouse cells infected with the two strains in vitro was verified by Western blotting. Directed partial sequence analysis and PCR analysis of FPW and comparison to available whole-genome sequences revealed that many loci that are mutated in the highly attenuated and culture-adapted FP9 strain are wild type in FPW, including the seven multikilobase deletions. These "passage-specific" alterations are hypothesized to be involved in determining the immunogenicity of fowlpox virus as a recombinant vaccine vector.

  14. Mechanisms of Plasmodium-Enhanced Attraction of Mosquito Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busula, A.O.; Verhulst, N.O.; Bousema, J.T.; Takken, W.; Boer, J.G. de

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that Plasmodium-infected vertebrates are more attractive to mosquitoes than noninfected hosts, particularly when high levels of gametocytes are present. Changes in host odour have been suggested as a likely target for parasite manipulation because olfactory cues are crucial

  15. A comparative analysis of constitutive promoters located in adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lkhagvasuren Damdindorj

    Full Text Available The properties of constitutive promoters within adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors have not yet been fully characterized. In this study, AAV vectors, in which enhanced GFP expression was directed by one of the six constitutive promoters (human β-actin, human elongation factor-1α, chicken β-actin combined with cytomegalovirus early enhancer, cytomegalovirus (CMV, simian virus 40, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, were constructed and introduced into the HCT116, DLD-1, HT-1080, and MCF-10A cell lines. Quantification of GFP signals in infected cells demonstrated that the CMV promoter produced the highest GFP expression in the six promoters and maintained relatively high GFP expression for up to eight weeks after infection of HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080. Exogenous human CDKN2A gene expression was also introduced into DLD-1 and MCF-10A in a similar pattern by using AAV vectors bearing the human β-actin and the CMV promoters. The six constitutive promoters were subsequently placed upstream of the neomycin resistance gene within AAV vectors, and HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080 were infected with the resulting vectors. Of the six promoters, the CMV promoter produced the largest number of G418-resistant colonies in all three cell lines. Because AAV vectors have been frequently used as a platform to construct targeting vectors that permit gene editing in human cell lines, we lastly infected the three cell lines with AAV-based targeting vectors against the human PIGA gene in which one of the six promoters regulate the neomycin resistance gene. This assay revealed that the CMV promoter led to the lowest PIGA gene targeting efficiency in the investigated promoters. These results provide a clue to the identification of constitutive promoters suitable to express exogenous genes with AAV vectors, as well as those helpful to conduct efficient gene targeting using AAV-based targeting vectors in human cell lines.

  16. Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.

  17. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Tim J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Sridhar, Saranya; Linedale, Richard; Dierkes, Nicola; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2007-11-28

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are needed. The present vaccine proved to be highly

  18. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Achee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC, a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1 a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2 outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3 determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of vector-controlled free jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K; Ao, K; Shakouchi, T; Ando, T

    2011-01-01

    We conduct DNS (direct numerical simulation) of vector controlled free jets. The inflow velocity of jet is periodically oscillated perpendicular to the jet axis. In order to realize the high accurate computation, a discretization in space is performed with hybrid scheme in which Fourier spectral and 6th order compact scheme are adopted. From visualized instantaneous vortex structures, it is found that the flow pattern considerably changes according to the oscillating frequency, i.e., according to the increasing the frequency, wave, bifurcating and flapping modes appear in turn. In order to quantify mixing efficiency under the vector control, as the mixing measure, statistical entropy is investigated. Compared to the uncontrolled jet, the mixing efficiency is improved in order of wavy, flapping and bifurcating modes. Thus the vector control can be expected for the improvement of mixing efficiency. Further to make clear the reason for the mixing enhancement, Snapshot POD and DMD method are applied. The primary flow structures under the vector control are demonstrated.

  20. Determination of key parameters of vector multifractal vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    For too long time, multifractal analyses and simulations have been restricted to scalar-valued fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2017a,b). For instance, the wind velocity multifractality has been mostly analysed in terms of scalar structure functions and with the scalar energy flux. This restriction has had the unfortunate consequences that multifractals were applicable to their full extent in geophysics, whereas it has inspired them. Indeed a key question in geophysics is the complexity of the interactions between various fields or they components. Nevertheless, sophisticated methods have been developed to determine the key parameters of scalar valued fields. In this communication, we first present the vector extensions of the universal multifractal analysis techniques to multifractals whose generator belong to a Levy-Clifford algebra (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). We point out further extensions noting the increased complexity. For instance, the (scalar) index of multifractality becomes a matrice. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2015) `Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra', Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25(12), p. 123127. doi: 10.1063/1.4937364. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017) `An Introduction to Multifractals and Scale Symmetry Groups', in Ghanbarian, B. and Hunt, A. (eds) Fractals: Concepts and Applications in Geosciences. CRC Press, p. (in press). Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017b) `Pandora Box of Multifractals: Barely Open ?', in Tsonis, A. A. (ed.) 30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics in Geophysics. Berlin: Springer, p. (in press).

  1. Getting genetic access to natural adenovirus genomes to explore vector diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2017-10-01

    Recombinant vectors based on the human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) have been developed and extensively used in preclinical and clinical studies for over 30 years. However, certain restrictions of HAdV5-based vectors have limited their clinical applications because they are rather inefficient in specifically transducing cells of therapeutic interest that lack the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Moreover, enhanced vector-associated toxicity and widespread preexisting immunity have been shown to significantly hamper the effectiveness of HAdV-5-mediated gene transfer. However, evolution of adenoviruses in the natural host is driving the generation of novel types with altered virulence, enhanced transmission, and altered tissue tropism. As a consequence, an increasing number of alternative adenovirus types were identified, which may represent a valuable resource for the development of novel vector types. Thus, researchers are focusing on the other naturally occurring adenovirus types, which are structurally similar but functionally different from HAdV5. To this end, several strategies have been devised for getting genetic access to adenovirus genomes, resulting in a new panel of adenoviral vectors. Importantly, these vectors were shown to have a host range different from HAdV5 and to escape the anti-HAdV5 immune response, thus underlining the great potential of this approach. In summary, this review provides a state-of-the-art overview of one essential step in adenoviral vector development.

  2. Geminivirus vectors for high-level expression of foreign proteins in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Tsafrir S; Moon, Yong-Sun; Palmer, Kenneth E; Mason, Hugh S

    2003-02-20

    Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) is a monopartite geminivirus that can infect dicotyledonous plants. We have developed a high-level expression system that utilizes elements of the replication machinery of this single-stranded DNA virus. The replication initiator protein (Rep) mediates release and replication of a replicon from a DNA construct ("LSL vector") that contains an expression cassette for a gene of interest flanked by cis-acting elements of the virus. We used tobacco NT1 cells and biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA for evaluation of replication and expression of reporter genes contained within an LSL vector. By codelivery of a GUS reporter-LSL vector and a Rep-supplying vector, we obtained up to 40-fold increase in expression levels compared to delivery of the reporter-LSL vectors alone. High-copy replication of the LSL vector was correlated with enhanced expression of GUS. Rep expression using a whole BeYDV clone, a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter driving either genomic rep or an intron-deleted rep gene, or 35S-rep contained in the LSL vector all achieved efficient replication and enhancement of GUS expression. We anticipate that this system can be adapted for use in transgenic plants or plant cell cultures with appropriately regulated expression of Rep, with the potential to greatly increase yield of recombinant proteins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 430-437, 2003.

  3. Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

  4. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip

    2016-10-01

    Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

  5. Herpes simplex virus vectors overexpressing the glucose transporter gene protect against seizure-induced neuron loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, M S; Ho, D Y; Dash, R; Sapolsky, R M

    1995-01-01

    We have generated herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors vIE1GT and v alpha 4GT bearing the GLUT-1 isoform of the rat brain glucose transporter (GT) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus ie1 and HSV alpha 4 promoters, respectively. We previously reported that such vectors enhance glucose uptake in hippocampal cultures and the hippocampus. In this study we demonstrate that such vectors can maintain neuronal metabolism and reduce the extent of neuron loss in cultures after a period of hypo...

  6. Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ian H; Manuel, Menchie; Moorthy, Mahesh; Lee, Theodore T M; Low, Dolyce H W; Missé, Dorothée; Gubler, Duane J; Ellis, Brett R; Ooi, Eng Eong; Pompon, Julien

    2017-06-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas. We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested for the presence of infectious virus particles as a surrogate for transmission following oral infection. We identified Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis throughout Singapore and quantified their presence in forested and opened grassy areas. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. malayensis can occupy sylvatic niches and were highly susceptible to both arboviruses. A majority of saliva of infected Ae. malayensis contained infectious particles for both viruses. Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are epidemiologically enhanced in the context of low herd immunity, selective pressure on arbovirus transmission and the presence of infectious asymptomatic persons, all these conditions being present in Singapore. Learning from Singapore's vector control success that reduced domestic vector populations, but has not sustainably reduced arboviral incidence

  7. Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne

    2003-05-01

    As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge

  8. Properties of Vector Preisach Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Gary R.; Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses rotational anisotropy and rotational accommodation of magnetic particle tape. These effects have a performance impact during the reading and writing of the recording process. We introduce the reduced vector model as the basis for the computations. Rotational magnetization models must accurately compute the anisotropic characteristics of ellipsoidally magnetizable media. An ellipticity factor is derived for these media that computes the two-dimensional magnetization trajectory for all applied fields. An orientation correction must be applied to the computed rotational magnetization. For isotropic materials, an orientation correction has been developed and presented. For anisotropic materials, an orientation correction is introduced.

  9. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kobayashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E, which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E–pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E–pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

  10. Estimation of pure autoregressive vector models for revenue series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at applying multivariate approach to Box and Jenkins univariate time series modeling to three vector series. General Autoregressive Vector Models with time varying coefficients are estimated. The first vector is a response vector, while others are predictor vectors. By matrix expansion each vector, whether ...

  11. Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0→φK*0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B 0 →φK 2 * (1430) 0 , φK * (892) 0 , and φ(Kπ) S-wave 0 with a sample of about 384x10 6 BB pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 -0.069 +0.061 ±0.036 and 0.506±0.040±0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP violation

  12. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  13. Ankara Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Programına Katılan Öğrencilerin Akademik Başarılarını Yordayan Faktörler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Şenel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the factors predicting academic achievement of Ankara University Distance Education students. The study group of the research consists of 302 first grade students from Ankara University Distance Education Center (ANKUZEM 2010-2011 associate degree programs. Data were formed in four groups respectively “individual characteristics”, “characteristics related with family and working environment”, “characteristics related with usage of information and communication technologies” and “characteristics related with education”. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. According to the results, individual characteristics as “age”, “working in a full time job” and “being divorced” were found as predictors of students’ academic achievement. Additionally, characteristics related with family and working place as “number of family members living with”, “mothers’ full time working” and “mothers’ graduation type” were other variables predicting academic achievement of students. The characteristics related with education; graduation from “college” and “vocational high school”, “studying with different methods“, “choosing distance education as a university degree”, “studying for getting a degree” are also predictors of academic achievement of students. The characteristics of students related with usage of information and communication technologies were not predictors of academic achievement of students.

  14. Vectorization of phase space Monte Carlo code in FACOM vector processor VP-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the vectorization techniques for Monte Carlo codes in Fujitsu's Vector Processor System. The phase space Monte Carlo code FOWL is selected as a benchmark, and scalar and vector performances are compared. The vectorized kernel Monte Carlo routine which contains heavily nested IF tests runs up to 7.9 times faster in vector mode than in scalar mode. The overall performance improvement of the vectorized FOWL code over the original scalar code reaches 3.3. The results of this study strongly indicate that supercomputer can be a powerful tool for Monte Carlo simulations in high energy physics. (Auth.)

  15. Advanced Design of Dumbbell-shaped Genetic Minimal Vectors Improves Non-coding and Coding RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoou; Yu, Han; Teo, Cui Rong; Tan, Genim Siu Xian; Goh, Sok Chin; Patel, Parasvi; Chua, Yiqiang Kevin; Hameed, Nasirah Banu Sahul; Bertoletti, Antonio; Patzel, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors lacking nontherapeutic genes and bacterial sequences are considered a stable, safe alternative to viral, nonviral, and naked plasmid-based gene-transfer systems. We investigated novel molecular features of dumbbell vectors aiming to reduce vector size and to improve the expression of noncoding or coding RNA. We minimized small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) expressing dumbbell vectors in size down to 130 bp generating the smallest genetic expression vectors reported. This was achieved by using a minimal H1 promoter with integrated transcriptional terminator transcribing the RNA hairpin structure around the dumbbell loop. Such vectors were generated with high conversion yields using a novel protocol. Minimized shRNA-expressing dumbbells showed accelerated kinetics of delivery and transcription leading to enhanced gene silencing in human tissue culture cells. In primary human T cells, minimized miRNA-expressing dumbbells revealed higher stability and triggered stronger target gene suppression as compared with plasmids and miRNA mimics. Dumbbell-driven gene expression was enhanced up to 56- or 160-fold by implementation of an intron and the SV40 enhancer compared with control dumbbells or plasmids. Advanced dumbbell vectors may represent one option to close the gap between durable expression that is achievable with integrating viral vectors and short-term effects triggered by naked RNA.

  16. On the Vectorization of FIR Filterbanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbedo Jayme Garcia Arnal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vectorization technique to implement FIR filterbanks. The word vectorization, in the context of this work, refers to a strategy in which all iterative operations are replaced by equivalent vector and matrix operations. This approach allows that the increasing parallelism of the most recent computer processors and systems be properly explored. The vectorization techniques are applied to two kinds of FIR filterbanks (conventional and recursi ve, and are presented in such a way that they can be easily extended to any kind of FIR filterbanks. The vectorization approach is compared to other kinds of implementation that do not explore the parallelism, and also to a previous FIR filter vectorization approach. The tests were performed in Matlab and , in order to explore different aspects of the proposed technique.

  17. On the Vectorization of FIR Filterbanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vectorization technique to implement FIR filterbanks. The word vectorization, in the context of this work, refers to a strategy in which all iterative operations are replaced by equivalent vector and matrix operations. This approach allows that the increasing parallelism of the most recent computer processors and systems be properly explored. The vectorization techniques are applied to two kinds of FIR filterbanks (conventional and recursi ve, and are presented in such a way that they can be easily extended to any kind of FIR filterbanks. The vectorization approach is compared to other kinds of implementation that do not explore the parallelism, and also to a previous FIR filter vectorization approach. The tests were performed in Matlab and C, in order to explore different aspects of the proposed technique.

  18. Vector mesons on the light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.; Maedan, S.; Itakura, K.

    2004-01-01

    We apply the light-front quantization to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the vector interaction, and compute vector meson's mass and light-cone wavefunction in the large N limit. Following the same procedure as in the previous analyses for scalar and pseudo-scalar mesons, we derive the bound-state equations of a qq-bar system in the vector channel. We include the lowest order effects of the vector interaction. The resulting transverse and longitudinal components of the bound-state equation look different from each other. But eventually after imposing an appropriate cutoff, one finds these two are identical, giving the same mass and the same (spin-independent) light-cone wavefunction. Mass of the vector meson decreases as one increases the strength of the vector interaction

  19. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.

  20. Axial vector mass spectrum and mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarelli, R.V.; Kang, K.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral sum rules of the axial-vector current and axial-vector current-pseudoscalar field are used to study the axial-vector mass spectrum and mixing angles, as well as the decay constants and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons. In general, the result is quite persuasive for the existence of the Jsup(PC) = 1 ++ multiplet in which one has a canonical D-E mixing. (Auth.)

  1. Some remarks on a generalized vector product

    OpenAIRE

    ACOSTA-HUMÁNEZ, PRIMITIVO; ARANDA, MOISÉS; NÚÑEZ, REINALDO

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we use a generalized vector product to construct an exterior form ⊥ : , where Finally, for n = k - 1 we introduce the reversing operation to study this generalized vector product over palindromic and antipalindromic vectors. Resumen. En este art&íacute;culo usamos un producto vectorial generalizado para construir una forma exterior ⊥ : , en donde como es natural, Finalmente, para n = k - 1 introducimos la operación reversar para estudiar este producto vectorial gene...

  2. Virtual Vector Machine for Bayesian Online Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Minka, Thomas P.; Xiang, Rongjing; Yuan; Qi

    2012-01-01

    In a typical online learning scenario, a learner is required to process a large data stream using a small memory buffer. Such a requirement is usually in conflict with a learner's primary pursuit of prediction accuracy. To address this dilemma, we introduce a novel Bayesian online classi cation algorithm, called the Virtual Vector Machine. The virtual vector machine allows you to smoothly trade-off prediction accuracy with memory size. The virtual vector machine summarizes the information con...

  3. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  4. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  5. Vector Boson Scattering at High Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Sherwood, P

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a light Higgs boson, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking will be best studied in processes of vector boson scattering at high mass. Various models predict resonances in this channel. Here, we investigate W W scalar and vector resonances, W Z vector resonances and a Z Z scalar resonance over a range of diboson centre-of-mass energies. Particular attention is paid to the application reconstruction of dijet pairs with low opening angle resulting from the decay of highly boosted vector bosons.

  6. Vector models in RETRAN-02 MOD 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnersly, S.R.

    1985-06-01

    The vector momentum model in RETRAN-02 allows momentum flux to be modelled in two dimensions. Vector models in RETRAN-2 are described, including both the actual implementation in the code and the specification given in the code manual. The vector momentum model is described in detail. Other models which use vector quantities include models for volume average flow, volume average slip velocity, volume average phase velocities and fill junction flows. Both code implementations and code manual descriptions are described and inconsistencies noted. The differences between the standard RETRA-02 Mod 2 version and the Winfrith version RETN2204 are noted. (U.K.)

  7. Vector boson production in joint resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzani, Simone; Theeuwes, Vincent [University at Buffalo, The State University of New York,Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States)

    2017-02-24

    We study the transverse momentum (Q{sub T}) distribution of an electro-weak vector boson produced via the Drell-Yan mechanism, in the context of joint resummation. This formalism allows for the simultaneous resummation of logarithmic contributions that are enhanced at small Q{sub T} and at partonic threshold. We extend joint resummation to next-to-next-to leading logarithmic accuracy and we present resummed and matched results for three different phenomenological setups. In particular, we study the production of a Z boson at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), as well as the production of a heavier Z{sup ′} at the LHC. We compare our findings to standard Q{sub T} resummation, as well as to fixed-order perturbation theory. We find that joint resummation provides a moderate (but not flat) correction with respect to Q{sub T} resummation and it leads to a reduction of the scale dependence of the results. However, our study also shows some limitations of this formalism. While the use of joint resummation for Z production at the Tevatron and Z{sup ′} production at the LHC appears to be justified, our implementation suffers from a stronger dependence on power corrections for processes which are further away from threshold, such as Z production at the LHC, for which we cannot claim an improvement over standard Q{sub T} resummation.

  8. Integrated vector management: The Zambian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katebe Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006–2011 which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase. Achievements IVM has created commitment for Legal and Regulatory policy review, monitoring, Research and a strong stewardship by the chemical suppliers. It has also leveraged additional resources, improved inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building and enhanced community participation which facilitated a steady scaling up in coverage and utilisation of key preventive interventions. Thus, markedly reducing malaria incidence and case fatalities in the country. Conclusion Zambia has successfully introduced, consolidated and expanded IVM activities. Resulting in increased coverage and utilization of interventions and markedly reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality while ensuring a better protection of the environment.

  9. Vector Boson Scattering at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcan, V E

    2009-01-01

    While the Higgs model is the best studied scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, there is no fundamental reason for the physics responsible for the symmetry breaking to be weakly-coupled. Many alternatives exist, predicting highly model-dependent signatures. By measuring the cross-section for the W and Z scattering at the LHC, it will be possible to obtain model-independent evidence for strong symmetry breaking or to constrain these various models. ATLAS Collaboration has recently performed a realistic simulation of this process and its backgrounds, which takes into account the detector effects and has developed new jet-analysis techniques for identifying vector bosons within the immense QCD backgrounds expected at the LHC. These techniques and the prospects for measuring the scattering signal will be presented.

  10. Vector Boson Scattering at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcan, V E

    2008-01-01

    While the Higgs model is the best studied scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, there is no fundamental reason for the physics responsible for the symmetry breaking to be weakly-coupled. Many alternatives exist, predicting highly model-dependent signatures. By measuring the cross-section for the W and Z scattering at the LHC, it will be possible to obtain model-independent evidence for strong symmetry breaking or to constrain these various models. ATLAS Collaboration has recently performed a realistic simulation of this process and its backgrounds, which takes into account the detector effects and has developed new jet-analysis techniques for identifying vector bosons within the immense QCD backgrounds expected at the LHC. These techniques and the prospects for measuring the scattering signal will be presented.

  11. CERN vector boson hunt successful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    UA-1 and UA-2 are code names for two groups of physicists at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), together comprising almost 200 researchers. From data collected in two 3-month-long runs last fall and spring, the groups have collected 100 intermediate vector bosons (90 W's and 10 Z 0 's) whose properties so far fit the predictions of the unified quantum field theory of the electromagnetic and weak forces. Although the number of events is short of staggering, the discovery is immensely important. Physicists have been looking for the W for about 50 years. The Z 0 is crucial to the success of the method by which the two forces were melded into one - the electro-weak force

  12. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... shrinks the coefficient of each observation in the estimated functions; thus, it is widely used for minimizing influence of outliers. We propose to additionally add weights to the slack variables in the constraints (CF‐weights) and call the combination of weights the doubly weighted SVR. We illustrate...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  13. Pattern recognition with vector hits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frühwirth, R

    2012-01-01

    Trackers at the future high-luminosity LHC, designed to have triggering capability, will feature layers of stacked modules with a small stack separation. This will allow the reconstruction of track stubs or vector hits with position and direction information, but lacking precise curvature information. This opens up new possibilities for track finding, online and offline. Two track finding methods, the Kalman filter and the convergent Hough transform are studied in this context. Results from a simplified fast simulation are presented. It is shown that the performance of the methods depends to a large extent on the size of the stack separation. We conclude that the detector design and the choice of the track finding algorithm(s) are strongly coupled and should proceed conjointly.

  14. The evaporative vector: Homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1987-05-01

    Molecular beams of van der Waals molecules are the subject of much current research. Among the methods used to form these beams, three-sputtering, laser ablation, and the sonic nozzle expansion of neat gases - yield what are now recognized to be ''warm clusters.'' They contain enough internal energy to undergo a number of first-order processes, in particular that of evaporation. Because of this evaporation and its attendant cooling, the properties of such clusters are time-dependent. The states of matter which can be arrived at via an evaporative vector on a typical laboratory time-scale are discussed. Topics include the (1) temperatures, (2) metastability, (3) phase transitions, (4) kinetic energies of fragmentation, and (5) the expression of magical properties, all for evaporating homogeneous clusters

  15. Introduction to Vector Field Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Vector field visualization techniques are essential to help us understand the complex dynamics of flow fields. These can be found in a wide range of applications such as study of flows around an aircraft, the blood flow in our heart chambers, ocean circulation models, and severe weather predictions. The vector fields from these various applications can be visually depicted using a number of techniques such as particle traces and advecting textures. In this tutorial, we present several fundamental algorithms in flow visualization including particle integration, particle tracking in time-dependent flows, and seeding strategies. For flows near surfaces, a wide variety of synthetic texture-based algorithms have been developed to depict near-body flow features. The most common approach is based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) algorithm. There also exist extensions of LIC to support more flexible texture generations for 3D flow data. This tutorial reviews these algorithms. Tensor fields are found in several real-world applications and also require the aid of visualization to help users understand their data sets. Examples where one can find tensor fields include mechanics to see how material respond to external forces, civil engineering and geomechanics of roads and bridges, and the study of neural pathway via diffusion tensor imaging. This tutorial will provide an overview of the different tensor field visualization techniques, discuss basic tensor decompositions, and go into detail on glyph based methods, deformation based methods, and streamline based methods. Practical examples will be used when presenting the methods; and applications from some case studies will be used as part of the motivation.

  16. Vectorization of KENO IV code and an estimate of vector-parallel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Kenji; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Kurita, Yutaka.

    1986-10-01

    The multi-group criticality safety code KENO IV has been vectorized and tested on FACOM VP-100 vector processor. At first the vectorized KENO IV on a scalar processor became slower than the original one by a factor of 1.4 because of the overhead introduced by the vectorization. Making modifications of algorithms and techniques for vectorization, the vectorized version has become faster than the original one by a factor of 1.4 and 3.0 on the vector processor for sample problems of complex and simple geometries, respectively. For further speedup of the code, some improvements on compiler and hardware, especially on addition of Monte Carlo pipelines to the vector processor, are discussed. Finally a pipelined parallel processor system is proposed and its performance is estimated. (author)

  17. Speculative dynamic vectorization to assist static vectorization in a HW/SW co-designed environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; Martinez, A.; Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Compiler based static vectorization is used widely to extract data level parallelism from computation intensive applications. Static vectorization is very effective in vectorizing traditional array based applications. However, compilers inability to reorder ambiguous memory references severely limits vectorization opportunities, especially in pointer rich applications. HW/SW co-designed processors provide an excellent opportunity to optimize the applications at runtime. The availability of dy...

  18. Probing deformed orbitals with vector A( vector e, e' N)B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.; Caballero, J.A.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Udias, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    We present results for response functions and asymmetries in the nuclear reactions 37 vector Ar( vector e, e' n) 36 Ar and 37 vector K( vector e,e' p) 36 Ar at quasifree kinematics. We compare PWIA results obtained using deformed HF wave functions with PWIA and DWIA results obtained assuming a spherical mean field. We show that the complex structure of the deformed orbitals can be probed by coincidence measurements with polarized beam and targets. ((orig.))

  19. Gauge anomaly with vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Makoto; Oka, Tomonori

    2018-03-01

    Imposing the conservation equation of the vector current for a fermion of spin 1/2 at the quantum level, a gauge anomaly for the fermion coupling with non-Abelian vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space is expressed in tensorial form. The anomaly consists of terms that resemble the chiral U(1) anomaly and the commutator terms that disappear if the axial-vector field is Abelian.

  20. Vector optimization set-valued and variational analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guang-ya; Yang, Xiaogi

    2005-01-01

    This book is devoted to vector or multiple criteria approaches in optimization. Topics covered include: vector optimization, vector variational inequalities, vector variational principles, vector minmax inequalities and vector equilibrium problems. In particular, problems with variable ordering relations and set-valued mappings are treated. The nonlinear scalarization method is extensively used throughout the book to deal with various vector-related problems. The results presented are original and should be interesting to researchers and graduates in applied mathematics and operations research

  1. Strategies to improve road safety : how to learn from Dutch experiences? Lecture held at the Seminar on Road Safety "Stategies to improve road safety: How to learn from Dutch experiences?", Ankara/Istanbul, Turkey, 6-7 November 2012. [a.k.a. as: Improving road safety : experiences from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of the visit of the Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte to Turkey, The Netherlands embassy in Ankara and the consulate-general in Istanbul are organising a half-day seminar on the successful road safety strategy of the Netherlands on 6 and 7 November 2012. During these events road safety

  2. Constraining vectors and axial-vectors in walking technicolour by a holographic principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Dietrich, Dennis; Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We use a holographic principle to study the low-energy spectrum of walking technicolour models. In particular, we predict the masses of the axial vectors as well as the decay constants of vectors and axial vectors as functions of the mass of the techni-rho. Given that there are very few...

  3. Recent advances in genetic modification of adenovirus vectors for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagasato, Masaki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aoki, Kazunori

    2017-05-01

    Adenoviruses are widely used to deliver genes to a variety of cell types and have been used in a number of clinical trials for gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. However, several concerns must be addressed for the clinical use of adenovirus vectors. Selective delivery of a therapeutic gene by adenovirus vectors to target cancer is precluded by the widespread distribution of the primary cellular receptors. The systemic administration of adenoviruses results in hepatic tropism independent of the primary receptors. Adenoviruses induce strong innate and acquired immunity in vivo. Furthermore, several modifications to these vectors are necessary to enhance their oncolytic activity and ensure patient safety. As such, the adenovirus genome has been engineered to overcome these problems. The first part of the present review outlines recent progress in the genetic modification of adenovirus vectors for cancer treatment. In addition, several groups have recently developed cancer-targeting adenovirus vectors by using libraries that display random peptides on a fiber knob. Pancreatic cancer-targeting sequences have been isolated, and these oncolytic vectors have been shown by our group to be associated with a higher gene transduction efficiency and more potent oncolytic activity in cell lines, murine models, and surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer. In the second part of this review, we explain that combining cancer-targeting strategies can be a promising approach to increase the clinical usefulness of oncolytic adenovirus vectors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-07

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  5. Clustering Categories in Support Vector Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art method in supervised classification. In this paper the Cluster Support Vector Machine (CLSVM) methodology is proposed with the aim to increase the sparsity of the SVM classifier in the presence of categorical features, leading to a gain in in...

  6. Successful vectorization - reactor physics Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Most particle transport Monte Carlo codes in use today are based on the ''history-based'' algorithm, wherein one particle history at a time is simulated. Unfortunately, the ''history-based'' approach (present in all Monte Carlo codes until recent years) is inherently scalar and cannot be vectorized. In particular, the history-based algorithm cannot take advantage of vector architectures, which characterize the largest and fastest computers at the current time, vector supercomputers such as the Cray X/MP or IBM 3090/600. However, substantial progress has been made in recent years in developing and implementing a vectorized Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm follows portions of many particle histories at the same time and forms the basis for all successful vectorized Monte Carlo codes that are in use today. This paper describes the basic vectorized algorithm along with descriptions of several variations that have been developed by different researchers for specific applications. These applications have been mainly in the areas of neutron transport in nuclear reactor and shielding analysis and photon transport in fusion plasmas. The relative merits of the various approach schemes will be discussed and the present status of known vectorization efforts will be summarized along with available timing results, including results from the successful vectorization of 3-D general geometry, continuous energy Monte Carlo. (orig.)

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  8. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  9. Limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuai DAI; Guangjun SHEN; Lingtao KONG

    2017-01-01

    Operator self-similar processes,as an extension of self-similar processes,have been studied extensively.In this work,we study limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian vectors.Under some conditions,we determine that the limit of partial sums of functionals of a stationary Gaussian sequence of random vectors is an operator self-similar process.

  10. Chickering's Vectors and the Adult Child Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitten, Robin J.

    This document looks at the college student who is an adult child from a dysfunctional family, applying Chickering's seven vectors of college-age student development to that student's experiences at college. Each of Chickering's seven vectors (developing competence, managing emotions, developing autonomy, establishing identity, freeing…

  11. Zika and its vector mosquitoes in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we carried out a review on the potential vectors of the Zika virus in the Americas, specifically in Mexico. Being vectors of the Culicidae family, they have great predominance in those territories, which could facilitate viral dissemination.

  12. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Africa among the human population. Determination of risk of malaria transmission requires quick and accurate methods of identification of Anopheles mosquitoes especially when targeting vector control. (Maxwell, et al., 2003). Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria. The most important vectors of malaria are members of.

  13. Vector fields and differential operators: noncommutative case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, A.

    1997-01-01

    A notion of Cartan pairs as an analogy of vector fields in the realm of noncommutative geometry has been proposed previously. In this paper an outline is given of the construction of a noncommutative analogy of the algebra of differential operators as well as its (algebraic) Fock space realization. Co-universal vector fields and covariant derivatives will also be discussed

  14. Deep Support Vector Machines for Regression Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; Schutten, Marten; Millea, Adrian; Meijster, Arnold; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel extension of the support vector machine, called the deep support vector machine (DSVM). The original SVM has a single layer with kernel functions and is therefore a shallow model. The DSVM can use an arbitrary number of layers, in which lower-level layers contain

  15. Pair production of intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    The production of intermediate vector boson pairs W + W - , Z 0 Z 0 , W +- Z 0 and W +- γ in pp and p anti p collisions is discussed. The motivation is to detect the self-interactions among the four intermediate vector bosons

  16. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  17. Multi-task Vector Field Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Chiyuan; Ye, Jieping; He, Xiaofei

    2012-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously and identifying the shared information among tasks. Most of existing MTL methods focus on learning linear models under the supervised setting. We propose a novel semi-supervised and nonlinear approach for MTL using vector fields. A vector field is a smooth mapping from the manifold to the tangent spaces which can be viewed as a directional derivative of functions on the manifold. We argue that vector fields provide a natural way to exploit the geometric structure of data as well as the shared differential structure of tasks, both of which are crucial for semi-supervised multi-task learning. In this paper, we develop multi-task vector field learning (MTVFL) which learns the predictor functions and the vector fields simultaneously. MTVFL has the following key properties. (1) The vector fields MTVFL learns are close to the gradient fields of the predictor functions. (2) Within each task, the vector field is required to be as parallel as possible which is expected to span a low dimensional subspace. (3) The vector fields from all tasks share a low dimensional subspace. We formalize our idea in a regularization framework and also provide a convex relaxation method to solve the original non-convex problem. The experimental results on synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  18. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  19. Vector Boson Scattering at High Mass

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a light Higgs boson, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking will be best studied in processes of vector boson scattering at high mass. Various models predict resonances in this channel. Here, we investigate $WW $scalar and vector resonances, $WZ$ vector resonances and a $ZZ$ scalar resonance over a range of diboson centre-of-mass energies. Particular attention is paid to the application of forward jet tagging and to the reconstruction of dijet pairs with low opening angle resulting from the decay of highly boosted vector bosons. The performances of different jet algorithms are compared. We find that resonances in vector boson scattering can be discovered with a few tens of inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity.

  20. Projection correlation between two random vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liping; Xu, Kai; Li, Runze; Zhong, Wei

    2017-12-01

    We propose the use of projection correlation to characterize dependence between two random vectors. Projection correlation has several appealing properties. It equals zero if and only if the two random vectors are independent, it is not sensitive to the dimensions of the two random vectors, it is invariant with respect to the group of orthogonal transformations, and its estimation is free of tuning parameters and does not require moment conditions on the random vectors. We show that the sample estimate of the projection correction is [Formula: see text]-consistent if the two random vectors are independent and root-[Formula: see text]-consistent otherwise. Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the projection correlation has higher power than the distance correlation and the ranks of distances in tests of independence, especially when the dimensions are relatively large or the moment conditions required by the distance correlation are violated.