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Sample records for ankara vectors enhances

  1. Expanding the repertoire of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine vectors via genetic complementation strategies.

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    David A Garber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is a safe, highly attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a recombinant vaccine vector for immunization against a number of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the expression by MVA vectors of large numbers of poxvirus antigens, which display immunodominance over vectored antigens-of-interest for the priming of T cell responses, and the induction of vector-neutralizing antibodies, which curtail the efficacy of subsequent booster immunizations, remain as significant impediments to the overall utility of such vaccines. Thus, genetic approaches that enable the derivation of MVA vectors that are antigenically less complex may allow for rational improvement of MVA-based vaccines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a genetic complementation system that enables the deletion of essential viral genes from the MVA genome, thereby allowing us to generate MVA vaccine vectors that are antigenically less complex. Using this system, we deleted the essential uracil-DNA-glycosylase (udg gene from MVA and propagated this otherwise replication-defective variant on a complementing cell line that constitutively expresses the poxvirus udg gene and that was derived from a newly identified continuous cell line that is permissive for growth of wild type MVA. The resulting virus, MVADeltaudg, does not replicate its DNA genome or express late viral gene products during infection of non-complementing cells in culture. As proof-of-concept for immunological 'focusing', we demonstrate that immunization of mice with MVADeltaudg elicits CD8+ T cell responses that are directed against a restricted repertoire of vector antigens, as compared to immunization with parental MVA. Immunization of rhesus macaques with MVADeltaudg-gag, a udg(- recombinant virus that expresses an HIV subtype-B consensus gag transgene, elicited significantly higher frequencies of Gag-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells following both primary (2

  2. Immunological characterization of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing the human papillomavirus 16 E1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Germain, Claire; Spindler, Anita; Hoffmann, Chantal; Silvestre, Nathalie; Rooke, Ronald; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Préville, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Women showing normal cytology but diagnosed with a persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection have a higher risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer than noninfected women. As no therapeutic management other than surveillance is offered to these women, there is a major challenge to develop novel targeted therapies dedicated to the treatment of these patients. As such, E1 and E2 antigens, expressed early in the HPV life cycle, represent very interesting candidates. Both proteins are necessary for maintaining coordinated viral replication and gene synthesis during the differentiation process of the epithelium and are essential for the virus to complete its normal and propagative replication cycle. In the present study, we evaluated a new active targeted immunotherapeutic, a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector containing the E1 sequence of HPV16, aimed at inducing cellular immune responses with the potential to help and clear persistent HPV16-related infection. We carried out an extensive comparative time course analysis of the cellular immune responses induced by different schedules of immunization in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that multiple injections of MVA-E1 allowed sustained HPV16 E1-specific cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice and had no impact on the exhaustion phenotype of the generated HPV16 E1-specific CD8⁺ T cells, but they led to the differentiation of multifunctional effector T cells with high cytotoxic capacity. This study provides proof of concept that an MVA expressing HPV16 E1 can induce robust and long-lasting E1-specific responses and warrants further development of this candidate. PMID:24307238

  3. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

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    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. METHODS: Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate

  4. Enhanced immunogenicity for CD8+ T cell induction and complete protective efficacy of malaria DNA vaccination by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J; Gilbert, S C; Blanchard, T J; Hanke, T; Robson, K J; Hannan, C M; Becker, M; Sinden, R; Smith, G L; Hill, A V

    1998-04-01

    Immunization with irradiated sporozoites can protect against malaria infection and intensive efforts are aimed at reproducing this effect with subunit vaccines. A particular sequence of subunit immunization with pre-erythrocytic antigens of Plasmodium berghei, consisting of single dose priming with plasmid DNA followed by a single boost with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the same antigen, induced unprecedented complete protection against P. berghei sporozoite challenge in two strains of mice. Protection was associated with very high levels of splenic peptide-specific interferon-gamma-secreting CD8+ T cells and was abrogated when the order of immunization was reversed. DNA priming followed by MVA boosting may provide a general immunization regime for induction of high levels of CD8+ T cells.

  5. Split-intron retroviral vectors: enhanced expression with improved safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S I; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M

    2000-03-01

    The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37-48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus of the producer cell. In the past, elaborate ways to overcome this problem have included the use of alphaviruses to make the vector transcripts within the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the nuclear splicing machinery during vector production (K. J. Li and H. Garoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3650-3654, 1998). We now present a novel design for the inclusion of introns within a retroviral vector. In essence, this is achieved by exploiting the retroviral replication process to copy not only the U3 promoter but also a synthetic splice donor to the 5'-long-terminal-repeat position during reverse transcription. Once copied, synthesized transcripts then contain a splice donor at their 5' end capable of interacting with a consensus splice acceptor engineered downstream of the packaging signal. Upon transduction, we demonstrate these vectors to produce enhanced expression from near fully spliced (and thus packaging signal minus) transcripts. The unique design of these high titer and high-expression retroviral vectors may be of use in a number of gene therapy applications. PMID:10666267

  6. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

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    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  7. Periodic Excitation for Jet Vectoring and Enhanced Spreading

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    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    1999-01-01

    The effects of periodic excitation on the evolution of a turbulent jet were studied experimentally. A short, wide-angle diffuser was attached to the jet exit and excitation was introduced at the junction between the jet exit and the diffuser inlet. The introduction of high amplitude periodic excitation at the jet exit enhances the mixing and promotes attachment of the jet shear-layer to the diffuser wall. Vectoring is achieved by applying the excitation over a fraction of the circumference of the circular jet, enhancing its spreading rate on the excited side and its tendency to reattach to that side. Static deflection studies demonstrate that the presence of the wide-angle diffuser increases the effectiveness of the added periodic momentum due to a favorable interaction between the excitation, the jet shear-layer and the diffuser wall. This point was further demonstrated by the evolution of a wave packet that was excited in the jet shear-layer. Strong amplification of the wave packet was measured with a diffuser attached to the jet exit. The turbulent jet responds quickly (10-20 msec) to step changes in the level of the excitation input. The response scales with the jet exit velocity and is independent of the Reynolds number. Jet deflection angles were found to be highly sensitive to the relative direction between the excitation and the jet flow and less sensitive to the excitation frequency. The higher jet deflection angles were obtained for a diffuser length of about two diameters and for diffusers with half-angles greater than 15 degrees.

  8. A Photographer From Ankara: Osman Darcan

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    Gülseren Mungan Yavuztürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces Osman Darcan, an important name in the history of Ankara photography studios. Darcan followed in the footsteps of famous Austrian photographer Othmar Pferschy, whom he met in Istanbul, to go on to create his own valuable work. On leaving the Public Press Authority Photo Film Center, where he worked as a newsreel photographer and film operator, in 1943 he began taking photographs at the Tatbikat Theater at the Ankara State Conservatoire, where he continued as the photographer for the State Theater until the end of his life. At the same time, this master photographer took the pictures of a select coterie of Ankara’s leading individuals and well-known performers at a studio he opened on Anafartalar Caddesi. In both these roles, his photographs evoke admiration thanks to Darcan’s professional abilities and level of artistry.

  9. PEGylated helper-dependent adenoviral vectors: highly efficient vectors with an enhanced safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croyle, M A; Le, H T; Linse, K D; Cerullo, V; Toietta, G; Beaudet, A; Pastore, L

    2005-04-01

    Transgene expression from helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors is effective and long lasting, but not permanent. Their use is also limited by the host response against capsid proteins that precludes successful gene expression upon readministration. In this report, we test the hypothesis that PEGylation of HD-Ad reduces its toxicity and promotes transgene expression upon readministration. PEGylation did not compromise transduction efficiency in vitro and in vivo and reduced peak serum IL-6 levels two-fold. IL-12 and TNF-alpha levels were reduced three- and seven-fold, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was not detected in mice treated with the PEGylated vector. Serum transaminases were not significantly elevated in mice treated with either vector. Mice immunized with 1 x 10(11) particles of unmodified HD-Ad expressing human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hA1AT) were rechallenged 28 days later with 8 x 10(10) particles of unmodified or PEG-conjugated vector expressing beta-galactosidase. Trace levels of beta-galactosidase (52.23+/-19.2 pg/mg protein) were detected in liver homogenates of mice that received two doses of unmodified HD-Ad. Mice rechallenged with PEGylated HD-Ad produced significant levels of beta-galactosidase (5.1+/-0.4 x 10(5) pg/mg protein, P=0.0001). This suggests that PEGylation of HD-Ad vectors may be appropriate for their safe and efficient use in the clinic. PMID:15647765

  10. A novel double expression shuttle vector to get marker-free recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara%改良型痘苗病毒安卡拉株表达系统可删除筛选标记的双表达穿梭载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑其升; 毕志香; 李梅清; 侯继波; 陈溥言

    2011-01-01

    A novel double expression shuttle vector named pLR-gpt was constructed for marker-free recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generation. A delectable Eco gpt marker was adopted with Cre/LoxP DNA recombination system and a BHK-21 cell line that can express Cre enzyme. Eco gpt gene controlled by P7.5 promoter from Vaccinia virus was cloned between two LoxP sites in the same direction. Additionally, two multiple cloning site under control of other two Vaccinia virus promoters were constructed outside LoxP sites. With this new transfer vector, Eco gpt marker in rMVA can be deleted on BHK-Cre with interaction between Cre enzyme and LoxP sequence. In order to verify the efficacy of this system, ORF5 and ORF6 gene of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NJ-a strain were cloned into two multiple cloning sites of pLR-gpt to construct recombinant plasmid pLR-ORF5/ORF6. Homologous recombination between pLR-ORF5/ORF6 and wtMVA on BHK-21 cell was mediated by liposome by infecting cells with 0.01 MOI wtMVA two hours before transfection. After twelve cycles of selection, recombinant MVA with selecting marker Eco gpt was obtained and named as rMVAgpt-GP5/M. By infecting BHK-Cre, the Eco gpt marker in rMVAgpt-GP5/M was deleted and this rMVA was named as rMVA-GP5/M. Expression of GP5 and M protein was identified with Western blotting and IFA. Results from PCR and biological study for rMVA indicated that Eco gpt marker was completely deleted. Conclusions: double expression transfer vector for marker-free recombinant Modified vaccinia virus Ankara generation was successfully constructed, and works well in MVA expression system.%为了构建改良型痘苗病毒安卡拉株表达系统可删除筛选标记的双表达穿梭载体,利用Cre/LoxPDNA重组系统以及本实验室表达Cre酶的BHK-21细胞系(BHK-Cre),以大肠杆菌黄嘌吟-鸟嘌呤磷酸核糖转移酶(Eco gpt)为筛选标记构建可删除筛选标记的双表

  11. Using a geographical-information-system-based decision support to enhance malaria vector control in zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  12. Mammalian African trypanosome VSG coat enhances tsetse's vector competence.

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    Aksoy, Emre; Vigneron, Aurélien; Bing, XiaoLi; Zhao, Xin; O'Neill, Michelle; Wu, Yi-Neng; Bangs, James D; Weiss, Brian L; Aksoy, Serap

    2016-06-21

    Tsetse flies are biological vectors of African trypanosomes, the protozoan parasites responsible for causing human and animal trypanosomiases across sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, no vaccines are available for disease prevention due to antigenic variation of the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSG) that coat parasites while they reside within mammalian hosts. As a result, interference with parasite development in the tsetse vector is being explored to reduce disease transmission. A major bottleneck to infection occurs as parasites attempt to colonize tsetse's midgut. One critical factor influencing this bottleneck is the fly's peritrophic matrix (PM), a semipermeable, chitinous barrier that lines the midgut. The mechanisms that enable trypanosomes to cross this barrier are currently unknown. Here, we determined that as parasites enter the tsetse's gut, VSG molecules released from trypanosomes are internalized by cells of the cardia-the tissue responsible for producing the PM. VSG internalization results in decreased expression of a tsetse microRNA (mir-275) and interferes with the Wnt-signaling pathway and the Iroquois/IRX transcription factor family. This interference reduces the function of the PM barrier and promotes parasite colonization of the gut early in the infection process. Manipulation of the insect midgut homeostasis by the mammalian parasite coat proteins is a novel function and indicates that VSG serves a dual role in trypanosome biology-that of facilitating transmission through its mammalian host and insect vector. We detail critical steps in the course of trypanosome infection establishment that can serve as novel targets to reduce the tsetse's vector competence and disease transmission. PMID:27185908

  13. Split-Intron Retroviral Vectors: Enhanced Expression with Improved Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Said I.; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.; Uden, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37–48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus ...

  14. Engineering characteristics of Ankara Greywacke under the foundation of the Beytepe open air theatre, Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, H.; Gurkan, B.; Sonmez, B.

    2008-08-01

    The construction of a large open air theatre having with an audience capacity of 7,000 is planned at the Beytepe Campus of Hacettepe University located near Ankara, Turkey, in the heart of Anatolia. The foundation of the open air theatre is composed of weak and heavily jointed Ankara Greywacke. An estimation of the strength and deformation of the Ankara Greywacke was required for assessments of short- and long-term stability. Accordingly, rock mass characterization of the Ankara Greywacke was investigated in detail by scan-line surveys and back-analyses of in situ tests performed on the excavated surface of the rock mass. The final version of the Hoek and Brown Criterion (Hoek et al., In: Proceedings of the north American rock mechanics society meeting, Toronto, Canada, pp 1 6, 2002) together with and improvements proposed by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, 43:671 676, 2006) were considered together for the back analyses of small slope benches subjected to plate loading test loaded to failure. In addition, the plate loading test data were used with some well-known empirical equations for predicting of deformation modulus of rock masses to calculate ranges of values of the Geological Strength Index (GSI) The static and pseudostatic slope stabilities of the audience seating structures to be supported by benches excavated into the rock were also analyzed. The stability assessments revealed the unlikelihood of large rock mass failures for the short-term construction stages or for the long-term, as-constructed conditions under static or pseudo-static conditions. Additionally, the analyses showed that there was no need for anchors between the concrete seating structures and greywacke rock mass.

  15. Use of intron-disrupted polyadenylation sites to enhance expression and safety of retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S I; Rohll, J B; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M

    2001-01-01

    Normal mRNA polyadenylation signals are composed of an AAUAAA motif and G/U box spaced 20 to 30 bp apart. If this spacing is increased further, then polyadenylation is disrupted. Previously it has been demonstrated that insertion of an intron will similarly disrupt this signal even though such introns are removed during a nuclear splicing reaction (X. Liu and J. Mertz, Nucleic Acids Res. 21:5256-5263, 1993). This observation has led to the suggestion that polyadenylation site selection is undertaken prior to intron excision. We now present results that both support and extend these observations and in doing so create a novel class of retroviral expression vector with improved qualities. We found that when an intron-disrupted polyadenylation signal is inserted within a retroviral expression vector, such a signal, although reformed in the producer cell, remains benign until transduction, where it is then preferentially used. Thus, we demonstrate that upon transduction these vectors now produce a majority of shortened subgenomic species and as a consequence have a reduced tendency for subsequent mobilization from transduced cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the use of this internal signal leads to enhanced expression from such vectors and that this is achieved without any loss in titer. Therefore, split polyadenylation signals confer enhanced performance and improved safety upon retroviral expression vectors into which they are inserted. Such split signals may prove useful for the future optimization of retroviral vectors in gene therapy. PMID:11119589

  16. Metrics for vector quantization-based parametric speech enhancement and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    Speech enhancement and separation algorithms sometimes employ a two-stage processing scheme, wherein the signal is first mapped to an intermediate low-dimensional parametric description after which the parameters are mapped to vectors in codebooks trained on, for exam- ple, individual noise......-free sources using a vector quantizer. To obtain accurate parameters, one must employ a good estimator in finding the parameters of the intermediate representation, like a maximum like- lihood estimator. This leaves some unanswered questions, however, like what metrics to use in the subsequent vector...... quantization process and how to systematically derive them. This paper aims at answering these questions. Metrics for this are presented and derived, and their use is exemplified on a number of different signal models by deriving closed-form expressions. The metrics essentially take into account in the vector...

  17. The Literary Legacy Inherited by Ankara of the Republican Era: Literary Life and Milieux in Ankara until the Republic Era

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    Necati Tonga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankara became one of the most important circles of literary activities after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. In this era, the most prevalent factor for this nourishment was that Ankara was chosen as the capital city and Turkey would be governed from Ankara from then on. Besides this fact, before being the capital, Ankara had a rich background in terms of literature. The city had a strong tradition of Divan and Sufi literature in the ruling periods of Seljuks and Ottomans. Many Divan poets and minstrels lived in Ankara throughout history. In those times, in addition to madrasahs, dervish lodges and mosques, there were taverns, inns, mansions, coffeehouses, vineyards and gardens that were used for gatherings where poems were recited and talks about literature took place. Before the establishment of the Republic, in the years between 1919 and 1922, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk proclaimed Ankara as the headquarters of the national movements. This choice brought out a liveliness to Ankara in terms of literature. In this period until the Republic, many places serving as dervish lodges, coffeehouses, restaurants, gardens, taverns, and shops, and newspaper editorials such as Tâceddin Dergâhı (Taceddin’s Lodge, Kuyulu Kahve (Coffee-shop, Merkez Kıraathanesi (Central coffee-shop, Hakimiyet-i Milliye and Yenigün Newspaper Editorial Offices, Anadolu Lokantası (Anadolu Restaurant, Teceddüt Lokantası (Teceddüt Restaurant, Abdullah Efendi Lokantası (Abdullah Efendi Restaurant, Muallimler Birliği (Teachers Union, Şehir Bahçesi (City Garden, Dayko’nun Tütüncü Dükkânı (Dayko’s Tobacco Shop and Efe Haydar’ın Meyhanesi (Efe Haydar’s Tavern were prominent gathering places that flourished in the literary activities of Ankara.

  18. Human bioclimatology analysis of Ankara urban area

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    Onur Çalışkan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  19. Urban Heat Island ın Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seasonal variation of the surface temperature of Ankara urban area and its enviroment have been analyzed by using Landsat 7 image. The Landsat 7 images of each month from 2007 to 2011 have been used to analyze the annually changes of the surface temperature. The land cover of the research area was defined with supervised classification method on the basis of the satellite image belonging to 2008 July. After determining the surface temperatures from 6-1 bands of satellite images, the monthly mean surface temperatures were calculated for land cover classification for the period between 2007 and 2011. According to the results obtained, the surface temperatures are high in summer and low in winter from the airtemperatures. all satellite images were taken at 10:00 am, it is found that urban areas are cooler than rural areas at 10:00 am. Regarding the land cover classification, the water surfaces are the coolest surfaces during the whole year.The warmest areas are the grasslands and dry farming areas. While the parks are warmer than the urban areas during the winter, during the summer they are cooler than artificial land covers. The urban areas with higher building density are the cooler surfaces after water bodies.

  20. Blood Parasites of Wild Pigeons in Ankara District

    OpenAIRE

    GICIK, Yunus; ARSLAN, M. Özkan

    2001-01-01

    A total of 200 wild pigeons, 82 young and 118 adults, captured from 12 localities in Ankara District, were examined for blood parasites. Haemoproteus columbae was found in 57% (114/200) of the pigeons examined, and no other blood parasites were detected.

  1. A short history of cinema magazines published in Ankara

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    Gülseren Mungan Yavuztürk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes up cinema magazines published in Ankara between the years 1927 – 2005. The publishing elements that appeared in the said historic period are studied chronologically, based on the limited number of documentation and publications, and evaluated in sociocultural terms.

  2. Magnetofection Enhances Adenoviral Vector-based Gene Delivery in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea Soledad; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Lockhart, Eugenia Falomir; Taylor, Jackson Richard; Delbono, Osvaldo; Goya, Rodolfo Gustavo; Plank, Christian; Hereñu, Claudia Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The goal of magnetic field-assisted gene transfer is to enhance internalization of exogenous nucleic acids by association with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). This technique named magnetofection is particularly useful in difficult-to-transfect cells. It is well known that human, mouse, and rat skeletal muscle cells suffer a maturation-dependent loss of susceptibility to Recombinant Adenoviral vector (RAd) uptake. In postnatal, fully differentiated myofibers, the expression of the primary Coxsackie and Adenoviral membrane receptor (CAR) is severely downregulated representing a main hurdle for the use of these vectors in gene transfer/therapy. Here we demonstrate that assembling of Recombinant Adenoviral vectors with suitable iron oxide MNPs into magneto-adenovectors (RAd-MNP) and further exposure to a gradient magnetic field enables to efficiently overcome transduction resistance in skeletal muscle cells. Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 was significantly enhanced after magnetofection with RAd-MNPs complexes in C2C12 myotubes in vitro and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo when compared to transduction with naked virus. These results provide evidence that magnetofection, mainly due to its membrane-receptor independent mechanism, constitutes a simple and effective alternative to current methods for gene transfer into traditionally hard-to-transfect biological models. PMID:27274908

  3. ENHANCED TIME-DEPENDENT EVOLUTIONARY FUZZY SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES INFERENCE MODEL FOR CASH FLOW PREDICTION AND ESTIMATE AT COMPLETION

    OpenAIRE

    MIN-YUAN CHENG; YU-WEI WU; LE TRUNG DAN; ANDREAS F. VAN ROY

    2013-01-01

    This study conducts a mechanism enhancing the time series data treatment of the time-dependent evolutionary fuzzy support vector machine inference model (EFSIMT). The enhanced model, EFSIMET, was developed particularly to treat construction management problems that contain time series data. EFSIMET is an artificial intelligent hybrid system in which fuzzy logic (FL) deal with vagueness and approximate reasoning; support vector machine (SVM) acts as supervise learning tool; and fast messy gene...

  4. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle.

  5. Speech/Music Classification Enhancement for 3GPP2 SMV Codec Based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Kyun; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    In this letter, we propose a novel approach to speech/music classification based on the support vector machine (SVM) to improve the performance of the 3GPP2 selectable mode vocoder (SMV) codec. We first analyze the features and the classification method used in real time speech/music classification algorithm in SMV, and then apply the SVM for enhanced speech/music classification. For evaluation of performance, we compare the proposed algorithm and the traditional algorithm of the SMV. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated under the various environments and shows better performance compared to the original method in the SMV.

  6. Enhancing MOEA/D with uniform population initialization, weight vector design and adjustment using uniform design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoning Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the enhancement of the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D), we propose an improved algorithm with uniform de-sign (UD), i.e. MOEA/D-UD. Three mechanisms in MOEA/D-UD are modified by introducing an experimental design method cal ed UD. To ful y employ the information contained in the domain of the multi-objective problem, we apply UD to initialize a uniformly scattered population. Then, motivated by the analysis of the re-lationship between weight vectors and optimal solutions of scalar subproblems in the study of MOEA/D with adaptive weight ad-justment (MOEA/D-AWA), a new weight vector design method based on UD is introduced. To distinguish real sparse regions from pseudo sparse regions, i.e. discontinuous regions, of the complex Pareto front, the weight vector adjustment strategy in MOEA/D-UD adequately utilizes the information from neighbors of individuals. In the experimental study, we compare MOEA/D-UD with three outstanding algorithms, namely MOEA/D with the dif-ferential evolution operator (MOEA/D-DE), MOEA/D-AWA and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) on nineteen test instances. The experimental results show that MOEA/D-UD is capable of obtaining a wel-converged and wel diversified set of solutions within an acceptable execution time.

  7. An Efficient Evaluation and Vector Generation Method for Observability-Enhanced Statement Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lu; Xiu-Tao Yang; Tao Lv; Xiao-Wei Li

    2005-01-01

    Coverage evaluation is indispensable for verification via simulation. As the functional complexity of modern design is increasing at a breathtaking pace, it is requisite to take observability into account. Unfortunately, nowadays coverage metrics taking observability into account are not very satisfactory. On the one hand, for the observability assessment algorithms proposed up to now, the overhead of computing is large, so they could not be integrated into simulation tools easily. On the other hand, the vector generation methods involving the metrics taking observability into account are not very efficient, and there exists a disconnection between these metrics and the vector generation process.In this paper, some original ideas for the problems above are presented. (1) Precise and concise abstract representations from HDL (Hardware Description Language) descriptions at RTL (Register Transfer Level) are presented to model observability information. (2) A novel observability evaluation method based on the proposed models is introduced. This method is more computationally efficient than prior efforts to assess observability and it could be integrated into compilers and simulators easily. (3) A new simulation vector generation procedure involving the observability-enhanced statement coverage metric is developed. The method is simulation-based and driven by the distribution of unobserved statements.During this procedure, the proposed algorithm always tries to cover all unobserved statements, and reduce unnecessary backtracking, so it is efficient. The methods proposed have been implemented as a prototype tool for VHDL designs, and the results on benchmarks show significant benefits.

  8. Mechanical Vectors Enhance Fungal Entomopathogen Reduction of the Grasshopper Pest Camnula pellucida (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica J; Saums, Marielle; Belovsky, Gary E

    2015-02-01

    Mounting scientific evidence indicates that pathogens can regulate insect populations. However, limited dispersal and sensitivity to abiotic conditions often restricts pathogen regulation of host populations. While it is well established that arthropod biological vectors increase pathogen incidence in host populations, few studies have examined whether arthropod mechanical vectors (an organism that transmits pathogens but is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen) influence host-pathogen dynamics. The importance of mechanical dispersal by ant scavengers, Formica fusca (L.), in a grasshopper-fungal entomopathogen system was investigated. We examined the ability of ants to mechanically disperse and transmit the pathogen, Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) pathotype 1, to its host, the pest grasshopper Camnula pellucida (Scudder), in a series of laboratory experiments. Fungal spores were dispersed either externally on the ant's body surface or internally through fecal deposition. In addition, a third of all grasshoppers housed with fungal-inoculated ants became infected, indicating that ants can act as mechanical vectors of E. grylli. The effect of ant mechanical vectors on E. grylli incidence was also examined in a field experiment. Ant access to pathogen-exposed experimental grasshopper populations was restricted using organic ant repellent, thereby allowing us to directly compare mechanical and natural transmission. Ants increased grasshopper pathogen mortality by 58%, which led to greater pathogen reductions of grasshopper survival than natural transmission. Taken together, our results indicate that ants enhance E. grylli reduction of grasshopper pest numbers. Therefore, mechanical transmission of pathogens may be an important overlooking component of this grasshopper-fungal pathogen system. PMID:26308817

  9. A Hybridization of Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony-Least Squares Support Vector Machines for Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhanis Yusof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LSSVM is highly rely on its value of regularization parameter, γ and kernel parameter, σ2, man-made approach is clearly not an appropriate solution since it may lead to blindness in certain extent. In addition, this technique is time consuming and unsystematic, which consequently affect the generalization performance of LSSVM. Approach: This study presents an enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (ABC to automatically optimize the hyper parameters of interest. The enhancement involved modifications that provide better exploitation activity by the bees during searching and prevent premature convergence. Later, the prediction process is accomplished by LSSVM. Results and Conclusion: Empirical results obtained indicated that feasibility of proposed technique showed a satisfactory performance by producing better prediction accuracy as compared to standard ABC-LSSVM and Back Propagation Neural Network.

  10. A Class of Nonlocal Variational Problems on a Vector Bundle for Color Image Local Contrast Reduction/Enhancement.

    OpenAIRE

    Batard, Thomas; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We extend two existing variational models from the Euclidean space to a vector bundle over a Riemannian manifold. The Euclidean models , dedicated to regularize or enhance some color image features, are based on the concept of nonlocal gradient operator acting on a function of the Euclidean space. We then extend these models by generalizing this operator to a vector bundle over a Riemannian manifold with the help of the parallel transport map associated to some class of covariant derivatives....

  11. Utilizing Conceptual Indexing to Enhance the Effectiveness of Vector Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of the semantic Web is to improve the retrieval performance of search systems. Unlike keyword based search systems, the semantic search systems aim to discover pages related to the query's concepts rather than merely collecting all pages instantiating its keywords. To that end, the concepts must be defined to be used as a semantic index instead of the traditional lexical one. In fact, The Arabic language is still far from being semantically searchable. Therefore, this paper proposed a model that exploits the Universal Word Net ontology for producing an Arabic Concepts-Space to be used as the index of Semantic Vector Space Model. The Vector Space Model is one of the most common information retrieval models due to its capability of expressing the documents' structure. However, like all keyword-based search systems, its sensitivity to the query's keywords reduces its retrieval effectiveness. The proposed model allows the VSM to represent Arabic documents by their topic, and thus classify them semantically. This, consequently, enhances the retrieval effectiveness of the search system.

  12. Using support vector machine and dynamic parameter encoding to enhance global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Chen, X.; Liu, C.; Huang, K.

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an approach which combines support vector machine (SVM) and dynamic parameter encoding (DPE) to enhance the run-time performance of global optimization with time-consuming fitness function evaluations. SVMs are used as surrogate models to partly substitute for fitness evaluations. To reduce the computation time and guarantee correct convergence, this work proposes a novel strategy to adaptively adjust the number of fitness evaluations needed according to the approximate error of the surrogate model. Meanwhile, DPE is employed to compress the solution space, so that it not only accelerates the convergence but also decreases the approximate error. Numerical results of optimizing a few benchmark functions and an antenna in a practical application are presented, which verify the feasibility, efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.

  13. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunogenicity of Viral Vectored Vaccines by the NKT Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide as Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailbala Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccination strategies, specifically viral vectors encoding vaccine immunogens are effective at priming strong immune responses. Mucosal routes offer practical advantages for vaccination by ease of needle-free administration, and immunogen delivery at readily accessible oral/nasal sites to efficiently induce immunity at distant gut and genital tissues. However, since mucosal tissues are inherently tolerant for induction of immune responses, incorporation of adjuvants for optimal mucosal vaccination strategies is important. We report here the effectiveness of alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a synthetic glycolipid agonist of natural killer T (NKT cells, as an adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of vaccine antigens delivered using viral vectors by mucosal routes in murine and nonhuman primate models. Significant improvement in adaptive immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues was observed by including α-GalCer adjuvant for intranasal immunization of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus vector encoding the model antigen ovalbumin and adenoviral vectors expressing HIV env and Gag antigens. Activation of NKT cells in systemic and mucosal tissues along with significant increases in adaptive immune responses were observed in rhesus macaques immunized by intranasal and sublingual routes with protein or adenovirus vectored antigens when combined with α-GalCer adjuvant. These results support the utility of α-GalCer adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of mucosal vaccines delivered using viral vectors.

  14. Characteristic element of matrix attachment region mediates vector attachment and enhances nerve growth factor expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Zhang, J H; Sun, Q L; Yao, Z Y; Deng, B G; Guo, W Y; Wang, L; Dong, W H; Wang, F; Zhao, C P; Wang, T Y

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that a characteristic element of the matrix attachment region (MAR) in human interferon-β mediates the adhesion of vectors to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In this study, we investigated if vector adhesion increased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in CHO cells. The MAR characteristic element sequence of human interferon-β was inserted into the multiple-cloning site of the pEGFP-C1 vector. The target NGF gene was inserted upstream of the MAR characteristic element sequence to construct the MAR/NGF expression vector. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO cells and stable monoclonal cells were selected using G418. NGF mRNA and protein expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Plasmid reduction experiments were used to determine the state of transfected plasmid in mammalian cells. The insertion of MAR into the vector increased NGF expression levels in CHO cells (1.93- fold) compared to the control. The recombinant plasmid expressing the MAR sequence was digested into a linear space vector. The inserted MAR and NGF sequences were consistent with those inserted into the plasmid before recombination. Therefore, we concluded that the MAR characteristic element mediates vector adhesion to CHO cells and enhances the stability and efficiency of the target gene expression. PMID:26345852

  15. Expression of IMP1 enhances production of murine leukemia virus vector by facilitating viral genomic RNA packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mai

    Full Text Available Murine leukemia virus (MLV-based retroviral vector is widely used for gene transfer. Efficient packaging of the genomic RNA is critical for production of high-titer virus. Here, we report that expression of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1 enhanced the production of infectious MLV vector. Overexpression of IMP1 increased the stability of viral genomic RNA in virus producer cells and packaging of the RNA into progeny virus in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of IMP1 in virus producer cells resulted in reduced production of the retroviral vector. These results indicate that IMP1 plays a role in regulating the packaging of MLV genomic RNA and can be used for improving production of retroviral vectors.

  16. DETERMINATION OF FORMALDEHYDE LEVELS IN 46 COFFEE SHOPS IN ANKARA

    OpenAIRE

    Songul Acar VAIZOÐLU; Didem EVCI; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Sefer AYCAN; Cagatay GULER

    2005-01-01

    This study is a descriptive research performed in order to measure formaldehyde levels in 46 random selected coffee shops in from central districts of Ankara. Formaldemeter 400 was used for formaldehyde measures. Simultaneous measures were applied in coffee shops. Mean of formaldehyde levels was 0,20 ppm. There was artificial ventilation in all of the coffee shops. It was used aspirator as ventilation device in 69,6% of the coffee shops. But in 81,0% of these, the formaldehyde levels were abo...

  17. An Investigation on Satisfaction of Domestic Tourist from Ankara Shopping Fest under the Tourism of Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TAYFUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of Tourism mostly in coastal of Turkey, in certain centers and in summer season stands out as a major problem. A tourism mobility that, spread over 12 months, and including inner zones is emphasized also in 2023 Tourism Strategy of Turkey. Therefore, increasing the diversity of tourism such as festivals, which started to increase number of events. Hence, investigated in this study, satisfaction levels from Ankara Shopping Fest of domestic tourists, who came to Ankara during "Ankara Shopping Fest" which, organized in Ankara on 8 June to 1 July 2012 period. Descriptive research method used in the study. The aims in this study, determination of the views of local tourists about Ankara Shopping Fest and to investigate the satisfaction from the festival. 336 domestic tourists as visitors during the festival in Ankara were the sample of research. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection technique. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, the first section was demographic variables. The second section was located expressions for Ankara Shopping Fest. Some statical analysis made to data in the result of research. These analyses were frequecy analysis, t tests and ANOVA tests. As a result of the t-tests and ANOVA tests significant differences were found between gender, age, level of income and civil staus of domestic tourists who came to Ankara during the festival.

  18. An Enhanced MEMS Error Modeling Approach Based on Nu-Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bhatt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS-based inertial sensors have made possible the development of a civilian land vehicle navigation system by offering a low-cost solution. However, the accurate modeling of the MEMS sensor errors is one of the most challenging tasks in the design of low-cost navigation systems. These sensors exhibit significant errors like biases, drift, noises; which are negligible for higher grade units. Different conventional techniques utilizing the Gauss Markov model and neural network method have been previously utilized to model the errors. However, Gauss Markov model works unsatisfactorily in the case of MEMS units due to the presence of high inherent sensor errors. On the other hand, modeling the random drift utilizing Neural Network (NN is time consuming, thereby affecting its real-time implementation. We overcome these existing drawbacks by developing an enhanced Support Vector Machine (SVM based error model. Unlike NN, SVMs do not suffer from local minimisation or over-fitting problems and delivers a reliable global solution. Experimental results proved that the proposed SVM approach reduced the noise standard deviation by 10–35% for gyroscopes and 61–76% for accelerometers. Further, positional error drifts under static conditions improved by 41% and 80% in comparison to NN and GM approaches.

  19. Enhanced snoMEN Vectors Facilitate Establishment of GFP-HIF-1α Protein Replacement Human Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoharu Ono

    Full Text Available The snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene ExpressioN vector technology was developed from a human box C/D snoRNA, HBII-180C, which contains an internal sequence that can be manipulated to make it complementary to RNA targets, allowing knock-down of targeted genes. Here we have screened additional human nucleolar snoRNAs and assessed their application for gene specific knock-downs to improve the efficiency of snoMEN vectors. We identify and characterise a new snoMEN vector, termed 47snoMEN, that is derived from box C/D snoRNA U47, demonstrating its use for knock-down of both endogenous cellular proteins and G/YFP-fusion proteins. Using multiplex 47snoMEM vectors that co-express multiple 47snoMEN in a single transcript, each of which can target different sites in the same mRNA, we document >3-fold increase in knock-down efficiency when compared with the original HBII-180C based snoMEN. The multiplex 47snoMEM vector allowed the construction of human protein replacement cell lines with improved efficiency, including the establishment of novel GFP-HIF-1α replacement cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the enhanced efficiency and specificity of protein replacement using the 47snoMEN-PR vectors. The 47snoMEN vectors expand the potential applications for snoMEN technology in gene expression studies, target validation and gene therapy.

  20. Behzat Ç. An Ankara Detective: An Audience Perception Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Şeker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was proposed to reveal how “Behzat Ç. An Ankara Detective” serial is perceived among audiences. The research was done by 11 participants and by means of deep engagements audience notions devoted to reception aesthetic were examined. It was confirmed that audiences were highly sensitive to messages. We acquired that socio-demographic variables differ from presented content in terms of resistance. While sense production related to social reality was closer to mass media reality among the youth, elder groups and educateds producted senses that did not coincide with tendency of serial. During the engagements, Behzat Ç. was characterized as a political person and the idea that certain political parties and communities were targeted became prominent. It was determined that the audience of Behzat Ç. interprets each message according to his or her intellectual and ideological framework with an active and sensitive eye.

  1. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Lisa

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. METHODS: Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-alpha-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. RESULTS: The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-alpha-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate

  2. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Lisa

    2011-03-07

    Abstract Introduction A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. Methods Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. Results The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. Conclusions Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate

  3. Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Plan, its Characteristics, and Rationales for its Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tuncer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a comprehensive evaluation of the 1: 5000 Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development Plan and the 1: 1000 Conservation Implementation Plans, which have become a matter of litigation against the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, filed by various non-governmental organizations, universities, the Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers (TMMOB and public institutions; in terms of the environment, transportation and traffic as regards the entirety of the planned location, and the integrity of the plan, based on conservation-reclamation planning essentials and public interest. Thus the Ulus Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development and Implementation Plan and Plan Notes as ratified by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and Conservation Board, are examined in this context in terms of restoration site, protected site, conservation site, interaction and transition sites and historic and cultural properties.

  4. Recombinant AAV Vectors for Enhanced Expression of Authentic IgG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian P Fuchs

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. Muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against AIDS viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. Here we examined a number of variations to AAV vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin G (IgG molecules. Expression of rhesus IgG from a single single-stranded AAV (ssAAV vector (one vector approach was compared to expression from two self-complementary AAV (scAAV vectors, one for heavy chain and one for light chain (two vector approach. Both the one vector and the two vector approaches yielded considerable levels of expressed full-length IgG. A number of modifications to the ssAAV expression system were then examined for their ability to increase the efficiency of IgG expression. Inclusion of a furin cleavage sequence with a linker peptide just upstream of the 2A self-cleaving sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A increased IgG expression approximately 2 fold. Inclusion of these sequences also helped to ensure a proper sequence at the C-terminal end of the heavy chain. Inclusion of the post-transcriptional regulatory element from woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE further increased IgG expression 1.5-2.0 fold. IgG1 versions of the two rhesus IgGs that were examined consistently expressed better than the IgG2 forms. In contrast to what has been reported for AAV2-mediated expression of other proteins, introduction of capsid mutations Y445F and Y731F did not increase ssAAV1-mediated expression of IgG as determined by transduction experiments in cell culture. Our findings provide a rational basis for AAV vector design for expression of authentic IgG.

  5. Recombinant AAV Vectors for Enhanced Expression of Authentic IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian P; Martinez-Navio, José M; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. Muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against AIDS viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. Here we examined a number of variations to AAV vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules. Expression of rhesus IgG from a single single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) vector (one vector approach) was compared to expression from two self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, one for heavy chain and one for light chain (two vector approach). Both the one vector and the two vector approaches yielded considerable levels of expressed full-length IgG. A number of modifications to the ssAAV expression system were then examined for their ability to increase the efficiency of IgG expression. Inclusion of a furin cleavage sequence with a linker peptide just upstream of the 2A self-cleaving sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A) increased IgG expression approximately 2 fold. Inclusion of these sequences also helped to ensure a proper sequence at the C-terminal end of the heavy chain. Inclusion of the post-transcriptional regulatory element from woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE) further increased IgG expression 1.5-2.0 fold. IgG1 versions of the two rhesus IgGs that were examined consistently expressed better than the IgG2 forms. In contrast to what has been reported for AAV2-mediated expression of other proteins, introduction of capsid mutations Y445F and Y731F did not increase ssAAV1-mediated expression of IgG as determined by transduction experiments in cell culture. Our findings provide a rational basis for AAV vector design for expression of authentic IgG. PMID:27332822

  6. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  7. Polyinosinic acid enhances delivery of adenovirus vectors in vivo by preventing sequestration in liver macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Hidde J.; Kamps, Jan A. A. M.; Plantinga, Josee A.; Rots, Marianne G.; Bellu, Anna Rita; Kamps, Grietina

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus is among the preferred vectors for gene therapy because of its superior in vivo gene-transfer efficiency. However, upon systemic administration, adenovirus is preferentially sequestered by the liver, resulting in reduced adenovirus-mediated transgene expression in targeted tissues. In the

  8. Enhanced transduction of mouse salivary glands with AAV5-based vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Katano; M.R. Kok; A.P. Cotrim; S. Yamano; M. Schmidt; S. Afione; B.J. Baum; J.A. Chiorini

    2006-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) can direct transgene expression in salivary gland cells in vitro and in vivo. However, it is not known how other rAAV serotypes perform when infused into salivary glands. The capsids of serotypes 4

  9. Archaeometric exploration at Akköprü in Ankara

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    Ali Akın Akyol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The archaeometric exploration was conducted by surveying and sampling studies on the stone, and mortar samples from Akköprü in Ankara. Spot salt test and conductometric analysis were applied to get water soluble salt content of stone samples. The aggregate and binder part of the mortars were determined by the analyses of acidic aggregate & binder, aggregate granulometry, thin section optic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the physical conditions of the stones were determined by some physical tests. The results of archaeometrical data showed that the constructive stone material was mainly andesite besides ignimbrite and dacite, and the original binder material was lime mortar. The cement content of the binder of mortars reveals the recent interventions on Akköprü. In the light of petrographic studies it was understood that the source of the original constructive raw material reflects the local formation. The high soluble salt content and the bad physical conditions of some stones also showed that they are undergoing a decomposition process of different degrees.

  10. DETERMINATION OF FORMALDEHYDE LEVELS IN 46 COFFEE SHOPS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar VAIZOÐLU

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research performed in order to measure formaldehyde levels in 46 random selected coffee shops in from central districts of Ankara. Formaldemeter 400 was used for formaldehyde measures. Simultaneous measures were applied in coffee shops. Mean of formaldehyde levels was 0,20 ppm. There was artificial ventilation in all of the coffee shops. It was used aspirator as ventilation device in 69,6% of the coffee shops. But in 81,0% of these, the formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. In 51,0% of the shops stoves were used for warming and 95,7% of these formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. There were statistically significant difference between warming-up method and formaldehyde levels of coffee shops ( p<0,05, chi square = 6,4. It was used liquid fuel in 51,1% of them as heating fuel. In 69,6% of them formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. There were statistically significant difference between fuel type and formaldehyde levels of coffee shops ( p<0,05, chi square = 5,7. As a result; in 91,3% of the coffee shops formaldehyde levels were above the 0,03 ppm which is permitted limit for indoors, and in 82,6% of them formaldehyde levels were above the 0,1 ppm which is symptom producing level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(3.000: 129-135

  11. Lottery Houses (İş Bank in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Şumnu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of (savings incentive lottery houses that emerged in the late 1930’s and served for nearly fourty years as tools in the formation and development of Turkey’s accommodation/habitation culture has been largely ignored in architectural history. The mainstream historic accounts based mostly on public buildings or a minimum of civil architectural constructions that may only serve an ideological “benefit” for the dominant narrative, have disregarded the field of lottery houses. Lottery houses have stayed/keptout of the traditional narrative based on the accommodation culture proposed by the state. Thus, this study aims to investigate the lottery houses process in Turkey, and look at the development of that process, as regards particularly the buildings produced by İş Bank in Ankara. İş Bank was chosen as the subject, as it was the originator of the savings incentive lottery house plans and it has emerged as one of the most well-established and powerful institutions in the process, producing architectural constructions distinctive both in terms of quality and quantity.

  12. Characterization and source determination of air pollution in Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of air pollution in Ankara and the effect of these sources on rainwater composition were studied by collecting rainwater and aerosol samples over a one year period in 1988. The rain water was not acidic owing to high concentrations of alkaline soil particles in the atmosphere. However, the concentrations of acid forming ions, such as SO42- and NO3-, were higher than concentrations expected in a typical urban atmosphere. Most of the SO42- in rain water was in the form of CaSO4. The ions most efficiently scavenged from the atmosphere were found to be SO42- and Ca2+. Atomspheric concentrations of approximately thirty elements indicated that road dust, motor vehicles, coal and oil combustion are the main components of aerosols over the city. Elements which have origins in industrial processes were not enriched substantially and do not show seasonal dependence, whereas elements which originate from coal combustion for residential heating are highly enriched and have higher concentrations in the winter. Road dust was enriched in Pb and Br and does not show characteristic soil composition. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Enhancement of heterologous gene expression in Flammulina velutipes using polycistronic vectors containing a viral 2A cleavage sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Huang, Li-Hsin; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for edible mushrooms has been previously established. However, the enhancement of heterologous protein production and the expression of multi-target genes remains a challenge. In this study, heterologous protein expression in the enoki mushroom Flammulina velutipes was notably enhanced using 2A peptide-mediated cleavage to co-express multiple copies of single gene. The polycistronic expression vectors were constructed by connecting multi copies of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene using 2A peptides derived from porcine teschovirus-1. The P2A peptides properly self-cleaved as shown by the formation of the transformants with antibiotic resistant capacity and exciting green fluorescence levels after introducing the vectors into F. velutipes mycelia. The results of western blot analysis, epifluorescent microscopy and EGFP production showed that heterologous protein expression in F. velutipes using the polycistronic strategy increased proportionally as the gene copy number increased from one to three copies. In contrast, much lower EGFP levels were detected in the F. velutipes transformants harboring four copies of the egfp gene due to mRNA instability. The polycistronic strategy using 2A peptide-mediated cleavage developed in this study can not only be used to express single gene in multiple copies, but also to express multiple genes in a single reading frame. It is a promising strategy for the application of mushroom molecular pharming. PMID:23516605

  14. Enhancement of heterologous gene expression in Flammulina velutipes using polycistronic vectors containing a viral 2A cleavage sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for edible mushrooms has been previously established. However, the enhancement of heterologous protein production and the expression of multi-target genes remains a challenge. In this study, heterologous protein expression in the enoki mushroom Flammulina velutipes was notably enhanced using 2A peptide-mediated cleavage to co-express multiple copies of single gene. The polycistronic expression vectors were constructed by connecting multi copies of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp gene using 2A peptides derived from porcine teschovirus-1. The P2A peptides properly self-cleaved as shown by the formation of the transformants with antibiotic resistant capacity and exciting green fluorescence levels after introducing the vectors into F. velutipes mycelia. The results of western blot analysis, epifluorescent microscopy and EGFP production showed that heterologous protein expression in F. velutipes using the polycistronic strategy increased proportionally as the gene copy number increased from one to three copies. In contrast, much lower EGFP levels were detected in the F. velutipes transformants harboring four copies of the egfp gene due to mRNA instability. The polycistronic strategy using 2A peptide-mediated cleavage developed in this study can not only be used to express single gene in multiple copies, but also to express multiple genes in a single reading frame. It is a promising strategy for the application of mushroom molecular pharming.

  15. Enhancement of heterologous gene expression in Flammulina velutipes using polycistronic vectors containing a viral 2A cleavage sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Huang, Li-Hsin; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for edible mushrooms has been previously established. However, the enhancement of heterologous protein production and the expression of multi-target genes remains a challenge. In this study, heterologous protein expression in the enoki mushroom Flammulina velutipes was notably enhanced using 2A peptide-mediated cleavage to co-express multiple copies of single gene. The polycistronic expression vectors were constructed by connecting multi copies of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene using 2A peptides derived from porcine teschovirus-1. The P2A peptides properly self-cleaved as shown by the formation of the transformants with antibiotic resistant capacity and exciting green fluorescence levels after introducing the vectors into F. velutipes mycelia. The results of western blot analysis, epifluorescent microscopy and EGFP production showed that heterologous protein expression in F. velutipes using the polycistronic strategy increased proportionally as the gene copy number increased from one to three copies. In contrast, much lower EGFP levels were detected in the F. velutipes transformants harboring four copies of the egfp gene due to mRNA instability. The polycistronic strategy using 2A peptide-mediated cleavage developed in this study can not only be used to express single gene in multiple copies, but also to express multiple genes in a single reading frame. It is a promising strategy for the application of mushroom molecular pharming.

  16. Support Vector Classifier with enhanced feature selection for transient stability evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Balasingh Selvi Arul Dora; Nagappan Kamaraj

    2009-01-01

    Today's power transmission systems have a tendency to operate closer and closer to their stability limits. In this scenario, there have been continuous efforts to develop new techniques and tools for assessing the stability status of power systems. This paper presents a Support Vector Classifier (SVC) to identify the transient stability of power systems subjected to severe disturbances. The nonlinear relationship between the pre-fault, during-fault and post-fault power system parameters and t...

  17. Production of lentiviral vectors with enhanced efficiency to target dendritic cells by attenuating mannosidase activity of mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen-presenting immune cells that interact with T cells and have been widely studied for vaccine applications. To achieve this, DCs can be manipulated by lentiviral vectors (LVs to express antigens to stimulate the desired antigen-specific T cell response, which gives this approach great potential to fight diseases such as cancers, HIV, and autoimmune diseases. Previously we showed that LVs enveloped with an engineered Sindbis virus glycoprotein (SVGmu could target DCs through a specific interaction with DC-SIGN, a surface molecule predominantly expressed by DCs. We hypothesized that SVGmu interacts with DC-SIGN in a mannose-dependent manner, and that an increase in high-mannose structures on the glycoprotein surface could result in higher targeting efficiencies of LVs towards DCs. It is known that 1-deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ can inhibit mannosidase, which is an enzyme that removes high-mannose structures during the glycosylation process. Thus, we investigated the possibility of generating LVs with enhanced capability to modify DCs by supplying DMJ during vector production. Results Through western blot analysis and binding tests, we were able to infer that binding of SVGmu to DC-SIGN is directly related to amount of high-mannose structures on SVGmu. We also found that the titer for the LV (FUGW/SVGmu produced with DMJ against 293T.DCSIGN, a human cell line expressing the human DC-SIGN atnibody, was over four times higher than that of vector produced without DMJ. In addition, transduction of a human DC cell line, MUTZ-3, yielded a higher transduction efficiency for the LV produced with DMJ. Conclusion We conclude that LVs produced under conditions with inhibited mannosidase activity can effectively modify cells displaying the DC-specific marker DC-SIGN. This study offers evidence to support the utilization of DMJ in producing LVs that are enhanced carriers for the development of DC-directed vaccines.

  18. An enhanced method for sequence walking and paralog mining: TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Thomas M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although technological advances allow for the economical acquisition of whole genome sequences, many organisms' genomes remain unsequenced, and fully sequenced genomes may contain gaps. Researchers reliant upon partial genomic or heterologous sequence information require methods for obtaining unknown sequences from loci of interest. Various PCR based techniques are available for sequence walking - i.e., the acquisition of unknown DNA sequence adjacent to known sequence. Many such methods require rigid, elaborate protocols and/or impose narrowly confined options in the choice of restriction enzymes for necessary genomic digests. We describe a new method, TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR (or TVL-PCR that innovatively integrates available tools and familiar concepts to offer advantages as a means of both targeted sequence walking and paralog mining. Findings TVL-PCR exploits the ligation efficiency of the pCR®4-TOPO® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California vector system to capture fragments of unknown sequence by creating chimeric molecules containing defined priming sites at both ends. Initially, restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is end-repaired to create 3' adenosine overhangs and is then ligated to pCR4-TOPO vectors. The ligation product pool is used directly as a template for nested PCR, using specific primers to target orthologous sequences, or degenerate primers to enable capture of paralogous gene family members. We demonstrated the efficacy of this method by capturing entire coding and partial promoter sequences of several strawberry Superman-like genes. Conclusions TVL-PCR is a convenient and efficient method for DNA sequence walking and paralog mining that is applicable to any organism for which relevant DNA sequence is available as a basis for primer design.

  19. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising.

  20. A genotype of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that facilitates replication in suspension cultures in chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ingo; Horn, Deborah; John, Katrin; Sandig, Volker

    2013-01-21

    While vectored vaccines, based on hyperattenuated viruses, may lead to new treatment options against infectious diseases and certain cancers, they are also complex products and sometimes difficult to provide in sufficient amount and purity. To facilitate vaccine programs utilizing host-restricted poxviruses, we established avian suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX) and developed a robust, chemically defined, culturing process for production of this class of vectors. For one prominent member, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), we now describe a new strain that appears to replicate to greater yields of infectious units, especially in the cell-free supernatant of cultures in chemically defined media. The new strain was obtained by repeated passaging in CR suspension cultures and, consistent with reports on the exceptional genetic stability of MVA, sequencing of 135 kb of the viral genomic DNA revealed that only three structural proteins (A3L, A9L and A34R) each carry a single amino acid exchange (H639Y, K75E and D86Y, respectively). Host restriction in a plaque-purified isolate of the new genotype appears to be maintained in cell culture. Processing towards an injectable vaccine preparation may be simplified with this strain as a complete lysate, containing the main burden of host cell contaminants, may not be required anymore to obtain adequate yields.

  1. Support vector data description for fusion of multiple health indicators for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis is developed by fusion of multiple health indicators through support vector data description. First, the Comblet transform is used to identify gear residual error signals from the raw signal. Second, based on the observation of gear residual error signals, a total of 11 gear health indicators are identified, and are categorized into two types of indicators. The first and second types of indicators are for fault diagnosis and prognosis, respectively. The first type has six indicators, which are sensitive to impulsive signals triggered by anomalous impacts. The second type has five indicators, which are suitable for tracking degradation of faults. Third, through the support vector data description, the first six health indicators are fused into type one indicators for fault diagnosis. The remaining five indicators are fused into type two indicators for fault prognosis. Finally, a Gaussian kernel is designed to enhance the performance of type one and two indicators by optimal range of width size. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through experiments. The new method has been proven to be superior to methods that use unfused indicators individually

  2. Performance Enhancement for a GPS Vector-Tracking Loop Utilizing an Adaptive Iterated Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyuan Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of state estimation for the vector-tracking loop of a software-defined Global Positioning System (GPS receiver. For a nonlinear system that has the model error and white Gaussian noise, a noise statistics estimator is used to estimate the model error, and based on this, a modified iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF named adaptive iterated Kalman filter (AIEKF is proposed. A vector-tracking GPS receiver utilizing AIEKF is implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through road tests, it is shown that the proposed method has an obvious accuracy advantage over the IEKF and Adaptive Extended Kalman filter (AEKF in position determination. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE of position (including longitude, latitude and altitude. Comparing with EKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 45.1%, 40.9% and 54.6% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Comparing with IEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 25.7%, 19.3% and 35.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Compared with AEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 21.6%, 15.5% and 30.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively.

  3. Performance enhancement for a GPS vector-tracking loop utilizing an adaptive iterated extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiying; Xu, Yuan

    2014-12-09

    This paper deals with the problem of state estimation for the vector-tracking loop of a software-defined Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. For a nonlinear system that has the model error and white Gaussian noise, a noise statistics estimator is used to estimate the model error, and based on this, a modified iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) named adaptive iterated Kalman filter (AIEKF) is proposed. A vector-tracking GPS receiver utilizing AIEKF is implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through road tests, it is shown that the proposed method has an obvious accuracy advantage over the IEKF and Adaptive Extended Kalman filter (AEKF) in position determination. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of position (including longitude, latitude and altitude). Comparing with EKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 45.1%, 40.9% and 54.6% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Comparing with IEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 25.7%, 19.3% and 35.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Compared with AEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 21.6%, 15.5% and 30.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively.

  4. Relevance Vector Machines for Enhanced BER Probability in DMT-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Tahat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new channel estimation method for discrete multitone (DMT communication system based on sparse Bayesian learning relevance vector machine (RVM method is presented. The Bayesian frame work is used to obtain sparse solutions for regression tasks with linear models. By exploiting a probabilistic Bayesian learning framework, sparse Bayesian learning provides accurate models for estimation and consequently equalization. We consider frequency domain equalization (FEQ using the proposed channel estimate at both the transmitter (preequalization and receiver (postequalization and compare the resulting bit error rate (BER performance curves for both approaches and various channel estimation techniques. Simulation results show that the proposed RVM-based method is superior to the traditional least squares technique.

  5. Novel Discrete Compactness-Based Training for Vector Quantization Networks: Enhancing Automatic Brain Tissue Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Aguila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for nonsupervised segmentation of Computed Tomography (CT brain slices which is based on the use of Vector Quantization Networks (VQNs is described. Images are segmented via a VQN in such way that tissue is characterized according to its geometrical and topological neighborhood. The main contribution rises from the proposal of a similarity metric which is based on the application of Discrete Compactness (DC which is a factor that provides information about the shape of an object. One of its main strengths lies in the sense of its low sensitivity to variations, due to noise or capture defects, in the shape of an object. We will present, compare, and discuss some examples of segmentation networks trained under Kohonen’s original algorithm and also under our similarity metric. Some experiments are established in order to measure the effectiveness and robustness, under our application of interest, of the proposed networks and similarity metric.

  6. Support Vector Classifier with enhanced feature selection for transient stability evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasingh Selvi Arul Dora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's power transmission systems have a tendency to operate closer and closer to their stability limits. In this scenario, there have been continuous efforts to develop new techniques and tools for assessing the stability status of power systems. This paper presents a Support Vector Classifier (SVC to identify the transient stability of power systems subjected to severe disturbances. The nonlinear relationship between the pre-fault, during-fault and post-fault power system parameters and the stability status of the system under post-fault state is captured by the SVC trained offline. Significant generators are selected by feature selection based on the sensitivity of stability margin and the features other than generators are selected based on a step wise feature selection by three fold cross validation. The performance of the proposed SVC is demonstrated through the simulations carried out on the IEEE 17 generator reduced Iowa system.

  7. Sequential adaptive mutations enhance efficient vector switching by Chikungunya virus and its epidemic emergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. Although the initial step of CHIKV adaptation to A. albopictus was determined to involve an A226V amino acid substitution in the E1 envelope glycoprotein that first arose in 2005, little attention has been paid to subsequent CHIKV evolution after this adaptive mutation was convergently selected in several geographic locations. To determine whether selection of second-step adaptive mutations in CHIKV or other arthropod-borne viruses occurs in nature, we tested the effect of an additional envelope glycoprotein amino acid change identified in Kerala, India in 2009. This substitution, E2-L210Q, caused a significant increase in the ability of CHIKV to develop a disseminated infection in A. albopictus, but had no effect on CHIKV fitness in the alternative mosquito vector, A. aegypti, or in vertebrate cell lines. Using infectious viruses or virus-like replicon particles expressing the E2-210Q and E2-210L residues, we determined that E2-L210Q acts primarily at the level of infection of A. albopictus midgut epithelial cells. In addition, we observed that the initial adaptive substitution, E1-A226V, had a significantly stronger effect on CHIKV fitness in A. albopictus than E2-L210Q, thus explaining the observed time differences required for selective sweeps of these mutations in nature. These results indicate that the continuous CHIKV circulation in an A. albopictus-human cycle since 2005 has resulted in the selection of an additional, second-step mutation that may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics.

  8. Sequential adaptive mutations enhance efficient vector switching by Chikungunya virus and its epidemic emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Weaver, Scott C

    2011-12-01

    The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. Although the initial step of CHIKV adaptation to A. albopictus was determined to involve an A226V amino acid substitution in the E1 envelope glycoprotein that first arose in 2005, little attention has been paid to subsequent CHIKV evolution after this adaptive mutation was convergently selected in several geographic locations. To determine whether selection of second-step adaptive mutations in CHIKV or other arthropod-borne viruses occurs in nature, we tested the effect of an additional envelope glycoprotein amino acid change identified in Kerala, India in 2009. This substitution, E2-L210Q, caused a significant increase in the ability of CHIKV to develop a disseminated infection in A. albopictus, but had no effect on CHIKV fitness in the alternative mosquito vector, A. aegypti, or in vertebrate cell lines. Using infectious viruses or virus-like replicon particles expressing the E2-210Q and E2-210L residues, we determined that E2-L210Q acts primarily at the level of infection of A. albopictus midgut epithelial cells. In addition, we observed that the initial adaptive substitution, E1-A226V, had a significantly stronger effect on CHIKV fitness in A. albopictus than E2-L210Q, thus explaining the observed time differences required for selective sweeps of these mutations in nature. These results indicate that the continuous CHIKV circulation in an A. albopictus-human cycle since 2005 has resulted in the selection of an additional, second-step mutation that may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics. PMID:22174678

  9. Daily Ambrosia Pollen Concentration in the Air of Ankara,Turkey (1990-1999)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayse KAPLAN; Nazmiye SAKIYAN; N Münevver PINAR

    2003-01-01

    The airborne ragweed pollen spectrum was investigated in the air of Ankara, Turkey for aperiod of ten years (1990-1999) using a Burkard seven-day volumetric recording trap. In our study period,long distance transported Ambrosia pollen has been registered. Daily pollen levels varied from low to highin Burge's system. In last three years, the pollen concentration of Ambrosia showed a clear increasingtendency. Our results prove that ragweed pollen may be an important threat for ragweed sensitive patientsin Ankara city in near future.

  10. A Non-static Data Layout Enhancing Parallelism and Vectorization in Sparse Grid Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Buse, Gerrit

    2012-06-01

    The name sparse grids denotes a highly space-efficient, grid-based numerical technique to approximate high-dimensional functions. Although employed in a broad spectrum of applications from different fields, there have only been few tries to use it in real time visualization (e.g. [1]), due to complex data structures and long algorithm runtime. In this work we present a novel approach inspired by principles of I/0-efficient algorithms. Locally applied coefficient permutations lead to improved cache performance and facilitate the use of vector registers for our sparse grid benchmark problem hierarchization. Based on the compact data structure proposed for regular sparse grids in [2], we developed a new algorithm that outperforms existing implementations on modern multi-core systems by a factor of 37 for a grid size of 127 million points. For larger problems the speedup is even increasing, and with execution times below 1 s, sparse grids are well-suited for visualization applications. Furthermore, we point out how a broad class of sparse grid algorithms can benefit from our approach. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. A novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in modified vaccinia virus ankara drives very early gene expression and potent immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia T Wennier

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has been shown to be suitable for the generation of experimental vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases, eliciting strong humoral and cellular immune responses. In viral vectored vaccines, strong recombinant antigen expression and timing of expression influence the quantity and quality of the immune response. Screening of synthetic and native poxvirus promoters for strong protein expression in vitro and potent immune responses in vivo led to the identification of the MVA13.5L promoter, a unique and novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in MVA composed of two 44 nucleotide long repeated motifs, each containing an early promoter element. The MVA13.5L gene is highly conserved across orthopoxviruses, yet its function is unknown. The unique structure of its promoter is not found for any other gene in the MVA genome and is also conserved in other orthopoxviruses. Comparison of the MVA13.5L promoter activity with synthetic poxviral promoters revealed that the MVA13.5L promoter produced higher levels of protein early during infection in HeLa cells and particularly in MDBK cells, a cell line in which MVA replication stops at an early stage before the expression of late genes. Finally, a recombinant antigen expressed under the control of this novel promoter induced high antibody titers and increased CD8 T cell responses in homologous prime-boost immunization compared to commonly used promoters. In particular, the recombinant antigen specific CD8 T cell responses dominated over the immunodominant B8R vector-specific responses after three vaccinations and even more during the memory phase. These results have identified the native MVA13.5L promoter as a new potent promoter for use in MVA vectored preventive and therapeutic vaccines.

  12. Induction of antibody responses to African horse sickness virus (AHSV in ponies after vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Chiam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African horse sickness virus (AHSV causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2. MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen-specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable.

  13. Deletion of the LTR enhancer/promoter has no impact on the integration profile of MLV vectors in human hematopoietic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Moiani

    Full Text Available Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived gamma-retroviral vectors integrate preferentially near transcriptional regulatory regions in the human genome, and are associated with a significant risk of insertional gene deregulation. Self-inactivating (SIN vectors carry a deletion of the U3 enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR, and show reduced genotoxicity in pre-clinical assays. We report a high-definition analysis of the integration preferences of a SIN MLV vector compared to a wild-type-LTR MLV vector in the genome of CD34(+ human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. We sequenced 13,011 unique SIN-MLV integration sites and compared them to 32,574 previously generated MLV sites in human HSPCs. The SIN-MLV vector recapitulates the integration pattern observed for MLV, with the characteristic clustering of integrations around enhancer and promoter regions associated to H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 histone modifications, specialized chromatin configurations (presence of the H2A.Z histone variant and binding of RNA Pol II. SIN-MLV and MLV integration clusters and hot spots overlap in most cases and are generated at a comparable frequency, indicating that the reduced genotoxicity of SIN-MLV vectors in hematopoietic cells is not due to a modified integration profile.

  14. A New Understanding of Ankara Music within the Context of Global Cultural Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider a new understanding of the complex and multilayered structure of Ankara music, which is situated between tradition and modernity and has become an important form of popular culture in the region, in the context of local and global relationships.. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Appadurai’s “global cultural flow” model. The ethnoscape, finanscape, mediascape, technoscape and ideoscape of Ankara music is examined in accordance with this approach to reveal the dynamics that make this music different. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the ethnoscape of Ankara music is based on a broad demographic coalition that has created an independent music industry with a finanscape depending on production, distribution and consumption. While this type of music is represented through a network-based social structure, it gains legitimacy outside its bounds within the media environment. The “Ankara” genre and its quest for authenticity described in this work reveal the ideoscape of the new Ankara music.

  15. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stittelaar, Koert J; van Amerongen, Geert; Kondova, Ivanela; Kuiken, Thijs; van Lavieren, Rob F; Pistoor, Frank H M; Niesters, Hubert G M; van Doornum, Gerard; van der Zeijst, Ben A M; Mateo, Luis; Chaplin, Paul J; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2005-01-01

    The use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and immunocompromised a

  16. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); I. Kondova (Ivanela); R.F. van Lavieren (Rob); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); L. Mateo (Luis); P.J. Chaplin (Paul); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and immunoc

  17. Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Vaccination Provides Long-Term Protection against Nasal Rabbitpox Virus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dorothy I; McGee, Charles E; Sample, Christopher J; Sempowski, Gregory D; Pickup, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2016-07-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) is a smallpox vaccine candidate. This study was performed to determine if MVA vaccination provides long-term protection against rabbitpox virus (RPXV) challenge, an animal model of smallpox. Two doses of MVA provided 100% protection against a lethal intranasal RPXV challenge administered 9 months after vaccination. PMID:27146001

  18. Internet Use Habits of Students of the Department of Information Management, Hacettepe University, Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, Nazan Ozenc

    2007-01-01

    The frequency and other characteristics of Internet use of students studying at the Department of Information Management at Hacettep University in Ankara, Turkey, are examined. According to the findings, students prefer electronic media to printed media, they find the easy accessibility of the information more important than the other qualities,…

  19. Modeling of gas demand using degree-day concept: case study for Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for natural gas is rapidly increasing in Turkey, as it is in the rest of the world. However, natural gas reserves and production are rather limited in Turkey.The bulk of the Turkish gas demand is met by imports. Russia currently accounts for 69% of Turkey's gas supplies. Physical shortages might occur; supplies for industrial production and household consumption could temporarily run short. Also, fluctuations in consumption might occur due to climatic reasons or peak daily industrial energy demand. Underground gas storage is a necessity in order to regulate these seasonal, daily, and hourly fluctuations. In order to effectively design and utilize underground gas storage, it is necessary to identify the market requirements. In this study, Ankara was chosen as a pilot region due to its strategical importance of being the capital city of Turkey, and a wide range of marketing surveys for the last seven years was performed. All of the factors influencing the gas consumption and the relationships between these factors were analyzed. How does gas demand behave in extremely cold weather? How does the industrial part of the city act in the consumption behavior? What are the plans of the Municipality of Ankara, responsible for the execution of the natural gas distribution project in Ankara? A model was developed based on degree-day (DD) concept, including the annual number of customers, average DDs, and the usage per customer. A history matching study was performed to verify the results of the model with the measured consumption data for the last seven years. Comparisons showed that the calculated consumption by DD model and measured daily consumption were in good agreement. Finally, by using the developed approach, the gas demand was forecasted for Ankara up to 2005. The results of this study can be used to design underground gas storage facility near Ankara. (author)

  20. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D Dowall

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP. It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  1. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  2. Role of liposome and peptide in the synergistic enhancement of transfection with a lipopolyplex vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munye, Mustafa M.; Ravi, Jascindra; Tagalakis, Aristides D.; McCarthy, David; Ryadnov, Maxim G.; Hart, Stephen L.

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolyplexes are of widespread interest for gene therapy due to their multifunctionality and high transfection efficiencies. Here we compared the biological and biophysical properties of a lipopolyplex formulation with its lipoplex and polyplex equivalents to assess the role of the lipid and peptide components in the formation and function of the lipopolyplex formulation. We show that peptide efficiently packaged plasmid DNA forming spherical, highly cationic nanocomplexes that are taken up efficiently by cells. However, transgene expression was poor, most likely due to endosomal degradation since the polyplex lacks membrane trafficking properties. In addition the strong peptide-DNA interaction may prevent plasmid release from the complex and so limit plasmid DNA availability. Lipid/DNA lipoplexes, on the other hand, produced aggregated masses that showed poorer cellular uptake than the polyplex but contrastingly greater levels of transgene expression. This may be due to the greater ability of lipoplexes relative to polyplexes to promote endosomal escape. Lipopolyplex formulations formed spherical, cationic nanocomplexes with efficient cellular uptake and significantly enhanced transfection efficiency. The lipopolyplexes combined the optimal features of lipoplexes and polyplexes showing optimal cell uptake, endosomal escape and availability of plasmid for transcription, thus explaining the synergistic increase in transfection efficiency.

  3. Enhanced antitumor response mediated by the codelivery of paclitaxel and adenoviral vector expressing IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Linjie; Zeng, Qin; Xu, Chaoqun; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2013-05-01

    It has been well-established that chemo-immunotherapy using cytotoxic drugs and appropriate cytokines offers a promising approach for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. In view of this, to improve melanoma treatment effect, our study developed a new codelivery system (AL/Ad5/PTX) that paclitaxel (PTX) and adenovirus encoding for murine interleukin-12 (Ad5-mIL-12) were incorporated into anionic liposomes (AL). First, AL/Ad5/PTX complexes were prepared by incorporating Ad5 into anionic PTX liposomes using calcium-induced phase change. Second, the size distribution and zeta potential of AL/Ad5/PTX were investigated. Third, the results of in vitro transduction assays showed that PTX introduced into AL/Ad-luc or AL/Ad5-mIL-12 highly enhanced gene transduction efficiency in B16 cells than naked Ad5 or AL/Ad complexes while it had no comparability in A549 cells. Finally, a melanoma-bearing mouse model was established to assess the antitumor effect. Tumor growth inhibition and prolonged survival time, accompanied by increased mIL-12 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression levels in serum or tumor sites, were observed in mice treated with AL/Ad5-mIL-12/PTX, as compared with those treated with either AL/Ad5-mIL-12 or AL/PTX. In conclusion, these results suggested that codelivery of Ad5-mIL-12 and PTX incorporated into AL could be a relatively efficient strategy for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23534449

  4. Perfluorochemical (PFC liquid enhances recombinant adenovirus vector-mediated viral interleukin-10 (AdvIL-10 expression in rodent lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Jerry J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenovirus and cationic liposome mediated transfer of Interleukin-10 (IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and overall lung inflammation in models of lung transplantation and injury. Limitations to current approaches of IL-10 gene therapy include poor vector delivery methods and pro-inflammatory properties of human IL-10 under certain conditions. We hypothesize that using perfluorochemical (PFC liquid to deliver the highly homologous viral IL-10 (vIL-10, which is predominantly anti-inflammatory with minimal pro-inflammatory activities, can potentially be a more effective strategy to combat inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, we compare the use of PFC liquid versus aerosolized method to deliver adenovirus encoding the vIL-10 gene (AdvIL-10 in C57Bl6 mice. Detectable vIL-10 levels were measured from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates at one, four, ten and thirty days after AdvIL-10. Furthermore, we determined if use of PFC liquid could allow for the use of a lower dose of AdvIL-10 by comparing the levels of detectable vIL-10 at different doses of AdvIL-10 delivered +/- PFC liquid. Results showed that PFC liquid enhanced detectable vIL-10 by up to ten fold and that PFC liquid allowed the use of ten-fold less vector. PFC liquid increased detectable vIL-10 in lung homogenates at all time points; however, the increase in detectable vIL-10 in BAL fluid peaked at four days and was no longer evident by thirty days after intratracheal instillation. In summary, this is the first report utilizing PFC liquid to enhance the delivery of a potentially therapeutic molecule, vIL-10. We believe this strategy can be used to perform future studies on the use of the predominantly anti-inflammatory vIL-10 to treat inflammatory lung diseases.

  5. Hybrid retroviral vector with MCK enhancers inserted in LTR for stable and specific expression of human factor IX in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min 王健民; HOU Jun 侯军; QIU Xin-fang 邱信芳; Kurachi Kotoku; XUE Jing-lun 薛京伦

    2004-01-01

    Background Retroviral vectors have been widely used to introduce foreign into various target cells in vitro, thus showing relatively high systemic delivery efficiency of various transgene products. The authors investigated the stability and efficiency of skeletal muscle-specific hybrid retroviral vectors in expression of human factor IX (FIX) in vitro and iv vivo. Methods FIX cDNA in LIXSN vector was replaced with a FIX minigene containing splicing donor and splicing acceptor sequence of first intron of human FIX gene. Two copies of muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK, Me2) were inserted in forward or reverse orientation at NheI site of 3' long terminal repeat (LTR), resulting in two hybrid vectors, which were designated as LMe2IXm2SN(F) and LMe2IXm2SN(R), respectively. The vectors were tested in vitro and in vivo for stability and muscle-specificity of factor IX expression with SCID mice. Results Muscle cells carrying vector with Me2 expressed significantly higher levels of FIX (up to 1800 ng/106.24h) than those without Me2, thus suggesting that Me2 could specifically increase expression level of FIX in muscle cells. Myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) produced much less FIX in vivo in SCID mice than LMe2IXm2SN(F). One or two copies of Me2 sequence were deleted in myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) without changing the orientation of Me2. Conclusions LTR inserted with MCK enhancers can specifically increase human FIX expression in skeletal muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and MCK enhancer should be positioned in the same orientation as that of LTR promoter.

  6. Multifunctional non-viral gene vectors with enhanced stability, improved cellular and nuclear uptake capability, and increased transfection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Cao, Zhong; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Di; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Luo, Huiyan; Jiang, Qing; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell for nanoparticle stabilization, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and mTAT (a cell-penetrating peptide) for accelerated cellular uptake, and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS) for enhanced intracellular transport of DNA to the nucleus. In vitro study showed that coating of the binary PPMS/DNA polyplex with γ-PGA promotes cellular uptake of the polyplex particles, particularly by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive cells through the GGT-mediated endocytosis pathway. Conjugating PEG to the γ-PGA led to the formation of a ternary PPMS/DNA/PGA-g-PEG polyplex with decreased positive charges on the surface of the polyplex particles and substantially higher stability in serum-containing aqueous medium. The cellular uptake rate was further improved by incorporating mTAT into the ternary polyplex system. Addition of the NLS peptide was designed to facilitate intracellular delivery of the plasmid to the nucleus--a rate-limiting step in the gene transfection process. As a result, compared with the binary PPMS/LucDNA polyplex, the new mTAT-quaternary PPMS/LucDNA/NLS/PGA-g-PEG-mTAT system exhibited reduced cytotoxicity, remarkably faster cellular uptake rate, and enhanced transport of DNA to the nucleus. All these advantageous functionalities contribute to the remarkable gene transfection efficiency of the mTAT-quaternary polyplex both in vitro and in vivo, which exceeds that of the binary polyplex and commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000/DNA lipoplex. The multifunctional mTAT-quaternary polyplex system with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity represents a new type of promising non-viral vectors for the delivery of therapeutic genes to treat tumors.We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell

  7. Using Internet at University Libraries in Ankara Ankara'daki Üniversite Kütüphanelerinde Internet Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necip Erol Olcay

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of Internet at university libraries in Ankara. First, the impact of Internet upon libraries are summarized and then findings of a questionnaire swvey are discussed. Survey shows that university libraries are not sufficiently equipped with needed hardware and capabilities to get access to the Internet. Resources (i.e., online catalogs of a very few university libraries are accessible through the Internet. Some 40% of university librarians do not know how to use the Internet, lack required skills and training, and do not use the Internet in their workplaces. The article concludes with the interpretation of the findings and recommendations. Bu makalede Ankara'da bulunan üniversite kütüphanelerinde Internet kullanımı incelenmektedir. Internet'in kütüphane hizmetlerine katkıları kısaca özetlenmekte ve Ankara'daki üniversite kütüphanelerinde çalışan 111 profesyonel kütüphaneciye Mart-Nisan 1996'da uygulanan bir anket sonucu elde edilen bulgular verilmektedir. Ankara'daki üniversite kütüphanelerinin sahip olduğu donanım ve Internet'e erişim olanaklarının yeterli olmadığı ve bir-iki kütüphane dışında söz konusu kütüphanelerin kaynaklarının (çevrimiçi katalog, vd. Internet'e açık olmadığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Öte yandan, bu üniversitelerde görev yapan kütüphanecilerin önemli bir kısmının (%40 Internet'i kullanmayı bilmedikleri, bu konuda yeterli eğitim görmedikleri ve işyerlerinde Internet kullanmadıkları ortaya çıkmıştır. Anket sonucu elde edilen bulgular yorumlanarak bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

  8. General scan in flavor parameter space in models with vector quark doublets and an enhancement in the B → Xsγ process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Xiong, Zhao-Hua; Zhao, Xin-Yan

    2016-09-01

    In models with vector-like quark doublets, the mass matrices of up and down type quarks are related. Precise diagonalization of the mass matrices has become an obstacle in numerical studies. In this work we first propose a diagonalization method. As its application, in the Standard Model with one vector-like quark doublet we present the quark mass spectrum and Feynman rules for the calculation of B → Xsγ. We find that i) under the constraints of the CKM matrix measurements, the mass parameters in the bilinear term are constrained to a small value by the small deviation from unitarity; ii) compared with the fourth generation extension of the Standard Model, there is an enhancement to the B → Xsγ process in the contribution of vector-like quarks, resulting in a non-decoupling effect in such models. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11375001) and Talents Foundation of Education Department of Beijing

  9. General scan in flavor parameter space in the models with vector quark doublets and an enhancement in $B\\to X_s\\gamma$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenyu; Zhao, Xin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the models with vector like quark doublets, the mass matrices of up and down type quarks are related. Precise diagonalization for the mass matrices became an obstacle in the numerical studies. In this work we propose a diagonalization method at first. As its application, in the standard model with one vector like quark doublet we present quark mass spectrum, Feynman rules for the calculation of $B\\to X_s\\gamma$. We find that i) under the constraints of the CKM matrix measurements, the mass parameters in the bilinear term are constrained to a small value by the small deviation from unitarity; ii) compared with the fourth generation extension of the standard model, there is an enhancement to $B\\to X_s\\gamma$ process in the contribution of vector like quark, resulting a non-decoupling effect in such models.

  10. Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of crustacean zooplankton in trough waters of Ankara (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞAK, Elif; Aygen, Cem; KÜLKÖYLÜOĞLU, OKAN

    2014-01-01

    Troughs are one of the main components of villages in Turkey. They are constructed by converting springs or underground waters. Until now, there has been no extensive study investigating the composition and diversity of trough zooplankton species. In order to contribute knowledge on the zooplanktons in troughs, 142 troughs were randomly sampled from 17 districts in Ankara Province between 22 June and 3 July 2011. A total of 18 zooplanktons including 11 Copepoda and 7 Cladocera species were de...

  11. Determination of Microbiological Quality of Ice-Cream Belong to Various Patisserie in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, İrfan; Küplülü, Özlem; SIRIKEN, Belgin; ÇELİK, T. Halûk

    1998-01-01

    In this study, a total of 100 ice cream samples, collected from various patisserie in Ankara, 30 of them vanilla, 26 of them chocolate and 44 of them fruit ice cream samples, were analysed microbiologically. While coliform and E. coli counts were determined with MPN technique, in the isolation of the salmonella enrichment technique and in the isolation of the total viable count, lactobacilli, micrococci and staphylococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, p...

  12. DETERMINATION OF ENGINEERING CRITERIA OF DELICE (ANKARA BRIDGE BY CPM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haluk ÇELİK

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, CPM-PERT method is used to find out the minimum time and cost of the bridge constructed in Delice (Ankara on the Koru river. The reinforced concrete bridge has a 13.70 m support distance and an 8 m platform witdh. In the method; planning, management and cost prices in Early Finish and Late Finish times were taken into account.

  13. Recognition of cigarette brand names and logos by primary schoolchildren in Ankara, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Emri, S; Bagci, T.; Karakoca, Y.; Baris, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the smoking behaviour of primary schoolchildren and their ability to recognise brand names and logos of widely advertised cigarettes, compared with other commercial products intended for children.
DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey in classroom settings using a questionnaire designed to measure attitudes towards smoking and the recognition of brand names and logos for 16 food, beverage, cigarette, and toothpaste products.
SETTING—Ankara, Turkey.
SUBJECTS—1093 children (54.6% bo...

  14. Operational Risk Management in Hotel Establishments: A Study on Four and Five Star Hotels in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Elbeyi Pelit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applications of hotel establishments in the scope of operational risk. In this context, a survey was applied to the managers of four and five star hotel establishments in Ankara/Turkey. According to the factor analysis done after the literature search and questionnaire, four risks types (staff, technological, organizational and legal risks) have been found in the scope of operational risk, and their applications towards these risk types in hotel e...

  15. Fishery Products Consumptıon in the Cities of Ankara and Izmir in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Saygı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is one of Turkey at the sea coast in Izmir and Ankara in other inland fisheries are conducted to determine consumer preferences. 306 people in Izmir and 405 people in Ankara were directly interviewed and the orginal data for the research was gathered. Survey data were anlyzed with using SPSS and Microsoft Excel software packages. According to the survey data; it is determined that individuals consumed mostly white meat at the rate of 81%, and consumed white meat at the rate of 19%. At least 46% of these individuals consume fish once a week at a minimum. It is determined that 83% of the individuals in Ankara consumed white meat, 17% consumed red meat. It is found out that at least 30% of these indiviudals consumed fish once a week at a minimum. Aquaculture products are highly important for the nutrition due to its being animal protein resource. In spite of the fast growing population and big problems seen in balanced diets, aquaculture products are not efficiently benefited. As a result of our country to increase fish consumption habits and consumption of fishery products on human health in the short and long term benefits should be explained. To this end, local governments and other regional organizations and institutions of the people in the area where the handle will be of interest to fisheries and should be in promoting.

  16. Giulio Mongeri, an Architect Efficient in the Building of Capital City Ankara and his Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla Çinici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is about Giulio Mongeri (1873 – 1951 who was the architect of Ottoman Bank (1926, Ziraat Bank (1926 – 1929, Monopolies Chief Directorate (1928 and Türkiye İş Bank (1929 buildings in Ankara in the first years of the Republic. Giulio Mongeri was one of the architects prominent in architectural activities both in the last years of Ottoman Empire and first years of the Republic and undertook an effective role in the architectural understanding of the next generation by raising the architects of the future as an instructor of the Academy of Fine Arts. In the study, it is aimed to gain especially the sketches and photos obtained from his diary and not published anywhere else to the scientific world as a new contribution to the knowledge in the available publications. Giulio Mongeri himself, his family and environs in which he was raised, his personality and attitude as a trainer have been appraised in the light of new information. The buildings of Mongeri in Ankara have been studied comparatively with the other buildings in Ankara in this period and an attempt is made to assess the differences in his approach.

  17. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-07-19

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  18. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose. PMID:27434682

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  20. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Elizaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. METHODS: Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls, and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12% had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603

  1. Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy and outdoor counts of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Sevim; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Ceter, Talip; Mungan, Dilşad; Ozer, Faruk; Pinar, Münevver; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2006-08-01

    Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium has been reported to be 3% to 30% in European countries. However, in Turkey, there is limited data about the prevalence of sensitization to these molds and the intensity of the two mold spores in Ankara atmosphere. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy in Ankara and also the concentration of the two molds in Ankara atmosphere. Allergic rhinitis and asthma patients living in Ankara were included in the study. Demographic and diagnostic data of the patients were recorded. A skin prick test with extracts supplied by three different laboratories was used to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Mold spores were measured using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in Ankara atmosphere during a year. Overall sensitization to the two molds was found to be 14.8%, and isolated Alternaria or Cladosporiumsensitization was 3%. Considering the positive reaction to at least one of the three suppliers, the sensitization rate was 11.9% and 8.1% for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. Cochran's Q homogenization test demonstrated that the positive and negative reaction were not homogeneous among three laboratories. The total number of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere was 429,264 spores/m3 of which 75.5% and 6% were constituted by Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively. The prevalence of Cladosporium and Alternaria sensitization in respiratory allergy patients is quite similar to European countries; however, our data indicate that commercial mold extracts should be standardized to establish the real sensitization rates. Additionally, considering the great numbers of these mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between the mold load and sensitization patterns.

  2. Vector-free and transgene-free human iPS cells differentiate into functional neurons and enhance functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohamad

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

  3. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  4. Performance Appraisal at Four and Five Star Hotels: Ankara Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Arslantürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism establishments developing human resources and motivating will make it easier to reach their goals and those who cannot mange to do this will be obsolete in the ever-changing nature of the tourism business. The most important feature of the tourism sector is that it is based on human element and it s labor-intensive. Hence, human element is of great importance. This being the case, the customer satisfaction in accommodation establishments will be greatly dependent on the success of the personnel. Performance appraisal in this regard is a tool used to measure the performance of the employees in establishing job satisfaction and enhancing success. Performance appraisal indicates the performance of the individuals and gives insights as to what should be done to improve the performance. As well as promoting the communication between the employees and the establishment. From the perspectives of the managers, it paves the way for an efficient information flow about the performance of the personnel and makes job planning more rationally. This study first examines performance and performance appraisal. Then, through a field study, deficiencies in the application of performance appraisal were determined in the four and five star hotel establishments. According to the results obtained, some suggestions were put forward.

  5. SATISFACTION FROM HEALTH INSURANCE INSTITUTIONS AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ILHAN

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the status of satisfaction from health insurance institutions among people at age 18 and over , attending the primary health care centers in Ankara city center. This study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to the persons attending to four primary health care center and two Mather-Child Health Care and Family Planning Centers in Ankara City Center between May 20-July 20, 2003. 3184 persons applied to six primary health care centers in Ankara city center were interviewed. The median age of the subjects was 38; 66.4 % were women; 30.9 % were primary school graduate and 48.8% were housewife. 100% of the subjects who own private health insurance were satisfied with their insurance status. This rate was 92.0% for the subjects who were under coverage of Emekli Sandigi, and 79% for those who were under coverage of Bag-Kur. The most common health insurance institution the subjects were not satisfied with, was SSK with 48.4 % unsatisfaction rate. “The capability of being physically emamined and treated in any health facility he/she want” was in the first rank among the satisfaction reasons (54.2%. “The absence of this capability” was the most common reason for unsatisfaction (44.0%. 51.6 of the subjects were satisfied with their own health insurance institution, Emekli Sandigi was the most preffered institution with a percentage of 22.3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 244-253

  6. Intrathecal administration of AAV/GALC vectors in 10-11-day-old twitcher mice improves survival and is enhanced by bone marrow transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Marshall, Michael S; Heindel, Clifford; Jakubauskas, Benas; Bongarzone, Ernesto R; Gray, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe disease, is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) provides modest benefit in presymptomatic patients but is well short of a cure. Gene transfer experiments using viral vectors have shown some success in extending the survival in the mouse model of GLD, twitcher mice. The present study compares three single-stranded (ss) AAV serotypes, two natural and one engineered (with oligodendrocyte tropism), and a self-complementary (sc) AAV vector, all packaged with a codon-optimized murine GALC gene. The vectors were delivered via a lumbar intrathecal route for global CNS distribution on PND10-11 at a dose of 2 × 10(11) vector genomes (vg) per mouse. The results showed a similar significant extension of life span of the twitcher mice for all three serotypes (AAV9, AAVrh10, and AAV-Olig001) as well as the scAAV9 vector, compared to control cohorts. The rAAV gene transfer facilitated GALC biodistribution and detectable enzymatic activity throughout the CNS as well as in sciatic nerve and liver. When combined with BMT from syngeneic wild-type mice, there was significant improvement in survival for ssAAV9. Histopathological analysis of brain, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve showed significant improvement in preservation of myelin, with ssAAV9 providing the greatest benefit. In summary, we demonstrate that lumbar intrathecal delivery of rAAV/mGALCopt can significantly enhance the life span of twitcher mice treated at PND10-11 and that BMT synergizes with this treatment to improve the survival further. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638599

  7. An Assessment for Soft Drink Consumption of Individuals in Centre Town of Ankara Province

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Gözener; Murat Sayılı

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Central district of Ankara (Çankaya, Etimesgut, Gölbaşı, Keçiören, Mamak, Polatlı, Sincan and Yenimahalle districts) carbonated drink consumption situation of consumers were examined. The data obtained from questionnaires conducted with 272 families were used in this study. Data were collected in April-May 2012.Between carbonated drink consumption and some demographic characteristics of consumers were tested by chi-square analysis of whether a statistical association. Accor...

  8. Effect of Irrigation Water on Corn Grain Yield in Ankara Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Y. Ersoy; KODAL, Süleyman

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in Ankara conditions in order to determine corn yield response to water. When 50% of available water content in root zone is consumed in the control treatment, irrigation water was applied to the other treatments with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, 175% and 200% of those applied into check plots. As a result, applications of ex-cessive water was not increased grain yields at the important level. Yield response factor (k y ) for total growing period were found a...

  9. A Survey of Bone Tumors in Dogs and Cats from 1986 to 2000 in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsal, Osman

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, bone tumor samples obtained from 18 dogs and 21 cats from various clinics between 1986 and 2000 were clinically and pathologically examined at the Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ankara. Most bone tumors examined were from 5-8-year-old dogs (43.75%) and cats (45%). A significant decrease was detected in animals over 8 years old. These tumors were observed in large breeds, mostly in German shepherd (38.4%) and Anatolian shepherd (Kanga...

  10. Effects of Tourism on Cultural Heritage: Awareness of Local People in Beypazari,Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Uslu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of tourism on residents attiude in a small community in Turkey. Thefocus is on a rural town, known as Beypazari, currently emerging as a major tourist destination for its naturaland cultural landscape in the periphery of the capitol city of Ankara. Exponential increase (almost 1000% anincrease within the last five-years in touristic activities in the city exaburated a citizen reaction. In thisarticle; the perceptions of citiezens about the effect of tourism have been examinated with random samplesurvey of residents.

  11. DEET microencapsulation: a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Knols, B.G.J.; Pennetier, C.; Rowland, M.

    2008-01-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the repellen

  12. Construction of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Expressing Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The T lymphocyte response has been shown to be the determinant in the clearance of many viral infections.Hence, therapeutic vaccine candidates against HBV are designed to enhance this response of the immune system.Vaccinia virus vector-based vaccines have been proposed as excellent candidates to elicit long-term and strong T lymphocyte mediated immune responses. In this study, the recombinant MVA expressing HBV surface antigen has been constructed, which can elicit a potent T cell mediated response. The ELISA results for the surface protein in the medium of the recombinant MVA, strongly indicate that the recombinant virus has been successfully obtained.

  13. The analysis of impact of urbanization on the bioclimatic conditions in the scale of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Türkoğlu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE In this study the biclimatological conditions of Ankara urban area have been analyzed from the data which has been acquired from areas having different land cover and use. The hourly thermal perceptions of six meteorology stations have been calculated by using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index that could involve not only the meteorological parameters but also human energy balance in calculations. The spatial distribution of values has been carried out by the multiple linear regression models. At the end of the analyses it is concluded that the areas which have higher built density in urban have greater PET values than the other land use classes during the most of the day. These daily mean PET difference between these areas and the grasslands is 0.4°C -1.2°C, the parks is 2.2°C-3°C, suburban is 1.4°C -2.2°C, rural is 1.7°C -2.5°C. The differences increase during night and from May to September, and decrease during daytime and from October to April. Keywords: Thermal perception, bioclimatic conditions, land use, physiologically equivalent temperature, Ankara.

  14. Re-use Adaptation Proposal for Hatipoğlu Mansion in Ankara Citadel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydanur Yenel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulus Citadel region is the most significant urban focus which consitutes the historical core of the capital Ankara and which locates the historical buildings of the old settlement. Although the current position of Kaleiçi has undergone tremendous changes in its configuration; histocial continuity, the marks of the past and physical values continue while, at the same time, they serve to the traditional part of the city. The purpose of this article is to present how Hatipoglu mansion’s could transfer to the future while its traditional speciality is preserved, it is sustainability suited to present conditions by providing comfort conditions with user’s needs to be repaired in accordance with restoration principle in order to continue cultural heritage Hatipoglu mansion’s existence which has been built in the historical city center of Angora (Ankara. Within the scope of Hatipoglu mansion’s preservation and its historic fabric which is preserved its traditional specialties; the street- parcel- structure relationships and building’s architectural specifications have been examined after investigating castle physical texture. Phases that Hatipoglu mansion’s has been experienced was given while evaluating obtained sources and using 1929 cadastral map, all these works have been directed to restitution and restoration decisions of the structure.

  15. Production of lentiviral vectors with enhanced efficiency to target dendritic cells by attenuating mannosidase activity of mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Pin; Joo Kye-Il; Froelich Steven; Tai April

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting immune cells that interact with T cells and have been widely studied for vaccine applications. To achieve this, DCs can be manipulated by lentiviral vectors (LVs) to express antigens to stimulate the desired antigen-specific T cell response, which gives this approach great potential to fight diseases such as cancers, HIV, and autoimmune diseases. Previously we showed that LVs enveloped with an engineered Sindbis virus glycoprote...

  16. DEET microencapsulation : a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, R; Knols, B.G.J.; Pennetier, Cédric; Rowland, M

    2008-01-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the repellent is gradually released from a capsule that binds the repellent. An experiment carried out on DEET-treated mosquito netting showed that the formulation repels, inhibits blood-feeding and kilts mosq...

  17. Engineered Expression Vectors Significantly Enhanced the Production of 2-Keto-D-gluconic Acid by Gluconobacter oxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ke-fei; Lin, Jin-ping; Yang, Sheng-li; Wei, Dong-zhi

    2015-06-10

    2-Keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA), a precursor of the important food antioxidant erythorbic acid, can be produced by Gluconobacter oxidans. To genetically engineer G. oxidans for improved 2KGA production, six new expression vectors with increased copy numbers based on pBBR1MCS-5 were constructed via rational mutagenesis. The utility of the mutant vectors was demonstrated by the increased ga2dh mRNA abundance, enzyme activity, and 2KGA production when the ga2dh gene was overexpressed using these vectors. Among the obtained constructs, G. oxidans/pBBR-3510-ga2dh displayed the highest oxidative activity toward gluconic acid (GA). In a batch biotransformation process, the G. oxidans/pBBR-3510-ga2dh strain exhibited 2KGA productivity (0.63 g/g CWW/h) higher than that obtained using strain G. oxidans/pBBR-ga2dh (0.40 g/g CWW/h). When sufficient oxygen was supplied during the biotransformation, up to 480 g/L GA was exhausted in 45 h by the G. oxidans/pBBR-3510-ga2dh strain and approximately 486 g/L 2KGA was produced, generating the productivity of 0.54 g/g CWW/h.

  18. Evaluation of excipients for enhanced thermal stabilization of a human type 5 adenoviral vector through spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Daniel A; Cranston, Emily D; Xing, Zhou; Thompson, Michael R

    2016-06-15

    We have produced a thermally stable recombinant human type 5 adenoviral vector (AdHu5) through spray drying with three excipient formulations (l-leucine, lactose/trehalose and mannitol/dextran). Spray drying leads to immobilization of the viral vector which is believed to prevent viral protein unfolding, aggregation and inactivation. The spray dried powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titrations, and X-ray diffraction to identify the effects of temperature and atmospheric moisture on the immobilizing matrix. Thermal stability of the viral vector was confirmed in vitro by infection of A549 lung epithelial cells. Mannitol/dextran powders showed the greatest improvement in thermal stability with almost no viral activity loss after storage at 20°C for 90days (0.7±0.3 log TCID50) which is a significant improvement over the current -80°C storage protocol. Furthermore, viral activity was retained over short term exposure (72h) to temperatures as high as 55°C. Conversely, all powders exhibited activity loss when subjected to moisture due to amplified molecular motion of the matrix. Overall, a straightforward method ideal for the production of thermally stable vaccines has been demonstrated through spray drying AdHu5 with a blend of mannitol and dextran and storing the powder under low humidity conditions. PMID:27130366

  19. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  20. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  1. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Song (Fei); R. Fux (Robert); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A. Volz (Asisa); M. Eickmann; S. Becker (Stephan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); G. Suttera (Gerd)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic sta

  2. 78 FR 76821 - Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... published at 78 FR 18318 (March 26, 2013), regarding the Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission... evaluated in accordance with the Notice published at 78 FR 18318 (March 26, 2013) regarding the Amendment to... International Trade Administration Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul,...

  3. Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zheng; Shi, Guoli; Kondo, Saki; Ito, Masahiko; Maekawa, Aya; Suzuki, Mariko; Saito, Izumu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanegae, Yumi

    2013-12-01

    First-generation adenovirus vectors (FG AdVs) expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively downregulate the expressions of target genes. However, this vector, in fact, expresses not only the transgene product, but also virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs) that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. We have established a production method for VA-deleted AdVs lacking expression of VA RNAs. Here, we showed that the highest shRNA activity was obtained when the shRNA was inserted not at the popularly used E1 site, but at the E4 site. We then compared the activities of shRNAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) expressed from VA-deleted AdVs or conventional AdVs. The VA-deleted AdVs inhibited HCV production much more efficiently. Therefore, VA-deleted AdVs were more effective than the currently used AdVs for shRNA downregulation, probably because of the lack of competition between VA RNAs and the shRNAs. These VA-deleted AdVs might enable more effective gene therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  4. 遥感影像边缘增强的L2向量空间范数算法%Edge Enhancement for Remote Sensing Image Using Norm Algorithm in L2 Vector Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪; 马建文

    2007-01-01

    The Householder transformation-norm structure function in L2 vector space of linear algebra is introduced, and the edge enhancement for remote sensing images is realized. The experiment result is compared with traditional Laplacian and Sobel edge enhancements and it shows that the effect of the new method is better than that of the traditional algorithms.

  5. HOLIDAY HABITS OF CIVIL SERVANTS: A STUDY ON TEDAS EMPLOYEES IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan KARAKAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to detect holiday habits of officers, their motivation of going to holiday, factors effecting them to decide The research was applied on 119 civil servants working in general headquarters of TEDAŞ in Ankara by using questionnaire technique. Frequency table, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square test were used for the analysis of data. As a result of the research, it is detected that half of them spend their holidays by participating in tourism facilities; spend their free times by reading, doing sports, doing grizzle walks and having picnic; spend their holidays in resorts and hometowns; generally have holidays once a year; give the decision of holiday together with family and make their reservations directly or via travel agencies.

  6. An Assessment for Soft Drink Consumption of Individuals in Centre Town of Ankara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Central district of Ankara (Çankaya, Etimesgut, Gölbaşı, Keçiören, Mamak, Polatlı, Sincan and Yenimahalle districts carbonated drink consumption situation of consumers were examined. The data obtained from questionnaires conducted with 272 families were used in this study. Data were collected in April-May 2012.Between carbonated drink consumption and some demographic characteristics of consumers were tested by chi-square analysis of whether a statistical association. According to the survey; It was determined that 71.69% of the families consume carbonated drink. The vast majority of consumers (94.87%, carbonated drinks they consume more during the summer and is harmful to health (81.03% had continued to consume despite expressing. In addition, consumption of carbonated drinks with gender, age was found to be a statistically significant relationship between marital status and spouse's employment status.

  7. The frequency and effecting factors of consanguineous marriage in a group of soldiers in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kir, Tayfun; Güleç, Mahir; Bakir, Bilal; Hoşjgönül, Esat; Tümerdem, Nazmi

    2005-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the frequency of consanguineous marriage in a group of army conscripts in Ankara and the factors affecting this. Of 4153 soldiers, 387 were married. The rate of marriage between first cousins was found to be 19.1%, and the overall rate of consanguineous marriage was 24.1%. Consanguineous marriage was found to be significantly prevalent among soldiers who were born in and still living in the Eastern region; among those who lived in villages; among those whose parents as well as themselves had low educational levels; and among those whose marriages were arranged by their families. Neither the payment of bride-price nor the presence of consanguinity between parents was a significant factor for consanguineous marriage. In addition, the age of the soldier and the age at marriage were significantly lower among soldiers married to first cousins than among soldiers whose marriages were not consanguineous.

  8. DEET microencapsulation: a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'guessan, Raphael; Knols, Bart G J; Pennetier, Cedric; Rowland, Mark

    2008-03-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the repellent is gradually released from a capsule that binds the repellent. An experiment carried out on DEET-treated mosquito netting showed that the formulation repels, inhibits blood-feeding and kills mosquitoes for a period of at least 6 months under laboratory conditions. Such formulations may have the potential for use on nets against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes or on clothing or bedding materials distributed in disasters, emergencies or refugee camp situations. PMID:18082862

  9. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  10. The first Koç Han: Pioneering modern architecture in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Atalay Franck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Koç Holding is the most established conglomerate in Turkey. Th e company’s beginnings date from the mid 1920s, when Ahmet Vehbi Koç, founder of Koç Holding, had his first own company registered with the Ankara Chamber of Commerce. In 1932, Koç moved his business from his father’s store on Anafartalar Street to a new building, the first Koç Han, erected the same year on Çankırı Street Nr.13 in Ulus. Th e building’s designer was Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Arnold Egli, who had come to Turkey only five years earlier upon invitation by the government to work as chief architect of the Ministry of National Education. During his stay, which lasted from 1927 until 1940, Egli realized about 40 projects and worked on many more. Koç Han is the rare example of a commercial building by Egli. At a time when the urban aspect of the old town center of Ankara consisted mostly of one-or two-storeyed stone-and-wood houses, the first Koç Han represented an altogether new building type for the town, in being a multipurpose edifice with space for shops at street level, with large storage facilities below ground, and providing off ices and housing on the upper fl oors. Th e functional rigor of the plan and the sober modernism of the building’s facades contrasted strongly with the architecture of the time. In this respect, the first Koç Han was a strong statement regarding Ahmet Vehbi Koç’s belief in a modern Turkey and to the contribution of the building’s architect, Ernst Arnold Egli, to this project.

  11. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  12. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  13. A Viral Vectored Prime-Boost Immunization Regime Targeting the Malaria Pfs25 Antigen Induces Transmission-Blocking Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Anna L.; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Sumi Biswas; Yimin Wu; Hill, Adrian V.; Sinden, Robert E.; Draper, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63), human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a ...

  14. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  15. English-language needs in the probable work situations of the students of the Radio, Television, and Film Department at Ankara University

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Z Zeynep

    1994-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Humanities and Letters of Bilkent Univ., 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1994. Includes bibliographical references leaves 63-65. This study was designed to investigate the fututre work-related English language needs of the students of the Radio, Television, and Film Department (RTFD) at the Faculty of Communication (FC) at Ankara University (AU). With this purpose, a needs analysis was conducted at Turkish Radio Television Corporation (TRT) whic...

  16. Subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing configuration having spanwise leading-edge vortex enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. K.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A configuration which integrates a close coupled canard wing combination, spanwise blowing for enhancement of the wing leading edge vortex, an engine-over-wing concept, and a wing trailing edge coanda-effect flap is studied. The data on the configuration are presented in tabular from without discussion. The investigation was conducted in the Langley 7- by 10-foot high speed tunnel at a Mach number of 0.166 through an angle-of-attack range from -2 to 22 deg. Rectangular main engine nozzles of aspect ratio 4, 6, and 8 were tested over a momentum coefficient range from 1.0 to 1.8.

  17. Enhanced land use/cover classification of heterogeneous tropical landscapes using support vector machines and textural homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Mas, Jean-François; Moré, Gerard; Cristóbal, Jordi; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Luz, Ana Catarina; Guèze, Maximilien; Macía, Manuel J.; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2013-08-01

    Land use/cover classification is a key research field in remote sensing and land change science as thematic maps derived from remotely sensed data have become the basis for analyzing many socio-ecological issues. However, land use/cover classification remains a difficult task and it is especially challenging in heterogeneous tropical landscapes where nonetheless such maps are of great importance. The present study aims at establishing an efficient classification approach to accurately map all broad land use/cover classes in a large, heterogeneous tropical area, as a basis for further studies (e.g., land use/cover change, deforestation and forest degradation). Specifically, we first compare the performance of parametric (maximum likelihood), non-parametric (k-nearest neighbor and four different support vector machines - SVM), and hybrid (unsupervised-supervised) classifiers, using hard and soft (fuzzy) accuracy assessments. We then assess, using the maximum likelihood algorithm, what textural indices from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix lead to greater classification improvements at the spatial resolution of Landsat imagery (30 m), and rank them accordingly. Finally, we use the textural index that provides the most accurate classification results to evaluate whether its usefulness varies significantly with the classifier used. We classified imagery corresponding to dry and wet seasons and found that SVM classifiers outperformed all the rest. We also found that the use of some textural indices, but particularly homogeneity and entropy, can significantly improve classifications. We focused on the use of the homogeneity index, which has so far been neglected in land use/cover classification efforts, and found that this index along with reflectance bands significantly increased the overall accuracy of all the classifiers, but particularly of SVM. We observed that improvements in producer's and user's accuracies through the inclusion of homogeneity were different

  18. The use of layered double hydroxides as DNA vaccine delivery vector for enhancement of anti-melanoma immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Qin, Lili; Wang, Wenrui; Zhu, Rongrong; Yu, Yongchun; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Mg:Al 1:1 layered double hydroxides (LDH(R1)) nanoparticles could be taken up by the MDDCs effectively and had an adjuvant activity for DC maturation. Furthermore, these LDH(R1) nanoparticles could up-regulate the expression of CCR7 and augment the migration of DCs in response to CCL21. In current study, we have evaluated whether LDH(R1) as DNA vaccine delivery carrier can augment the efficacy of DNA vaccine immunization in vivo. Firstly, we found that LDH(R1) was efficient in combining DNA and formed LDH(R1)/DNA complex with an average diameter of about 80-120 nm. Its high transfection efficiency in vivo delivered with a GFP expression plasmid was also observed. After delivery of pcDNA(3)-OVA/LDH(R1) complex by intradermal immunization in C57BL/6 mice, the LDH(R1) induced an enhanced serum antibody response much greater than naked DNA vaccine. Using B16-OVA melanoma as tumor model, we demonstrated that pcDNA(3)-OVA/LDH(R1) complex enhanced immune priming and protection from tumor challenge in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that LDH(R1) induced dramatically more effective CTL activation and skewed T helper polarization to Th1. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that this LDH(R1)/DNA plasmid complex should be a new and promising way in vaccination against tumor. PMID:20934217

  19. Longhorned Beetles Collection of the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey (Coleoptera,Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDİKMEN, Hüseyin; ŞAHİN, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, specimens of Cerambycidae were examined in the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of identification of these specimens, thirty-eight species and two subspecies belonging to twenty-eight genera of five subfamilies were determined. With this paper, new faunistic data and some zoogeographical evaluations were presented on longhorned beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Turkey. The faunistic data in the pr...

  20. A Study on the Anthropometric Measures, Breast feeding and Nutrition Status of Children of 0 36 Months Living in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    ŞANLIER, Nevin; AYTEKİN, Fulya

    2004-01-01

    Various diseases can be prevented at an early period by using anthropometric measures to determine undernourishment and malnutrition and to follow growth in children. This study was planned and implemented to examine the physical development of children of 0-3 ages. 679 children applying to 15 Mother and Child Health and Family Planning Centers and District Health Centers in different quarters of Ankara were studied. Midwives and nurses working in these centers properly measured heights ...

  1. The Relationship between Market Orientation, Innovation Orientation and Firm Performance: A Research in Four and Five Star Hotels in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    ERDEM, Barış; Kudret GÜL; Melike GÜL

    2013-01-01

    In this study, relationships between market orientation, innovation orientation and firm performance were researched. As samples, four and five star hotel enterprises in Ankara were selected. Research data were obtained from senior managers of 40 hotel enterprises by using questionnaire technique. According to findings, it was detected that market orientation and innovation orientation have significant and positive oriented relations with firm performance. A significant and positive orien...

  2. A proton irradiation test facility for space research in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, Ayşenur; Yiǧitoǧlu, Merve; Bilge Demirköz, Melahat; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation often affects the electronic components' performance during the mission duration. In order to ensure reliable performance, the components must be tested to at least the expected dose that will be received in space, before the mission. Accelerator facilities are widely used for such irradiation tests around the world. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) has a 15MeV to 30MeV variable proton cyclotron in Ankara and the facility's main purpose is to produce radioisotopes in three different rooms for different target systems. There is also an R&D room which can be used for research purposes. This paper will detail the design and current state of the construction of a beamline to perform Single Event Effect (SEE) tests in Ankara for the first time. ESA ESCC No.25100 Standard Single Event Effect Test Method and Guidelines is being considered for these SEE tests. The proton beam kinetic energy must be between 20MeV and 200MeV according to the standard. While the proton energy is suitable for SEE tests, the beam size must be 15.40cm x 21.55cm and the flux must be between 10 ^{5} p/cm ^{2}/s to at least 10 ^{8} p/cm ^{2}/s according to the standard. The beam size at the entrance of the R&D room is mm-sized and the current is variable between 10μA and 1.2mA. Therefore, a defocusing beam line has been designed to enlarge the beam size and reduce the flux value. The beam line has quadrupole magnets to enlarge the beam size and the collimators and scattering foils are used for flux reduction. This facility will provide proton fluxes between 10 ^{7} p/cm ^{2}/s and 10 ^{10} p/cm ^{2}/s for the area defined in the standard when completed. Also for testing solar cells developed for space, the proton beam energy will be lowered below 10MeV. This project has been funded by Ministry of Development in Turkey and the beam line construction will finish in two years and SEE tests will be performed for the first time in Turkey.

  3. Production of Transgenic Korean Native Cattle Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Using a FIV-Based Lentiviral Vector Injected into MII Oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Nan Xu; Joon-Ho Yoon; Dae-Hwan Ko; Teoan Kim; Nam-Hyung Kim; Sang-Jun Uhm; Bon-Chul Koo; Mo-Sun Kwon; Ji-Yeol Roh; Jung-Seok Yang; Hyun-Yong Choi; Young-Tae Heo; Xiang-Shun Cui

    2013-01-01

    The potential benefits of generating and using transgenic cattle range from improvements in agriculture to the production of large quantities of pharmaceutically relevant proteins.Previous studies have attempted to produce transgenic cattle and other livestock by pronuclear injection and somatic cell nuclear transfer,but these approaches have been largely ineffective; however,a third approach,lentivirus-mediated transgenesis,has successfully produced transgenic livestock.In this study,we generated transgenic (TG) Korean native cattle using perivitelline space injection of viral vectors,which expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) systemically.Two different types of lentiviral vectors derived from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)carrying EGFP were injected into the perivitelline space of MII oocytes.EGFP expression at 8-cell stage was significantly higher in the FIV group compared to the HIV group (47.5% ± 2.2% v.s.22.9% ± 2.9%).Eight-cell embryos that expressed EGFP were cultured into blastocysts and then transferred into 40 heifers.Ten heifers were successfully impregnated and delivered 10 healthy calves.All of these calves expressed EGFP as detected by in vivo imaging,PCR and Southern blotting.In addition,we established an EGFP-expressing cell line from TG calves,which was followed by nuclear transfer (NT).Recloned 8-cell embryos also expressed EGFP,and there were no differences in the rates of fusion,cleavage and development between cells derived from TG and non-TG calves,which were subsequently used for NT.These results illustrate that FIV-based lentiviruses are useful for the production of TG cattle.Moreover,our established EGFP cell line can be used for additional studies that involve induced pluripotent stem cells.

  4. Construction of a bicistronic recombinant adenoviral vector for human interleukin-10 and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian-qing; LIN Cai-zhu; LIN Xian-zhong; ZENG Kai; GAO You-guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Human interleukin-10 (hlL-10) is a cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor,which is involved in various immune responses.The purpose of this study was to construct an adenoviral vector carrying the hlL-10 gene for expression of biologically active hlL-10 in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs).Methods A pSNAV2.0-hlL10 plasmid was used as a template to obtain a hlL-10 cDNA fragment that was subcloned by restriction enzyme digestion and ligation into a pDC316-IRES-EGFP-lacZ alpha plasmid carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene.The pDC316-hlL-10-IRES-EGFP plasmid was linearized by Pmel digestion and used to transfect HEK293 packaging cells using the adenovirus packaging system AdMax.Virus particles were amplified by repeatedly infecting HEK293 cells with the seed virus and then purified by ion exchange.After the number of virus particles and titer was determined,rMSCs were infected with the adenoviral vector.The infection rate was determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry,and hlL-10 protein expression in rMSCs was measured by Western blotting.Results The virus particle concentration,OD260/280 value and virus titer of the amplified and purified recombinant adenovirus were 3.2×1011 VP/ml,approximately 2.0,and 1.1×1010 TCID50/ml,respectively.Bright green fluorescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry in the recombinant adenovirus-infected rMSCs.GFP expression was considered the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and was time-dependent.The infection rate was 92.9% at 100 MOI.Conclusions A bicistrenic recombinant adenoviral vector for hlL-10 and EGFP gene expression were successfully constructed.The infection rate of rMSCs by the adenovirus was high (92.9% at 100 MOI) and the target gene hlL-10 was highly expressed in cells.The present study provides an experimental basis for further research of immunosuppressive therapy using hlL-10.The expression level of hlL-10 protein as detected by

  5. Enhancing DNA vaccine potency against hantavirus by co-administration of interleukin-12 expression vector as a genetic adjuvant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lan-yan; MOU Ling; LIN Song; LU Run-ming; LUO En-jie

    2005-01-01

    Background The heavy incidence and mortality of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, as well as no specific drugs in curing the disease,clearly indicate the need for development of the more effective hantavirus vaccine. Refining the DNA vaccination strategy to elicit more clinically efficacious immune responses is now under intensive investigation. In the present study, we examined the effects of using an interleukin-12 expression plasmid as a genetic adjuvant to enhance the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine based on the S gene encoding nucleocapsid protein against hantavirus. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized three times by intramuscular inoculations of DNA vaccine encoding of hantanvirus nucleocapsid protein alone or in combination with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin-12 (pcIL-12). Booster immunizations were employed 2 times at 2-week interval. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production were assayed by MTT method and ELISA respectively. The level of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ in the splenic lymphocytic cultured supernatant were detected with ELISA kit at day 5, 10, 17, 35 and 42 after primary immunization.Conclusion Humoral and cytokine responses elicited by pcDNA3.1+S inoculation can be modulated by co-inoculation with pcIL-12 and efficiently induced Th1-dominant immune responses.

  6. Cardiac safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for vaccination against smallpox in a young, healthy study population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Zitzmann-Roth

    Full Text Available Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial.Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI were monitored after each injection.A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis. The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions.Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524.

  7. Art Nouveau Yıldız Porcelains Exhibited at Ankara Ethnography Museum Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Canan Aydın Altay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yıldız Çini Fabrika-i Hümayunu (Yıldız Imperial Porcelain Factory was established on the orders of Sultan Abdulhamid II at the beginning of the 1890s in the Yıldız Palace garden. While this was an important step in the history of Ottoman industry it also created a prestige against western societies. From the date the production was started in 1894 until it was closed in 1909, unique works of the Ottoman modernization era have been produced at Yıldız Çini Fabrika-i Hümayunu (Yıldız Imperial Porcelain Factory. The porcelain objects produced under the influence of the Art Nouveau movement in Europe within this 15 years period, especially in the second half of the 19th century,are quite remarkable. These works have been distributed among various museums and collections and a group of them are exhibited at the Ankara Ethnography Museum’s Porcelain Collection. In this research, Art Nouveau works in this museum’s collection are examined and evaluated.

  8. THE EXPECTANCIES OF THE HEALTH SECTOR FROM ACCOUNTING EDUCATION AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANKARA PUBLIC HOSPITALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan ÇİL KOÇYİĞİT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health sector requires qualified accounting personnel and demands qualified accounting personnel who knows the sector and who has the vocational knowledge and the ability. Education and training activities designed to meet the expectencies and the requirements of the sector are very important. These requirements can be met by the good quality of accounting education designed by the demands of the health sector. In this research, a survey has been administered to the managers of Ankara public hospitals in order to reveal the expectencies of the health sector from accounting education. The results of the survey show the follwings; accounting education should include practical information, The Uniform Chart Of Accounts should be developed in order to meet the expectencies of the health sector, there should be an internship opportunity at the health sector for accounting students, the content of the accounting courses should be determined by a cooperation between the sector and the academia and the demands of the health sector should be taken into consideration more.

  9. The analysis of impact of urbanization on the bioclimatic conditions in the scale of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Türkoğlu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bioclimatological conditions of Ankara urban area have been analyzed from the data which has been acquired from areas having different land cover and use. The hourly thermal perceptions of six meteorology stations have been calculated by using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index that could involve not only the meteorological parameters but also human energy balance in calculations. The spatial distribution of values has been carried out by the multiple linear regression models. At the end of the analyses it is concluded that the areas which have higher built density in urban have greater PET values than the other land use classes during the most of the day. These daily mean PET difference between these areas and the grasslands is 0.4-1.2°C, the parks is 2.2-3°C, suburban is 1.4-2.2°C, rural is 1.7-2.5°C. The differences increase during night and from May to September, and decrease during daytime and from October to April.

  10. Analysis of Ankara urban area from human bioclimatologic point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Türkoğlu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  11. Sex and the capital city: the political framing of syphilis and prostitution in early republican Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Emine Ö; Evered, Kyle T

    2013-04-01

    In its initial years, the nascent Turkish republic established the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance in order to promote public health. Beyond simply facilitating its modernizing agenda for the emergent nation-state as it sought to define itself against an Ottoman past, this institution was also geared toward remedying a self-defined population crisis by prioritizing and confronting particular diseases and health conditions. One of the maladies of utmost concern was syphilis. Based upon an analysis of official primary sources, this article engages with how the developing republic distinguished and consequently politically constructed-or framed-the syphilis problem from the vantage of its new forward capital, Ankara. Integral to this project of confronting this sexually transmitted disease, public health officials projected upon both this ailment and their understanding of the suitable means for its treatment their own views of what constituted appropriate sexual practices and relations. In doing so, certain subgroups of the population, especially prostitutes, were particularized as targets for surveillance and policing through regimes of licensing and compulsory medical examinations. Stemming from the state's framing of the disease-and its definition of appropriate sexual practices-this article also examines the subsequent legislative and public health education projects that followed.

  12. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  13. Consumer Decision - Making Process in E - Commerce: Case of Salzburg - Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gürbüz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, companies need to track the changes occur in their internal and external stakeholders in order to develop consistent strategies, structures and systems for success in e-commerce. Tracking and researching the existing and potential customers and companies as external stakeholders has become very important. This study aims to reveal a scientific approach about the purchasing decisions of e-commerce companies’ customers, to carry the e-commerce applications in Austria to Turkey, to transfer the e-commerce applications in Turkey to Austria and to contribute for the development of e-commerce. To achieve this, in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 female e-commerce users in Ankara/Turkey and in Salzburg/Austria to reveal the similarities and differences between the purchasing decision processes of different countries’ citizens. Similarities and differences in the purchasing decision process of customers were determined for the dimensions of price compatibility, practicality, accessibility, speed, comfort, convenience and cost and suggestions are offered for the development of e-commerce in Turkey.

  14. ESR dating of calcrete nodules from Bala, Ankara (Turkey): preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükuysal, Ceren; Engin, Birol; Türkmenoğlu, Asuman G; Aydaş, Canan

    2011-02-01

    The age of two calcrete nodules (C1 and C2) from the Bala section in the region of Ankara, Turkey, is determined by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. Three radiation-induced ESR signals at g=2.0056 (A signal), g=2.0006 (C signal) and g=2.0038 (broad signal, BL) were observed. The broad signal (BL) intensity was used as a dating signal. The properties of this dating signal are described in this manuscript. The calcrete nodules were irradiated with a (60)Co gamma source and measured with an ESR spectrometer (X-band) to obtain the signal intensity vs. dose curve and fitted well with the single exponential saturation functions. Based on this model, accumulated dose (D(E)) values for dating are obtained using the multiple-aliquot additive dose method. The D(E) values of C1 and C2 calcretes are 1880±207 and 671±67 Gy, respectively. The ESR ages of the two calcrete samples are obtained by assessing the annual dose rate (D) from the content of (238)U, (232)Th and K(2)O determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. The results are 761±120 and 419±64 ka, respectively, falling into the Middle Pleistocene Epoch in the geological time scale in agreement with the positions of the stratigraphical record.

  15. ESR dating of calcrete nodules from Bala, Ankara (Turkey): Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuecuekuysal, Ceren [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Geological Research Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Engin, Birol, E-mail: birol_engin65@yahoo.co [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Tuerkmenoglu, Asuman G. [Middle East Technical University, Geological Engineering Department, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Aydas, Canan [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The age of two calcrete nodules (C1 and C2) from the Bala section in the region of Ankara, Turkey, is determined by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. Three radiation-induced ESR signals at g=2.0056 (A signal), g=2.0006 (C signal) and g=2.0038 (broad signal, BL) were observed. The broad signal (BL) intensity was used as a dating signal. The properties of this dating signal are described in this manuscript. The calcrete nodules were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co gamma source and measured with an ESR spectrometer (X-band) to obtain the signal intensity vs. dose curve and fitted well with the single exponential saturation functions. Based on this model, accumulated dose (D{sub E}) values for dating are obtained using the multiple-aliquot additive dose method. The D{sub E} values of C1 and C2 calcretes are 1880{+-}207 and 671{+-}67 Gy, respectively. The ESR ages of the two calcrete samples are obtained by assessing the annual dose rate (D) from the content of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and K{sub 2}O determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. The results are 761{+-}120 and 419{+-}64 ka, respectively, falling into the Middle Pleistocene Epoch in the geological time scale in agreement with the positions of the stratigraphical record.

  16. How do Managers Manage the Time: a Research in Ankara Hospitals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin SÖKMEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, constant change and improvement in technology, information, and communication with extensive competition between companies, creates pressure on managers. Managers both try to cope with these hard situations and also try to attain organizational goals with limited resources. Raised and complicated business and activities forced managers who work within a limited time units to feel time pressure densely. For this reason, this condition increases the impact of time and effective time usage especially for managers and organizations. Managers, who are responsible for utilization of existing resources in these organizations, have to use time in the most effective way if they want to be successful. Time cannot be produced, hired, bought, and stored when compared with other resources on hand. So it is more critical for managers’ success. In light of this fact, this study aims to measure time management skills of hospital managers in Ankara by using Time Management Questionnaire. The reliability and validity dimensions of the scale were taken into consideration, so as to be capable of obtaining reasonable results and making contribution to literature, and arithmetic means are also investigated. Moreover in this study, independent t-test and analysis of variance tests were used to investigate differences among types of time management dimensions (time planning, time attitudes and time wasters in terms of respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results demonstrated several significant differences among types of time management dimensions in terms of managers’ gender, marital status, age, and education.

  17. The main activities and scientific collaboration possibilities at Ankara Nuclear research and training center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Founded in 1964, Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (ANRTC) conducts and facilitates the scientific activities including training (summer practice, MSc and Ph D studies in physics and chemistry, IAEA fellowship programs etc.), research and other studies in nuclear and related fields. As it's a part of main duties, ANRTC has analysis on the variety of samples, and radiation protection services commercially, for radiation workers in state, public and private sectors. Research, development and application projects implemented in this Center have mostly been supported by State Planning Organization (SPO) and Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In addition to the projects there are on going collaborative studies with some national Universities and International Atomic Energy Agency. The main activities carried out in ANRTC can be summarized as: studies on experimental nuclear physics, application of nuclear techniques such as XRF, XRD, Gamma, Alpha, etc. for environmental pollutants, archaeological and geological dating, elemental and crystal structural analyses, studies on the detection of irradiated foodstuff by ESR, development of accident dosimeters to be used in the case of a nuclear or radiological accident, and radiation matter interaction studies. In near future, for young scientists, there will be new collaboration possibilities related to accelerator-based applications, especially the new production methods of radioisotopes and their radiopharmaceuticals by using a cyclotron when our 30 MeVp / 15MeVd cyclotron facility project is underway

  18. Seasonal variation of surface temperature based on land cover in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çiçek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal variation of the surface temperature of Ankara urban area and its enviroment have been analyzed by using Landsat 7 image. The Landsat 7 images of each month from 2007 to 2011 have been used to analyze the annually changes of the surface temperature. The land cover of the research area was defined with supervised classification method on the basis of the satellite image belonging to 2008 July. After determining the surface temperatures from 6-1 bands of satellite images, the monthly mean surface temperatures were calculated for land cover classification for the period between 2007 and 2011. Accordşng to the results obtained, the surface temperatures are high in summer and low in winter from the air temperatures. all satellite images were taken at 10:00 am, it is found that urban areas are cooler than rural areas at 10:00 am. Regarding the land cover classification, the water surfaces are the coolest surfaces during the whole year. The warmest areas are the grasslands and dry farming areas. While the parks are warmer than the urban areas during the winter, during the summer they are cooler than artificial land covers. The urban areas with higher building density are the cooler surfaces after water bodies.

  19. Consumers’ Determination of Red Meat and Meat Products Purchase Behaviour – City of Ankara Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Arısoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, meat consuming level is an indicator of development of countries. The reason for this is the importance of animal proteins such as meat, milk and egg in human nutrition. People in Turkey do not get enough animal protein. Increase of meat and meat related product prices is effective on this. The purpose of this study is to bring up the purchase and consume behavior of consumers. Surveys completed in urban areas around city of Ankara are used primarily. Using Main Mass Ratio Based Simple Occurrence Probability Sampling method 338 families were interviewed. Completed surveys were separated into 3 groups; high, middle, low. As a result of the research, expense for food in total income is around %34. This ratio for families with low income is %53, for families with middle income is %35 and for families with high income is %33. It is found that as income levels of consumers raised, food expenses raise as well. But it shows that as income level increases, expense ratio for food decreases. Food reliability is the most effective factor on consumers’ decision of purchase. Studies show doubts of consumers about food reliability. It is understood that legal adjustments are not applied enough. Especially tight food inspections would be positive on consumer behavior.

  20. Electroporation and lipid nanoparticles with cyanine IR-780 and flavonoids as efficient vectors to enhanced drug delivery in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbacka, Julita; Pucek, Agata; Kotulska, Małgorzata; Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Rossowska, Joanna; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Wilk, Kazimiera Anna

    2016-08-01

    Nanocarriers and electroporation (also named electropermeabilization) are convenient methods to increase drug transport. In the current study, we present an effective support of drug delivery into cancer cells, utilizing these methods. We compare the efficiency of each of them and their combination. Multifunctional solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with a cyanine-type IR-780 - acting as a diagnostic agent and a photosensitizer, and a flavonoid derivative - baicalein (BAI) or fisetin (FIS) as a therapeutic cargo - were fabricated via solvent-diffusion method. A therapy supplemented with flavonoids may provide a more precise method to apply desirable lower drug doses and is more likely to result in lower toxicity and a decrease in tumor growth. The SLNs were stabilized with Phospholipon 90G at various concentrations; cetyl palmitate (CP) was applied as a solid matrix. The obtained nanosystems were characterized by dynamic light scattering (size along with size distribution), UV-vis (cargos encapsulation efficiency) and atomic force microscopy (morphology and shape). The obtained SLNs were used as drug carriers alone and in combination with electropermeabilization induced by millisecond pulsed electric fields of high intensity. Two cell lines were selected for the study: LoVo and CHO-K1. The viability was assessed after electroporation alone, the use of electroporation and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles or drugs alone. The intracellular accumulation of cyanine IR-780 and the impact on intracellular structure organization of cytoskeleton was visualized with confocal microscopy method with alpha-actin and beta-tubulin. In this study, the efficacy of nanoparticles with mixed cargo, additionally enhanced by electroporation, is demonstrated to act as an anticancer modality to eliminate cancer cells. PMID:26946158

  1. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Rodríguez

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs carrying the CD8(+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI of the circumsporozoite (CS protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS, and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV vectors from the Western Reserve (WR and modified virus Ankara (MVA strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.

  2. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  3. Equivalent Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  4. Enhanced vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses to malaria antigen ME-TRAP by fusion to MHC class ii invariant chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Spencer

    Full Text Available The orthodox role of the invariant chain (CD74; Ii is in antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, but enhanced CD8+ T cells responses have been reported after vaccination with vectored viral vaccines encoding a fusion of Ii to the antigen of interest. In this study we assessed whether fusion of the malarial antigen, ME-TRAP, to Ii could increase the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response. Following single or heterologous prime-boost vaccination of mice with a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAd63, or recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, higher frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed, with the largest increases observed following a ChAd63-MVA heterologous prime-boost regimen. Studies in non-human primates confirmed the ability of Ii-fusion to augment the T cell response, where a 4-fold increase was maintained up to 11 weeks after the MVA boost. Of the numerous different approaches explored to increase vectored vaccine induced immunogenicity over the years, fusion to the invariant chain showed a consistent enhancement in CD8+ T cell responses across different animal species and may therefore find application in the development of vaccines against human malaria and other diseases where high levels of cell-mediated immunity are required.

  5. Study on spectral parameters and the support vector machine in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of serum for the detection of colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Yao, Jun; Song, Youtao; Wang, Deli; Ding, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been recognized as an effective tool for the analysis of tissue samples and biofluids. In this work, a total of 27 spectral parameters were chosen and compared using SERS. Four parameters with the highest prediction ability were selected for further support vector machine (SVM) analysis. As a comparison, principal component analysis (PCA) was used on the same dataset for feature extraction. SVM was used with the above two data reduction methods separately to differentiate colon cancer and the control groups. Serum taken from 52 colon cancer patients and 60 healthy volunteers were collected and tested by SERS. The accuracy for Parameter-SVM was 95.0%, the sensitivity was 96.2%, and the specificity was 95.5%, which was much higher than the results using only one parameter, while for PCA-SVM, the results are 93.3%, 92.3%, and 92.9%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the SERS analysis method can be used to identify serum differences between colon cancer patients and normal people.

  6. Enhanced immunity against classical swine fever in pigs induced by prime-boost immunization using an alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccine and a recombinant adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Li, Na; Li, Hong-Yu; Li, Miao; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2010-09-15

    Classical swine fever (CSF) - caused by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) - is a fatal disease of pigs that is responsible for extensive losses to the swine industry worldwide. We had demonstrated previously that a prime-boost vaccination strategy using an alphavirus (Semliki Forest virus, SFV) replicon-vectored DNA vaccine (pSFV1CS-E2) and a recombinant adenovirus (rAdV-E2) expressing the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV induced enhanced immune responses in a mouse model. In this study, we evaluated further the efficacy of the heterologous prime-boost immunization approach in pigs, the natural host of CSFV. The results showed that the pigs (n=5) receiving pSFV1CS-E2/rAdV-E2 heterologous prime-boost immunization developed significantly higher titers of CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies and comparable CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation, compared to the pigs receiving double immunizations with rAdV-E2 alone. When challenged with virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the pigs of the heterologous prime-boost group did not show clinical symptoms or viremia, which were observed in one of the 5 pigs immunized with rAdV-E2 alone and all the 5 control pigs immunized with an empty adenovirus. The results demonstrate that the heterologous DNA prime and recombinant adenovirus boost strategy can induce solid protective immunity.

  7. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica invasin enhances the efficacy of classical swine-fever-vectored vaccine based on human adenovirus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helin Li; Pengbo Ning; Zhi Lin; Wulong Liang; Kai Kang; Lei He; Yanming Zhang

    2015-03-01

    The use of adenovirus vector-based vaccines is a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immune responses. Improving vaccine potency is necessary in other approaches to address their inadequate protection for the majority of infectious diseases. This study is the first to reconstruct a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus co-expressing E2 and invasin C-terminal (InvC) glycoproteins (rAd-E2-InvC). rAd-E2-InvC with 2×106 TCID50 was intramuscularly administered two times to CSFV-free pigs at 14 day intervals. No adverse clinical reactions were observed in any of the pigs after the vaccination. The CSFV E2-specific antibody titer was significantly higher in the rAd-E2-InvC group than that in the rAdV-E2 group as measured by NPLA and blocking ELISA. Pigs immunized with rAd-E2-InvC were completely protected against lethal challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues after CSFV challenge. These results demonstrate that rAd-E2-InvC could be an alternative to the existing CSF vaccine. Moreover, InvC that acts as an adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of rAdV-E2 and induce high CSFV E2-specific antibody titer and protection level.

  8. The Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigen α-Fetoprotein Is Enhanced by a Fusion with a Transmembrane Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vector to induce an immune response against a well-tolerated self-antigen. Methods. rMVA vectors expressing different form of α-fetoprotein (AFP were produced and characterized. Naïve mice were vaccinated with MVA vectors expressing the AFP antigen in either a secreted, or a membrane-bound, or an intracellular form. The immune response was monitored by an IFNΓ ELISpot assay and antibody detection. Results. Vaccination with the membrane-associated form of AFP induced a stronger CD8+ T-cell response compared to the ones obtained with the MVA encoding the secreted or the intracellular forms of AFP. Moreover, the vaccination with the membrane-bound AFP elicited the production of AFP-specific antibodies. Conclusions. The AFP transmembrane form is more immunogenic. Expressing a membrane-bound form in the context of an MVA vaccination could enhance the immunogenicity of a self-antigen.

  9. Intranasal mucosal boosting with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine markedly enhances the protection of BCG-primed guinea pigs against pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant adenovirus-vectored (Ad tuberculosis (TB vaccine platform has demonstrated great potential to be used either as a stand-alone or a boost vaccine in murine models. However, Ad TB vaccine remains to be evaluated in a more relevant and sensitive guinea pig model of pulmonary TB. Many vaccine candidates shown to be effective in murine models have subsequently failed to pass the test in guinea pig models. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Specific pathogen-free guinea pigs were immunized with BCG, AdAg85A intranasally (i.n, AdAg85A intramuscularly (i.m, BCG boosted with AdAg85A i.n, BCG boosted with AdAg85A i.m, or treated only with saline. The animals were then infected by a low-dose aerosol of M. tuberculosis (M.tb. At the specified times, the animals were sacrificed and the levels of infection in the lung and spleen were assessed. In separate studies, the long-term disease outcome of infected animals was monitored until the termination of this study. Immunization with Ad vaccine alone had minimal beneficial effects. Immunization with BCG alone and BCG prime-Ad vaccine boost regimens significantly reduced the level of M.tb infection in the tissues to a similar extent. However, while BCG alone prolonged the survival of infected guinea pigs, the majority of BCG-immunized animals succumbed by 53 weeks post-M.tb challenge. In contrast, intranasal or intramuscular Ad vaccine boosting of BCG-primed animals markedly improved the survival rate with 60% of BCG/Ad i.n- and 40% of BCG/Ad i.m-immunized guinea pigs still surviving by 74 weeks post-aerosol challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Boosting, particularly via the intranasal mucosal route, with AdAg85A vaccine is able to significantly enhance the long-term survival of BCG-primed guinea pigs following pulmonary M.tb challenge. Our results thus support further evaluation of this viral-vectored TB vaccine in clinical trials.

  10. The Experiences of Violence and Occupational Health Risks of Sex Workers Working in Brothels in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Bilge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal and discuss occupational health risks, violence against sex workers working in brothels and their working conditions in Ankara. Materials and Methods: The study included 138 sex workers. Data were collected at face to face interviews with a questionnaire composed of 40 questions about socio-demographic features, familial characteristics, reasons for becoming a sex worker, experiences of violence and occupational health risks. Results: Twenty-two point five percent of the women were aged 21-30 years and 39.9% were aged 31-40 years. The mean time of education was 5.9±3.5 (0-14 years. Forty-eight point five percent of the women were exposed to physical abuse and 13% of the women had been exposed to sexual abuse in their childhood. Fifty-five point eight percent of the women reported that their clients always used condoms, but 97.1% of the women noted that their clients insisted on not using a condom. Fourteen point five percent and 70.3% of the women were exposed to physical and verbal violence respectively from their clients. Ten point one percent of the women suffered sexual assault while working. Conclusion: Sex workers, like other people, should have human rights, all types of violence that they face should be eliminated and the social conditions they are exposed to should be improved. Sexually transmitted diseases, the most important health risk of sex workers, should be considered as occupational diseases in the new regulations.

  11. The Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Factors in a Kindergarten in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Yabanci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obesity among preschool-age children and identify its associated factors. METHOD: This research has two steps, involving 375 preschool-age children ranging from 5 to 6 years-old, registered to a public kindergarten in Kecioren, Ankara. In the first step, measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were taken, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated, BMI according to age and gender was classified considering the reference data of WHO-2007, the results were evaluated ≥85-<95. percentile as overweight, and ≥95.percentile as obese. In the second stage, forms prepared by the researchers were given to parents and the data obtained were assessed by statistical methods. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight was 8.3%; the overall prevalence of obesity was 10.1%. The prevalence of overweight was higher in boys than in girls. The circumference of waist and hip of overweight/obese children were higher than other children (p<0.001. Negative and significant correlation was obtained (p<0.05 between the body weight and daily sportive activities of children and also between the period of exclusive breastfeeding. Moreover, positive correlation (p<0.01 was found between the body weight of children and the body weight of their parents. CONCLUSION: Obesity among preschool children is an important health problem. To evaluate obesity of children and encouraging them for having healthy eating behaviors and for doing sportive activities could contribute to prevent them to develop obesity in later ages. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 397-404

  12. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Demir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001. The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5% among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5% among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

  13. Data evaluation of Ankara Numune Training and Education Hospital immunofixation electrophoresis

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    Müjgan Ercan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE is a method used for the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of monoclonal gammopathies (MG. The monoclonal gammopathies include premalignant or malignant disease such as multiple myeloma, Waldenström’s makroglobulinaemia (WM, plasmacytoma, monoclonal gammopati of undetermined significance (MGUS, plasma cell leukemia and amiloidosis (AL. We aimed to evaluate IFE reports analyzed in Ankara Numune Teaching and Research hospital from January to July 2011.Methods: IFE was studied by Interlab G26 in our laboratory. In this study, all IFE reports examined which analyzed between January and July 2011. The results assessed for frequency and type of MG and also for diagnosis of the disease. Results: A total of 688 patients from January to July 2011 were studied by IFE and 126 (18.3% patients have been identified as MG. There were 72 (57.1% men and 54 (42.9% women in patients with MG. Distribution of isotypes were IgG kappa 41.3%, IgG lambda 35.6%, IgA kappa 11.5%, IgA lambda 5.8%, IgM kappa 3.8% and IgM lambda 1.9%. There were MM (65.9%, WM (0.07% and MGUS (33% in patients with MG.Conclusion: IgG kappa was the most common type of MG and MM was the most common disease in these patients. MG detection rate was 18% in patients requested IFE test. The decreased rate has shown that at first serum protein electrophoresis must studied and then IFE test must be performed in patients who have an uncertainty of MG. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (2:148-152Key words: Monoclonal gammopathies, immunofixation electrophoresis, multiple myeloma

  14. The complete genomic sequence of the modified vaccinia Ankara strain: comparison with other orthopoxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, G; Scheiflinger, F; Dorner, F; Falkner, F G

    1998-05-10

    The complete genomic DNA sequence of the highly attenuated vaccinia strain modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) was determined. The genome of MVA is 178 kb in length, significantly smaller than that of the vaccinia Copenhagen genome, which is 192 kb. The 193 open reading frames (ORFs) mapped in the MVA genome probably correspond to 177 genes, 25 of which are split and/or have suffered mutations resulting in truncated proteins. The left terminal genomic region of MVA contains four large deletions and one large insertion relative to the Copenhagen strain. In addition, many ORFs in this region are fragmented, leaving only eight genes structurally intact and therefore presumably functional. The inserted DNA codes for a cluster of genes that is also found in the vaccinia WR strain and in cowpox virus and includes a highly fragmented gene homologous to the cowpox virus host range gene, providing further evidence that a cowpox-like virus was the ancestor of vaccinia. Surprisingly, the central conserved region of the genome also contains some fragmented genes, including ORF F5L, encoding a major membrane protein, and ORFs F11L and O1L, encoding proteins of 39.7 and 77.6 kDa, respectively. The right terminal genomic region carries three large deletions all classical poxviral immune evasion genes and all ankyrin-like genes located in this region are fragmented except for those encoding the interleukin-1 beta receptor and the 68-kDa ankyrin-like protein B18R. Thus, the attenuated phenotype of MVA is the result of numerous mutations, particularly affecting the host interactive proteins, including the ankyrin-like genes, but also involving some structural proteins.

  15. Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Kütüphaneleri’nde Kataloglamada Uyumun Ölçülmesi / Measuring Cataloging Consistency in Health Sciences Faculty Libraries at Ankara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the cataloging consistency between health sciences faculty libraries at Ankara University. Online catalogs at four faculty libraries are used to detect differencies in MARC records. Access points included AACR2, main entry, title statement and area of responsibility, edition statement, publication, distribution (etc., physical description area, series area, and added entries are compared. Findings showed certain amount of inconsistency among the access points analysed. Highest numbers of inconsistencies among all libraries were found in the title and responsibility statement fields.

  16. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxing Huang; Bin Lu; Wenbo Yu; Qing Fang; Li Liu; Ke Zhuang; Tingting Shen; Haibo Wang; Po Tian; Linqi Zhang; Zhiwei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallp...

  17. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  18. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  19. Diagnostic Efficacy of All Series of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Breast MR Images Using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Segmentation and Novel Border Feature Extraction for Differentiation Between Malignant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bahreini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To discriminate between malignant and benign breast lesions;"nconventionally, the first series of Breast Subtraction Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic"nResonance Imaging (BS DCE-MRI images are used for quantitative analysis. In this study, we"ninvestigated whether using all series of these images could provide us with more diagnostic"ninformation."nPatients and Methods: This study included 60 histopathologically proven lesions. The steps of"nthis study were as follows: selecting the regions of interest (ROI, segmentation using Gradient"nVector Flow (GVF snake for the first time, defining new feature sets, using artificial neural network"n(ANN for optimal feature set selection, evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC"nanalysis."nResults: The results showed GVF snake method correctly segmented 95.3% of breast lesion"nborders at the overlap threshold of 0.4. The first classifier which used the optimal feature set"nextracted only from the first series of BS DCE-MRI images achieved an area under the curve"n(AUC of 0.82, specificity of 60% at sensitivity of 81%. The second classifier which used the same"noptimal feature set but was extracted from all five series of these images achieved an AUC of"n0.90, specificity of 79% at sensitivity of 81%."nConclusion: The result of GVF snake segmentation showed that it could make an accurate"nsegmentation in the borders of breast lesions. According to this study, using all five series of BS"nDCE-MRI images could provide us with more diagnostic information about the breast lesion and"ncould improve the performance of breast lesion classifiers in comparison with using the first"nseries alone.

  20. Enhancing spatial resolution of 18F positron imaging with the Timepix detector by classification of primary fired pixels using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhen; Ziegler, Sibylle I.; Shi, Kuangyu

    2015-07-01

    Position-sensitive positron cameras using silicon pixel detectors have been applied for some preclinical and intraoperative clinical applications. However, the spatial resolution of a positron camera is limited by positron multiple scattering in the detector. An incident positron may fire a number of successive pixels on the imaging plane. It is still impossible to capture the primary fired pixel along a particle trajectory by hardware or to perceive the pixel firing sequence by direct observation. Here, we propose a novel data-driven method to improve the spatial resolution by classifying the primary pixels within the detector using support vector machine. A classification model is constructed by learning the features of positron trajectories based on Monte-Carlo simulations using Geant4. Topological and energy features of pixels fired by 18F positrons were considered for the training and classification. After applying the classification model on measurements, the primary fired pixels of the positron tracks in the silicon detector were estimated. The method was tested and assessed for [18F]FDG imaging of an absorbing edge protocol and a leaf sample. The proposed method improved the spatial resolution from 154.6   ±   4.2 µm (energy weighted centroid approximation) to 132.3   ±   3.5 µm in the absorbing edge measurements. For the positron imaging of a leaf sample, the proposed method achieved lower root mean square error relative to phosphor plate imaging, and higher similarity with the reference optical image. The improvements of the preliminary results support further investigation of the proposed algorithm for the enhancement of positron imaging in clinical and preclinical applications.

  1. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1. PMID:18309197

  2. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, S [Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul Road 30 km, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey); Baykan, U N [Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, General Directorate of Constructive Affairs, Cetin Emec Bulvari, No:5, 06460 Dikmen, Ankara (Turkey); Sen, K [TAEA, Eskisehir Road 9 km, 06800 Lodumlu, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: serefturhan63@gmail.com

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 {+-} 0.1 to 144.9 {+-} 4.9 Bq kg{sup -1}, 0.6 {+-} 0.2 to 169.9 {+-} 6.6 Bq kg{sup -1} and 2.0 {+-} 0.1 to 1792.3 {+-} 60.8 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 0.8 {+-} 0.5, 0.9 {+-} 0.4 and 4.1 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 {+-} 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 {+-} 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 {+-} 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  3. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  4. Production of recombinant AAV vectors encoding insulin-like growth factor I is enhanced by interaction among AAV rep regulatory sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilley Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are promising tools for gene therapy. Currently, their potential is limited by difficulties in producing high vector yields with which to generate transgene protein product. AAV vector production depends in part upon the replication (Rep proteins required for viral replication. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the start codon and upstream regulatory elements of Rep78/68 in AAV helper plasmids can regulate recombinant AAV (rAAV vector production. We further tested whether the resulting rAAV vector preparation augments the production of the potentially therapeutic transgene, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. Results We constructed a series of AAV helper plasmids containing different Rep78/68 start codon in combination with different gene regulatory sequences. rAAV vectors carrying the human IGF-I gene were prepared with these vectors and the vector preparations used to transduce HT1080 target cells. We found that the substitution of ATG by ACG in the Rep78/68 start codon in an AAV helper plasmid (pAAV-RC eliminated Rep78/68 translation, rAAV and IGF-I production. Replacement of the heterologous sequence upstream of Rep78/68 in pAAV-RC with the AAV2 endogenous p5 promoter restored translational activity to the ACG mutant, and restored rAAV and IGF-I production. Insertion of the AAV2 p19 promoter sequence into pAAV-RC in front of the heterologous sequence also enabled ACG to function as a start codon for Rep78/68 translation. The data further indicate that the function of the AAV helper construct (pAAV-RC, that is in current widespread use for rAAV production, may be improved by replacement of its AAV2 unrelated heterologous sequence with the native AAV2 p5 promoter. Conclusion Taken together, the data demonstrate an interplay between the start codon and upstream regulatory sequences in the regulation of Rep78/68 and indicate that selective mutations in Rep78/68 regulatory elements

  5. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Currier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7 or 10(8 pfu or intradermally (ID; 10(6 or 10(7 pfu at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2. Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6 PBMC at 10(8 pfu IM, but high in response rate (70% (51Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8 pfu IM; (ii predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+ T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route; (iv dose- and route-dependent with 10(8 pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8 pfu IM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and

  6. Prolonged maturation and enhanced transduction of dendritic cells migrated from human skin explants after in situ delivery of CD40-targeted adenoviral vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gruijl, TD; Luykx-de Bakker, SA; Tillman, BW; van den Eertwegh, AJM; Buter, J; Lougheed, SM; van der Bij, GJ; Safer, AM; Haisma, HJ; Curiel, DT; Scheper, RJ; Pinedo, HM; Gerritsen, WR

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic tumor vaccination with viral vectors or naked DNA, carrying the genetic code for tumor-associated Ags, critically depends on the in vivo transduction of dendritic cells (DC). Transfection of predominantly nonprofessional APC and only small numbers of DC may hamper proper T cell activatio

  7. Enhanced Generation of Integration-free iPSCs from Human Adult Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with an Optimal Combination of Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Xu, Jing; Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Ji, Guang-Zhen; Yuan, Weiping; Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-06-14

    We previously reported the generation of integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells from adult peripheral blood (PB) with an improved episomal vector (EV) system, which uses the spleen focus-forming virus U3 promoter and an extra factor BCL-XL (B). Here we show an ∼100-fold increase in efficiency by optimizing the vector combination. The two most critical factors are: (1) equimolar expression of OCT4 (O) and SOX2 (S), by using a 2A linker; (2) a higher and gradual increase in the MYC (M) to KLF4 (K) ratio during the course of reprogramming, by using two individual vectors to express M and K instead of one. The combination of EV plasmids (OS + M + K + B) is comparable with Sendai virus in reprogramming efficiency but at a fraction of the cost. The generated iPSCs are indistinguishable from those from our previous approach in pluripotency and phenotype. This improvement lays the foundation for broad applications of episomal vectors in PB reprogramming.

  8. Enhanced Generation of Integration-free iPSCs from Human Adult Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with an Optimal Combination of Episomal Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the generation of integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells from adult peripheral blood (PB with an improved episomal vector (EV system, which uses the spleen focus-forming virus U3 promoter and an extra factor BCL-XL (B. Here we show an ∼100-fold increase in efficiency by optimizing the vector combination. The two most critical factors are: (1 equimolar expression of OCT4 (O and SOX2 (S, by using a 2A linker; (2 a higher and gradual increase in the MYC (M to KLF4 (K ratio during the course of reprogramming, by using two individual vectors to express M and K instead of one. The combination of EV plasmids (OS + M + K + B is comparable with Sendai virus in reprogramming efficiency but at a fraction of the cost. The generated iPSCs are indistinguishable from those from our previous approach in pluripotency and phenotype. This improvement lays the foundation for broad applications of episomal vectors in PB reprogramming.

  9. Vector nematicons

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    Families of soliton pairs, namely vector solitons, are found within the context of a coupled nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger system of equations, as appropriate for modeling beam propagation in nematic liquid crystals. In the focusing case, bright soliton pairs have been found to exist provided their amplitudes satisfy a specific condition. In our analytical approach, focused on the defocusing regime, we rely on a multiscale expansion methods, which reveals the existence of dark-dark and antidark-antidark solitons, obeying an effective Korteweg-de Vries equation, as well as dark-bright solitons, obeying an effective Mel'nikov system. These pairs are discriminated by the sign of a constant that links all physical parameters of the system to the amplitude of the stable continuous wave solutions, and, much like the focusing case, the solitons' amplitudes are linked leading to mutual guiding.

  10. Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    . Extinction of long-term vector expression has been observed after implantation of transduced hematopoietic cells as well as fibroblasts, myoblasts and hepatocytes. Here we review the influence of vector structure, integration site and cell type on transcriptional silencing. While down-regulation of proviral...... transcription is known from a number of cellular and animal models, major insight has been gained from studies in the germ line and embryonal cells of the mouse. Key elements for the transfer and expression of retroviral vectors, such as the viral transcriptional enhancer and the binding site for the t......RNA primer for reverse transcription may have a major influence on transcriptional silencing. Alterations of these elements of the vector backbone as well as the use of internal promoter elements from housekeeping genes may contribute to reduce transcriptional silencing. The use of cell culture and animal...

  11. The Usage Analysis of Databases at Ankara University Digital Library Ankara Üniversitesi Elektronik Kütüphanesi Veri Tabanlarının Kullanım Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Arslantekin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The development in information and communication technologies has changed and improved resources and services diversity in libraries. These changes continue to develop rapidly throughout the world. As for our country,remarkable developments, especially in university and special libraries, in this field are worth consideration. In order to take benefit of the existing and forthcoming developments in the field of electronic libraries the databases used by clients should be well-demonstrated and followed closely. The providing wide use of electronic databases leads to increasing the productivity of scientific and social information that that is the ultimate goal. The article points out electronic resources management and the effect of consortia developments in the field first, and then evaluates the results of the survey on the use of electronic libraries assessment questionnaires by faculty members at Ankara University. Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmeler bilgi kaynakları ile birlikte bilgi merkezlerinin hizmetlerini de çok yönlü olarak değiştirmiş ve geliştirmiştir. Bu gelişmeler dünyada hızlı bir gelişim izlemektedir. Ülkemizde ise başta üniversite ve araştırma kütüphaneleri olmak üzere elektronik kütüphaneler konusunda dikkate değer gelişmeler izlenmektedir. Bu gelişim süreci içinde yerini almaya çalışan elektronik kütüphanelerden istenilen düzeyde yarar sağlayabilmek için kullanılan elektronik bilgi içeren veri tabanlarının iyi tanıtılması ve kullanımının izlenmesi gerekmektedir. İstenilen düzeyde yararlanılan elektronik veri tabanları sonucu üretilen bilimsel bilginin artması da ulaşılmak istenen hedeftir. Bu makalede elektronik kaynak yönetimi ve konsorsiyumların etkisine kısaca değindikten sonra Ankara Üniversitesi öğretim elemanlarına elektronik kütüphane kullanımı konusunda yapılan anket değerlendirilecektir.

  12. Ankara Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Programına Katılan Öğrencilerin Akademik Başarılarını Yordayan Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Şenel; Ömer Kutlu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors predicting academic achievement of Ankara University Distance Education students. The study group of the research consists of 302 first grade students from Ankara University Distance Education Center (ANKUZEM) 2010-2011 associate degree programs. Data were formed in four groups respectively “individual characteristics”, “characteristics related with family and working environment”, “characteristics related with usage of informatio...

  13. An evaluation on levels of knowledge, attitude and behavior of people at 65 years and above about alternative medicine living in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ozlem; Santaş, Fatih; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to determine the knowledge, attitude and behavioral levels of people at and above 65 years of age, living in Ankara (Turkey) about alternative medicine. The study was carried out between March - April 2010 through survey application of 200 participants by selective random sampling from the population. Data obtained as a result of the survey were analyzed by SPSS program. The study revealed that 83.5% of the participants believed in alternative therapy methods but 16.5% of them did not. It is concluded that herbal therapy methods are the most frequently used methods with a 63% rate among other alternative therapy methods. When status of the participants was analyzed it was found that it was found that 69% received the information about alternative medicines from their family while 53.5% received it from television This study revealed that alternative medicine is profoundly used by people above 65 years of age in Ankara.

  14. [Tuberculosis Laboratory Surveillance Network (TuLSA) study group. The first step for national tuberculosis laboratory surveillance: Ankara, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Figen; Albayrak, Nurhan; Özkara, Şeref; Karagöz, Alper; Alp, Alpaslan; Duyar Ağca, Filiz; İnan Süer, Asiye; Müderris, Tuba; Ceyhan, İsmail; Durmaz, Rıza; Ertek, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The most effective method for monitoring country-level drug resistance frequency and to implement the necessary control measures is the establishment of a laboratory-based surveillance system. The aim of this study was to summarize the follow up trend of the drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) cases, determine the load of resistance and evaluate the capacities of laboratories depending on laboratory quality assurance system for the installation work of National Tuberculosis Laboratory Surveillance Network (TuLSA) which has started in Ankara in 2011. TuLSA studies was carried out under the coordination of National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory (NRL) with the participation of TB laboratories and dispensaries. Specimens of TB patients, reported from health institutions, were followed in TB laboratories, and the epidemiological information was collected from the dispensaries. One isolate per patient with the drug susceptibility test (DST) results were sent to NRL from TB laboratories and in NRL the isolates were rechecked with the genotypical (MTBDRplus, Hain Lifescience, Germany) and phenotypical (MGIT 960, BD, USA) DST methods. Molecular epidemiological analysis were also performed by spoligotyping and MIRU/VNTR. Second-line DST was applied to the isolates resistant to rifampin. A total of 1276 patients were reported between January 1st to December 31th 2011, and 335 cases were defined as "pulmonary TB from Ankara province". The mean age of those patients was 43.4 ± 20 years, and 67.5% were male. Three hundred seventeen (94.6%) patients were identified as new cases. The average sample number obtained from pulmonary TB cases was 3.26 ± 2.88, and 229 (68.3%) of them was culture positive. DST was applied to all culture positive isolates; 90.4% (207/229) of cases were susceptible to the five drugs tested (ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, streptomycin). Eight (3.5%) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), while no extensively drug

  15. Gaston Bachelard (1999. Ateşin Tinçözümlemesi, Çev. Nail Bezer, Ankara: Öteki Yayınevi, II. Baskı, 127 s. ISBN 975-8012-30-4 Gaston Bachelard (1999. Ateşin Tinçözümlemesi, Çev. Nail Bezer, Ankara: Öteki Yayınevi, II. Baskı, 127 s. ISBN 975-8012-30-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagihan KUNDUZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaston Bachelard (1999. Ateşin Tinçözümlemesi, Çev. Nail Bezer, Ankara: Öteki Yayınevi, II. Baskı, 127 s. ISBN 975-8012-30-4 Gaston Bachelard (1999. Ateşin Tinçözümlemesi, Çev. Nail Bezer, Ankara: Öteki Yayınevi, II. Baskı, 127 s. ISBN 975-8012-30-4

  16. The Use of Alternate Ligno-cellulosic Raw Materials Banana (Musa sapientum Ankara (Calotropis procera and Pineapple (Ananas comosus in Handmade Paper & their Blending with Waste Paper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies were made to established suitability of lingo-cellulosic raw materials namely leaf fibreBanana (Musa Sapientum, bast fibre Ankara (Calotropis Procera, & leaf fibre Pineapple (Ananas Comosus for making pulps for handmade paper industry. This should help in providing a cost effective, good quality cellulosic raw material as an alternate to cost prohibitive traditionally used cotton hosiery waste traditionally used for manufacturing good quality handmade paper & it’s products. This will help in improving the cost economics & competitiveness of the Indian paper industry in the global market besides addressing the problems of environment & global warming. The aim of the research was to study the extraction, morphology, chemical composition and pulping of these fibres and relate these properties to the composite properties obtained with these fibres as reinforcement with short fibres viz. waste paper. For the pulp production to be feasible it is essential to use suitable pulping methods, which maximize the yield of pulp and introduce as low damage as possible to the fibres. The different pulping methods were applied to these fibre to get optimized strength properties papers. The Studies thus carried out provide useful information about the nature of these raw materials, suitable pulping & bleaching process to produce an eco-friendly handmade paper and converted products. The research work provides a good quality cost effective lingo-cellulosic raw material for handmade paper industries with a possibility of replacement of the expensive and traditionally used cotton hosiery waste.The paper thus produced using environmental friendly pulping and bleaching process is characterized for its strength properties like tensile, tear, bursting, folding endurance and other parameters. The effluents generated from pulping and bleaching of above ligno-cellulosic waste materials were characterized for various pollution parameters like Residual Alkali

  17. Distribution of spoligotyping defined genotypic lineages among drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates in Ankara, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Kisa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of genetic heterogeneity and spoligotype-defined lineages of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected during a three-year period in two university hospitals and National Tuberculosis Reference and Research Laboratory in Ankara, Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 95 drug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates collected from three different centers were included in this study. Susceptibility testing of the isolates to four major antituberculous drugs was performed using proportion method on Löwenstein-Jensen medium and BACTEC 460-TB system. All clinical isolates were typed by using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods. Seventy-three of the 95 (76.8% drug resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were isoniazid-resistant, 45 (47.4% were rifampicin-resistant, 32 (33.7% were streptomycin-resistant and 31 (32.6% were ethambutol-resistant. The proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR was 42.1%. By using spoligotyping, 35 distinct patterns were observed; 75 clinical isolates were grouped in 15 clusters (clustering rate of 79% and 20 isolates displayed unique patterns. Five of these 20 unique patterns corresponded to orphan patterns in the SITVIT2 database, while 4 shared types containing 8 isolates were newly created. The most prevalent M. tuberculosis lineages were: Haarlem (23/95, 24.2%, ill-defined T superfamily (22/95, 23.2%, the Turkey family (19/95, 20%; previously designated as LAM7-TUR, Beijing (6/95, 6.3%, and Latin-America & Mediterranean (LAM, 5/95 or 5.3%, followed by Manu (3/95, 3.2% and S (1/95, 1% lineages. Four of the six Beijing family isolates (66.7% were MDR. A combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping reduced the clustering rate from 79% to 11.5% among the drug resistant isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained showed that ill-defined T, Haarlem, the Turkey family (previously designated as LAM7-TUR family with high

  18. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  19. Mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological evaluation of the Plio-Quaternary paleosols and calcretes from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçükuysal Ceren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the mineralogical, micromorphological, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols and their carbonates from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey. The paleosols include calcretes of powdery to nodular forms and alternate with channel deposits. The presence of pedofeatures, such as clay cutans, floating grains, circumgranular cracks, MnO linings, secondary carbonate rims, traces of past bioturbation and remnants of root fragments are all the evidence of pedogenesis. Bw is the most common soil horizon showing subangular-angular blocky to granular or prismatic microstructures. Calcretes, on the other hand, are evaluated as semi-mature massive, nodular, tubular or powdery forms. The probable faunal and floral passages may also imply the traces of life from when these alluvial deposits were soil. The presence of early diagenetic palygorskite and dolomite together with high salinization, high calcification and low chemical index of alteration values are evidence of the formation of calcretes under arid and dry conditions. δ13C compositions of the carbonates ranging from -7.11 ‰ to -7.74 ‰ VPDB are comformable with the world pedogenic carbonates favouring the C4 vegetation; likely δ18O compositions of the carbonates are between -3.97 ‰ and -4.91 ‰ which are compatible with the paleosols formed under the influence of meteroic water in the vadose zone

  20. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing glycoprotein E2 of Chikungunya virus protects AG129 mice against lethal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra van den Doel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection is characterized by rash, acute high fever, chills, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, and severe polyarthralgia. There is evidence that arthralgia can persist for years and result in long-term discomfort. Neurologic disease with fatal outcome has been documented, although at low incidences. The CHIKV RNA genome encodes five structural proteins (C, E1, E2, E3 and 6K. The E1 spike protein drives the fusion process within the cytoplasm, while the E2 protein is believed to interact with cellular receptors and therefore most probably constitutes the target of neutralizing antibodies. We have constructed recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA expressing E3E2, 6KE1, or the entire CHIKV envelope polyprotein cassette E3E26KE1. MVA is an appropriate platform because of its demonstrated clinical safety and its suitability for expression of various heterologous proteins. After completing the immunization scheme, animals were challenged with CHIV-S27. Immunization of AG129 mice with MVAs expressing E2 or E3E26KE1 elicited neutralizing antibodies in all animals and provided 100% protection against lethal disease. In contrast, 75% of the animals immunized with 6KE1 were protected against lethal infection. In conclusion, MVA expressing the glycoprotein E2 of CHIKV represents as an immunogenic and effective candidate vaccine against CHIKV infections.

  1. Exposure of newborns to aflatoxin M1 and B1 from mothers' breast milk in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, A; Sabuncuoğlu, S Atasayar; Girgin, G; Sahin, G; Yiğit, S; Yurdakök, M; Tekinalp, G

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are important risks for human health due to their widespread presence in foods and environment. However, contamination risk of breast milk with different pollutants including AFs is high in today's life conditions. Since breast milk is a major nutrient for infants, feeding of infants with safe milk is essential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of AF M(1) and B(1) in breast milk samples collected from 75 mothers in Ankara, Turkey. AF M(1) and B(1) levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector following an extraction procedure. The limit of detection was found to be 5 ng/l. Both AFs were detected in diverse degrees in all breast milk samples: The level of AF M(1) were in the ranges of 60.90-299.99 ng/l, and AF B(1) were in the ranges of 94.50-4123.80 ng/l. These results pointed out the exposure of mothers and neonates to AF M(1) and B(1), and the necessity of further research on mycotoxin contamination both in foods and biological fluids as well as protection strategies. PMID:19850097

  2. Mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological evaluation of the Plio-Quaternary paleosols and calcretes from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükuysal, Ceren; Kapur, Selim

    2014-06-01

    We present the mineralogical, micromorphological, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols and their carbonates from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey). The paleosols include calcretes of powdery to nodular forms and alternate with channel deposits. The presence of pedofeatures, such as clay cutans, floating grains, circumgranular cracks, MnO linings, secondary carbonate rims, traces of past bioturbation and remnants of root fragments are all the evidence of pedogenesis. Bw is the most common soil horizon showing subangular-angular blocky to granular or prismatic microstructures. Calcretes, on the other hand, are evaluated as semi-mature massive, nodular, tubular or powdery forms. The probable faunal and floral passages may also imply the traces of life from when these alluvial deposits were soil. The presence of early diagenetic palygorskite and dolomite together with high salinization, high calcification and low chemical index of alteration values are evidence of the formation of calcretes under arid and dry conditions. δ13C compositions of the carbonates ranging from -7.11 ‰ to -7.74 ‰ VPDB are comformable with the world pedogenic carbonates favouring the C4 vegetation; likely δ18O compositions of the carbonates are between -3.97 ‰ and -4.91 ‰ which are compatible with the paleosols formed under the influence of meteroic water in the vadose zone

  3. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Holgado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R; or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R. The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b+/IFN-γ+ and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential.

  4. Two Layer Vector Quantization of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with spatial scaleable vector quantization ofimages by using two layers. At the base layer the small dimensionalfull search vector quantization of an image of block means is carriedout. After subtracting it from the input image at the enhancement layerthe difference of full spatial resolution is quantized by largedimensional weighted pyramid vector quantizer in transform domain.Experimental results demonstrate acceptable quality of the downscaledimage from the output of base layer at very low bit rate andpossibility of next increasing its quality by the upscaled differenceimage from the output of enhancement layer.

  5. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  6. Dendritic cell-based vaccination with lentiviral vectors encoding ubiquitinated hepatitis B core antigen enhances hepatitis B virus-specific immune responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shenglan; Zhuo, Meng; Song, Linlin; Chen, Xiaohua; Yu, Yongsheng; Tang, Zhenghao; Zang, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    The activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a predominant role in the clearance of HBV. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen-presenting cells and play an important role in the initiation of immune responses. We previously verified that lentiviral vector encoding ubiquitinated hepatitis B core antigen (LV-Ub-HBcAg) effectively transduced DCs to induce maturation, and the mature DCs efficiently induced T cell polarization to Th1 and generated HBcAg-specific CTLs ex vivo. In this study, HBV-specific immune responses of LV-Ub-HBcAg in BALB/c mice (H-2Kd) were evaluated. It was shown that direct injection of LV-Ub-HBcAg increased the production of cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ, elicited strong antibody responses, and remarkably generated a high percentage of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells with HBV-specific CTL responses in BALB/c mice. In addition, direct injection of LV-Ub-HBcAg induced potent anti-HBV immune responses, similar to those elicited by in vitro-transduced DCs. In conclusion, the DC-based therapeutic vaccine LV-Ub-HBcAg elicited specific antibody immune responses and induced robust specific CTL activity in vivo. PMID:26373843

  7. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  8. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  9. EFFECTS OF PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SPORTS-HEALTH CENTER EMPLOYEES ON SERVICE ORIENTATION IN PROVINCE OF ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was made for the purpose of researching the effects of personality traits of sports-health center personnel on service orientation in province of Ankara. As data collection tool, “Five Factor Personality Inventory” developed by Goldberg in 1990 and a version of “Customer Centricity Scale” developed by Brown et al. (2000, which was localized and tested for validity-reliability by Serçeoğlu (2013, were used. In the mentioned scale, the factor load values representing the structure validity of items constituting the service orientation change between 0,85 and 0,97. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient calculated for the reliability of the scale was calculated as 0,98 (Serçeoğlu, 2013. Data collected from 201 participants working at 19 businesses were analyzed by processing in SPSS-21 package software. The conclusion of personality traits of personnel working at sports-health centers having a significant effect on the service orientation, also personality traits sub-factors having a significant effect on service orientation was reached. When the effect of personality traits of sports-health business employees’ belonging to sub-factors of five factor personality inventory on service orientation is looked at; the sub-factors of agreeableness, responsibility and being open to new ideas are seen to have significant effect, the sub-factors of extroversion and emotional balance are seen not to have significant effect. The conclusion of significant difference between the personality traits and service orientation of the participants according to their status in the department they are employed was reached. It was identified that there were no significant difference between personality traits and service orientation according to gender, marital status and duration of working in the industry of the employees.

  10. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  11. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  12. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  13. Evolution of developments and applications of advanced thermal-hydraulics and neutronic codes. Conclusions from Annapolis Workshop and Ankara Seminar, Objectives of the Present Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear reactor safety area, during the last 30-40 years, thermal-hydraulics has been one of the key disciplines for simulation and analysis of transient and accident scenarios and also for the definition of preventive and mitigative measures in relation to these scenarios. A workshop was organised by OECD/NEA-CSNI at Annapolis (1996) where codes, physical models, numeric and new computer architecture were examined. In parallel a Specialist meeting on instrumentation in two phase flows was held in Santa Barbara beginning of 1997 in order to investigate new techniques for getting measurements of new physical parameters necessary for assessing the new physical models. Among the different applications of thermal-hydraulic codes, the use of Best Estimate methods in safety evaluation is certainly one of the major challenges for which the safety and economic issues are quite important. For these reasons OECD/NEA-CSNI organised a seminar in Ankara in 1998 entirely devoted to the use of Best Estimate methods in thermal-hydraulics analysis. This seminar allowed to get a better view of where we were in such applications and which were the remaining problems and issues. The present workshop held in Barcelona beginning of year 2000 will be a good opportunity for providing an updated review of the gained progresses and for analysing if the objectives and programs are still progressing in the right direction. In order to do such exercise, we will first recall the questions which were raised in Annapolis and the main conclusions which were drawn from these questions. The conclusions of Ankara Meeting will be reviewed in a second step. Finally we will list the objectives of this workshop in Barcelona which is held in the continuity of Annapolis Workshop and Ankara Seminar. (authors)

  14. The Age and Geodynamic Evolution of the Metamorphic sole rocks from Izmir-Ankara-Erzıncan suture zone (Northern-Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Özkan, Mutlu; Sherlock, Sarah C.; Marzoli, Andrea; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in northern Turkey is one of the major tectonic zones separating the Pontides to the North from the Anatolide-Tauride block and Kı rşehir Massif to the South. The accretionary complex of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, near Artova, is composed mainly of peridotites with varying degree serpentinization, metamorphic rocks, basalt, sandstones, pelagic and neritic limestones. The metamorphic rocks are represented by amphibolite, garnet micaschit, calc-schist and marble. The metamorphic rocks were interpreted as the metamorphic sole rocks. Because; (i) They are tectonically located beneath the serpentinized peridotites. (ii) Foliation planes of both the amphibolites and mantle tectonites are parallel to each other. (iii) The metamorphic rocks are crosscut by non-metamorphic dolerite dikes which exhibite Nb and Ta depletion relative to Th enrichment on the N-MORB normalized multi-element spider diagram. The dolerite dikes display flat REE patterns (LaN/YbN=0.85-1.24). These geochemical signatures of the dolerite dikes are indicative of subduction component during their occurrences. Geochemical observations of the amphibolites suggest E-MORB- and OIB-like signatures (LaN/SmN= 1.39-3.14) and their protoliths are represented by basalt and alkali basaltic rocks. Amphiboles from the amphibolites are represented by calcic amphiboles (magnesio-hornblende, tchermakite and tremolite) and they yielded 40Ar-39Ar ages between 157.8 ± 3.6 Ma and 139 ± 11 Ma. These cooling ages were interpreted to be the intra-oceanic subduction/thrusting time of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic domain. This study was funded by TÜBİTAK (Project no: 112Y123).

  15. Enhancing immune responses of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine by co-inoculating plasmid IL-12 or GM-CSF expressing vector in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X; Fang, X; Li, J; Kong, L; Li, B; Ding, X

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative viral agent for large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and infants, yet there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment for severe EV71 infection. The immunogenicity of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) or granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were investigated. DNA vaccine plasmids, pcDNA-VP1, pcDNA-IL-12 and pcDNA-GM-CSF were constructed and inoculated into BALB/c mice with or without pcDNA-IL-12 or pcDNA-GM-CSF by intramuscular injection. Cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed by indirect ELISA, lymphocyte proliferation assays, cytokine release assay and FACS. The VP1 DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and can induce specific humoral and cellular immunity in BALB/c mice, while IL-2 or GM-CSF plays an immunoadjuvant role and enhances specific immune responses. This study provides a frame of reference for the design of DNA vaccines against EV71. PMID:27188732

  16. Enhancing immune responses of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine by co-inoculating plasmid IL-12 or GM-CSF expressing vector in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X; Fang, X; Li, J; Kong, L; Li, B; Ding, X

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative viral agent for large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and infants, yet there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment for severe EV71 infection. The immunogenicity of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) or granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were investigated. DNA vaccine plasmids, pcDNA-VP1, pcDNA-IL-12 and pcDNA-GM-CSF were constructed and inoculated into BALB/c mice with or without pcDNA-IL-12 or pcDNA-GM-CSF by intramuscular injection. Cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed by indirect ELISA, lymphocyte proliferation assays, cytokine release assay and FACS. The VP1 DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and can induce specific humoral and cellular immunity in BALB/c mice, while IL-2 or GM-CSF plays an immunoadjuvant role and enhances specific immune responses. This study provides a frame of reference for the design of DNA vaccines against EV71.

  17. Covariantised Vector Galileons

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Matthew; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-01-01

    Vector galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an ADM approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a `beyond Horndeski' theory involving vector degrees of freedom, that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyse a Higgs mechanism for generating vector galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantisation.

  18. An investigation on wind energy potential and small scale wind turbine performance at İncek region – Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Weibull parameters for İncek region were calculated using five different methods. • Wind power density was calculated using the best representative Weibull parameters. • Energy generation of three small scale wind turbines were calculated. • Two wind turbines can supply yearly energy need of an average household in Turkey. - Abstract: Renewable energy resources increased their importance in the last decades due to environmental pollution problems. Additionally, the fact that fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas will be depleted in near future encourages researchers to make investigations on alternative energy resources. Wind energy, which is one of the most used alternative resources, has a great potential. In this study, Weibull parameters at İncek region of Ankara (the capital city of Turkey), where Atılım University campus is located, were determined for four different seasons and for twelve months in order to accomplish wind speed characterization at the region. Wind speed data at 20 m and 30 m heights were collected from a measurement station installed at Atılım University campus area. The data were taken as 1 min average values for a one year period between June 2012 and June 2013. Hourly average wind speed values for each height were derived using the collected wind data. Weibull parameters were calculated with five different methods using the derived hourly average wind speed values. According to root mean square error analyses, the best methods for which Weibull distribution fits the actual wind data were determined as power density and empirical methods. The power and energy density values for the region were also calculated for each season and each month. It was revealed that the maximum power density is encountered in March with about 98 (W/m2). Since this power density indicates that large scale wind turbine use is not a good option at the region, the performances of three different small scale wind turbines were

  19. Index Sets and Vectorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  20. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Enhanced protective immunity of the chimeric vector-based vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever in pigs by a Salmonella bacterial ghost adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shui-Li; Lei, Jian-Lin; Du, Mingliang; Wang, Yimin; Cong, Xin; Xiang, Guang-Tao; Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Shenye; Du, Enqi; Liu, Siguo; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Previously, we demonstrated that rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine against CSF, is able to protect pigs against lethal CSFV challenge. From an economical point of view, it will be beneficial to reduce the minimum effective dose of the vaccine. This study was designed to test the adjuvant effects of Salmonella enteritidis-derived bacterial ghosts (BG) to enhance the protective immunity of rAdV-SFV-E2 in pigs. Groups of 5-week-old pigs (n = 4) were immunized intramuscularly twice with 10(5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) rAdV-SFV-E2 combined with 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) BG, 10(6) or 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone or 10(10) CFU BG alone at an interval of 3 weeks, and challenged with the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain at 1 week post-booster immunization. The results show that the pigs inoculated with 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 plus BG or 10(6) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge, in contrast with the pigs vaccinated with 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 or BG alone, which displayed partial or no protection following virulent challenge. The data indicate that BG are a promising adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of rAdV-SFV-E2 and possibly other vaccines. PMID:27301745

  2. Vectorization of a Treecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Junichiro

    1990-03-01

    Vectorized algorithms for the force calculation and tree construction in the Barnes-Hut tree algorithm are described. The basic idea for the vectorization of the force calculation is to vectorize the tree traversal across particles, so that all particles in the system traverse the tree simultaneously. The tree construction algorithm also makes use of the fact that particles can be treated in parallel. Thus these algorithms take advantage of the internal parallelism in the N-body system and the tree algorithm most effectively. As a natural result, these algorithms can be used on a wide range of vector/parallel architectures, including current supercomputers and highly parallel architectures such as the Connection Machine. The vectorized code runs about five times faster than the non-vector code on a Cyber 205 for an N-body system with N = 8192.

  3. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  4. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  5. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...... and interactions with the standard model fields lead to distinct signatures at the LHC in the diboson, dilepton and associated Higgs channels....

  6. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  7. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  8. Targeting gene therapy vectors to CNS malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, M A; Herrlinger, U; Rainov, N; Pechan, P; Weissleder, R; Breakefield, X O

    1998-04-01

    Gene therapy offers significant advantages to the field of oncology with the addition of specifically and uniquely engineered mechanisms of halting malignant proliferation through cytotoxicity or reproductive arrest. To confer a true benefit to the therapeutic ratio (the relative toxicity to tumor compared to normal tissue) a vector or the transgene it carries must selectively affect or access tumor cells. Beyond the selective toxicities of many transgene products, which frequently parallel that of contemporary chemotherapeutic agents, lies the potential utility of targeting the vector. This review presents an overview of current and potential methods for designing vectors targeted to CNS malignancies through selective delivery, cell entry, transport or transcriptional regulation. The topic of delivery encompasses physical and pharmaceutic means of increasing the relative exposure of tumors to vector. Cell entry based methodologies are founded on increasing relative uptake of vector through the chemical or recombinant addition of ligand and antibody domains which selectively bind receptors expressed on target cells. Targeted transport involves the potential for using cells to selectively carry vectors or transgenes into tumors. Finally, promoter and enhancer systems are discussed which have potential for selectivity activating transcription to produce targeted transgene expression or vector propagation. PMID:9584951

  9. Construction of recombinant adenoviral vector co-expressing interleukin-7 and enhanced green fluorescent protein%IL-7和EGFP双基因共表达重组腺病毒载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁昌; 余长林; 李建军; 胡锴勋

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To construct the adenoviral vector co - expressing interleukin - 7( IL -7 ) and enhanced green fluorescent protein( EGFP),to lay a experimental foundation for further study on the infection into stem cell. Methods: The target gene IL -7 was cloned into the shuttle plasmid expressed the report gene EGFP. Then the re-combinant shuttle plasmid was transformed into Dh5a bacteria to recombine with backbone vector pAdxsi. Next,the plasmid pAd - EGFP - mIL7 was amplified in H293 cells and purifired, then the viral titer was determined. Results: The recombinanted shuttle plasmid pShuttle - EGFP - mIL7 digested with restriction endonucleases was confirmed by two products which length were respectively about 0. 5kb and 5. 1kb; the recombinanted plasmid pAdxsi - EGFP -mIL7 digested with restriction endonucleases was confirmed by seven products which length were respectively about 14K,11.8K,3. Lkb,2.66kb,2.47K,1.45K and 0.6K; recombinant adenoviral amplifired with titer of 2×l010pfu/ ml. Conclusion: The recombinant adenoviral vector pAdxsi - EGFP - mIL7 was successfully constructed.%目的:构建白细胞介素7(IL-7)和增强型绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)共表达的重组腺病毒载体,为进一步感染干细胞奠定基础.方法:将目的基因IL-7克隆到含有报告基因EGFP的穿梭质粒中,然后再将构建的重组穿梭质粒转移至pAdxsi载体中,构建重组腺病毒载体质粒,继而在H293细胞中扩增,纯化后测定病毒滴度.结果:pShuttle-EGFP-mIL7重组穿梭质粒经酶切鉴定得到0.5kb和5.1kb 2条带;pAdxsi-EGFP-mIL7重组腺病毒载体质粒经酶切鉴定得到14K、11.8K、3.1kb、2.66kb、2.47K、1.45K、0.6K 7条带;TCID50法测定纯化后的病毒滴度为2×1010pfu/ml.结论:pAdxsi-EGFP-mIL7重组腺病毒载体构建成功.

  10. Cosmology with vector distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of Weyl geometry with the most general connection linearly determined by a vector field. We discuss some of the geometrical properties within this framework and then we construct gravitational theories leading to an interesting class of vector-tensor theories with cosmological applications.

  11. Switched Multistage Vector Quantizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Satya Sai Ram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a new hybrid vector quantizer called Switched Multi stage vector quantization (SWMSVQ technique using hard and soft decision schemes, for coding of narrow band speech signals. This technique is a hybrid of Switch vector quantization technique and Multi stage vector quantization technique. SWMSVQ quantizes the linear predictive coefficients (LPC in terms of the line spectral frequencies (LSF. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements of SWMSVQ using hard and soft decision schemes are compared with Split vector quantization (SVQ technique, Multi stage vector quantization (MSVQ technique, Switched Split vector quantization (SSVQ technique using hard decision scheme, and Multi Switched Split Vector quantization (MSSVQ technique using hard decision scheme. From results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is having less spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision scheme, but high when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision scheme. So from results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is better when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision schemes in terms of spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements but is having greater spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision.

  12. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  13. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  14. Line Integral of a Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  15. Ankara’daki Halk Kütüphanelerinde Halkla İlişkiler =Public Relations of Public Libraries in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadeniz, Şenol

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Ankara'daki halk kütüphanelerinin, kullanıcılarını sunulan hizmetler hakkında neden yeterince bilgilendiremedikleri ve kendilerini kullanıcılarına neden yeterince tanıtamadıkları konusu irdelenmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı, halk kütüphanelerinde uygulanabilecek halkla ilişkiler yöntemlerinin neler olduğunu, halk kütüphanelerinin planlı halkla ilişkiler faaliyetlerinde bulunmamalarının nedenlerini ve bu nedenlerin boyutunu, özelliklerini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın evrenini Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi sınırları içinde hizmet veren Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı'na bağlı halk ve çocuk kütüphaneleri oluşturmaktadır. Önceden yapılandırılmış görüşme kapsamında halk kütüphanesi yöneticileriyle görüşülmüş, ayrıca araştırma kapsamındaki kütüphanelerde gözlem tekniği uygulanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular ışığında, halk kütüphanelerinin sistematik halkla ilişkiler programları uygulamamaları nedeniyle, kütüphaneyi tanıtmada ve sunulan hizmetlere ilişkin kullanıcılarda olumlu görüş oluşturmada yetersiz kaldıkları anlaşılmıştır In this study the answers to the question "why the public libraries in Ankara could not inform their users about services off ered properly, and could not introduce themselves to users suffi ciently ?" were explicated. The goal of the study is to fi nd out which public relations methods can be used in libraries, and why libraries could not conduct planned public relations activities. The research universe consists of public libraries being administratively connected to Ministry of Culture and Tourism, which lie within the borders of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. For the collection of data, pre-confi gured talks were applied to the managers who were working for the public libraries, and moreover the fulfi llment of library activities were observed. The fi ndings of the study indicate that, since

  16. The Impac t of Managers’ Leadership Behaviors on Job Satisfaction of Employees: A Practice Used In The Lodging Facilities In Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıçlar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research, the impact of the managers' leadership behaviours on the employees' job satisfaction. For that purpose, it has been reachedall of the 14, 5 stars accommodation enterprices located in Ankara. From the employeesin these enterprices, datas are collected with the questionnaire formand in total 386 questionnaires are taken into consideration. The forms have 3 chapters. In the first chapter demographic datas are found, in the second chapter, the expressions to measure the managers' leadership behaviours are found, and in the thirdone, the expressions to measure the job satisfaction level of theemployeesare found. All these expressions are filled by the employees. Correlation analysis t-test and ANOVA was performed by using the data obtained from the questionnaire. A sall the datas are analysed, it is found that, there is a positiveway of meaningful relationship between the managers' leadership behavior and the employees' job satisfaction level.

  17. Comparison of Corporate Image a nd Patient Loyalty Perceptions of Outpatients and Inpatients: Example of a Training and Research Hospital in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Rıfkı Önder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of corporate image and patient loyalty of outpatients and inpatients who get services from a hospital and to evaluate the relationship between corporate images’ factors and patient loyalty. Totally 600 patients from a training and research hospitals in Ankara, formed the study sample. As a result, outpatients’ loyalty and image perceptions found medium level; while inpatients’ level found high. In addition, the effect of corporate image factors on patient loyalty was determined that there is a statistically significant , strong and positive correlation and 83% of patient loyalty is explained by corporate image factors. Based on the research findings, making improvements especially in quality and also physical, communication, social responsibility factors can obtain loyal patients. It is suggested to adopt different strategies to outpatients and inpatients while implementing these improvements.

  18. Residents’ Awareness of Urban and Social Living Quality: The Example of Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood in Çayyolu/Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tanju Gültekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, the dynamics of globalization have directed the processes of social, cultural, and political adjustment as well as those of economic integration and especially capital towards urban development, forming urban space. The wave of globalization in Turkey, within a process of economic change in the context of neo liberal policies, urban space has been turned into the most profitable area of investment in the unearned income (economic rent sector. The residential sector has been included in this process quickly and easily through effective and widespread marketing strategies. Over the last two decades of this development, the Ankara-Çayyolu District has become segregated economically and socially between its upper and upper-middle class residents in the urban context. This segregation is evident in residential areas with high-level physical and spatial quality. On the other hand, in addition to the measurable physical and spatial standards of housing quality, it is also important to find out if the quality of living meets the social and cultural expectations of its residents. Starting from this point of view, we examine residents’ perceptions of their physical and social environment in our chosen sample area in the Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood, and their demands and awareness of housing quality. The story of this neighborhood, which begins in 1980, at a time when neo liberal policies and the power to form urban space was all-important, is defined here by the residents’ quality of living and awareness of it. Our results obtained are expected to help guide the creation of liveable housing areas in the future.Keywords: Housing Users, Urban Living Quality, Social Living, Awareness, Ankara- Çayyolu-Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood.

  19. ON VECTOR NETWORK EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangya CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a concept of weak equilibrium for vector network equilibrium problems.We obtain sufficient conditions of weak equilibrium points and establish relation with vector network equilibrium problems and vector variational inequalities.

  20. The Vector Space as a Unifying Concept in School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, Timothy Andrew

    The purpose of this study was to show how the concept of vector space can serve as a unifying thread for mathematics programs--elementary school to pre-calculus college level mathematics. Indicated are a number of opportunities to demonstrate how emphasis upon the vector space structure can enhance the organization of the mathematics curriculum.…

  1. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs...

  2. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution...

  3. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  4. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  5. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Degbomont; Julien Brusten; Bernard Boigelot

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the ...

  6. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  7. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  8. Vector financial rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhenya, E-mail: zyyan@mmrc.iss.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Institute of Systems Science, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-11-21

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  9. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  10. The Vector Curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Andres A

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \\zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \\zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of th...

  11. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  12. Ankara Kedilerinde (Felis catus angorensis) dış yapı, tüy, büyüme, gelişme ve üreme özellikleri üzerine araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇETİN, Sebahattin Tarkan

    2007-01-01

    Ankara Atatürk Orman Çiftliği (A.O.Ç.) Hayvanat Bahçesinde yetiştirilen 5 erkek, 28 dişi ve bu kedilerden doğan 70  yavru  ile  Ankara’nın  çeşitli  semtlerinde  bakılan  11  erkek, 10 dişi, 4 kastre erkek ve 9 steril dişi olmak üzere toplam 137 Ankara Kedisinin kullanıldığı   çalışmada  Ankara Kedisinin dış yapı, tüy, büyüme, gelişme ve üreme özellikleri incelenmiştir. Ankara A.O.Ç. Ha...

  13. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  14. Vector WIMP Miracle

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the higgs mass is often predicted to be 120--125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

  15. Vector financial rogue waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  16. Vector WIMP miracle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

  17. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  18. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine)(PLA-PEG-PLL) as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhang; Chunhua Fu; Xiaoli Sun; Donghua Liu; Zaijun Lu; Zhijing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) (PLA-PEG-PLL) copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z)-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis ...

  19. Genetic Modification of Baculovirus Expression Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-fen Li; Hua-lin Wang; Zhi-hong Hu; Fei Deng

    2012-01-01

    As a protein expression vector,the baculovirus demonstrates many advantages over other vectors.With the development of biotechnology,baculoviral vectors have been genetically modified to facilitate high level expression of heterologous proteins in both insect and mammalian cells.These modifications include utilization of different promoters and signal peptides,deletion or replacement of viral genes for increasing protein secretion,integration of polycistronic expression cassette for producing protein complexes,and baculovirus pseudotyping,promoter accommodation or surface display for enhancing mammalian cell targeting gene delivery.This review summarizes the development and the current state of art of the baculovirus expression system.Further development of baculovirus expression systems will make them even more feasible and accessible for advanced applications.

  20. Ankara Çubuk yöresi turşularından izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin bazı teknolojik ve fonksiyonel özelliklerinin belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLANKOZ, Nurdan

    2011-01-01

          Bu çalışmada, Ankara Çubuk bölgesi turşularından izole edilerek tanımlanması yapılmış ve Ankara Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Gıda Mühendisliği Bölümü Kültür Koleksiyonu'nda bulunan 36 adet laktik asit bakterisinin bazı teknolojik ve fonksiyonel özellikleri belirlenmiştir.

    36 adet laktik asit bakterisi suşunun farklı pH ve tuz değerlerinde gelişmesi, laktik asit, H2O2

  1. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  2. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...

  3. Scalar-Vector Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  4. Analysis in Vector Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Akcoglu, Mustafa A; Ha, Dzung Minh

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous introduction to calculus in vector spaces The concepts and theorems of advanced calculus combined with related computational methods are essential to understanding nearly all areas of quantitative science. Analysis in Vector Spaces presents the central results of this classic subject through rigorous arguments, discussions, and examples. The book aims to cultivate not only knowledge of the major theoretical results, but also the geometric intuition needed for both mathematical problem-solving and modeling in the formal sciences. The authors begin with an outline of key concepts, ter

  5. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  6. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  7. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  8. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  9. Vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  10. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  11. Analysis of travel motivations of tourists in terms of their demographical characteristics: The case of AnkaraYabancı turistlerin seyahat motivasyonlarının demografik özellikleri açısından analizi: Ankara örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Yazıcıoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fact that tourists have different desires and expectations and those’ve always changed as well, the studies that focus on understanding the components motivate tourists to buy, have been important more and more. This study aims to reveal travel motivation of foreign tourists who visited Ankara city and to determine if tourists’ motivations vary according to demographical characteristics (gender, marial status, income, education, employment, age, nationality. As an implementation area for this study; Ankara is chosen and 390 foreign tourists visiting Ankara are applied. As data collection instrument, survey forms are used within the scope of this study and in analysis of collected data, t test and Anova are used.  As a result of the analyses done; it is determined that their common motivations show a significant difference according to their gender and nationality, but doesn’t show a significant difference according to their marial status, income, education, employment, age. When it is analyzed in terms of dimensions;  it is determined that the motivations of “knowledge” and “relaxation” show a significant difference according to their gender and nationality;  the motivation of “entertainment” shows a significant difference according to their gender, marial status, income, employment, and finally the motivation of “prestige” shows only a significant difference according to their nationality.   Özet Turistlerin farklı istek ve beklentilere sahip olmaları ve bu isteklerin sürekli değişmesi nedeniyle turistleri satın almaya motive eden unsurları anlamaya yönelik çalışmalar önem kazanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, yabancı turistlerin seyahat motivasyonlarının belirlenmesi ve seyahat motivasyonlarının demografik özelliklere (cinsiyet, medeni durum, gelir, eğitim, çalışma durumu, yaş ve milliyet göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğinin ortaya konmasıdır. Bu amaç do

  12. ANKARA İLİ BİRİNCİ LİG TAKIMLARINDA OYNAYAN BAYAN VOLEYBOLCULARIN BAZI FİZİKSEL VE FİZYOLOJİK PARAMETRELERİNİN İNCELENMESİ / A STUDY ON CERTAIN PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS IN ANKARA VOLLEYBALL FIRST LEAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Önder, H. Uğut; ELER, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye Vokybol (I. Lıg) Ankara takımlannda voleyboloynayan toplam 56bayan sporculann bazı fiziksel ve fizyolojik profi ıı erini belirlemek, literaliir çerçevesinde durumtespıtlerinin yapılmasıdır.Deneklerden alınan ölçümler sonucunda şu değerlere ulaşllmıştır.Yaşlar sporcularda 24.21 ± 4.83 yıl,"ücut ağırlığı 68 ± 7.74 kg, dikey sıçrama değeri 47.52 ± 3.89 cm, yatay sıçrama değeri 217.33 &...

  13. Enhanced nigrostriatal neuron-specific, long-term expression by using neural-specific promoters in combination with targeted gene transfer by modified helper virus-free HSV-1 vector particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Lingxin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct gene transfer into neurons has potential for developing gene therapy treatments for specific neurological conditions, and for elucidating neuronal physiology. Due to the complex cellular composition of specific brain areas, neuronal type-specific recombinant gene expression is required for many potential applications of neuronal gene transfer. One approach is to target gene transfer to a specific type of neuron. We developed modified Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 particles that contain chimeric glycoprotein C (gC – glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF proteins. HSV-1 vector particles containing either gC – GDNF or gC – BDNF target gene transfer to nigrostriatal neurons, which contain specific receptors for GDNF or BDNF. A second approach to achieve neuronal type-specific expression is to use a cell type-specific promoter, and we have used the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH promoter to restrict expression to catecholaminergic neurons or a modified neurofilament heavy gene promoter to restrict expression to neurons, and both of these promoters support long-term expression from HSV-1 vectors. To both improve nigrostriatal-neuron specific expression, and to establish that targeted gene transfer can be followed by long-term expression, we performed targeted gene transfer with vectors that support long-term, neuronal-specific expression. Results Helper virus-free HSV-1 vector packaging was performed using either gC – GDNF or gC – BDNF and vectors that contain either the TH promoter or the modified neurofilament heavy gene promoter. Vector stocks were injected into the midbrain proximal to the substantia nigra, and the rats were sacrificed at either 4 days or 1 month after gene transfer. Immunofluorescent costaining was performed to detect both recombinant gene products and nigrostriatal neurons. The combination of targeted gene transfer with neuronal

  14. FAMILY-WORK CONFLICT AND LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG WORKERS OF ANKARA YOUTH SERVICES AND PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE OF SPORTS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Önder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Life Satisfaction were carried out to indicate 329 staff’s relationship between each other, who work in Ankara Youth Services and Sports Province Management, by determining whether work-family conflict, family-work conflict and life satisfaction differientiate or not according to socio-demographic variables. According to obtained results, it was concluded that gender, age, having management position, number of children and duration of experience in job were not significant on family-work conflict, work-family conflict and life satisfaction. On the other hand married staff compared to single ones and staff whose spouse works, experienced the work- family conflict more. Moreover, it was deduced that education level and income level were significant on life satisfaction. Furthermore, a positive way medium level relationship between family- work conflict and work- family conflict was found out supporting the obtained data that staff who has high level of family- work conflict will have relationship between life satisfaction and between family- work conflict / work- family conflict was statistically meaningless.

  15. Comparing adjuvanted H28 and modified vaccinia virus ankara expressingH28 in a mouse and a non-human primate tuberculosis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Aagaard, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    Here we report for the first time on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a vaccine strategy involving the adjuvanted fusion protein "H28" (consisting of Ag85B-TB10.4-Rv2660c) and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara expressing H28. We show that a heterologous prime-boost regimen involving...... priming with H28 in a Th1 adjuvant followed by boosting with H28 expressed by MVA (H28/MVA28) induced the highest percentage of IFN-γ expressing T cells, the highest production of IFN-γ per single cell and the highest induction of CD8 T cells compared to either of the vaccines given alone. In contrast......, in mice vaccinated with adjuvanted recombinant H28 alone (H28/H28) we observed the highest production of IL-2 per single cell and the highest frequency of antigen specific TNF-α/IL-2 expressing CD4 T cells pre and post infection. Interestingly, TNF-α/IL-2 expressing central memory-like CD4 T cells showed...

  16. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.T.W.; Smit, de A.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from

  17. VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟

    1991-01-01

    Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.

  18. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  19. On Generalized Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-hua Wan; Jun-yi Fu; Wei-hua Mao

    2006-01-01

    A new generalized vector equilibrium problem involving set-valued mappings and the proper quasi-concavity of set-valued mappings in topological vector spaces are introduced; its existence theorems and the convexity of the solution sets are established.

  20. Bloch vectors for qudits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A; Krammer, Philipp [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: reinhold.bertlmann@univie.ac.at, E-mail: philipp.krammer@univie.ac.at

    2008-06-13

    We present three different matrix bases that can be used to decompose density matrices of d-dimensional quantum systems, so-called qudits: the generalized Gell-Mann matrix basis, the polarization operator basis and the Weyl operator basis. Such a decomposition can be identified with a vector-the Bloch vector, i.e. a generalization of the well-known qubit case-and is a convenient expression for comparison with measurable quantities and for explicit calculations avoiding the handling of large matrices. We present a new method to decompose density matrices via so-called standard matrices, consider the important case of an isotropic two-qudit state and decompose it according to each basis. In the case of qutrits we show a representation of an entanglement witness in terms of expectation values of spin-1 measurements, which is appropriate for an experimental realization.

  1. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gy Wolf

    2006-04-01

    One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of QMD-type evolving nucleons, * and resonances, ’s and $\\sum$ baryons, and furthermore, ’s, ’s ’s ’s ’s and kaons with their isospin degrees of freedom. The input cross-sections and resonance parameters of the model are fitted to the available nucleon–nucleon and pion–nucleon cross-sections.

  2. Engineering influenza viral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junwei; Arévalo, Maria T; Zeng, Mingtao

    2013-01-01

    The influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen with a negative-sense, segmented RNA genome. Construction of recombinant influenza viruses in the laboratory was reported starting in the 1980s. Within a short period of time, pioneer researchers had devised methods that made it possible to construct influenza viral vectors from cDNA plasmid systems. Herein, we discuss the evolution of influenza virus reverse genetics, from helper virus-dependent systems, to helper virus-independent 17-plasmid sys...

  3. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  4. Japanese Encephalitis Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Yoshito

    1995-01-01

    On the ecological basis of vector mosquitoes of Japanese encephalitis, measures of their control were examined from viewpoint of their practicability. It was concluded that chemical control is not of practical value, biological control is of limited effectiveness, and environmental control by source reduction is impossible. Instead, it was recommended to improve human living style so as to reduce the frequency of man/mosquito contact.

  5. Interpolation of Vector Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo del CAMPO; Antonio FERN(A)NDEZ; Fernando MAYORAL; Francisco NARANJO; Enrique A. S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ

    2011-01-01

    Let (Ω, ∑) be a measurable space and m0: ∑→ X0 and m1: ∑ -→ X1 be positive vector measures with values in the Banach K(o)the function spaces X0 and X1. If 0 < α < 1, we define a X10-αXα1 and we analyze the space of integrable functions with respect to measure [m0, m1]α in order to prove suitable extensions of the classical Stein-Weiss formulas that hold for the complex interpolation of Lp-spaces.Since each p-convex order continuous K(o)the function space with weak order unit can be represented as a space of p-integrable functions with respect to a vector measure, we provide in this way a technique to obtain representations of the corresponding complex interpolation spaces. As applications, we provide a Riesz-Thorin theorem for spaces of p-integrable functions with respect to vector measures and a formula for representing the interpolation of the injective tensor product of such spaces.

  6. Scalar - vector soliton fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhichao; Li, Lei; Luo, Yiyang; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming

    2016-01-01

    Rapid progress in passively mode-locked fiber lasers is currently driven by the recent discovery of vector feature of mode-locking pulses, namely, the group velocity-locked vector solitons, the phase locked vector solitons, and the high-order vector solitons. Those vector solitons are fundamentally different from the previously known scalar solitons. Here, we report a fiber laser where the mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is novel and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the working regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the conditions of very small birefringence.

  7. A versatile vector set for animal transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, C; Wimmer, E A

    2000-12-01

    Genetic manipulation of a series of diverged arthropods is a highly desirable goal for a better understanding of developmental and evolutionary processes. A major obstacle so far has been the difficulty in obtaining marker genes that allow easy and reliable identification of transgenic animals. Here, we present a versatile vector set for germline transformation based on the promiscuous transposons mariner, Hermes and piggyBac. Into these vectors, we introduced a potentially universal marker system that is comprised of an artificial promoter containing three Pax-6 homodimer binding sites. This promoter drives strong expression of spectral variants of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in larval, pupal, and adult photoreceptors. Using special filter sets, the yellow (EYFP) and cyan (ECFP) variant are fully distinguishable and therefore represent a separable pair of markers. Furthermore, we adapted a simple plasmid-based transposition assay system to enable quick functional tests of our vectors in different arthropod species before employing them in more laborious germline transformation experiments. Using this system we demonstrate that our vectors transpose in both Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis.

  8. Optimal Sum-Rate of the Vector Gaussian CEO Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ekrem, Ersen

    2012-01-01

    We study the vector Gaussian CEO problem, and obtain the optimal sum-rate that attains any given distortion. We show that the evaluation of the Berger-Tung inner bound with jointly Gaussian auxiliary random variables is optimal. We prove this optimality result by using channel enhancement in conjunction with a recent outer bound for the rate-distortion region of the vector Gaussian CEO problem.

  9. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lysine(PLA-PEG-PLL as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lysine (PLA-PEG-PLL copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ε-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%. These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo.

  10. Warped Graviton Couplings to Bulk Vectors with Brane Kinetic Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Wu, Lei; Yue, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We consider non-universal couplings between Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons and bulk Standard Model (SM) vectors in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model due to the inclusion of both UV and IR brane-localised gauge kinetic terms. We find that such kinetic terms can enhance the couplings of KK gravitons to SM gauge bosons and help ensure the KK vector masses are consistent with electroweak precision constraints. As an application, we consider the 750 GeV diphoton excess observed in the early LHC Run 2 data, identifying the lightest KK graviton with the diphoton resonance and employing brane kinetic terms to increase the coupling to SM vectors.

  11. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  12. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA-vectored

  13. Relativistic Rotating Vector Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.

  14. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Nisancı

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  15. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  16. An evaluation of the attributes of a political product (political leader by young voters: A research on the students at the universities in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In democratic countries, the way of a political party to get in depends on convincing adequate number of voters to politically buy its political product package presented in political market during the election campaign. Political leader is assumed to be one of the most important –even the most important- components of the political product package almost in all over the world. Thence, political leader has a considerable significance in the entire political package of a party and the characteristics of him/her are the primary determinant of the quality of it.Especially in the markets as in Turkey that votes mostly tend to cluster considering the characteristics of the political leader, the mentioned characteristics play an important role in voting decision process. Though the proportion of university students to total number of voters in Turkish political market is not so much, the market is mostly composed of young voters. Nonetheless, as university students compose of the highest-educated proportion of total voters, they relatively have great potential as a pressure group in respect of affecting political decisions and being an opinion of policy. In consequence, it may be assumed that this group has a specific political weight. To be aware of the characteristics that university students seek in a political leader is a topic of interest in both political practices and political marketing theory. This study presents the results of a survey conducted on a sample of 500 students educating in different universities in Ankara. The survey aims to find out the desired characteristics of a political leader in the eyes of university students and to rank them in a known set according to their importance levels. The findings of the study seem to be interesting in scope of both political parties and field of political marketing.

  17. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Cevdet C.; Nişancı, Recep

    2008-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP) technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  18. Extended vector-tensor theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Rampei; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  19. Semitopological Vector Spaces and Hyperseminorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study semitopological vector spaces. The goal is to provide an efficient base for developing the theory of extrafunction spaces in an abstract setting of algebraic systems and topological spaces. Semitopological vector spaces are more general than conventional topological vector spaces, which proved to be very useful for solving many problems in functional analysis. To study semitopological vector spaces, hypermetrics and hyperpseudometrics are introduced and it is demonstrated that hyperseminorms, studied in previous works of the author, induce hyperpseudometrics, while hypernorms induce hypermetrics. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a hyperpseudometric (hypermetric to be induced by a hyperseminorm (hypernorm are found. We also show that semitopological vector spaces are closely related to systems of hyperseminorms. Then defining boundedness and continuity relative to associated systems of hyperseminorms, we study relations between relative boundedness and relative continuity for mappings of vector spaces with systems of hyperseminorms and systems of hypernorms.

  20. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  1. Multiscale hierarchical support vector clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael Saas; Holm, David Alberg; Sjöstrand, Karl; Ley, Carsten Dan; Rowland, Ian John; Larsen, Rasmus

    2008-03-01

    Clustering is the preferred choice of method in many applications, and support vector clustering (SVC) has proven efficient for clustering noisy and high-dimensional data sets. A method for multiscale support vector clustering is demonstrated, using the recently emerged method for fast calculation of the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description. The method is illustrated on artificially generated examples, and applied for detecting blood vessels from high resolution time series of magnetic resonance imaging data. The obtained results are robust while the need for parameter estimation is reduced, compared to support vector clustering.

  2. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  3. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...... estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity, when determining the transverse velocity by using fourth order moments rather than second order moments. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging...... of RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce spatial velocity dispersion....

  4. Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0->phi K*0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Z J; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Serrano, J; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, Y K; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Vazquez, A; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, A P; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B0->phi K^*_2(1430)0, phi K^*(892)0, and phi(K pi)^0_S-wave with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f_L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 +0.061-0.069 +-0.036 and 0.506 +-0.040 +-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.

  5. The influence of virus-induced changes in plants on aphid vectors: insights from luteovirus pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2011-08-01

    Plant virus infection can alter the suitability of host plants for their aphid vectors. Most reports indicate that virus-infected plants are superior hosts for vectors compared to virus-free plants with respect to vector growth rates, fecundity and longevity. Some aphid vectors respond preferentially to virus-infected plants compared to virus-free ones, while others avoid infected plants that are inferior hosts. Thus, it appears vectors can exploit changes in host plant quality associated with viral infection. Enhanced vector performance and preference for virus-infected plants might also be advantageous for viruses by promoting their spread and possibly enhancing their fitness. Our research has focused on two of the most important luteoviruses that infect wheat (Barley yellow dwarf virus), or potato (Potato leafroll virus), and their respective aphid vectors, the bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The work has demonstrated that virus infection of host plants enhances the life history of vectors. Additionally, it has shown that virus infection alters the concentration and relative composition of volatile organic compounds in host plants, that apterae of each vector species settle preferentially on virus-infected plants, and that such responses are mediated by volatile organic compounds. The findings also indicate that plants respond heterogeneously to viral infection and as a result different plant parts change in attractiveness to vectors during infection and vector responses to virus-infected plants are dynamic. Such dynamic responses could enhance or reduce the probability of virus acquisition by individual aphids searching among plants. Finally, our work indicates that compared to non-viruliferous aphids, viruliferous ones are less or not responsive to virus-induced host plant volatiles. Changes in vector responsiveness to plants after vectors acquire virus could impact virus epidemiology by influencing virus

  6. Enhanced thymidine kinase gene vector and its killing effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo%增强型胸苷激酶基因表达载体的构建及其杀伤鼻咽癌细胞的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申聪香; 文忠; 钱宇虹; 关小芳; 牟少凤

    2010-01-01

    .01).⑤体内实验结果显示,增强型靶向表达载体对裸鼠鼻咽癌移植瘤生长具有明显抑制作用,抑瘤率达56.3%,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),而裸鼠肝肾病理检查未发现明显损害.结论 以hTERT/CMV双调控机制介导TK基因的增强型表达载体能够高效、靶向杀伤鼻咽癌细胞及移植瘤,实验动物体内应用无明显毒副作用.%Objective To construct a modified and enhanced thymidine kinase (TK) vector regulated by human telemerase catalytic subunit promoter (hTERT) promoter and cytomegaiovirus (CMV) enhancer and its killing effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo and its safety in vivo. Methods The pGL3-basic,as basic vector template,was linked and constructed into TK vector regulated by hTKRT promoter and CMV enhancer with mono-promoter vector as control. Enhanced TK expression was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and real time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Telomerase activity was measured by stretch PCR. Tumour killing effects were examined by MTT and Boyden areole. The effects of enhanced TK on the invasiveness of tumor cell NPC 5-8F and the growth of xenograft implanted in nude mice were investigated. Results Compared with non-enhanced vector, TK expressed by the enhanced vector significantly increased in NPC 5-8F and MCF-7 cells,telomerase activity was positive in human in NPC 5-8F cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells and negative in control human blood vessel endothelium ECV-304 cells. After ganciclovir (GCV) treatment, NPC 5-8F cell survival rate and invasiveness decreased and tumor progress of NPC xenograft implanted in nude mice was inhibited, without obvious toxicity effects on mouse liver and kidney. Conclusions The enhanced TK vector regulated by hTERT promoter and CMV enhancer can obviously and specifically inhibit and kill nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in culture and nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft in nude mice in vivo, without obviously toxic side

  7. Political And Economic Approach Of Women Working In Executive Levels In The Service Sector: Ankara State Opera And Ballet (Asob Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkben Akansel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Political economy is related to how capitalist system works by means of distribution of economical and cultural sources which has also a connection between the circumstances of women’s working life. Because hegemony, which is reflected to hegemony’s ideology, constitutes its force by the mediation of the concepts: ‘discrimination’ and ‘segregation’. This force sometimes can effect women as both earning much less in some labor-force market, facing to harassment etc. and being obstructed to get top-level managerial positions in which institutes their work by means of political economy point of view.In this study, we will examine the art sector which is one of the sub-branches of service sector in the labor-force market. Our case is Ankara State Opera and Ballet (ASOB. In this case, we aim to display how the institution is founded, and accepted as a part of modernization with the beginning of Republic of Turkey and changed especially by means of political approaches in the last years.While doing this, we will elaborate the concepts of ‘discrimination’ and ‘segregation’ which issues women face in the labor-force market. Then, we will relate these three concepts with Antonio Gramsci’s ‘hegemony’ and Louis Althusser’s ‘ideology’, Michel Foucault’s ‘power’  and we will examine how women are assigned to the executive positions in the case of institution which we have chosen.We will study the circumstances which may be narrowed as; whether women are permitted to work in the top-level management or not, how many women have been worked in the top-level management in the history of the institution, if quantity has a meaning or not etc., by means of political economy.By the mediation of aforementioned subjects, we will analyse the reasons of women being prevented to work in the top-level management in the working life by economical, political and social aspects. Consequently, we will elaborate how political economy, in

  8. Testing identifiablility of cointegrating vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Boswijk

    1996-01-01

    This article analyzes the identification and normalization of cointegrating vectors. Normalizing a cointegrating relation with respect to one of the relevant variables is with loss of generality; and restrictions that are supposed to identify a vector may fail to do so for particular parameter value

  9. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  10. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  11. Adjuvants and vector systems for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Lombardi, Vincent; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Tourdot, Sophie; Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a curative treatment of type I allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is conducted with allergens adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate particles, whereas sublingual immunotherapy relies on high doses of soluble allergen without any immunopotentiator. There is a potential benefit of adjuvants enhancing regulatory and Th1 CD4+T cell responses during specific immunotherapy. Molecules affecting dendritic cells favor the induction of T regulatory cell and Th1 responses and represent valid candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Furthermore, the interest in viruslike particles and mucoadhesive particulate vector systems, which may better address the allergen(s) to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is documented.

  12. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  13. Octonionic Reformulation of Vector Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Bhupendra C S; Negi, O P S

    2010-01-01

    According to celebrated Hurwitz theorem, there exists four division algebras consisting of R (real numbers), C (complex numbers), H (quaternions) and O (octonions). Keeping in view the utility of octonion variable we have tried to extend the three dimensional vector analysis to seven dimensional one. Starting with the scalar and vector product in seven dimensions, we have redefined the gradient, divergence and curl in seven dimension. It is shown that the identity n(n-1)(n-3)(n-7)=0 is satisfied only for 0, 1, 3 and 7 dimensional vectors. We have tried to write all the vector inequalities and formulas in terms of seven dimensions and it is shown that same formulas loose their meaning in seven dimensions due to non-associativity of octonions. The vector formulas are retained only if we put certain restrictions on octonions and split octonions.

  14. Ankara Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Programına Katılan Öğrencilerin Akademik Başarılarını Yordayan Faktörler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Şenel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the factors predicting academic achievement of Ankara University Distance Education students. The study group of the research consists of 302 first grade students from Ankara University Distance Education Center (ANKUZEM 2010-2011 associate degree programs. Data were formed in four groups respectively “individual characteristics”, “characteristics related with family and working environment”, “characteristics related with usage of information and communication technologies” and “characteristics related with education”. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. According to the results, individual characteristics as “age”, “working in a full time job” and “being divorced” were found as predictors of students’ academic achievement. Additionally, characteristics related with family and working place as “number of family members living with”, “mothers’ full time working” and “mothers’ graduation type” were other variables predicting academic achievement of students. The characteristics related with education; graduation from “college” and “vocational high school”, “studying with different methods“, “choosing distance education as a university degree”, “studying for getting a degree” are also predictors of academic achievement of students. The characteristics of students related with usage of information and communication technologies were not predictors of academic achievement of students.

  15. Predators indirectly reduce the prevalence of an insect-vectored plant pathogen independent of predator diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth Y; Finke, Deborah L

    2015-04-01

    A widely cited benefit of predator diversity is greater suppression of insect herbivores, with corresponding increases in plant biomass. In the context of a vector-borne pathogen system, predator species richness may also influence plant disease risk via the direct effects of predators on the abundance and behavior of herbivores that also act as pathogen vectors. Using an assemblage of generalist insect predators, we examined the relationship between predator species richness and the prevalence of the aphid-vectored cereal yellow dwarf virus in wheat. We found that increasing predator richness enhanced suppression of the vector population and that pathogen prevalence was reduced when predators were present, but the reduction in prevalence was independent of predator species richness. To determine the mechanism(s) by which predator species richness contributes to vector suppression, but not pathogen prevalence, we evaluated vector movement and host plant occupancy in response to predator treatments. We found that pathogen prevalence was unrelated to vector suppression because host plant occupancy by vectors did not vary as a function of vector abundance. However, the presence of predators reduced pathogen prevalence because predators stimulated greater plant-to-plant movement by vectors, which likely diminished vector feeding time and reduced the transmission efficiency of this persistent pathogen. We conclude that community structure (i.e., the presence of predators), but not predator diversity, is a potential factor influencing local plant infection by this insect-vectored pathogen. PMID:25561170

  16. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  17. A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2015-12-10

    Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations.

  18. A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2015-12-10

    Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. PMID:26478199

  19. Vaccinia Virus LC16m8∆ as a Vaccine Vector for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Kidokoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LC16m8 strain of vaccinia virus, the active ingredient in the Japanese smallpox vaccine, was derived from the Lister/Elstree strain. LC16m8 is replication-competent and has been administered to over 100,000 infants and 3,000 adults with no serious adverse reactions. Despite this outstanding safety profile, the occurrence of spontaneously-generated large plaque-forming virulent LC16m8 revertants following passage in cell culture is a major drawback. We identified the gene responsible for the reversion and deleted the gene (B5R from LC16m8 to derive LC16m8Δ. LC16m8∆ is non-pathogenic in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice, genetically-stable and does not reverse to a large-plaque phenotype upon passage in cell culture, even under conditions in which most LC16m8 populations are replaced by revertants. Moreover, LC16m8∆ is >500-fold more effective than the non-replicating vaccinia virus (VV, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA, at inducing murine immune responses against pathogenic VV. LC16m8∆, which expresses the SIV gag gene, also induced anti-Gag CD8+ T-cells more efficiently than MVA and another non-replicating VV, Dairen I minute-pock variants (DIs. Moreover, LC16m8∆ expressing HIV-1 Env in combination with a Sendai virus vector induced the production of anti-Env antibodies and CD8+ T-cells. Thus, the safety and efficacy of LC16m8∆ mean that it represents an outstanding platform for the development of human vaccine vectors.

  20. A new method to customize protein expression vectors for fast, efficient and background free parallel cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, J.; Besir, H.; Strasser, C; Suppmann, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Expression and purification of correctly folded proteins typically require screening of different parameters such as protein variants, solubility enhancing tags or expression hosts. Parallel vector series that cover all variations are available, but not without compromise. We have established a fast, efficient and absolutely background free cloning approach that can be applied to any selected vector. Results: Here we describe a method to tailor selected expression vectors for para...

  1. Ribosomal DNA Integrating rAAV-rDNA Vectors Allow for Stable Transgene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Lisowski, Leszek; Lau, Ashley; Wang, Zhongya; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Zhang, Feijie; Grompe, Markus; Kay, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Although recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are proving to be efficacious in clinical trials, the episomal character of the delivered transgene restricts their effectiveness to use in quiescent tissues, and may not provide lifelong expression. In contrast, integrating vectors enhance the risk of insertional mutagenesis. In an attempt to overcome both of these limitations, we created new rAAV-rDNA vectors, with an expression cassette flanked by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences cap...

  2. 基于小波支持向量回归的遥感多光谱图像分辨率增强算法%Resolution Enhance Algorithm for Remote Sensing Multi-spectral Image Based on Wavelet Support Vector Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡根生; 张为; 梁栋

    2012-01-01

    利用小波支持向量回归,实现了遥感多光谱图像分辨率的增强。首先采用非下采样Contourlet变换对低分辨率的多光谱图像和高分辨率的全色图像进行多分辨率分解,再利用小波支持向量回归对分解系数进行学习和预测,获得分辨率初步提高的多光谱图像,最后再与传统的插值方法得到的结果进行融合来实现多光谱图像分辨率增强。实验结果表明:此方法借遥感全色图像的辅助获得丰富的高频细节信息,使得分辨率增强结果无论是最小均方误差还是峰值信噪比都要优于仅依靠原图像本身放大的传统方法以及其他的分辨率增强方法。%Wavelet support vector regression is utilized to enhance the resolution for remote sensing multi-spectral image. Firstly, both low resolution multi-spectral image and high resolution panchromatic image are decomposed into multi-resolution by using nonsubsampled contourlet transform. Then, by using wavelet support vector regression, the decomposed coefficients are learned and predicted so as to obtain multi-spectral image with preliminary enhanced resolution. Finally, the above results are further fused with the traditional interpolate one to achieve the resolution enhance of multi-spectral image. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm utilizes the auxiliary o{ remote sensing panchromatic image to effectively attain a wealth of high-frequency detail information, such that either the minimum mean squared error or the peak signal to noise ratio is superior to these from the traditional methods only depending on the amplification of image itself and other resolution enhance methods.

  3. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  4. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  5. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity...... on finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory, incorporating recent improvements by Kedlaya–Liu and by Scholze....

  6. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  7. Q Vector Analysis of Torrential Rainfall from Meiyu Front Cyclone:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Caijun

    2009-01-01

    Following similar derivation of quasi-geostrophic Q vector (QG), a new Q vector (QN) is constructed in this study. Their difference is that the geostrophic wind in quasi-geostrophic Q vector is replaced by the wind in QN vector. The diagnostic analysis of QN vector is compared with that of QG vector in the case study of a typical Meiyu front cyclone (MYFC) occurred over Changjiang-Huaihe regions during 5-6 July 1991. The results show that the QN vector has more diagnostic advantages than QG vector does. Convergence of QN vector at 700 hPa is found to be a good indicator to mimic the horizontal distribution of precipitation. QN vector is further partitioned into four components: QalstN (along-stream stretching), QcurvN (curvature) QshdvN (shear advection), and QalstN (cross-stream stretching) in a natural coordinate system with isohypse (PG partitioning). The application of QN PG partitioning in the MYFC torrential rain indicates that PG of QcurvN on rainfall enhancement fade from the mature stage to decay stage. QshdvN enhances precipitation significantly as the MYFC develops, and the effect weakens rapidly when the MYFC decays during its eastward propagation. QcrstN shows little impacts on rainfall during the onset and mature phases whereas it displays significant role during the decay phase.QalstN and QcurvN, QshdvN and QcrstN show cancellation only during the decay period.

  8. Towards the Development of an Automated Learning Assistant for Vector Calculus: Integration over Planar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Yuzita; Wester, Michael; Steinberg, Stanly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a computer learning assistant ILMEV (Interactive Learning-Mathematica Enhanced Vector calculus) package with the purpose of helping students to understand the theory and applications of integration in vector calculus. The main problem for students using Mathematica is to convert a textbook description of a…

  9. All optical vector magnetometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector...

  10. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  11. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  12. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  13. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Bii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types.

  14. Biosafety challenges for use of lentiviral vectors in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Michael; Modlich, Ute; Schambach, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Lentiviral vectors are promising tools for the genetic modification of cells in biomedical research and gene therapy. Their use in recent clinical trials for the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy, β-thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich- Syndrome and metachromatic leukodystrophy underlined their efficacy for therapies especially in case of hereditary diseases. In comparison to gammaretroviral LTR-driven vectors, which were employed in the first clinical trials, lentiviral vectors present with some favorable features like the ability to transduce also non-dividing cells and a potentially safer insertion profile. However, genetic modification with viral vectors in general and stable integration of the therapeutic gene into the host cell genome bear concerns with respect to different levels of personal or environmental safety. Among them, insertional mutagenesis by enhancer mediated dysregulation of neighboring genes or aberrant splicing is still the biggest concern. However, also risks like immunogenicity of vector particles, the phenotoxicity of the transgene and potential vertical or horizontal transmission by replication competent retroviruses need to be taken into account. This review will give an overview on biosafety aspects that are relevant to the use of lentiviral vectors for genetic modification and gene therapy. Furthermore, assay systems aiming at evaluating biosafety in preclinical settings and recent promising clinical trials including efforts of monitoring of patients after gene therapy will be discussed.

  15. Decays of the vector glueball

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Janowski, Stanislaus

    2016-01-01

    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons. By setting the mass of this yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by Lattice QCD, many branching ratios can be computed and represent a parameter-free prediction of our approach. We find that the decay mode $\\omega\\pi\\pi$ should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain $\\mathcal{O}\\rightarrow b_{1}\\pi\\rightarrow$ $\\omega\\pi\\pi$ and through the direct coupling $\\mathcal{O}\\rightarrow\\omega\\pi\\pi$)$.$ Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into $\\pi KK^{\\ast}(892)$ is sizable. Moreover, the decays into $\\rho\\pi$ and $K^{\\ast}(892)K$ are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the $\\rho\\pi$ puzzle of the charmonium state $\\psi(2S)$ thank to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA exper...

  16. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L. [Utah State University, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Logan, UT (United States)

    2009-01-15

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach<0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r-{theta} directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets. (orig.)

  17. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  18. Incorporating double copies of a chromatin insulator into lentiviral vectors results in less viral integrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenqvist Nina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors hold great promise as gene transfer vectors in gene therapeutic settings. However, problems related to the risk of insertional mutagenesis, transgene silencing and positional effects have stalled the use of such vectors in the clinic. Chromatin insulators are boundary elements that can prevent enhancer-promoter interactions, if placed between these elements, and protect transgene cassettes from silencing and positional effects. It has been suggested that insulators can improve the safety and performance of lentiviral vectors. Therefore insulators have been incorporated into lentiviral vectors in order to enhance their safety profile and improve transgene expression. Commonly such insulator vectors are produced at lower titers than control vectors thus limiting their potential use. Results In this study we cloned in tandem copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (cHS4 on both sides of the transgene cassette in order to enhance the insulating effect. Our insulator vectors were produced at significantly lower titers compared to control vectors, and we show that this reduction in titer is due to a block during the transduction process that appears after reverse transcription but before integration of the viral DNA. This non-integrated viral DNA could be detected by PCR and, importantly, prevented efficient transduction of target cells. Conclusion These results have importance for the future use of insulator sequences in lentiviral vectors and might limit the use of insulators in vectors for in vivo use. Therefore, a careful analysis of the optimal design must be performed before insulators are included into clinical lentiviral vectors.

  19. Generation of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors by homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toietta, Gabriele; Pastore, Lucio; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Finegold, Milton; Beaudet, Arthur L; Lee, Brendan

    2002-02-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HD-Ad) represent a potentially valuable tool for safe and prolonged gene expression in vivo. The current approach for generating these vectors is based on ligation of the expression cassette into large plasmids containing the viral inverted terminal repeats flanking "stuffer" DNA to maintain a final size above the lower limit for efficient packaging into the adenovirus capsid (approximately 28 kb). The ligation to produce the viral plasmid is generally very inefficient. Similar problems in producing first-generation adenoviral (FG-Ad) vectors were circumvented with the development of a system taking advantage of efficient homologous recombination between a shuttle plasmid containing the expression cassette and a FG-Ad vector backbone in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183. Here we describe a method for fast and efficient generation of HD-Ad vector plasmids that can accommodate expression cassettes of any size up to 35 kb. To validate the system, we generated a HD-Ad vector expressing the fusion protein between beta-galactosidase and neomycin resistance genes under the control of the SR alpha promoter, and one expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The viruses were rescued and tested in vitro and for in vivo expression in mice. The data collected indicate the possibility for achieving a high level of hepatocyte transduction using HD-Ad vectors derived from plasmids obtained by homologous recombination in E. coli, with no significant alteration of liver enzymes and a less severe, transient thrombocytopenia in comparison with previous reports with similar doses of a FG-Ad vector. PMID:11829528

  20. WAVELET KERNEL SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR SPARSE APPROXIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Yubing; Yang Dongkai; Zhang Qishan

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet, a powerful tool for signal processing, can be used to approximate the target function. For enhancing the sparse property of wavelet approximation, a new algorithm was proposed by using wavelet kernel Support Vector Machines (SVM), which can converge to minimum error with better sparsity. Here, wavelet functions would be firstly used to construct the admitted kernel for SVM according to Mercy theory; then new SVM with this kernel can be used to approximate the target funciton with better sparsity than wavelet approxiamtion itself. The results obtained by our simulation experiment show the feasibility and validity of wavelet kernel support vector machines.

  1. Black holes with vector hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  2. A negative effect of a pathogen on its vector? A plant pathogen increases the vulnerability of its vector to attack by natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Camila F; Long, Elizabeth Y; Finke, Deborah L

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens that are dependent on arthropod vectors for transmission from host to host may enhance their own success by promoting vector survival and/or performance. The effect of pathogens on vectors may be direct or indirect, with indirect effects mediated by increases in host quality or reductions in the vulnerability of vectors to natural enemies. We investigated whether the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a vector of cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) in wheat, experiences a reduction in rates of attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani when actively harboring the plant pathogen. We manipulated the vector status of aphids (virus carrying or virus free) and evaluated the impact on the rate of attack by wasps. We found that vector status did not influence the survival or fecundity of aphids in the absence of parasitoids. However, virus-carrying aphids experienced higher rates of parasitism and greater overall population suppression by parasitoid wasps than virus-free aphids. Moreover, virus-carrying aphids were accepted as hosts by wasps more often than virus-free aphids, with a greater number of wasps stinging virus-carrying aphids following assessment by antennal palpations than virus-free aphids. Therefore, counter to the prevailing idea that persistent vector-borne pathogens enhance the performance of their vectors, we found that infectious aphids actively carrying a plant pathogen experience greater vulnerability to natural enemies. Our results suggest that parasitoids may contribute to the successful biological control of CYDV by disproportionately impacting virus-carrying vectors, and thus reducing the proportion of vectors in the population that are infectious. PMID:24322446

  3. A negative effect of a pathogen on its vector? A plant pathogen increases the vulnerability of its vector to attack by natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Camila F; Long, Elizabeth Y; Finke, Deborah L

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens that are dependent on arthropod vectors for transmission from host to host may enhance their own success by promoting vector survival and/or performance. The effect of pathogens on vectors may be direct or indirect, with indirect effects mediated by increases in host quality or reductions in the vulnerability of vectors to natural enemies. We investigated whether the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a vector of cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) in wheat, experiences a reduction in rates of attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani when actively harboring the plant pathogen. We manipulated the vector status of aphids (virus carrying or virus free) and evaluated the impact on the rate of attack by wasps. We found that vector status did not influence the survival or fecundity of aphids in the absence of parasitoids. However, virus-carrying aphids experienced higher rates of parasitism and greater overall population suppression by parasitoid wasps than virus-free aphids. Moreover, virus-carrying aphids were accepted as hosts by wasps more often than virus-free aphids, with a greater number of wasps stinging virus-carrying aphids following assessment by antennal palpations than virus-free aphids. Therefore, counter to the prevailing idea that persistent vector-borne pathogens enhance the performance of their vectors, we found that infectious aphids actively carrying a plant pathogen experience greater vulnerability to natural enemies. Our results suggest that parasitoids may contribute to the successful biological control of CYDV by disproportionately impacting virus-carrying vectors, and thus reducing the proportion of vectors in the population that are infectious.

  4. Enhanced and sustained CD8+ T cell responses with an adenoviral vector-based hepatitis C virus vaccine encoding NS3 linked to the MHC class II chaperone protein invariant chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Holst, Peter Johannes; Bukh, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Potent and broad cellular immune responses against the nonstructural (NS) proteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with spontaneous viral clearance. In this study, we have improved the immunogenicity of an adenovirus (Ad)-based HCV vaccine by fusing NS3 from HCV (Strain J4; Genotype 1b...... memory. Functionally, the AdIiNS3-vaccinated mice had a significantly increased cytotoxic capacity compared with the AdNS3 group. The AdIiNS3-induced CD8(+) T cells protected mice from infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV NS3 of heterologous 1b strains, and studies in knockout mice......) to the MHC class II chaperone protein invariant chain (Ii). We found that, after a single vaccination of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with Ad-IiNS3, the HCV NS3-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly enhanced, accelerated, and prolonged compared with the vaccine encoding NS3 alone. The AdIiNS3...

  5. The Duality on Vector Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Long-guang

    2012-01-01

    Duality framework on vector optimization problems in a locally convex topological vector space are established by using scalarization with a cone-strongly increasing function.The dualities for the scalar convex composed optimization problems and for general vector optimization problems are studied.A general approach for studying duality in vector optimization problems is presented.

  6. The biological control of disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  7. A NOTE ON VECTOR CASCADE ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-hui Chen; Jin-zhao Liu; Wen-sheng Zhang

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the relationship between accuracy of multivariate refinable vector and vector cascade algorithm. We show that, if the vector cascade algorithm (1.5) with isotropic dilation converges to a vector-valued function with regularity, then the initial function must satisfy the Strang-Fix conditions.

  8. Ankara'da çeşitli kaynaklardan satın alınan beyaz peynirlerin mikrobiyolojik kalite kontrolü üzerinde araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    URHAN, Gülay

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, 2011 yılı Temmuz-Eylül ayları arasında Ankara ilinin çeşitli semtlerindeki marketlerde ve halk pazarlarında satışa sunulan 50 adet beyaz peynir örneği mikrobiyolojik özellikleri bakımından incelenmiştir.Mikrobiyolojik analizler sonucunda örneklerde ortalama toplam mezofil aerobik bakteri sayısı 5,8 x 106 kob/g, maya ve küf sayısı 1,2 x 106 kob/g ve koliform bakteri sayısı ise 5,4 x 102 EMS/g olarak tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca her bir örnekte E. coli, S. aureus...

  9. Implementing Bayesian Vector Autoregressions Implementing Bayesian Vector Autoregressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Todd

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Implementing Bayesian Vector Autoregressions This paper discusses how the Bayesian approach can be used to construct a type of multivariate forecasting model known as a Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR. In doing so, we mainly explain Doan, Littermann, and Sims (1984 propositions on how to estimate a BVAR based on a certain family of prior probability distributions. indexed by a fairly small set of hyperparameters. There is also a discussion on how to specify a BVAR and set up a BVAR database. A 4-variable model is used to iliustrate the BVAR approach.

  10. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  11. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.

  12. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  13. Ensemble Dynamics and Bred Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balci, Nusret; Restrepo, Juan M; Sell, George R

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of an EBV to assess the sensitivity of model outputs to changes in initial conditions for weather forecasting. The new algorithm, which we call the "Ensemble Bred Vector" or EBV, is based on collective dynamics in essential ways. By construction, the EBV algorithm produces one or more dominant vectors. We investigate the performance of EBV, comparing it to the BV algorithm as well as the finite-time Lyapunov Vectors. We give a theoretical justification to the observed fact that the vectors produced by BV, EBV, and the finite-time Lyapunov vectors are similar for small amplitudes. Numerical comparisons of BV and EBV for the 3-equation Lorenz model and for a forced, dissipative partial differential equation of Cahn-Hilliard type that arises in modeling the thermohaline circulation, demonstrate that the EBV yields a size-ordered description of the perturbation field, and is more robust than the BV in the higher nonlinear regime. The EBV yields insight into the fractal structure of th...

  14. Evolving lessons on nanomaterial-coated viral vectors for local and systemic gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasala, Dayananda; Yoon, A-Rum; Hong, Jinwoo; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-07-01

    Viral vectors are promising gene carriers for cancer therapy. However, virus-mediated gene therapies have demonstrated insufficient therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials due to rapid dissemination to nontarget tissues and to the immunogenicity of viral vectors, resulting in poor retention at the disease locus and induction of adverse inflammatory responses in patients. Further, the limited tropism of viral vectors prevents efficient gene delivery to target tissues. In this regard, modification of the viral surface with nanomaterials is a promising strategy to augment vector accumulation at the target tissue, circumvent the host immune response, and avoid nonspecific interactions with the reticuloendothelial system or serum complement. In the present review, we discuss various chemical modification strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of viral vectors delivered either locally or systemically. We conclude by highlighting the salient features of various nanomaterial-coated viral vectors and their prospects and directions for future research.

  15. Evolving lessons on nanomaterial-coated viral vectors for local and systemic gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasala, Dayananda; Yoon, A-Rum; Hong, Jinwoo; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-07-01

    Viral vectors are promising gene carriers for cancer therapy. However, virus-mediated gene therapies have demonstrated insufficient therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials due to rapid dissemination to nontarget tissues and to the immunogenicity of viral vectors, resulting in poor retention at the disease locus and induction of adverse inflammatory responses in patients. Further, the limited tropism of viral vectors prevents efficient gene delivery to target tissues. In this regard, modification of the viral surface with nanomaterials is a promising strategy to augment vector accumulation at the target tissue, circumvent the host immune response, and avoid nonspecific interactions with the reticuloendothelial system or serum complement. In the present review, we discuss various chemical modification strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of viral vectors delivered either locally or systemically. We conclude by highlighting the salient features of various nanomaterial-coated viral vectors and their prospects and directions for future research. PMID:27348247

  16. Fiber propagation of vector modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Duparre, Michael; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Here we employ both dynamic and geometric phase control of light to produce radially modulated vector-vortex modes, the natural modes of optical fibers. We then measure these modes using a vector modal decomposition set-up as well as a tomography measurement, the latter providing a degree of the non-separability of the vector states, akin to an entanglement measure for quantum states. We demonstrate the versatility of the approach by creating the natural modes of a step-index fiber, which are known to exhibit strong mode coupling, and measure the modal cross-talk and non-separability decay during propagation. Our approach will be useful in mode division multiplexing schemes for transport of classical and quantum states.

  17. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  18. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  19. Skyrmions with vector mesons revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Yongseok

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a model that can describe both a single baryon and multi-baryon systems on the same footing, we re-investigate the Skyrme model in a chiral Lagrangian derived from the hidden local symmetry (HLS) up to $O(p^4)$ including the homogeneous Wess-Zumino terms. We use the master formulas that connect the parameters of the HLS Lagrangian and a class of holographic QCD models, which provides a controllable way to determine the low-energy constants of the Lagrangian once the pion decay constant and the vector meson mass are given. Therefore, this model allows us to study the role of vector mesons in the skyrmion structure. We find that the $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ vector mesons have different roles in the skyrmion structure and that the $\\omega$ meson has an important role in the properties of the nucleon.

  20. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  1. Chaotic Inflation in Supergravity from Massive Vector Multiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    We study the embedding of the quadratic model of chaotic inflation into the 4D, N=1 minimal theories of supergravity. In the framework of the new-minimal formulation, this embedding is straightforward if one makes use of a real linear multiplet coupled to a vector multiplet, in other words, a massive vector multiplet. The potential for the lowest component of the real linear superfield, which is identified as the inflaton, is generated by a 4D analog of the Green-Schwarz term, and gives rise to a pure single-field quadratic model of chaotic inflation. This theory is protected by an enhanced symmetry which naturally suppresses the higher order corrections. The embedding in the old-minimal formulation is again achieved in terms of a massive vector multiplet and also gives rise to single-field inflation, nevertheless in this case one needs significant fine-tuning of the higher order terms.

  2. Bred vectors, singular vectors, and Lyapunov vectors in simple and complex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Adrienne

    We compute and compare three types of vectors frequently used to explore the instability properties of dynamical models, Lyapunov vectors (LVs), singular vectors (SVs), and bred vectors (BVs). The first model is the Lorenz (1963) three-variable model. We find BVs align with the locally fastest growing LV, which is often the second fastest growing global LV. The growth rates of the three types of vectors reveal all predict regime changes and durations of new regimes, as shown for BVs by Evans et al. (2004). The second model is the toy 'atmosphere-ocean model' developed by Pena and Kalnay (2004) coupling three Lorenz (1963) models with different time scales to test the effects of fast and slow modes of growth on the dynamical vectors. A fast 'extratropical atmosphere' is weakly coupled to a fast 'tropical atmosphere' which is strongly coupled to a slow 'ocean' system, the latter coupling imitating the tropical El Nino--Southern Oscillation. BVs separate the fast and slow modes of growth through appropriate selection of the breeding parameters. LVs successfully separate the fast 'extratropics' but cannot completely decouple the 'tropics' from the 'ocean,' leading to 'coupled' LVs that are affected by both systems but mainly dominated by one. SVs identify the fast modes but cannot capture the slow modes until the fast 'extratropics' are replaced with faster 'convection.' The dissimilar behavior of the three types of vectors degrades the similarities of the subspaces they inhabit (Norwood et al. 2013). The third model is a quasi-geostrophic channel model (Rotunno and Bao 1996) that is a simplification of extratropical synoptic-scale motions with baroclinic instabilities only. We were unable to successfully compute LVs for it. However, randomly initialized BVs quickly converge to a single vector that is the leading LV. The last model is the SPEEDY model created by Molteni (2003). It is a simplified general atmospheric circulation model with several types of instabilities

  3. Black Holes With Vector Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type $V=2\\Lambda_0+\\ft 12 m^2 A^2+\\gamma_4 A^4$. For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0=m=\\gamma_4=0$, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find...

  4. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  5. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  6. The vector BPS Skyrme model

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, C.; C. Naya; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\\omega_\\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of th...

  7. On Spinors and Null Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Budinich, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relations between spinors and null vectors in Clifford algebra with particular emphasis on the conditions that a spinor must satisfy to be simple (also: pure). In particular we prove: i) a new property for null vectors: each of them bisects spinor space into two parts of equal size; ii) that simple spinors form one-dimensional subspaces of spinor space; iii) a necessary and sufficient condition for a spinor to be simple that generalizes a theorem of Cartan and Chevalley that appears now as a corollary of this result. We also show how to write down easily the most general spinor with a given associated totally null plane.

  8. Topological vector spaces and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, John

    2012-01-01

    ""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o

  9. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  10. Model Based Defect Detection in Multi-Dimensional Vector Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Toshifumi; Obara, Kenji; Harada, Minoru; Igarashi, Hajime

    A highly sensitive inspection algorithm is proposed that extracts defects in multidimensional vector spaces from multiple images. The proposed algorithm projects subtraction vectors calculated from test and reference images to control the noise by reducing the dimensionality of vector spaces. The linear projection vectors are optimized using a physical defect model, and the noise distribution is calculated from the images. Because the noise distribution varies with the intensity or texture of the pixels, the target image is divided into small regions and the noise distribution of the subtraction images are calculated for each divided region. The bidirectional local perturbation pattern matching (BD-LPPM) which is an enhanced version of the LPPM, is proposed to increase the sensitivity when calculating the subtraction vectors, especially when the reference image contains more high-frequency components than the test image. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using defect samples for three different scanning electron microscopy images. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm increases the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 1.32 relative to that obtained using the Mahalanobis distance algorithm.

  11. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  12. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  13. The consequences of poor vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk briefly discusses the vectorization problem and how it impacts scientific and engineering systems. A simple cost model of designing such system in context of different phases of software lifetime is considered. Finally a concept for scalable solution is presented.

  14. Vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Beg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the properties of vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions are studied. The notion of sum fuzzy multifunction, convex hull fuzzy multifunction, close convex hull fuzzy multifunction, and upper demicontinuous are given, and some of the properties of these fuzzy multifunctions are investigated.

  15. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...

  16. Vector Space Over Division Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2005-01-01

    A system of linear equations over a skew field has properties similar to properties of a system of linear equations over a field. Even noncommutativity of a product creates a new picture the properties of system of linear equations and of vector space over skew-field have a close relationship.

  17. Vector-meson dominance revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschlüsen Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.

  18. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  19. Phase transitions in Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witoelar, Aree; Ghosh, Anarta; Biehl, Michael; Verleysen, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We study Winner-Takes-All and rank based Vector Quantization along the lines of the statistical physics of off-line learning. Typical behavior of the system is obtained within a model where high-dimensional training data are drawn from a mixture of Gaussians. The analysis becomes exact in the simpli

  20. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  1. Seasonal variation of surface temperature based on land cover in AnkaraAnkara şehrinde yüzey sıcaklıklarının arazi örtüsüne göre mevsimsel değişimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çiçek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal variation of the surface temperature of Ankara urban area and its enviroment have been analyzed by using Landsat 7 image. The Landsat 7 images of each month from 2007 to 2011 have been used to analyze the annually changes of the surface temperature. The land cover of the research area was defined with supervised classification method on the basis of the satellite image belonging to 2008 July. After determining the surface temperatures from 6-1 bands of satellite images, the monthly mean surface temperatures were calculated for land cover classification for the period between 2007 and 2011. Accordşng to the results obtained, the surface temperatures are high in summer and low in winter from the air temperatures. all satellite images were taken at 10:00 am, it is found that urban areas are cooler than rural areas at 10:00 am. Regarding the land cover classification, the water surfaces are the coolest surfaces during the whole year. The warmest areas are the grasslands and dry farming areas. While the parks are warmer than the urban areas during the winter, during the summer they are cooler than artificial land covers. The urban areas with higher building density are the cooler surfaces after water bodies. ÖzetBu çalışmada, Ankara şehri ve çevresindeki yüzey sıcaklıklarının yıl içerisindeki değişimi incelenmiştir. 2007-2011 yılları arasında yılın tüm aylarına bir görüntü düşecek şekilde, Landsat 7 uydusu ile alınan görüntülerin kullanıldığı çalışmada, 2008 yılı temmuz ayı görüntüsünden kontrollü sınıflandırma yöntemiyle şehir ve çevresine ait arazi örtüsü oluşturulmuştur. Uydu görüntülerinin 6-1 termal bantından  yüzey sıcaklıkları hesap edildikten sonra, arazi örtülerinin her aya ait ortalama yüzey sıcaklıkları belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen değerlere göre yüzey sıcaklıkları, hava sıcaklığına paralel olarak, yaz aylarında yüksek, k

  2. Beam quality measure for vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580

  3. Vector variational inequalities and their relations with vector optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Kaur Suneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, K- quasiconvex, K- pseudoconvex and other related functions have been introduced in terms of their Clarke subdifferentials, where is an arbitrary closed convex, pointed cone with nonempty interior. The (strict, weakly -pseudomonotonicity, (strict K- naturally quasimonotonicity and K- quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential maps have also been defined. Further, we introduce Minty weak (MVVIP and Stampacchia weak (SVVIP vector variational inequalities over arbitrary cones. Under regularity assumption, we have proved that a weak minimum solution of vector optimization problem (VOP is a solution of (SVVIP and under the condition of K- pseudoconvexity we have obtained the converse for MVVIP (SVVIP. In the end we study the interrelations between these with the help of strict K-naturally quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential map.

  4. High-frequency transformation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, K.; Okazaki, N.; Kume, K.; Jinno, S; Tanaka, K; Okayama, H

    1990-01-01

    We describe a highly efficient alkali cation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants. cDNA libraries constructed with the pcD or pcD2 vector are transduced into yeast by cotransfection with a linearized vector, which allows an enhanced homologous recombination between the yeast vector and the library plasmid leading to the efficient formation of concatemers containing pcD molecules. The tran...

  5. Vector-Boson Fusion and Vector-Boson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering are an important class of processes for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is characterized by two high-energetic jets in the forward regions of the detector and reduced jet activity in the central region. The higher center-of-mass energy during the current and subsequent runs strongly boosts the sensitivity in these processes and allows to test the predictions of the Standard Model to a high precision. In this review, we first present the main phenomenological features of vector-boson fusion and scattering processes. Then we discuss the effects of higher-order corrections, which are available at NLO QCD for all processes and up to N3LO QCD and NLO electro-weak for VBF-H production. An additional refinement is the addition of parton-shower effects, where recently a lot of progress has been made. The appearance of triple and quartic gauge vertices in the production processes enables us to probe anomalous gauge couplings. We introduce and compare the different ...

  6. A large U3 deletion causes increased in vivo expression from a nonintegrating lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Matthew; Kantor, Boris; Cockrell, Adam; Ma, Hong; Zeithaml, Brian; Li, Xiangping; McCown, Thomas; Kafri, Tal

    2008-12-01

    The feasibility of using nonintegrating lentiviral vectors has been demonstrated by recent studies showing their ability to maintain transgene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vectors packaged with a mutated integrase were able to correct retinal disease in a mouse model. Interestingly, these results differ from earlier studies in which first-generation nonintegrating lentiviral vectors yielded insignificant levels of transduction. However, to date, a rigorous characterization of transgene expression from the currently used self-inactivating (SIN) nonintegrating lentiviral vectors has not been published. In this study, we characterize transgene expression from SIN nonintegrating lentiviral vectors. Overall, we found that nonintegrating vectors express transgenes at a significantly lower level than their integrating counterparts. Expression from nonintegrating vectors was improved upon introducing a longer deletion in the vector's U3 region. A unique shuttle-vector assay indicated that the relative abundance of the different episomal forms was not altered by the longer U3 deletion. Interestingly, the longer U3 deletion did not enhance expression in the corpus callosum of the rat brain, suggesting that the extent of silencing of episomal transcription is influenced by tissue-specific factors. Finally, and for the first time, episomal expression in the mouse liver was potent and sustained.

  7. SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  8. Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...

  9. Dystrophin Delivery to Muscles of mdx Mice Using Lentiviral Vectors Leads to Myogenic Progenitor Targeting and Stable Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, En; Li, Sheng; Gregorevic, Paul; Fall, Brent M; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether stable transduction of myogenic stem cells using lentiviral vectors could be of benefit for treating dystrophic muscles, we generated vectors expressing a functional microdystrophin/enhanced green fluorescence protein fusion (µDys/eGFP) gene. Lentiviral vector injection into neonatal mdx4cv muscles resulted in widespread and stable expression of dystrophin for at least 2 years. This expression resulted in a significant amelioration of muscle pathophysiology as assessed by a...

  10. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making...... it virtually impossible to compensate for the factor and obtain correct velocity estimates for either CFM or spectral velocity estimation. This talk will describe methods for finding the correct velocity by estimating both the axial and lateral component of the velocity vector. The transverse oscillation...... method introduces an ultrasound field that oscillation not only along the ultrasound beam both also transverse to it to estimate both the lateral and axial velocity for the full velocity vector. The correct velocity magnitude can be found from this as well as the instantaneous angle. This can be obtained...

  11. ELVIS - ELectromagnetic Vector Information Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, J E S; Thidé, B; Ananthakrishnan, S; Wahlund, J E; Karlsson, R L; Puccio, W; Carozzi, T D; Kale, P

    2005-01-01

    The ELVIS instrument was recently proposed by the authors for the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon and is presently under consideration by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The scientific objective of ELVIS is to explore the electromagnetic environment of the moon. ELVIS samples the full three-dimensional (3D) electric field vector, E(x,t), up to 18 MHz, with selective Nyqvist frequency bandwidths down to 5 kHz, and one component of the magnetic field vector, B(x,t), from a few Hz up to 100 kHz.As a transient detector, ELVIS is capable of detecting pulses with a minimum pulse width of 5 ns. The instrument comprises three orthogonal electric dipole antennas, one magnetic search coil antenna and a four-channel digital sampling system, utilising flexible digital down conversion and filtering together with state-of-the-art onboard digital signal processing.

  12. Vector Fields in Holographic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James B; Hertog, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The scalar and vector matter profiles in this region are complex from an AdS viewpoint, with universal asymptotic phases. The dual description of the semiclassical NBWF thus involves complex deformations of Euclidean CFTs.

  13. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  14. NEVILLE-TYPE VECTOR VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈之兵; 顾传青; 徐晨

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of vector valued rational interpolants is established by means of Samelson inverse, with scalar numerator and vector valued denominator. It is essen tially different from that of Graves-Morris(1983), where the interpolants are constructed by Thiele-type continued fractions with vector valued numerator and scalar denominator. The new approach is more suitable to calculate the value of a vector valued function for a given point. And an error formula is also given and proven.

  15. Fast Support Vector Machines for Continuous Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kurt A.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Remsen, Andrew; Luo, Tong

    2009-01-01

    Support vector machines can be trained to be very accurate classifiers and have been used in many applications. However, the training and to a lesser extent prediction time of support vector machines on very large data sets can be very long. This paper presents a fast compression method to scale up support vector machines to large data sets. A simple bit reduction method is applied to reduce the cardinality of the data by weighting representative examples. We then develop support vector machi...

  16. Problems of vector Lagrangians in field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vector Lagrange approach to the Dirac spinor field and the relationship between the vector Lagrangians for the spinor and electromagnetic fields are considered. A vector Lagrange approach for the system of interacting electromagnetic B=(Bμυ)=(E-bar,H-bar) and spinor Ψ fields is constructed. New Lagrangians (scalar and vector) for electromagnetic field in terms of field strengths are found. The foundations of two new QED models are formulated

  17. VEST: abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Jonathan; Burby, Joshua; Qin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify l...

  18. Kamu hastaneleri sağlık çalışanlarının sendikal örgütlenme konusundaki görüşlerinin cinsiyet temelinde incelenmesi (Ankara'da iki kamu hastanesi)

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞAN, Reyhan

    2007-01-01

    Kamu Hastaneleri Sağlık Çalışanlarının Sendikal ÖrgütlenmeKonusundaki Görüşlerinin Cinsiyet Temelinde ncelenmesi (Ankara'da ikikamu hastanesi)Bu araştırma; Kamu hastaneleri sağlık çalışanlarının sendikal örgütlenmekonusundaki görüşlerinin cinsiyet temelinde incelenmesine yönelik kesitsel niteliktebir alan çalışmasıdır. Ankara il merkezinde Sağlık Bakanlığı'na bağlı hastanelerdenkümeleme yöntemiyle iki kamu hastanesi seçilmiş ve tabakalı tesadüf yöntemiylebelirlenen sendik...

  19. Vector fields in holographic cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, James B.; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We extend the holographic formulation of the semiclassical no-boundary wave function (NBWF) to models with Maxwell vector fields. It is shown that the familiar saddle points of the NBWF have a representation in which a regular, Euclidean asymptotic AdS geometry smoothly joins onto a Lorentzian asymptotically de Sitter universe through a complex transition region. The tree level probabilities of Lorentzian histories are fully specified by the action of the AdS region of the saddle points. The ...

  20. Biological rhythms and vector insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian David Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of all species, animals and plants, to the Earth’s cyclic environments is ensured by their temporal organisation. The relationships between parasites, vectors and hosts rely greatly upon the synchronisation of their biological rhythms, especially circadian rhythms. In this short note, parasitic infections by Protozoa and by microfilariae have been chosen as examples of the dependence of successful transmission mechanisms on temporal components.

  1. Vector Analysis in GIS Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Životský, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with the geographic information systems with an emphasis on so-called vector analysis. The aim of the thesisis to create a library that implements the internal representation of geographic data and performs analytical operation over them. The thesis describes the logical structure of the application andthe hierarchy of abstract classes. In the form of pseudo-code isshown a set of individual computing operations. Work is stronglybased on geographic sys...

  2. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  3. Modeling vector nonlinear time series using POLYMARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. de Gooijer; B.K. Ray

    2003-01-01

    A modified multivariate adaptive regression splines method for modeling vector nonlinear time series is investigated. The method results in models that can capture certain types of vector self-exciting threshold autoregressive behavior, as well as provide good predictions for more general vector non

  4. Vector and tensor analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, A I; Silverman, Richard A

    1979-01-01

    Concise and readable, this text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. It also includes a systematic study of the differential and integral calculus of vector and tensor functions of space and time. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.

  5. Problems with the Method of Correlated Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, M.C.; Lee, K.

    2005-01-01

    The method of correlated vectors has been used widely to identify variables that are associated with general intelligence (g). Briefly, this method involves finding the correlation between the vector of intelligence subtests' g-loadings and the vector of those subtests' correlations with the variable in question. We describe two major problems…

  6. Herbivore arthropods benefit from vectoring plant viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belliure, B.; Janssen, A.; Maris, P.C.; Peters, D.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants infected with pathogens often attract the pathogens' vectors, but it is not clear if this is advantageous to the vectors. We therefore quantified the direct and indirect (through the host plant) effects of a pathogen on its vector. A positive direct effect of the plant-pathogenic Tomato spott

  7. Lentiviral vector design using alternative RNA export elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors have been designed with complex RNA export sequences in both the integrating and packaging plasmids in order to co-ordinate efficient vector production. Recent studies have attempted to replace the existing complex rev/RRE system with a more simplistic RNA export system from simple retroviruses to make these vectors in a rev-independent manner. Results Towards this end, lentiviral transfer plasmids were modified with various cis-acting DNA elements that co-ordinate RNA export during viral production to determine their ability to affect the efficiency of vector titer and transduction in different immortalized cell lines in vitro. It was found that multiple copies of the constitutive transport element (CTE originating from different simian retroviruses, including simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1 and type-2 (SRV-2 and Mason-Pfizer (MPV could be used to eliminate the requirement for the rev responsive element (RRE in the transfer and packaging plasmids with titers >106 T.U./mL (n = 4–8 preparations. The addition of multiple copies of the murine intracisternal type A particle, the woodchuck post-regulatory element (WPRE, or single and dual copies of the simian CTE had minimal effect on viral titer. Immortalized cell lines from different species were found to be readily transduced by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors containing the multiple copies of the CTE similar to the findings in HeLa cells, although the simian-derived CTE were found to have a lower infectivity into murine cell lines compared to the other species. Conclusion These studies demonstrated that the rev-responsive element (RRE could be replaced with other constitutive transport elements to produce equivalent titers using lentivectors containing the RRE sequence in vitro, but that concatemerization of the CTE or the close proximity of RNA export sequences was needed to enhance vector production.

  8. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, Gerald F. (Ballwin, MO); Schmidhauser, Christian T. (Berkeley, CA); Bissell, Mina J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  9. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, G.F.; Schmidhauser, C.T.; Bissell, M.J.

    1999-12-21

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  10. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  11. Vector processing efficiency of plasma MHD codes by use of the FACOM 230-75 APU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of pipelined vector architecture, the efficiency of vector processing is assessed with respect to plasma MHD codes in nuclear fusion research. By using a vector processor, the FACOM 230-75 APU, the limit of the enhancement factor due to parallelism of current vector machines is examined for three numerical codes based on a fluid model. Reasonable speed-up factors of approximately 6, 6 and 4 times faster than the highly optimized scalar version are obtained for ERATO (linear stability code), AEOLUS-R1 (nonlinear stability code) and APOLLO (1-1/2D transport code), respectively. Problems of the pipelined vector processor are discussed from the viewpoint of restructuring, optimization and choise of algorithms. In conclusion, the important concept of 'concurrency within pipelined parallelism' is emphasized. (orig.)

  12. On the Distribution of Norm of Vector Projection and Rejection of Two Complex Normal Random Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maleki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector projection and vector rejection are highly common and useful operations in mathematics, information theory, and signal processing. In this paper, we find the distribution of the norm of projection and rejection vectors when the original vectors are standard complex normally distributed.

  13. Construction of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara with Ag85A and ESAT-6 gene and examination of their immunogenicity in mice%重组结核抗原痘苗病毒Ankara株的构建及其免疫原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼觉人; 张群; 朱琳

    2008-01-01

    目的 构建5种不同类型的表达结核杆菌特异抗原的重组痘苗病毒,并研究其特异免疫原性.方法 运用同源重组技术将含结核分泌抗原Ag85A和ESAT-6的基因片段插入痘苗病毒表达质粒p18中.重组质粒导入痘苗病毒Ankara(MVA)后构建重组痘苗病毒,经筛选和Western blot鉴定,得到5个种类的带有结核抗原基因的重组病毒.用构建的5种重组病毒免疫小鼠,MTT法检测免疫后小鼠脾淋巴细胞对特异结核抗原的增殖反应;ELISA检测小鼠脾淋巴细胞培养上清液中IFN-γ的含量;结核菌素纯蛋白衍化物(PPD)皮内试验以检测重组病毒引发的针对结核抗原的特异细胞免疫应答.结果 构建的5种蘑组病毒介导的细胞表达产物经Western blot鉴定确认相对分子质量与结核抗原一致.免疫小鼠两次后,5种重组病毒免疫组脾淋巴细胞体外与Ag85A-ESAT-6融合蛋白共培养后表现出明显的增殖活性(P<0.01),培养上清液中IFN-γ的浓度均较同组细胞经生理盐水刺激明显增高(P<0.05);与空痘苗病毒或生理盐水免疫后小鼠相比,5种重组MVA免疫组脾淋巴细胞与AgB5A.ESAT-6融合蛋白共培养后同样表现出明显的增殖活性(P<0.01),与Ag85A-ESAT-6融合蛋白共培养的细胞上清液中IFN-γ的浓度均升高(P<0.01).与空痘苗病毒或生理盐水免疫后小鼠相比,5种重组MVA免疫组小鼠对PPD都表现出显著的迟发型超敏反应应答(P<0.05).结论 成功构建了5种不同类型的表达结核杆菌抗原的重组痘苗病毒疫苗,其免疫小鼠后可激发针对结核杆菌抗原的特异性细胞免疫.%Objective To construct five types of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) carrying genes encoding antigen 85A (Ag85A), early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) or IL-2 and to investigate the immunogenicity of these recombinant MVA in mice. Methods The genes encoding Ag85A and ESAT-6 were amplified by PCR from Mycobacterium

  14. Effect of CXCR4 gene overexpression mediated by lentiviral vector on the biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct mouse CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (Cxcr4) gene overexpressing lentiviral vector and to evaluate its biological effect on mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) .Methods Cxcr4 gene was amplified and subcloned into pCR-Blunt vector.Cxcr4gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)

  15. Problems and worked solutions in vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shorter, LR

    2014-01-01

    ""A handy book like this,"" noted The Mathematical Gazette, ""will fill a great want."" Devoted to fully worked out examples, this unique text constitutes a self-contained introductory course in vector analysis for undergraduate and graduate students of applied mathematics.Opening chapters define vector addition and subtraction, show how to resolve and determine the direction of two or more vectors, and explain systems of coordinates, vector equations of a plane and straight line, relative velocity and acceleration, and infinitely small vectors. The following chapters deal with scalar and vect

  16. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies. PMID:27076309

  17. Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.

  18. DBSC-Based Grayscale Line Image Vectorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantin Melikhov; Feng Tian; Jie Qiu; Quan Chen; Hock Soon Seah

    2006-01-01

    Vector graphics plays an important role in computer animation and imaging technologies. However present techniques and tools cannot fully replace traditional pencil and paper. Additionally, vector representation of an image is not always available. There is not yet a good solution for vectorizing a picture drawn on a paper. This work attempts to solve the problem of vectorizing grayscale line drawings. The solution proposed uses Disk B-Spline curves to represent strokes of an image in vector form. The algorithm builds a vector representation from a grayscale raster image, which can be a scanned picture for instance. The proposed method uses a Gaussian sliding window to calculate skeleton and perceptive width of a stroke. As a result of vectorization, the given image is represented by a set of Disk B-Spline curves.

  19. The vector algebra war: A historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, James M; Hartnett, John G; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in science. For example, Gibbs three-vectors, spacetime four-vectors, complex spinors for quantum mechanics, quaternions used for rigid body rotations and Clifford multivectors. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for the whole of science. This surprising situation exists today, despite the fact that one of the main goals of nineteenth century science was to correctly describe vectors and the algebra of three-dimensional space. This situation has also had the unfortunate consequence of fragmenting knowledge across many disciplines and requiring a very significant amount of time and effort in learning the different formalisms. We thus review historically the development of our various vector systems and conclude that the Clifford algebra multivector fulfills the goal of correctly describing vectorial quantities in three dimensions.

  20. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function.

  1. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function.

  2. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Achee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC, a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1 a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2 outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3 determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of vector-controlled free jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, K; Ao, K; Shakouchi, T; Ando, T, E-mail: tujimoto@mach.mie-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, 514-8507 (Japan)

    2011-12-22

    We conduct DNS (direct numerical simulation) of vector controlled free jets. The inflow velocity of jet is periodically oscillated perpendicular to the jet axis. In order to realize the high accurate computation, a discretization in space is performed with hybrid scheme in which Fourier spectral and 6th order compact scheme are adopted. From visualized instantaneous vortex structures, it is found that the flow pattern considerably changes according to the oscillating frequency, i.e., according to the increasing the frequency, wave, bifurcating and flapping modes appear in turn. In order to quantify mixing efficiency under the vector control, as the mixing measure, statistical entropy is investigated. Compared to the uncontrolled jet, the mixing efficiency is improved in order of wavy, flapping and bifurcating modes. Thus the vector control can be expected for the improvement of mixing efficiency. Further to make clear the reason for the mixing enhancement, Snapshot POD and DMD method are applied. The primary flow structures under the vector control are demonstrated.

  4. A simple vector system to improve performance and utilisation of recombinant antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Karen J; Mitchell Joanne N; Rojas Gertrudis; Martin Cecile D; Wu Jiahua; McCafferty John; Schofield Darren J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Isolation of recombinant antibody fragments from antibody libraries is well established using technologies such as phage display. Phage display vectors are ideal for efficient display of antibody fragments on the surface of bacteriophage particles. However, they are often inefficient for expression of soluble antibody fragments, and sub-cloning of selected antibody populations into dedicated soluble antibody fragment expression vectors can enhance expression. Results We ha...

  5. Plant viruses alter insect behavior to enhance their spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and parasites can induce changes in host or vector behavior that enhance their transmission. In plant systems, such effects are largely restricted to vectors, because they are mobile and may exhibit preferences dependent upon plant host infection status. Here we report the first evidence that acquisition of a plant virus directly alters host selection behavior by its insect vector. We show that the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, after acquiring Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) during in vitro feeding, prefers noninfected wheat plants, while noninfective aphids also fed in vitro prefer BYDV-infected plants. This behavioral change should promote pathogen spread since noninfective vector preference for infected plants will promote acquisition, while infective vector preference for noninfected hosts will promote transmission. We propose the "Vector Manipulation Hypothesis" to explain the evolution of strategies in plant pathogens to enhance their spread to new hosts. Our findings have implications for disease and vector management. PMID:22896811

  6. Vector meson electroproduction in QCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Juan; CAI Xian-Hao; ZHOU Li-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model,we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model.Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for p,ω and φ meson electroproduction in this paper.Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction),two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG,JPC =0+,2++,decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV,and mass of mG=2.23 GeV.The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C =-1,called the Odderon.The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon.Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully,which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton.It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al.We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies,as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons,which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC).Therefore,in return,it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.

  7. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxing; Lu, Bin; Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Qing; Liu, Li; Zhuang, Ke; Shen, Tingting; Wang, Haibo; Tian, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold) of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold) higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  8. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  9. A Human Vaccine Strategy Based On Chimpanzee Adenoviral and MVA Vectors That Primes, Boosts and Sustains Functional HCV Specific T-Cell Memory*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Capone, Stefania; Antrobus, Richard D.; Brown, Anthony; Richardson, Rachel; Newell, Evan W.; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Bowen, Dan; Fergusson, Joannah; Kurioka, Ayako; Ammendola, Virginia; Sorbo, Mariarosaria Del; Grazioli, Fabiana; Esposito, Maria Luisa; Siani, Loredana; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian; Colloca, Stefano; Davis, Mark; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Folgori, Antonella; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    A protective vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet clinical need. HCV infects millions of people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Animal challenge experiments, immunogenetics studies and assessment of host immunity during acute infection highlight the critical role that effective T-cell immunity plays in viral control. In this first-in-man study we have induced antiviral immunity with functional characteristics analogous to those associated with viral control in natural infection, and improved upon a vaccine based on adenoviral vectors alone. We assessed a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy based on a replicative defective simian adenoviral vector (ChAd3) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the NS3, NS4, NS5A and NS5B proteins of HCV genotype-1b. Analysis employed single cell mass cytometry (CyTOF), and HLA class-I peptide tetramer technology in healthy human volunteers. We show that HCV specific T-cells induced by ChAd3 are optimally boosted with MVA, and generate very high levels of both CD8+ and CD4+ HCV specific T-cells targeting multiple HCV antigens. Sustained memory and effector T-cell populations are generated and T-cell memory evolved over time with improvement of quality (proliferation and polyfunctionality) following heterologous MVA boost. We have developed a HCV vaccine strategy, with durable, broad, sustained and balanced T-cell responses, characteristic of those associated with viral control, paving the way for the first efficacy studies of a prophylactic HCV vaccine. PMID:25378645

  10. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  11. The Vector Valued Quartile Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lacey, Michael T; Parissis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Certain vector-valued inequalities are shown to hold for a Walsh analog of the bilinear Hilbert transform. These extensions are phrased in terms of a recent notion of quartile type of a UMD (Unconditional Martingale Differences) Banach space X. Every known UMD Banach space has finite quartile type, and it was recently shown that the Walsh analog of Carleson's Theorem holds under a closely related assumption of finite tile type. For a Walsh model of the bilinear Hilbert transform however, the quartile type should be sufficiently close to that of a Hilbert space for our results to hold. A full set of inequalities is quantified in terms of quartile type.

  12. Design and simulation of 3½-cell superconducting gun cavity and beam dynamics studies of the SASE-FEL System at the Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and simulation of a superconducting gun cavity with 3½ cells have been studied in order to give the first push to the electron beam for the linear accelerating system at The Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University. Electrons are accelerated through the gun cavity with the help of the Radiofrequency power suppliers from cryogenic systems. Accelerating gradient should be as high as possible to accelerate electron beam inside the cavity. In this study, electron beam reaches to 9.17 MeV energy at the end of the gun cavity with the accelerating gradient; Ec=19.21 MV/m. 1.3 GHz gun cavity consists of three TESLA-like shaped cells while the special designed gun-cell includes a cathode plug. Optimized important beam parameters inside the gun cavity, average beam current 3 mA, transverse emittance 2.5 mm mrad, repetition rate 30 MHz and other parameters are obtained for the SASE-FEL System. The Superfish/Poisson program is used to design each cell of the superconducting cavity. Superconducting gun cavity and Radiofrequency properties are studied by utilizing 2D Superfish/Poisson, 3D Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio, and 3D Computer Simulation Technology Particle Studio. Superfish/Poisson is also used to optimize the geometry of the cavity cells to get the highest accelerating gradient. The behavior of the particles along the beamline is included in this study. ASTRA Code is used to track the particles

  13. Design and simulation of 3½-cell superconducting gun cavity and beam dynamics studies of the SASE-FEL System at the Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, R.; Porsuk, D.

    2015-06-01

    Design and simulation of a superconducting gun cavity with 3½ cells have been studied in order to give the first push to the electron beam for the linear accelerating system at The Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University. Electrons are accelerated through the gun cavity with the help of the Radiofrequency power suppliers from cryogenic systems. Accelerating gradient should be as high as possible to accelerate electron beam inside the cavity. In this study, electron beam reaches to 9.17 MeV energy at the end of the gun cavity with the accelerating gradient; Ec=19.21 MV/m. 1.3 GHz gun cavity consists of three TESLA-like shaped cells while the special designed gun-cell includes a cathode plug. Optimized important beam parameters inside the gun cavity, average beam current 3 mA, transverse emittance 2.5 mm mrad, repetition rate 30 MHz and other parameters are obtained for the SASE-FEL System. The Superfish/Poisson program is used to design each cell of the superconducting cavity. Superconducting gun cavity and Radiofrequency properties are studied by utilizing 2D Superfish/Poisson, 3D Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio, and 3D Computer Simulation Technology Particle Studio. Superfish/Poisson is also used to optimize the geometry of the cavity cells to get the highest accelerating gradient. The behavior of the particles along the beamline is included in this study. ASTRA Code is used to track the particles.

  14. Hastane yöneticilerinin yönetici işlevlerine ilişkin görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesi (Ankara il merkezi örneği)

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Ayşe

    2008-01-01

    Araştırmanın amacı, hastane yöneticilerinin yönetici işlevlerine ilişkin görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesidir. Araştırmanın evreninin Ankara il merkezinde buluna hastanelerde çalışan hastane yöneticileri (başhekim, başhekim yardımcısı, müdür, müdür yardımcısı, başhemşire, başhemşire yardımcısı) oluşturmuştur. Araştırma Eylül- Haziran 2007 tarihleri arasında gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada tanımlayıcı tipte olan veri toplama aracı olarak Prof. Dr. Ömer Peker'in Yönetici eğit...

  15. Current progress of polymeric gene vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuan; SUN YunXia; ZHUO RenXi; ZHANG XianZheng

    2011-01-01

    After over 40 years ot progress,gene therapy provides great opportunities for treating diseases from various genetic disorders,infections and cancers.The success of gene therapy largely depends on the availability of suitable gene vectors.As an attractive alternative to virus-based gene therapy,non-viral gene delivery system has been developed and investigated due to their merits including low immunogenecity,convenient operability,and large-scale manufacturability [1].Because polycations can condense with DNA as a result of electrostatic interactions,form nanosize polyplexes,and protect DNA from degradation by DNase,cationic polymer becomes a major type of non-viral gene delivery vectors (Figure 1) [2].A wide range of polymeric vectors have been developed and investigated in the past decade,such as polyethylenimine (PEI)-based vectors,poly(L-lysine) (PLL)-based vectors,dendrimer-based vectors,polypeptide-based vectors,and chitosan-based vectors [3].However,unlike viral vectors that have the ability to infect host cells and overcome cellular barriers through the course of evolution,nonviral gene vectors exhibit Significantly reduced transfection efficiency as they are obstructed by various extra- and intracellular barriers,including serum proteins in blood stream,cell membrane,endosomal compartment and nuclear membrane [4].

  16. The vector BPS Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the vector meson formulation of the BPS Skyrme model in (3+1) dimensions, where the term of sixth power in first derivatives characteristic for the original, integrable BPS Skyrme model (the topological or baryon current squared) is replaced by a coupling between the vector meson $\\omega_\\mu$ and the baryon current. We find that the model remains integrable in the sense of generalized integrability and almost solvable (reducible to a set of two first order ODEs) for any value of the baryon charge. Further, we analyze the appearance of topological solitons for two one-parameter families of one vacuum potentials: the old Skyrme potentials and the so-called BPS potentials. Depending on the value of the parameters we find several qualitatively different possibilities. In the massless case we have a parameter region with no skyrmions, a unique compact skyrmion with a discontinuous first derivative at the boundary (equivalently, with a source term located at the boundary, which screens the topological ch...

  17. Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y F; Zhang, H; Zhao, L M; Shen, D Y; Tang, D Y

    2016-01-25

    We report on the experimental observation of vector and bound vector solitons in a fiber laser passively mode locked by graphene. Localized interactions between vector solitons, vector soliton with bound vector solitons, and vector soliton with a bunch of vector solitons are experimentally investigated. We show that depending on the soliton interactions, various stable and dynamic multiple vector soliton states could be formed. PMID:26832559

  18. Examples of Enhanced Quantization: Bosons, Fermions, and Anyons

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced quantization offers a different classical/quantum connection than that of canonical quantization in which $\\hbar >0$ throughout. This result arises when the only allowed Hilbert space vectors allowed in the quantum action functional are coherent states, which leads to the classical action functional augmented by additional terms of order $\\hbar$. Canonical coherent states are defined by unitary transformations of a fixed, fiducial vector. While Gaussian vectors are commonly used as fiducial vectors, they cannot be used for all systems. We focus on choosing fiducial vectors for several systems including bosons, fermions, and anyons.

  19. Vector Design for Improved DNA Vaccine Efficacy, Safety and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Williams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA vaccination is a disruptive technology that offers the promise of a new rapidly deployed vaccination platform to treat human and animal disease with gene-based materials. Innovations such as electroporation, needle free jet delivery and lipid-based carriers increase transgene expression and immunogenicity through more effective gene delivery. This review summarizes complementary vector design innovations that, when combined with leading delivery platforms, further enhance DNA vaccine performance. These next generation vectors also address potential safety issues such as antibiotic selection, and increase plasmid manufacturing quality and yield in exemplary fermentation production processes. Application of optimized constructs in combination with improved delivery platforms tangibly improves the prospect of successful application of DNA vaccination as prophylactic vaccines for diverse human infectious disease targets or as therapeutic vaccines for cancer and allergy.

  20. Vector leptoquark resolution of RK and RD(⁎ puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fajfer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that three recent anomalies in B meson decays, RD(⁎, RK, and P5′, might be explained by only one vector leptoquark weak triplet state. The constraints on the parameter space are obtained by considering t→bτ+ν data, lepton flavor universality tests in the kaon sector, bounds on the lepton flavor violating decay B→Kμτ, and b→cμ−ν¯ decays. The presence of such vector leptoquark could be exposed in precise measurements of top semitauonic decays to b quark. The model predicts enhanced decay rate of B→Kν¯ν, approximate equality of lepton flavor universality ratios RK⁎, RK, and suppressed branching fraction of Bs→μ+μ−.

  1. Vector field instability and the primordial tensor spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, Stefan; Lorshbough, Dustin; Stephens, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the presence of a spectator pseudoscalar field, coupled to photons through a Chern-Simons term, can amplify the primordial tensor spectrum without observationally disrupting the primordial scalar spectrum. The amplification occurs due to an instability that develops for the vector fields. We extend previous studies to account for the contribution arising from an inhomogeneous vector background, which emerges as the dominant correction to the primordial tensor spectrum. These semiclassical contributions dominate over the quantum loop contributions and possibly enhance the primordial tensor spectrum such as to have observational effects even though the loop corrections might be undetectable. A similar effect would occur by replacing the visible electromagnetic U(1) by an unbroken dark U(1).

  2. Double vector meson production from the BFKL equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, V P

    2005-01-01

    The double vector meson production in two photon collisions is addressed assuming that the color singlet $t$-channel exchange carries large momentum transfer. We consider the non-forward solution of the BFKL equation at high energy and large momentum transfer and estimate the total and differential cross section for the process $\\gamma \\gamma \\to V_1 V_2$, where $V_1$ and $V_2$ can be any two vector mesons ($V_i = \\rho, \\omega, \\phi, J/\\Psi, \\Upsilon$). A comparison between our predictions and previous theoretical results obtained at Born level or assuming the Pomeron-exchange factorization relations is presented. Our results demonstrate that the BFKL dynamics implies an enhancement of the cross sections. Predictions for the future linear colliders (TESLA, CLIC and ILC) are given.

  3. Overview of vector sensors for undersea applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, James F.

    2003-10-01

    An overview of vector sensors for sonar applications is presented. The most prolific use of vector or pressure gradient sensors has been in directional sonobuoys to accomplish effective directional measurements with a sensor that is much smaller than the signal wavelength. Common characteristics, implementation issues, and self noise sources of directional hydrophones are reviewed. Arrays of vector sensors began to emerge in the 1980s and have the attractive property of being able to provide substantially higher directivity for a smaller equivalent aperture than that required for a scalar (omnidirectional) sensor array. Dyadic sensors bring additional directivity but development is required to realize them in a compact configuration. Future applications of vector sensors are discussed. The limited amount of information relative to the ocean acoustic vector fields is noted as a corollary technological requirement for the widespread adoption of vector sensors in sonar systems.

  4. A Modified Moist Ageostrophic Q Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Caijun; SHOU Shaowen

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-geostrophic Q vector is an important diagnostic tool for studying development of surface rainfall associated with large-scale weather systems and is calculated using data at single vertical level. When ageostrophic Q vector was introduced, it required data at two vertical levels. In this study, moist ageostrophic Q vector is modified so that it can be calculated using data at a single vertical level. The comparison study between the original and modified moist ageostrophic Q vectors is conducted using the data from 5 to 6 July 1991 during the torrential rainfall event associated with the Changjiang-Huaihe mei-yu front in China. The results reveal that divergences of original and modified moist ageostrophic Q vectors have similar horizontal distributions and their centers are almost located in the precipitation centers. This indicates that modified moist ageostrophic Q vector can be used to diagnose convective development with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Effectiveness of using the word processor in writing classes to enhance revising and editing skills

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Dilek

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references leaves 107-116 Yavuz, Dilek Master's

  6. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Atze T.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV base...

  7. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...

  8. Transforming Vectors Measured By Noncoaligned Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James R.; Dahlstrom, Eric L.

    1993-01-01

    Method for computing relationships between coordinate axes of two vector-measuring instruments not aligned with each other, one need only measure two nonparallel vectors u and v simultaneously in both coordinate systems. These measurements provide all data needed to compute transformation of any vector from one coordinate system to other. Particularly useful in computing alignments and transformations between accelerometers, gyroscopes, and instruments mounted on platforms subjected to vibrations, thermal strains, and other distortions causing alignments to vary unpredictably with time.

  9. Conformal vector fields on Finsler manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Szilasi, József; Tóth, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Applying concepts and tools from classical tangent bundle geometry and using the apparatus of the calculus along the tangent bundle projection ('pull-back formalism'), first we enrich the known lists of the characterizations of affine vector fields on a spray manifold and conformal vector fields on a Finsler manifold. Second, we deduce consequences on vector fields on the underlying manifold of a Finsler structure having one or two of the mentioned geometric properties.

  10. Mould Calculus for Hamiltonian Vector Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Cresson, Jacky; Morin, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    We present the general framework of \\'Ecalle's moulds in the case of linearization of a formal vector field without and within resonances. We enlighten the power of moulds by their universality, and calculability. We modify then \\'Ecalle's technique to fit in the seek of a formal normal form of a Hamiltonian vector field in cartesian coordinates. We prove that mould calculus can also produce successive canonical transformations to bring a Hamiltonian vector field into a normal form. We then p...

  11. Discrete least squares approximation with polynomial vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Van Barel, Marc; Bultheel, Adhemar

    1993-01-01

    We give a solution of a discrete least squares approximation problem in terms of orthogonal polynomial vectors. The degrees of the polynomial elements of these vectors can be different. An algorithm is constructed computing the coefficients of recurrence relations for the orthogonal polynomial vectors. In case the function values are prescribed in points on the real line or on the unit circle variants of the original algorithm can be designed which are an order of magnitude more efficient. Al...

  12. Construction of shRNA lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Song

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses have been adapted as gene delivery vehicles. This article summarized shRNA lentiviral vector methods generally used in research laboratories. The main procedures of shRNA lentiviral vector include that (1 Target sequences screening and shRNA oligonucleotides designing, (2 insert designed oligonucleotides into lentiviral vectors, (3 using packaging cells to produce shRNA lentivirus, and (4 transducing target cells with shRNA lentivirus.

  13. Integrated vector management: The Zambian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katebe Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006–2011 which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase. Achievements IVM has created commitment for Legal and Regulatory policy review, monitoring, Research and a strong stewardship by the chemical suppliers. It has also leveraged additional resources, improved inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building and enhanced community participation which facilitated a steady scaling up in coverage and utilisation of key preventive interventions. Thus, markedly reducing malaria incidence and case fatalities in the country. Conclusion Zambia has successfully introduced, consolidated and expanded IVM activities. Resulting in increased coverage and utilization of interventions and markedly reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality while ensuring a better protection of the environment.

  14. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  15. Pro jective vector fields on Finsler manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Huang-jia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give the equation that characterizes projective vector fields on a Finsler manifold by the local coordinate. Moreover, we obtain a feature of the projective fields on the compact Finsler manifold with non-positive flag curvature and the non-existence of projective vector fields on the compact Finsler manifold with negative flag curvature. Furthermore, we deduce some expectable, but non-trivial relationships between geometric vector fields such as projective, affine, conformal, homothetic and Killing vector fields on a Finsler manifold.

  16. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  17. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  18. Hermite normal forms and $\\delta$-vector

    OpenAIRE

    Hibi, Takayuki; Higashitani, Akihiro; Li, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\delta(\\Pc) = (\\delta_0, \\delta_1,..., \\delta_d)$ be the $\\delta$-vector of an integral polytope $\\Pc \\subset \\RR^N$ of dimension $d$. Following the previous work of characterizing the $\\delta$-vectors with $\\sum_{i=0}^d \\delta_i \\leq 3$, the possible $\\delta$-vectors with $\\sum_{i=0}^d \\delta_i = 4$ will be classified. And each possible $\\delta$-vectors can be obtained by simplices. We get this result by studying the problem of classifying the possible integral simplices with a given $\\...

  19. An elusive vector dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ren Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the sensitivity of direct dark matter search experiments reaches the level of about 10−45 cm2, no confident signal of dark matter has been observed. We point out that, if dark matter is a vector boson, the null result in direct dark matter search experiments may be due to the destructive effects in dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering. We illustrate the scenario using a modified Higgs portal model that includes exotic quarks. The significant cancellation can occur for a certain mass gap between new heavy quark and dark matter. As a result, the spin-independent dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering is so suppressed that the future direct search experiments will hardly observe the signal of dark matter.

  20. Vector Boson Scattering at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcan, V E

    2009-01-01

    While the Higgs model is the best studied scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, there is no fundamental reason for the physics responsible for the symmetry breaking to be weakly-coupled. Many alternatives exist, predicting highly model-dependent signatures. By measuring the cross-section for the W and Z scattering at the LHC, it will be possible to obtain model-independent evidence for strong symmetry breaking or to constrain these various models. ATLAS Collaboration has recently performed a realistic simulation of this process and its backgrounds, which takes into account the detector effects and has developed new jet-analysis techniques for identifying vector bosons within the immense QCD backgrounds expected at the LHC. These techniques and the prospects for measuring the scattering signal will be presented.

  1. Differentially Private Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sarwate, Anand; Monteleoni, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of practical privacy-preserving machine learning: how to detect patterns in massive, real-world databases of sensitive personal information, while maintaining the privacy of individuals. Chaudhuri and Monteleoni (2008) recently provided privacy-preserving techniques for learning linear separators via regularized logistic regression. With the goal of handling large databases that may not be linearly separable, we provide privacy-preserving support vector machine algorithms. We address general challenges left open by past work, such as how to release a kernel classifier without releasing any of the training data, and how to tune algorithm parameters in a privacy-preserving manner. We provide general, efficient algorithms for linear and nonlinear kernel SVMs, which guarantee $\\epsilon$-differential privacy, a very strong privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). We also provide learning generalization guarantees. Empirical evaluations reveal promising performance on real and...

  2. Development of novel AAV serotype 6 based vectors with selective tropism for human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayroo, R; Nolasco, D; Yin, Z; Colon-Cortes, Y; Pandya, M; Ling, C; Aslanidi, G

    2016-01-01

    Viral vectors-based gene therapy is an attractive alternative to common anti-cancer treatments. In the present studies, AAV serotype 6 vectors were identified to be particularly effective in the transduction of human prostate (PC3), breast (T47D) and liver (Huh7) cancer cells. Next, we developed chimeric AAV vectors with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide incorporated into the viral capsid to enable specific targeting of integrin-overexpressing malignant cells. These AAV6-RGD vectors improved transduction efficiency approximately 3-fold compared with wild-type AAV6 vectors by enhancing the viral entry into the cells. We also observed that transduction efficiency significantly improved, up to approximately 5-fold, by the mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine and threonine residues involved in the intracellular trafficking of AAV vectors. Therefore, in our study, the AAV6-Y705-731F+T492V vector was identified as the most efficient. The combination of RGD peptide, tyrosine and threonine mutations on the same AAV6 capsid further increased the transduction efficiency, approximately 8-fold in vitro. In addition, we mutated lysine (K531E) to impair the affinity of AAV6 vectors to heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Finally, we showed a significant increase in both specificity and efficiency of AAV6-RGD-Y705-731F+T492V+K531E vectors in a xenograft animal model in vivo. In summary, the approach described here can lead to the development of AAV vectors with selective tropism to human cancer cells.

  3. Effects of high-order dispersions on dark-bright vector soliton propagation and interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Dongning Wang

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of dark-bright vector solitons is investigated in a birefringent fiber with the high-order dispersions, and their effects on vector soliton propagation and interaction are analyzed using the numerical method. The combined role of the high-order dispersions, such as the third-order dispersion (TOD) and the fourth-order dispersion (FOD), may cause various deformation of the vector soliton and enhance interaction. These effects depend strictly on the sign of the high-order dispersions. Results indicate that the disadvantageous effects can be reduced effectively via proper mapping of the high-order dispersions.%@@ The dynamics of dark-bright vector solitons is investigated in a birefringent fiber with the high-order dispersions, and their effects on vector soliton propagation and interaction are analyzed using the numerical method.The combined role of the high-order dispersions, such as the third-order dispersion (TOD) and the fourth-order dispersion (FOD), may cause various deformation of the vector soliton and enhance interaction.These effects depend strictly on the sign of the high-order dispersions.Results indicate that the disadvantageous effects can be reduced effectively via proper mapping of the high-order dispersions.

  4. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN® in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA was assessed in a 56-80 years old population.MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120. Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT before and at different time points after vaccination.Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4 were as follows: Seroconversion (SC rates (doubling of titers from baseline in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%], and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]. Geometric mean titers (GMT measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for

  5. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard N.; Hay, Christine M.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Marbury, Thomas C.; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P.; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56–80 years old population. Methods MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56–80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Results Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after

  6. A combined polarizing microscope, XRD, SEM, and specific gravity study of the petrified woods of volcanic origin from the Çamlıdere-Çeltikçi-Güdül fossil forest, in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Türk, Necdet

    2009-03-01

    The fossil forest in the Çamlıdere-Çeltikçi-Güdül region of the province of Ankara in Turkey has a large number of petrified coniferous and oak tree remains. Petrification occurred in volcanic ashes and tuffs with permineralization, and Fe, Mg, Ca and Ni ions played important roles in the substitution of Si for C. However, the petrified wood samples are heterogeneous in colouration, weight, toughness, and durability, despite being obtained from the same source. Those features are very important for end-users because petrified woods, if cut and polished, are used widely as both decorative indoor tiles and gemstone objects, but heterogeneous materials suffer large wastage while they are being worked and used. Chemical analyses, specific gravity measurements, polarizing microscope studies, X-ray diffraction patterns, and scanning electron image evaluations were performed to classify and identify the homogenous material of the petrified woods relating to its physical and mineralogical characteristics. The different characteristics of the petrified wood samples are due to their varying inner structures, which depend on the replacement silica-building phases and their ratios, and silica particle sizes. Thin sections and XRD patterns revealed that petrified woods in the region were silicified by replacement with both chalcedonic quartz components, including chalcedony (length-fast quartz), moganite and orthorhombic-silica (length-slow quartz), and opalline quartz components including opal-CT and opal-C (length-slow quartz). The scanning electron microscope images were shown that the internal structures of the petrified woods consist of mostly submicron-sized (100-800 nm), and partially nano-sized (60-120 nm) silica-building particles. So, the petrified wood samples can be firstly classified into five main-groups based on their colourations and specific gravity values, then, into three sub-groups based on the principal chalcedonic and opalline quartz silica

  7. High to ultrahigh potassic alkaline volcanic belt along the Ankara-Erzincan suture (northern Turkey): new geochemical and Ar-Ar data constraining petrogenesis with implications for the late Cretaceous subduction of the Neotethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, S. Can; Gulmez, Fatma; Tuysuz, Okan; Karacik, Zekiye; Roden, Michael F.; Zeki Billor, M.; Hames, Willis E.

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of some high- to ultrahigh-K alkaline volcanic rocks crop out as isolated small and discontinuous bodies along the Ankara-Erzincan suture belt in northern Turkey. These rocks are represented by leucite-bearing lavas (LB), basaltic andesites, trachytes, monzonite/syenites) and lamprophyres. Leucite-bearing rocks are small stocks, dikes and lava flows. Pebbles and blocks of the LB are found in the coeval volcanic debris avalanche deposits and volcanoclastic breccias. Leucite-bearing rocks are mainly phonotephrite, tephriphonolite, trachyandesite and basaltic trachyandesites (shoshonite) and have mineral assemblages of lct + cpx + ol + pl + Kfs + mag+ ap. Leucites were almost totally analcimized. Trachytes and monzonite/syenites, which are seen as small stocks and dikes, are characterized by amp + bt + pl + Kfs + spn + ap + opq paragenesis. Lamprophyres are mica-rich melanocratic dikes, and include cpx + mica (phlogopitic) + Kfs + ap + opq. Rarely leucite, olivine and plagioclase are also present. Ar-Ar data reveal that this volcanic activity occurred between 73.6±0.18 and 76.78±0.19 Ma, corresponding to latest Cretaceous. All the samples from the high- and ultrahigh-K volcanic belt are alkaline in nature. Leucite-bearing lavas are characterized by their MgO (2.70-5.81, av. 4.58 wt.%), K2O (0.79-4.81, av. 2.35 wt.%), Na2O (4.86-7.48, av. 3.58 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O (0.13-0.92, av. 0.42 wt.%). The low K2O and K2O/Na2O contents of these rocks are due to extensive analcimization of the leucites. Major oxide contents in lamprophyric rocks are 3.25-7.48 (MgO), 1.35-7.76 (K2O), 1.77-4.00 (Na2O) and 0.31-2.69 (K2O/Na2O). The silica content of these rocks are variable and range from 47.18-50.26 (wt.%) (LB) to 39.14-53.28 (lamprophyres). Based on their major element contents, these rocks are classified as plagioleucitites or ultrapotassic rocks of the active orogenic zones (Foley, 1992). Leucite-bearing rocks, lamprophyres and the trachytes (with their hypabyssal

  8. Deep Support Vector Machines for Regression Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; Schutten, Marten; Millea, Adrian; Meijster, Arnold; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel extension of the support vector machine, called the deep support vector machine (DSVM). The original SVM has a single layer with kernel functions and is therefore a shallow model. The DSVM can use an arbitrary number of layers, in which lower-level layers contain su

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KamalH.Yasir; TNAGYun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented.This classification is an extension of the result given by takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karnal H.Yasir; TANG Yun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented. This classification is an extension of the result given by Takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  11. Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a BTZ black hole. By applying the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.

  12. Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Zhou, Shiwei; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. By applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.

  13. Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. M. Wold

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review.

  14. Vector optimization with cone semilocally preinvex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Kaur Suneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce cone semilocally preinvex, cone semilocally quasi preinvex and cone semilocally pseudo preinvex functions and study their properties. These functions are further used to establish necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for a vector minimization problem over cones. A Mond-Weir type dual is formulated for the vector optimization problem and various duality theorems are proved.

  15. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  16. Clustering Categories in Support Vector Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art method in supervised classification. In this paper the Cluster Support Vector Machine (CLSVM) methodology is proposed with the aim to increase the sparsity of the SVM classifier in the presence of categorical features, leading to a gain in in...

  17. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  18. Vector Knowledge of Beginning Physics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Vector Knowledge Test that was designed to see if beginning physics students possess the minimal basic knowledge of vectors that will allow them to proceed with a study of Newtonian mechanics. Concludes that only one-third of the students in a calculus-based introductory course at California Polytechnic had sufficient vector…

  19. Vector fields and differential operators: noncommutative case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A notion of Cartan pairs as an analogy of vector fields in the realm of noncommutative geometry has been proposed previously. In this paper an outline is given of the construction of a noncommutative analogy of the algebra of differential operators as well as its (algebraic) Fock space realization. Co-universal vector fields and covariant derivatives will also be discussed

  20. Symmetric Distributions for Dependent Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Rivest, Louis-Paul

    1984-01-01

    This paper introduces several notions of symmetry for the joint distribution of two dependent unit vectors. Bivariate generalizations of $\\mathscr{L}$-symmetry (Rivest, 1984) and rotational symmetry are introduced. If the joint distribution of two unit vectors is at least $\\mathscr{L}$-symmetric the information matrix for the parameters indexing it is shown to have a simple shape.

  1. Concept of a Supervector Processor: A Vector Approach to Superscalar Processor, Design and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar, Ranjan Kumar Behera, K. S. Pandey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the available performance is always a goal in microprocessor design. In this paper a new technique has been implemented which exploits the advantage of both superscalar and vector processing technique in a proposed processor called Supervector processor. Vector processor operates on array of data called vector and can greatly improve certain task such as numerical simulation and tasks which requires huge number crunching. On other handsuperscalar processor issues multiple instructions per cyclewhich can enhance the throughput. To implement parallelism multiple vector instructions were issued and executed per cycle in superscalar fashion. Case study has been done on various benchmarks to compare the performance of proposedsupervector processor architecture with superscalar and vectorprocessor architecture. Trimaran Framework has been used in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed supervector processor scheme.

  2. Magnetostriction simulation using anisotropic vector Preisach-type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adly, A.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Electric Power and Machines Dept.; Mayergoyz, I.D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Magnetic materials exhibiting gigantic magnetostriction, especially Terfenol, are currently being widely used in fine positioning and active vibration damping devices. By involving accurate magnetostriction models during design stages, precision of such devices may be significantly enhanced. In this paper a straight-forward approach that employs anisotropic vector Preisach-type hysteresis models in simulating field-stress effects on magnetic materials is presented. Formulation of the proposed model is given and its identification problem is solved. The presented approach has been numerically implemented and numerous digital computer simulations have been performed for Terfenol material. Sample simulation results as well as comparisons with experimentally observed magnetostriction curves are reported in the paper.

  3. Vectorization of nuclear codes 88-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we describe the vectorization of thermal reactor standard neutronics code system SRAC, three dimensional neutron diffusion code CITATION, two dimensional discrete ordinates transport code TWOTRAN-II, multi-dimensional core burn-up calculation code COREBN, two and three dimensional neutron diffusion code CITATION-FBR. CITATION code, TWOTRAN code, collision probability method code PIJ in SRAC system are also vectorized. The performance ratio of the vectorized version to the original one is from 1.8 to 8.6 for SRC, from 2.3 to 10.1 for CITATION, 4.2 for TWOTRAN-II, from 2.9 to 10.4 for COREBN, from 3.9 to 13.3 for CITATION-FBR. In this report, we describe sample input data, summary of the codes, vectorization techniques and performance evaluation of the vectorized codes. (author)

  4. Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  5. Cascade Support Vector Machines with Dimensionality Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kramer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities.

  6. The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.

  7. Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Steven E.

    The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.

  8. Electroweak Baryogenesis in a Vector-like Fermion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ming-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We extend the standard model to a scalar-assisted vector-like fermion model to realize electroweak baryogenesis. The extended Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, due to the mixing among the vector-like quark and the standard model quarks, provides additional sources of the CP violation. Together with the enhancement from large vector-like quark mass, a large enough baryon-to-photon ratio could be obtained. We investigate in detail the one-loop temperature-dependent effective potential involving the Higgs field $\\phi$ and a new singlet scalar field $s$ in the on-shell scheme. The scalar potential could generate either a tree-level or a thermally-induced barrier to separate the broken minimum and the symmetric minimum, and thus realize the first order phase transition through bubble nucleation. We perform a random parameter scan and study the allowed parameter region that satisfy the strong first order phase transition criteria $v_c \\ge T_c$. According to the distinct features of the phase transition in the two-d...

  9. Optimized support vector regression for drilling rate of penetration estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaghi, Asadollah; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Mahsa

    2015-12-01

    In the petroleum industry, drilling optimization involves the selection of operating conditions for achieving the desired depth with the minimum expenditure while requirements of personal safety, environment protection, adequate information of penetrated formations and productivity are fulfilled. Since drilling optimization is highly dependent on the rate of penetration (ROP), estimation of this parameter is of great importance during well planning. In this research, a novel approach called `optimized support vector regression' is employed for making a formulation between input variables and ROP. Algorithms used for optimizing the support vector regression are the genetic algorithm (GA) and the cuckoo search algorithm (CS). Optimization implementation improved the support vector regression performance by virtue of selecting proper values for its parameters. In order to evaluate the ability of optimization algorithms in enhancing SVR performance, their results were compared to the hybrid of pattern search and grid search (HPG) which is conventionally employed for optimizing SVR. The results demonstrated that the CS algorithm achieved further improvement on prediction accuracy of SVR compared to the GA and HPG as well. Moreover, the predictive model derived from back propagation neural network (BPNN), which is the traditional approach for estimating ROP, is selected for comparisons with CSSVR. The comparative results revealed the superiority of CSSVR. This study inferred that CSSVR is a viable option for precise estimation of ROP.

  10. Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Anthrax Vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As bioterrorism is emerging as a national threat, it is urgent to develop a new generation of anthrax vaccines that can be rapidly produced and mass administered in an emergency setting. We have demonstrated that protective immunity against anthrax spores could be elicited in mice by intranasal administration of a non-replicating human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in a single-dose regimen. The potency of an Ad5 vector encoding PA was remarkably enhanced by codon optimization of the PA gene to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. This nasal vaccine can be mass-administered by non-medical personnel during a bioterrorist attack. In addition, replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free Ad5-vectored anthrax vaccines can be mass produced in PER.C6 cells in serum-free wave bioreactors and purified by column chromatography to meet a surge in demand. The non-replicating nature of this new generation of anthrax vaccine ensures an excellent safety profile for vaccines and the environment.(author)

  11. Efficient Satellite Scheduling Based on Improved Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengyue Mao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite scheduling is a typical multi-peak, many-valley, nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem. How to effectively implement the satellite scheduling is a crucial research in space areas.This paper mainly discusses the performance of VEGA (Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm based on the study of basic principles of VEGA algorithm, algorithm realization and test function, and then improves VEGA algorithm through introducing vector coding, new crossover and mutation operators, new methods to assign fitness and hold good individuals. As a result, the diversity and convergence of improved VEGA algorithm of improved VEGA algorithm have been significantly enhanced and will be applied to Earth-Mars orbit optimization. At the same time, this paper analyzes the results of the improved VEGA, whose results of performance analysis and evaluation show that although VEGA has a profound impact upon multi-objective evolutionary research,  multi-objective evolutionary algorithm on the basis of Pareto seems to be a more effective method to get the non-dominated solutions from the perspective of diversity and convergence of experimental result. Finally, based on Visual C + + integrated development environment, we have implemented improved vector evaluation algorithm in the satellite scheduling.

  12. Chord Recognition Based on Temporal Correlation Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyang Rao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method called temporal correlation support vector machine (TCSVM for automatic major-minor chord recognition in audio music. We first use robust principal component analysis to separate the singing voice from the music to reduce the influence of the singing voice and consider the temporal correlations of the chord features. Using robust principal component analysis, we expect the low-rank component of the spectrogram matrix to contain the musical accompaniment and the sparse component to contain the vocal signals. Then, we extract a new logarithmic pitch class profile (LPCP feature called enhanced LPCP from the low-rank part. To exploit the temporal correlation among the LPCP features of chords, we propose an improved support vector machine algorithm called TCSVM. We perform this study using the MIREX’09 (Music Information Retrieval Evaluation eXchange Audio Chord Estimation dataset. Furthermore, we conduct comprehensive experiments using different pitch class profile feature vectors to examine the performance of TCSVM. The results of our method are comparable to the state-of-the-art methods that entered the MIREX in 2013 and 2014 for the MIREX’09 Audio Chord Estimation task dataset.

  13. Engineering fusogenic molecules to achieve targeted transduction of enveloped lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors with broad tropism are one of the most promising gene delivery systems capable of efficiently delivering genes of interest into both dividing and non-dividing cells while maintaining long-term transgene expression. However, there are needs for developing lentiviral vectors with the capability to deliver genes to specific cell types, thus reducing the "off-target" effect of gene therapy. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of engineering the fusion-active domain of a fusogenic molecule (FM with the aim to improve targeted transduction of lentiviral vectors co-displaying an anti-CD20 antibody (αCD20 and a FM. Results Specific mutations were introduced into the fusion domain of a binding-deficient Sindbis virus glycoprotein to generate several mutant FMs. Lentiviral vectors incorporated with αCD20 and one of the engineered FMs were successfully produced and demonstrated to be able to preferentially deliver genes to CD-20-expressing cells. Lentiviral vectors bearing engineered FMs exhibited 8 to 17-fold enhanced transduction towards target cells as compared to the parental FM. Different levels of enhancement were observed for the different engineered FMs. A pH-dependent study of vector transduction showed that the broader pH range of the engineered FM is a possible mechanism for the resulted increase in transduction efficiency. Conclusion The fusion domain of Sindbis virus glycoprotein is amenable for engineering and the engineered proteins provide elevated capacity to mediate lentiviral vectors for targeted transduction. Our data suggests that application of such an engineering strategy can optimize the two-molecular targeting method of lentiviral vectors for gene delivery to predetermined cells.

  14. Vector Data Model: A New Model of HDF-EOS to Support GIS Applications in EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, E.; Edmonds, R d

    2001-05-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) project has an active program of research and development of systems for the storage and management of Earth science data for Earth Observation System (EOS) mission, a key program of NASA Earth Science Enterprise. EOS has adopted an extension of the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) as the format of choice for standard product distribution. Three new EOS specific datatypes - point, swath and grid - have been defined within the HDF framework. The enhanced data format is named HDF-EOS. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used by Earth scientists in EOS data product generation, visualization, and analysis. There are two major data types in GIS applications, raster and vector. The current HDF-EOS handles only raster type in the swath data model. The vector data model is identified and developed as a new HDFEOS format to meet the requirements of scientists working with EOS data products in vector format. The vector model is designed using a topological data structure, which defines the spatial relationships among points, lines, and polygons. The three major topological concepts that the vector model adopts are: a) lines connect to each other at nodes (connectivity), b) lines that connect to surround an area define a polygon (area definition), and c) lines have direction and left and right sides (contiguity). The vector model is implemented in HDF by mapping the conceptual model to HDF internal data models and structures, viz. Vdata, Vgroup, and their associated attribute structures. The point, line, and polygon geometry and attribute data are stored in similar tables. Further, the vector model utilizes the structure and product metadata, which characterize the HDF-EOS. Both types of metadata are stored as attributes in HDF-EOS files, and are encoded in text format by using Object Description Language (ODL) and stored as global attributes in HDF-EOS files. EOS has developed a series of routines for storing

  15. Students' difficulties with unit vectors and scalar multiplication of a vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2012-02-01

    In this article we report an investigation on students' understanding of: 1) unit vectors and, 2) scalar multiplication of a vector. We administered two different tests to a total of 850 students after taking their first introductory physics course on mechanics at a large private Mexican university. The first test about unit vectors was taken by 270 students and the second test about scalar multiplication of a vector by 580 students. In the first part of this article, we analyze students' difficulties sketching the unit vector in the direction of a vector in the Cartesian coordinate plane. In the second part, we analyze students' responses in two types of problems: positive and negative scalar multiplication of a vector. In both parts of this article we describe frequent errors that have not been reported in the literature.

  16. A new generation of pPRIG-based retroviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulukos Kim E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviral vectors are valuable tools for gene transfer. Particularly convenient are IRES-containing retroviral vectors expressing both the protein of interest and a marker protein from a single bicistronic mRNA. This coupled expression increases the relevance of tracking and/or selection of transduced cells based on the detection of a marker protein. pAP2 is a retroviral vector containing eGFP downstream of a modified IRES element of EMCV origin, and a CMV enhancer-promoter instead of the U3 region of the 5'LTR, which increases its efficiency in transient transfection. However, pAP2 contains a limited multicloning site (MCS and shows weak eGFP expression, which previously led us to engineer an improved version, termed pPRIG, harboring: i the wild-type ECMV IRES sequence, thereby restoring its full activity; ii an optimized MCS flanked by T7 and SP6 sequences; and iii a HA tag encoding sequence 5' of the MCS (pPRIG HAa/b/c. Results The convenience of pPRIG makes it a good basic vector to generate additional derivatives for an extended range of use. Here we present several novel pPRIG-based vectors (collectively referred to as PRIGs in which : i the HA tag sequence was inserted in the three reading frames 3' of the MCS (3'HA PRIGs; ii a functional domain (ER, VP16 or KRAB was inserted either 5' or 3' of the MCS (« modular » PRIGs; iii eGFP was replaced by either eCFP, eYFP, mCherry or puro-R (« single color/resistance » PRIGs; and iv mCherry, eYFP or eGFP was inserted 5' of the MCS of the IRES-eGFP, IRES-eCFP or IRES-Puro-R containing PRIGs, respectively (« dual color/selection » PRIGs. Additionally, some of these PRIGs were also constructed in a pMigR MSCV background which has been widely used in pluripotent cells. Conclusion These novel vectors allow for straightforward detection of any expressed protein (3'HA PRIGs, for functional studies of chimeric proteins (« modular » PRIGs, for multiple transductions and

  17. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  18. Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-Yan; Hu, Wei; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Arbitrary vector beams (VBs) are realized by the designed polarization converters and corresponding vector-photoaligned q-plates. The polarization converter is a specific twisted nematic cell with one substrate homogeneously aligned and the other space-variantly aligned. By combining a polarization-sensitive alignment agent with a dynamic micro-lithography system, various categories of liquid crystal polarization converters are demonstrated. Besides, traditional radially/azimuthally polarized light, high-order and multi-ringed VBs, and a VB array with different orders are generated. The obtained converters are further utilized as polarization masks to implement vector-photoaligning. The technique facilitates both the volume duplication of these converters and the generation of another promising optical element, the q-plate, which is suitable for the generation of VBs for coherent lasers. The combination of proposed polarization converters and correspondingly fabricated q-plates would drastically enhance the capability of polarization control and may bring more possibilities for the design of photonic devices.

  19. Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-Yan; Hu, Wei, E-mail: huwei@nju.edu.cn; Lu, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqlu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chigrinov, Vladimir [Center for Display Research, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-12-14

    Arbitrary vector beams (VBs) are realized by the designed polarization converters and corresponding vector-photoaligned q-plates. The polarization converter is a specific twisted nematic cell with one substrate homogeneously aligned and the other space-variantly aligned. By combining a polarization-sensitive alignment agent with a dynamic micro-lithography system, various categories of liquid crystal polarization converters are demonstrated. Besides, traditional radially/azimuthally polarized light, high-order and multi-ringed VBs, and a VB array with different orders are generated. The obtained converters are further utilized as polarization masks to implement vector-photoaligning. The technique facilitates both the volume duplication of these converters and the generation of another promising optical element, the q-plate, which is suitable for the generation of VBs for coherent lasers. The combination of proposed polarization converters and correspondingly fabricated q-plates would drastically enhance the capability of polarization control and may bring more possibilities for the design of photonic devices.

  20. Foamy Virus Vectors for HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant D. Trobridge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has vastly improved outcomes for patients infected with HIV, yet it is a lifelong regimen that is expensive and has significant side effects. Retroviral gene therapy is a promising alternative treatment for HIV/AIDS; however, inefficient gene delivery to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs has so far limited the efficacy of this approach. Foamy virus (FV vectors are derived from non-pathogenic viruses that are not endemic to the human population. FV vectors have been used to deliver HIV-inhibiting transgenes to human HSCs, and they have several advantages relative to other retroviral vectors. These include an attractive safety profile, broad tropism, a large transgene capacity, and the ability to persist in quiescent cells. In addition, the titers of FV vectors are not reduced by anti-HIV transgenes that affect the production of lentivirus (LV vectors. Thus FV vectors are very promising for anti-HIV gene therapy. This review covers the advantages of FV vectors and describes their preclinical development for anti-HIV gene therapy.