WorldWideScience

Sample records for anisotropy energy spectrum

  1. Effect of the energy spectrum and angular momentum of pre-scission neutrons on the prediction of fission fragment angular anisotropy by the models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, Saeed; Khanlari, Marzieh Varasteh

    2016-04-01

    Effects of the various neutron emission energy spectra, as well as the influence of the angular momentum of pre-scission neutrons on theoretical predictions of fission fragment angular anisotropies for several heavy-ion induced fission systems are considered. Although theoretical calculations of angular anisotropy are very sensitive to neutron emission correction, the effects of the different values of kinetic energy of emitted neutrons derived from the various neutron emission energy spectra before reaching to the saddle point on the prediction of fission fragment angular distribution by the model are not significant and can be neglected, since these effects on angular anisotropies of fission fragments for a wide range of fissility parameters and excitation energies of compound nuclei are not more than 10%. Furthermore, the theoretical prediction of fission fragment angular anisotropy is not sensitive to the angular momentum of emitted neutrons.

  2. Measurement of Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Anisotropy with ARGO-YBJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Sciascio G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The combined measurement of the cosmic ray (CR energy spectrum and anisotropy in their arrival direction distribution needs the knowledge of the elemental composition of the radiation to discriminate between different origin and propagation models. Important information on the CR mass composition can be obtained studying the EAS muon content through the measurement of the CR rate at different zenith angles. In this paper we report on the observation of the anisotropy of galactic CRs at different angular scales with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. We report also on the study of the primary CR rate for different zenith angles. The light component (p+He has been selected and its energy spectrum measured in the energy range (5 – 200 TeV for quasi-vertical events. With this analysis for the first time a ground-based measurement of the CR spectrum overlaps data obtained with direct methods for more than one energy decade, thus providing a solid anchorage to the CR spectrum measurements carried out by EAS arrays in the knee region. Finally, a preliminary study of the non-attenuated shower component at a zenith angle θ > 70° (through the observation of the so-called horizantal air showers is presented.

  3. Effects of anisotropy on the frequency spectrum of gravity waves observed by MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    In the investigation of gravity waves using mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar data, model gravity-wave spectra have been used. In these model spectra, one usually assumes azimuthal symmetry. The effect of spectral anisotropy on the observed spectrum is studied here. It is shown that for a general Garrett-Munk-type spectrum, the anisotropy does not affect the frequency spectrum observed by the vertically beamed radar. For the oblique beam, however, the observed frequency spectrum is changed. A general gravity wave spectrum including azimuthal anisotropy is considered.

  4. Implications of the cosmic ray electron spectrum and anisotropy measured with Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration recently released the updated results of the measurement of the cosmic ray electron (CRE) spectrum and published its first constraints on the CRE anisotropy. With respect to the previous Fermi-LAT results, the CRE spectrum measurement was extended down from 20 to 7 GeV, thus providing a better lever arm to discriminate theoretical models. Here we show that the new data strengthen the evidence for the presence of two distinct electron and positron spectral components. Furthermore, we show that under such hypothesis most relevant CRE and positron data sets are remarkably well reproduced. Consistent fits of cosmic-ray nuclei and antiproton data, which are crucial to validate the adopted propagation setup(s) and to fix the solar modulation potential, are obtained for the Kraichnan and plain-diffusion propagation setups, while the Kolmogorov one is disfavored. We then confirm that nearby pulsars are viable source candidates of the required e± extra-component. In that case, we show that the predicted CRE anisotropy is compatible with Fermi-LAT constraints and that a positive detection should be at hand of that observatory. Models assuming that only nearby supernova remnants contribute to the high energy tail of the observed CRE spectrum are in contrast with anisotropy limits. (orig.)

  5. Entanglement spectrum and quantum phase transitions in one-dimensional S=1 XXZ model with uniaxial single-ion anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in one-dimensional S=1 XXZ model with uniaxial single-ion anisotropy are investigated. Bipartite entanglement, entanglement spectrum, and Schmidt gap are found to be capable of describing all the QPTs, even the infinite-order Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition. According to the singular behavior of the second-order derivative of ground-state energy, the QPT between XY2 and antiferromagnetic phases is a second-order but not a BKT transition. Energy level crossing, accompanied with discontinuous entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum, is observed at the transition point between the large-D and antiferromagnetic phases, therefore it should be a first-order QPT. In addition, doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum in the Haldane phase is observed.

  6. Brute force reconstruction of the primordial fluctuation spectrum from five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primordial fluctuation spectrum is reconstructed from the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. We divide the wave number space in the range of 1.23x10-3 Mpc-1 -2 Mpc-1 into about 50 bins, and derive probability distributions of fluctuation amplitudes on the respective scales using Monte Carlo simulations. Although the reconstructed spectrum is basically consistent with a power-law spectrum, we find a hint of fine structure at k≅0.002 Mpc-1 and 0.009 Mpc-1. The former is observed only in the temperature anisotropy, while the latter is both in the temperature and polarization anisotropies. The significance of these features are discussed, and it is shown that the deviation from a power-law spectrum at k≅0.009 Mpc-1 is at 2.8σ level.

  7. The CMB Power Spectrum from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dwyer, I J; Childers, J; Figueiredo, N; Halevi, D; Huey, G G; Lubin, P M; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marvil, J; Meinhold, P R; Mejia, J; Natoli, P; O'Neill, H; Pina, A; Seiffert, M D; Stebor, N C; Tello, C A S; Villela, T; Wandelt, B D; Williams, B; Wünsche, C A; Dwyer, Ian J. O'; Bersanelli, Marco; Childers, Jeffrey; Figueiredo, Newton; Halevi, Doron; Huey, Gregory G.; Lubin, Philip M.; Maino, Davide; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Marvil, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter R.; Mejia, Jorge; Natoli, Paolo; Neill, Hugh O'; Pina, Agenor; Seiffert, Michael D.; Stebor, Nathan C.; Tello, Camilo; Villela, Thyrso; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Williams, Brian; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) is a 2.2m off-axis telescope with an 8 element mixed Q (38-45GHz) and Ka (26-36GHz) band focal plane, designed for balloon borne and ground based studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Here we present the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) angular power spectrum calculated from 682 hours of data observed with the BEAST instrument. We use a binned pseudo-Cl estimator (the MASTER method). We find results that are consistent with other determinations of the CMB anisotropy for angular wavenumber l between 100 and 600. We also perform cosmological parameter estimation. The BEAST data alone produces a good constraint on Omega_k = 1-Omega_tot=-0.074 +/- 0.070, consistent with a flat Universe. A joint parameter estimation analysis with a number of previous CMB experiments produces results consistent with previous determinations.

  8. New estimation of the spectral index of high-energy cosmic rays as determined by the Compton-Getting anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu,; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Fan, C; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren,; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y -Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X

    2007-01-01

    The amplitude of the Compton-Getting (CG) anisotropy contains the power-law index of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum. Based on this relation and using the Tibet air-shower array data, we measure the cosmic-ray spectral index to be $-3.03 \\pm 0.55_{stat} \\pm < 0.62_{syst}$ between 6 TeV and 40 TeV, consistent with $-$2.7 from direct energy spectrum measurements. Potentially, this CG anisotropy analysis can be utilized to confirm the astrophysical origin of the ``knee'' against models for non-standard hadronic interactions in the atmosphere.

  9. ANOMALOUS PARITY ASYMMETRY OF THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE POWER SPECTRUM DATA AT LOW MULTIPOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated non-Gaussianity of our early universe by comparing the parity asymmetry of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) power spectrum with simulations. We find that odd-parity preference of the WMAP data (2 ≤ l ≤ 18) is anomalous at 4-in-1000 level. We find it likely that low quadrupole power is part of this parity asymmetry rather than an isolated anomaly. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of this anomaly is a cosmological or a systematic effect. The data from Planck Surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will help us to resolve the origin of the anomalous odd-parity preference.

  10. Microwave background anisotropies and the primordial spectrum of cosmological density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave background anisotropies in various cosmological scenarios are studied. In particular, we examine the extent to which non-scale invariant spectra of the primordial density fluctuations are consistent with the observational upper limits. The resultant constraints are summarized as contours on (n, Ω) plane, where n is the power-law index of the primordial spectrum of density fluctuations, and Ω is the cosmological density parameter. They are compared also with the constraints from the cosmic Mach number test, recently proposed by Ostriker and Suto. The parameter regions which pass both tests are not consistent with the theoretical prejudice inspired by the inflationary model. (author)

  11. The CMB Power Spectrum from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Bersanelli, Marco; Childers, Jeffrey; Figueiredo, Newton; Halevi, Doron; Huey, Gregory G.; Lubin, Philip M.; Maino, Davide; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Marvil, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter R.; Mejia, Jorge; Natoli, Paolo; O'Neill, Hugh,; Pina, Agenor

    2003-01-01

    The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) is a 2.2m off-axis telescope with an 8 element mixed Q (38-45GHz) and Ka (26-36GHz) band focal plane, designed for balloon borne and ground based studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Here we present the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) angular power spectrum calculated from 682 hours of data observed with the BEAST instrument. We use a binned pseudo-Cl estimator (the MASTER method). We find results that are consistent with ...

  12. Residual Energy Spectrum of Solar Wind Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; Maruca, B A

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 years of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of sigma_r = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r_A = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cros...

  13. Signature of short distance physics on inflation power spectrum and CMB anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inflaton field responsible for inflation may not be a canonical fundamental scalar. It is possible that the inflaton is a composite of fermions or it may have a decay width. In these cases the standard procedure for calculating the power spectrum is not applicable and a new formalism needs to be developed to determine the effect of short range interactions of the inflaton on the power spectrum and the CMB anisotropy. We develop a general formalism for computing the power spectrum of curvature perturbations for such non-canonical cases by using the flat space Källén-Lehmann spectral function in curved quasi-de Sitter space assuming implicitly that the Bunch-Davis boundary conditions enforces the inflaton mode functions to be plane wave in the short wavelength limit and a complete set of mode functions exists in quasi-de Sitter space. It is observed that the inflaton with a decay width suppresses the power at large scale while a composite inflaton's power spectrum oscillates at large scales. These observations may be vindicated in the WMAP data and confirmed by future observations with PLANCK

  14. Spectrum and Anisotropy of Turbulence from Multi-Frequency Measurement of Synchrotron Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We consider turbulent synchrotron emitting media that also exhibits Faraday rotation and provide a statistical description of synchrotron polarization fluctuations. In particular, we consider these fluctuations as a function of the spatial separation of the direction of measurements and as a function of wavelength for the same line-of-sight. On the basis of our general analytical approach, we introduce several measures that can be used to obtain the spectral slopes and correlation scales of both the underlying magnetic turbulence responsible for emission and the spectrum of the Faraday rotation fluctuations. We show the synergetic nature of these measures and discuss how the study can be performed using sparsely sampled interferometric data. We also discuss how additional characteristics of turbulence can be obtained, including the turbulence anisotropy, the three dimensional direction of the mean magnetic field. We consider both cases when the synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation regions coincide and wh...

  15. Full-Sky Search for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, L A; McCauley, T; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J D; Widom, A; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Hojvat, Carlos; McCauley, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Reucroft, Stephen; Swain, John D.; Widom, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the SUGAR and the AGASA experiments taken during a 10 yr period with nearly uniform exposure to the entire sky, we search for anisotropy patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energies > 10^{19.6} eV. We determine the angular power spectrum from an expansion in spherical harmonics for modes out to \\ell=5. Based on available statistics, we find no significant deviation from isotropy. We compare the rather modest results which can be extracted from existing data samples with the results that should be forthcoming as new full-sky observatories begin operation.

  16. Spectrum and Anisotropy of Turbulence from Multi-frequency Measurement of Synchrotron Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2016-02-01

    We consider turbulent synchrotron-emitting media that also exhibit Faraday rotation and provide a statistical description of synchrotron polarization fluctuations. In particular, we consider these fluctuations as a function of the spatial separation of the direction of the measurements and as a function of wavelength for the same line of sight. On the basis of our general analytical approach, we introduce several measures that can be used to obtain the spectral slopes and correlation scales of both the underlying magnetic turbulence responsible for emission and the spectrum of the Faraday rotation fluctuations. We show the synergetic nature of these measures and discuss how the study can be performed using sparsely sampled interferometric data. We also discuss how additional characteristics of turbulence can be obtained, including the turbulence anisotropy and the three-dimensional direction of the mean magnetic field. In addition, we consider the cases when the synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation regions are spatially separated. Appealing to our earlier study, we explain that our new results are applicable to a wide range of spectral indexes of relativistic electrons responsible for synchrotron emission. We expect wide application of our techniques, both with existing synchrotron data sets and with big forthcoming data sets from LOFAR and SKA.

  17. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  18. Energy spectrum of muon in EAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compact extensive air shower (EAS) array which consists of 8 scintillation counters, and the solid iron magnet spectrometer (the Okayama muon telescope) have been used to measure energy spectrum of muons in EAS from January 2004 in Okayama University. We compared the result of the muon energy spectrum tagged by EAS trigger signals with EAS simulations which agreed with higher energy hadronic interaction models such as QGSJET and SYBILL, and lower energy hadronic ones such as Hillas Splitting Algorithm, GHEISHA and UrQMD, in order to verify the influence of the hadronic interaction model upon properties of EAS particles, especially the energy spectrum of muons

  19. Energy spectrum of muon in EAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Iyono, A.; Noda, C.; Masuda, M.; Yamamoto, I.; Wada, T.; Okei, K.; Tsuji, S.; Morita, T.; Okita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Liang, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ochi, N.

    2008-01-01

    The compact extensive air shower (EAS) array which consists of 8 scintillation counters, and the solid iron magnet spectrometer (the Okayama muon telescope) have been used to measure energy spectrum of muons in EAS from January 2004 in Okayama University. We compared the result of the muon energy spectrum tagged by EAS trigger signals with EAS simulations which agreed with higher energy hadronic interaction models such as QGSJET and SYBILL, and lower energy hadronic ones such as Hillas Splitting Algorithm, GHEISHA and UrQMD, in order to verify the influence of the hadronic interaction model upon properties of EAS particles, especially the energy spectrum of muons.

  20. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy for GeMnTe ferromagnetic semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Łusakowski, A.; Bogusławski, P.; Story, T.

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor GeMnTe were performed using using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighborhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density...

  1. Energy spectrum of C60 fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, G. I.; Murzashev, A. I.

    2011-11-01

    The energy spectrum of the C60 fullerene has been calculated in terms of the Shubin-Vonsovskii-Hubbard model using an approximation of static fluctuations. Based on the spectrum, the optical absorption bands at 4.84, 5.88, and 6.30 eV observed experimentally have been successfully explained. It has been concluded that the model used is applicable for the calculation of the energy spectrum and the energy properties of other nanosystems, such as fullerenes of higher orders, carbon nanotubes, and grafen planes.

  2. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge1−xMnxTe ferromagnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1−xMnxTe were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin–orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge1−xMnxTe (1 1 1) thin layers. (paper)

  3. ANISOTROPY OF (1× 1)-SURFACE FREE ENERGIES OF CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M.Yu; A. Flodstrom

    2001-01-01

    The surface free energy (SFE) of (1× 1)-surfaces of crystals, without reconstructionand adsorption, is calculated using a bond-broken mode. In the mode, the potentialenergy of the crystals is treated as a sum of the energies of the bonds connectingpair-wise atoms (u-bonds). The SFE is calculated based on the bond energy and thearea density of dangling bonds which depends on the structure of the surface. Theresults provide a general expression for the SFE in terms of the bond energy (E)and the bond length (do) of the crystal and Miller indices hkl. The anisotropy ofthe SFE is therefore completely determined with the expression. As the examples,considering the nearest-neighboring bonding, the SFEs of sc, fcc, bcc and cth (cubictetrahedral) crystals are discussed, respectively. Wulff plots of bcc and fcc crystalsare then obtained. The equilibrium forms (EFs) of these crystals ave consequentlygot from their Wulff plots, respectively. It is found that the EFs of bcc and fcc arerespectively the rhombic dodecahedron and the truncated-octahedron that are their firstBrillouin zones, respectively.

  4. Anisotropy in the cosmic radiation at TeV energy

    CERN Document Server

    Iuppa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In recent years very important results were obtained from cosmic ray experiments about the arrival direction distribution of primaries in the TeV energy range. As most of these particles are charged nuclei, they are deflected by the magnetic field they pass through before reaching the Earth surface, the effect of the Lorentz force being inversely proportional to the particle energy. As far as the local interstellar medium is known, the gyroradius of a 10 TeV proton is expected to be only 100 a.u., small enough to make the arrival direction distribution isotropic. Since 1930s a "large scale" (90{\\deg}-120{\\deg}) anisotropy is known to exist, generally interpreted as the combined effect of sources far away and magnetic fields nearby. Nonetheless, in the last decade experiments like Tibet-ASg, Milagro, ARGO-YBJ and IceCube discovered structures as wide as 10{\\deg}-30{\\deg} all over the sky at ~ 10 TeV energy, what is unexplainable within the standard model of cosmic rays. In this paper a review of the most recen...

  5. Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Rosset, C.; Stompor, R.; Hobson, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Bhatia, R.; Blagrave, K.; Bond, J.R.; Martin, P.; Helou, G.; Shellard, P.; Yvon, D.; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Toffolatti, L.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Scott, D.; Oliver, S.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Chiang, C.; Jones, W.C.; Cayón, L.; White, M.; Knox, L.; Lubin, P.M.; Zonca, A.; Matarrese, S.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Piacentini, F.; Gregorio, A.; Balbi, A.; Cabella, P.; De Gasperis, G.; Mazzotta, P.; Vittorio, N.; Kneissl, R.; Dupac, X.; Mendes, L.; Giardino, G.; Laureijs, R.J.; Leonardi, R.; Tauber, J.A.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Umana, G.; Bonaldi, A.; Polenta, G.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Maris, M.; Mennella, A.; Pasian, F.; Zacchei, A.; Burigana, C.; Cuttaia, F.; De Rosa, A.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Natoli, P.; Ricciardi, S.; Sandri, M.; Terenzi, L.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Maino, D.; Tomasi, M.; Stivoli, F.; Désert, F.-X.; Chamballu, A.; Clements, D.L.; Jaffe, A.H.; Mortlock, D.; Novikov, D.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Ganga, K.; Rusholme, B.; Benoît, A.; Aghanim, N.; Aumont, J.; Dole, H.; Douspis, M.; Grain, J.; Lagache, G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Pajot, F.; Ponthieu, N.; Puget, J.-L.; Torre, J.-P.; Benabed, K.; Bouchet, F.R.; Colombi, S.; Delouis, J.-M.; Hivon, E.; Moneti, A.; Prunet, S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Wandelt, B.D.; Fosalba, P.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Efstathiou, G.; Donzelli, S.; Eriksen, H.K.; Hansen, F.K.; Lilje, P.B.; Hoyland, R.J.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Barreiro, R.B.; Herranz, D.; López-Caniego, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bock, J.J.; Doré, O.; Holmes, W.A.; Keskitalo, R.; Lawrence, C.R.; Mitra, S.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Prézeau, G.; Rocha, G.; Seiffert, M.D.; Wade, L.A.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; Maffei, B.; Ashdown, M.; Challinor, A.; Gratton, S.; Harrison, D.; Lasenby, A.; MacTavish, C.J.; Catalano, A.; Coulais, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Arnaud, M.; Starck, J.-L.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; MacÍas-Pérez, J.F.; Perotto, L.; Renault, C.; Santos, D.; Couchot, F.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Tristram, M.; Kisner, T.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Dörl, U.; Enßlin, T.A.; Hovest, W.; Matthai, F.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Riller, T.; Tuovinen, J.; Lockman, F.J.; Murphy, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Naselsky, P.; Novikov, I.; Crill, B.P.; Savini, G.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bonavera, L.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.; González-Nuevo, J.; Leach, S.; Perrotta, F.; Mann, R.; Ade, P.A.R.; Munshi, D.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Borrill, J.; Osborne, S.; Banday, A.J.; Bernard, J.-P.; Forni, O.; Giard, M.; Leroy, C.; Montier, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ristorcelli, I.; Reach, W.T.; Battaner, E.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Górski, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole = 200 to = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer of t...

  6. Energy Spectrum of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux $\\Pi_u$, we demonstrate that for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum $E_u(k) \\sim k^{-11/5}$, the entropy spectrum $E_\\theta(k) \\sim k^{-7/5}$, and $\\Pi_u(k) \\sim k^{-4/5}$, consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence $E_u(k)$ follo...

  7. Ultra Low Energy Switching of Ferromagnet with Perpendicular Anisotropy on Topological Insulator by Voltage Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Dey, Rik; Roy, Urmimala; Register, Leonard; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2015-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate, through simulation, an ultra low energy memory device on a topological insulator thin film. The device consists of a thin layer of Fe deposited on the surface of a topological insulator, Bi2Se3. The top surface of Fe is covered with MgO so that the ferromagnetic layer has perpendicular anisotropy. Current is passed on the surface of the topological insulator which switches the magnetization of the Fe ferromagnet through strong exchange interaction, between electrons contributing to the surface current on the Bi2Se3 and the d electrons in the ferromagnet, and spin transfer torque due to shunting of current through the ferromagnet. Voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy enables ultra low energy switching. Our micromagnetic simulations, predict switching time of the order of 2.4 ns and switching energy of the order of 0.16 fJ for a ferromagnetic bit with thermal stability of 90 kBT. The proposed structure combines the advantages of both large spin torque from topological insulators and those of perpendicular anisotropy materials. This work is supported by NRI SWAN and NSF NASCENT Center.

  8. Energy spectrum of Buoyancy-driven Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K

    2014-01-01

    Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux $\\Pi_u$, we demonstrate that for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum $E_u(k) \\sim k^{-11/5}$, the entropy spectrum $E_\\theta(k) \\sim k^{-7/5}$, and $\\Pi_u(k) \\sim k^{-4/5}$ (Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling). This scaling is due to the depletion of kinetic energy because of buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy in stratified flows, $E_u(k)$ follows Kolmgorov's spectrum with a constant energy flux. We also argue that for Rayleigh B\\'{e}nard convection, the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling will not hold for the bulk flow due to the positive energy supply by buoyancy and non-decreasing $\\Pi_u(k)$.

  9. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karashtin, A.N. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ryabov, V.A., E-mail: ryabov@x4u.lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shepetov, A.L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V. [Ionosphere Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ptitsyn, M.O., E-mail: ptitsyn@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shalamova, S.Ya. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shlyugaev, Yu.V. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vildanova, L.I. [Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zybin, K.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gurevich, A.V., E-mail: alex@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-10

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  10. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10-3-10-2 J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  11. Surface anisotropy broadening of the energy barrier distribution in magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, N; Guardia, P; Roca, A G; Morales, M P; Serna, C J; Iglesias, O; Bartolomé, F; García, L M; Batlle, X; Labarta, A

    2008-11-26

    The effect of surface anisotropy on the distribution of energy barriers in magnetic fine particles of nanometer size is discussed within the framework of the Tln(t/τ(0)) scaling approach. The comparison between the distributions of the anisotropy energy of the particle cores, calculated by multiplying the volume distribution by the core anisotropy, and of the total anisotropy energy, deduced by deriving the master curve of the magnetic relaxation with respect to the scaling variable Tln(t/τ(0)), enables the determination of the surface anisotropy as a function of the particle size. We show that the contribution of the particle surface to the total anisotropy energy can be well described by a size-independent value of the surface energy per unit area which permits the superimposition of the distributions corresponding to the particle core and effective anisotropy energies. The method is applied to a ferrofluid composed of non-interacting Fe(3-x)O(4) particles of 4.9 nm average size and x about 0.07. Even though the size distribution is quite narrow in this system, a relatively small value of the effective surface anisotropy constant K(s) = 2.9 × 10(-2) erg cm(-2) gives rise to a dramatic broadening of the total energy distribution. The reliability of the average value of the effective anisotropy constant, deduced from magnetic relaxation data, is verified by comparing it to that obtained from the analysis of the shift of the ac susceptibility peaks as a function of the frequency. PMID:21836285

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM ACROSS WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA RELEASES: A NONPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a nonparametric function estimation methodology, we present a comparative analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year data releases for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum with respect to the following key questions. (1) How well is the power spectrum determined by the data alone? (2) How well is the ΛCDM model supported by a model-independent, data-driven analysis? (3) What are the realistic uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights? Our results show that the height of the power spectrum is well determined by data alone for multipole l approximately less than 546 (1-year), 667 (3-year), 804 (5-year), and 842 (7-year data). We show that parametric fits based on the ΛCDM model are remarkably close to our nonparametric fits in l-regions where data are sufficiently precise. In contrast, the power spectrum for an HΛCDM model is progressively pushed away from our nonparametric fit as data quality improves with successive data realizations, suggesting incompatibility of this particular cosmological model with respect to the WMAP data sets. We present uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% (2σ) level of confidence and show how these uncertainties translate into hyperbolic 'bands' on the acoustic scale (lA ) and peak shift (φm) parameters. Based on the confidence set for the 7-year data, we argue that the low-l upturn in the CMB power spectrum cannot be ruled out at any confidence level in excess of about 10% (≈0.12σ). Additional outcomes of this work are a numerical formulation for minimization of a noise-weighted risk function subject to monotonicity constraints, a prescription for obtaining nonparametric fits that are closer to cosmological expectations on smoothness, and a method for sampling cosmologically meaningful power spectrum variations from the confidence set of a nonparametric fit.

  13. Energy Spectrum of Buoyancy-driven Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Mahendra K; Chatterjee, Anando G

    2014-01-01

    Using direct numerical simulation we demonstrate that stably stratified flows with large Richardson number follow Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling, i.e, the kinetic energy spectrum $E_u(k) \\sim k^{-11/5}$, the entropy spectrum $E_\\theta(k) \\sim k^{-7/5}$, and kinetic energy flux $\\Pi_u(k) \\sim k^{-4/5}$. This is due to the conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy because of buoyancy. We also demonstrate that $E_u(k) \\sim k^{-5/3}$ for stratified flow with weaker buoyancy or smaller Richardson number. We argue that due to the positive energy supply by buoyancy and non-decreasing $\\Pi_u(k)$, Rayleigh B\\'{e}nard convection should follow Kolmogorov-Obukhov scaling ($E_u(k) \\sim k^{-5/3}$).

  14. Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2014-08-25

    Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4/5 are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence Eu(k) follows Kolmogorov\\'s spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Πu(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Πu(k) and Eu(k)∼k-5/3 for a narrow band of wave numbers. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  15. In-plane anisotropy of the spin excitation spectrum in strongly underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, Daniel; Hinkov, Vladimir; Lin, Chengtian; Keimer, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Fauque, Benoit; Bourges, Philippe; Sidis, Yvan [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS Saclay (France); Ivanov, Alexandre [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    The spin excitation spectrum of the optimally doped and moderately underdoped high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} is dominated by the so-called resonance peak for excitation energies between 30 and 40 meV (depending on the oxygen content x) that sets in abruptly below T{sub c}. Here we report measurements on arrays of untwinned single crystals in the strongly underdoped regime in which the situation is very different: Spectral weight is shifted towards low energies and evolves smoothly through T{sub c}. The spectrum exhibits a peak below {proportional_to}10 meV which shows a spontaneous onset of a strong anisotropy in the a-b-plane defined by the CuO{sub 2} layers. This phenomenon matches the symmetry properties of a nematic liquid crystal, a new symmetry-broken electronic phase that coexists with high-temperature superconductivity in strongly underdoped cuprates.

  16. High-resolution EPR and the origin of the spectrum anisotropy of CH3 radicals in Ar, Kr, and CO matrices at liquid helium temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution EPR spectra of CH3 radicals have been observed in Ar, Kr, and CO matrices in the temperature range 1.6-4.2 K. These spectra showed an anisotropy of both the A-tensor and the g-tensor. It is shown that the experimental spectrum can be simulated as a spectrum of a powder sample with axially symmetric g and A tensors. Comparing the spectra in various matrices and studying samples of both pure matrices and mixture matrices, we found a significant contribution of the radical-matrix interaction to the anisotropy. The contribution of the radical rotation at helium temperatures to the CH3 spectrum appearance and the role it plays in the spectrum averaging are also discussed

  17. Anisotropy energy distribution determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy in a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of frozen-in magnetic anisotropy in as-quenched Fe73.5Si13.5Cu1Nb3B9 amorphous melt-spun ribbons was studied by Moessbauer effect spectroscopy, using the temperature-dependent magnetoelastic effect produced on the metallic glass by 1 μm Al coatings. Al coatings were deposited by RF sputtering at T∼350 K on both sides of the amorphous ribbons. Estimated magnetic anisotropy values were below 1 kJ/m3, with preeminence of anisotropy energy densities lower than 300 J/m3

  18. Constraints on the source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using anisotropy vs chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Lemoine, Martin; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Waxman, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The joint analysis of anisotropy signals and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays offers strong potential for shedding light on the sources of these particles. Following up on an earlier idea, this paper studies the anisotropies produced by protons of energy >E/Z, assuming that anisotropies at energy >E have been produced by nuclei of charge Z, which share the same magnetic rigidity. We calculate the number of secondary protons produced through photodisintegration of the primary heavy nuclei. Making the extreme assumption that the source does not inject any proton, we find that the source(s) responsible for anisotropies such as reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory should lie closer than ~20-30, 80-100 and 180-200 Mpc if the anisotropy signal is mainly composed of oxygen, silicon and iron nuclei respectively. A violation of this constraint would otherwise result in the secondary protons forming a more significant anisotropy signal at lower energies. Even if the source were located closer t...

  19. On the Site-Decomposition of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Energy Using Ome-Electron Eigenstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benedict, Lorin X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    We discuss two di erent schemes for decomposing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy into atomic site-speci c contributions, and show that one of these, which uses projected single-particle states, is inherently ill-de ned in practical applications. We therefore argue that the other decomposition scheme, involving ground state matrix elements of the spin-orbit operator, is preferable for the numerical prediction of one-site contributions to the anisotropy.

  20. The Complex Energy Spectrum of Isomeric Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ugulavaa, A.; Toklikishvilia, Z.; Chkhaidze, S.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Abramishvilia, R.

    2011-01-01

    The internal motion in a molecule, in which isomerization processes occur, is characterized by two essentially different modes of motion - oscillatory and rotational. The quantum equation of motion which describes an isomerization process is reduced to the Mathieu-Hill equation. As is known, this equation is able to describe both modes. In the paper, it is shown that the chaotic region of the energy spectrum characterizing an isomerization process corresponds to the region where two modes of ...

  1. End of the cosmic neutrino energy spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, L A; Goldberg, H; Learned, J G; Marfatia, D; Pakvasa, S; Paul, T C; Weiler, T J

    2014-01-01

    There may be a high-energy cutoff of neutrino events in IceCube data. In particular, IceCube does not observe the Standard Model Glashow-resonance events expected at 6.3 PeV. There are also no higher-energy neutrino signatures in the ANITA and Auger experiments. This absence of high-energy neutrino events motivates models with a fundamental restriction on neutrino energies above a few PeV. The simplest scenario to terminate the neutrino spectrum is Lorentz-invariance violating with a limiting neutrino velocity that is smaller than the speed of light. A consequence is that charged pions are stable above four times the maximum neutrino energy and may serve as a cosmic ray primary.

  2. Anisotropy and Strong-Coupling Effects on the Collective Mode Spectrum of Chiral Superconductors: Application to Sr2RuO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Avery Sauls

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories of Sr2RuO4 based on the interplay of strong interactions, spin-orbit coupling and multi-band anisotropy predict chiral or helical ground states with strong anisotropy of the pairing states, with deep minima in the excitation gap, as well as strong phase anisotropy for the chiral ground state. We develop time-dependent mean field theory to calculate the Bosonic spectrum for the class of 2D chiral superconductors spanning 3He-A to chiral superconductors with strong anisotropy. Chiral superconductors support a pair of massive Bosonic excitations of the time-reversed pairs labeled by their parity under charge conjugation. These modes are degenerate for 2D 3He-A. Crystal field anisotropy lifts the degeneracy. Strong anisotropy also leads to low-lying Fermions, and thus to channels for the decay of the Bosonic modes. Selection rules and phase space considerations lead to large asymmetries in the lifetimes and hybridization of the Bosonic modes with the continuum of un-bound Fermion pairs. We also highlight results for the excitation of the Bosonic modes by microwave radiation that provide clear signatures of the Bosonic modes of an anisotropic chiral ground state.

  3. Anisotropies of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei diffusing from extragalactic sources

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Diego; Roulet, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    We obtain the dipolar anisotropies in the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei diffusing from nearby extragalactic sources. We consider mixed-composition scenarios in which different cosmic ray nuclei are accelerated up to the same maximum rigidity, so that $Eenergy. We adopt $E_\\text{max}^p\\simeq 6$ EeV so as to account for an increasingly heavier composition above the ankle. We obtain the anisotropies through Monte Carlo simulations that implement the cosmic ray diffusion in extragalactic turbulent fields as well as the effects of photo-disintegrations and other energy losses. Dipolar anisotropies at the level of 5 to 10\\% at energies $\\sim 10$~EeV are predicted for plausible values of the source density and magnetic fields.

  4. FreeNet: Spectrum and Energy Harvesting Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Nirwan; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic mobile data traffic growth is not only resulting in the spectrum crunch but is also leading to exorbitant energy consumption. It is thus desirable to liberate mobile and wireless networks from the constraint of the spectrum scarcity and to rein in the growing energy consumption. This article introduces FreeNet, figuratively synonymous to "Free Network", which engineers the spectrum and energy harvesting techniques to alleviate the spectrum and energy constraints by sensing and ha...

  5. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  6. MAGNETIC FIELDS AND COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPIES AT TeV ENERGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaner, Eduardo; Castellano, Joaquín; Masip, Manuel, E-mail: battaner@ugr.es, E-mail: jcastellano@correo.ugr.es, E-mail: masip@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Several cosmic-ray (CR) observatories have provided high-accuracy maps of the sky at TeV-PeV energies. The data reveal an O(0.1%) deficit from north galactic directions that peaks at 10 TeV and then evolves with the energy, together with other anisotropies at smaller angular scales. Using the Boltzmann equation, we derive expressions for the CR flux that fit these features. The anisotropies depend on the local interstellar magnetic field B{sub IS}, on the average galactic field B{sub R} in our vicinity, and on correlations between fluctuating quantities. We show that the initial dipole anisotropy along B{sub IS} can be modulated by changes in the global CR flow, and that a variation in the dipole direction would imply a given radius of coherence for the local B{sub IS}. We also show that small- and medium-scale anisotropies may appear when the full-sky anisotropy finds a field configuration acting as a magnetic lens.

  7. Reflection of slow ions: effect of anisotropy of scattering on energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport calculations based on linear Boltzmann equation have been carried out analytically for the reflection of low energy light ions from heavy targets. The collision integral of the ion transport equation is replaced by P3 approximation in angle. For power potentials the influence of the anisotropy of scattering on universal path length distribution of reflected particles is investigated. (author)

  8. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquet, J. -P.; Moricciani, D.; Bellini, V.; Beretta, M.; Casano, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Franco, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Girolami, B.; Giusa, A.; Gurzadyan, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the ESRF's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropies representing the first non-threshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal Standard-Model Extension, this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95% confidence level on a combination of the ...

  9. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed.

  10. Improved Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of Temperature Anisotropy in the CMB from Two New Analyses of BOOMERANG Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, J E; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; De Bernardis, P; De Troia, G; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Hivon, E; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Lange, A E; Masi, S; Mason, P; Mauskopf, P D; Melchiorri, A; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Pogosyan, D; Polenta, G; Prunet, S; Romeo, G

    2003-01-01

    We report the most complete analysis to date of observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) obtained during the 1998 flight of BOOMERANG. We use two quite different methods to determine the angular power spectrum of the CMB in 20 bands centered at l = 50 to 1000, applying them to 50% more data than has previously been analyzed. The power spectra produced by the two methods are in good agreement with each other, and constitute the most sensitive measurements to date over the range 300 < l < 1000. The increased precision of the power spectrum yields more precise determinations of several cosmological parameters than previous analyses of BOOMERANG data. The results continue to support an inflationary paradigm for the origin of the universe, being well fit by a 13.5 Gyr old, flat universe composed of approximately 5% baryonic matter, 30% cold dark matter, and 65% dark energy, with a scale invariant initial density perturbations.

  11. Self-consistent mean-field theory of the XXZ ferrimagnetic spin chain with single-ion anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended self-consistent mean-field theory is applied to study the XXZ ferrimagnetic spin chain with single-ion anisotropy. Based on the effects of XXZ anisotropy λ and single-ion anisotropy D, we calculate the energy excitation spectrums, energy gaps, static uniform susceptibility and specific heat. The magnetization plateau of ferrimagnetic spin chain with single-ion anisotropy D disappears at the critical point Dc=1.335

  12. Nuclear spectroscopy and apparatus for stabilization of an energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear spectroscopy method and apparatus for the stabilization of an energy spectrum, made from a signal emitted by a radiation detector, and containing nuclear events, represented by pulses, whose amplitude is a measure of the energy of the particles, such as gamma rays, collected by the detector the spectrum including at least a first reference energy peak coming from an ancillary nuclear source, wherein the method comprises: detecting the radiation under analysis by two detectors between which is placed the ancillary source; establishing at least one coincident spectrum corresponding to pairs of events simultaneously detected in both detectors and originating from the ancillary source; and stabilizing the coincident spectrum by using one energy peak of said spectrum as said first reference energy peak. 8 refs

  13. Diffuse gamma radiation. [intensity, energy spectrum and spatial distribution from SAS 2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for an investigation of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma radiation detected by SAS 2 away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV. The gamma-ray data are compared with relevant data obtained at other wavelengths, including 21-cm emission, radio continuum radiation, and the limited UV and radio information on local molecular hydrogen. It is found that there are two quite distinct components to the diffuse radiation, one of which shows a good correlation with the galactic matter distribution and continuum radiation, while the other has a much steeper energy spectrum and appears to be isotropic at least on a coarse scale. The galactic component is interpreted in terms of its implications for both local and more distant regions of the Galaxy. The apparently isotropic radiation is discussed partly with regard to the constraints placed on possible models by the steep energy spectrum, the observed intensity, and an upper limit on the anisotropy.

  14. Energy spectrum of stably-stratified and convective turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra; Kumar, Abhishek

    2015-11-01

    In the inertial range of fluid turbulence, the energy flux is constant, while the energy spectrum scales as k - 5 / 3 (k=wavenumber). The buoyancy however could change the phenomenology dramatically. Bolgiano and Obukhov (1959) had conjectured that stably stratified flows (as in atmosphere) exhibits a decrease in the energy flux as k - 4 / 5 due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy, consequently, the energy spectrum scales as k - 11 / 5. We show using detailed numerical analysis that the stably stratified flows indeed exhibit k - 11 / 5 energy spectrum for Froude numbers Fr near unity. The flow becomes anisotropic for small Froude numbers. For weaker buoyancy (large Fr), the kinetic energy follows Kolmogorov's spectrum with a constant energy flux. However, in convective turbulence, the energy flux is a nondecreasing function of wavenumber since the buoyancy feeds positively into the kinetic energy. Hence, the kinetic energy spectrum is Kolmogorov-like (k - 5 / 3) or shallower. We also demonstrate the above scaling using a shell model of buoyancy-driven turbulence.

  15. Sky-maps of the sidereal anisotropy of galactic cosmic ray intensity and its energy dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Munakata, K; Yasue, S; Kato, C; Mori, S; Takita, M; Duldig, M L; Humble, J E; Kota, J

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the sidereal daily variations observed between 1985 and 2006 at Matsushiro, Japan (MAT) and between 1993 and 2005 at Liapootah, Tasmania (LPT). These stations comprise the two hemisphere network (THN) of underground muon detectors in Japan and Australia. Yearly mean harmonic vectors at MAT and LPT are more or less stable without any significant change in phase and amplitude in correlation with either the solar activity- or magnetic-cycles. In this paper, therefore, we analyze the average anisotropy over the entire observation periods, i.e. 1985-2006 for MAT and 1993-2005 for LPT. We apply to the THN data a best-fitting analysis based on a model anisotropy in space identical to that adopted by Amenomori et al. (2007) for Tibet III data. The median energies of primary cosmic rays recorded are ~0.5 TeV for THN and ~5 TeV for the Tibet III experiment. It is shown that the intensity distribution of the best-fit anisotropy is quite similar to that derived from Tibet III data, regardless of the order of m...

  16. Cosmological anisotropy from non-comoving dark matter and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu

    2013-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model in which the two major fluid components of the Universe, dark energy and dark matter, flow with distinct four-velocities. This cosmological configuration is equivalent to a single anisotropic fluid, expanding with a four-velocity that is an appropriate combination of the two fluid four-velocities. The energy density of the single cosmological fluid is larger than the sum of the energy densities of the two perfect fluids, i.e., dark energy and dark matter, respectively, and contains a correction term due to the anisotropy generated by the differences in the four-velocities. Furthermore, the gravitational field equations of the two-fluid anisotropic cosmological model are obtained for a Bianchi type I geometry. By assuming that the non-comoving motion of the dark energy and dark matter induces small perturbations in the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker type cosmological background, and that the anisotropy parameter is small, the equations of the cosm...

  17. Energy detection for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio

    CERN Document Server

    Atapattu, Saman; Jiang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief focuses on the current state-of-the-art research on spectrum sensing by using energy detection, a low-complexity and low-cost technique. It includes a comprehensive summary of recent research, fundamental theories, possible architectures, useful performance measurements of energy detection and applications of energy detection. Concise, practical chapters explore conventional energy detectors, alternative forms of energy detectors, performance measurements, diversity techniques and cooperative networks. The careful analysis enables reader to identify the most efficient techn

  18. The High Energy Spectrum of NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Gehrels, N; Soldi, S; Lubinski, P; Zdziarski, A A; Petrucci, P O; Malzac, J

    2005-01-01

    We present the first INTEGRAL observations of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Combining several INTEGRAL observations performed during 2003, totaling about 400 ks of exposure time, allows us to study the spectrum in the 2 - 300 keV range. The measurements presented here reveal an overall spectrum from X-rays up to soft gamma-rays that can be described by an absorbed (NH = 6.9e22 1/cm**2) model based on a Compton continuum from a hot electron population (kT = 94 keV) from an optically thick (tau = 1.3) corona, reflected on cold material (R=0.7), consistent with earlier claims. The time resolved analysis shows little variation of the spectral parameters over the duration of the INTEGRAL observations. The comparison with CGRO/OSSE data shows that the same spectral model can be applied over a time span of 15 years, with flux variations of the order of a factor of 2 and changes in the underlying continuum reflected by the temperature of the electron population (kT = 50 - 100 keV). When modeled with an expone...

  19. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 × 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies

  20. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Tapia, I Fajardo; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Guzman, A; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, K Link R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Ruiz, C G Tavera; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies $E>E_{th}=5.5\\times 10^{19}$ eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at $E>E_{th}$ are heavy nuclei with charge $Z$, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies $E/Z$. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above $E_{th}/Z$ (for illustrative values of $Z=6,\\ 13,\\ 26$). If the anisotropies above $E_{th}$ are due to nuclei with charge $Z$, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

  1. Statistical Significance of Small Scale Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiguchi, H; Sato, K; Yoshiguchi, Hiroyuki; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment claims that there is no small scale anisotropy in the arrival distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above $E>10^{19}$ eV contrary to the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) observation. In this paper, we discuss the statistical significance of this discrepancy between the two experiments. We calculate arrival distribution of UHECRs above $10^{19}$ eV predicted by the source models constructed using the Optical Redshift Survey galaxy sample. We apply the new method developed by us for calculating arrival distribution in the presence of the galactic magnetic field. The great advantage of this method is that it enables us to calculate UHECR arrival distribution with lower energy ($\\sim 10^{19}$ eV) than previous studies within reasonable time by following only the trajectories of UHECRs actually reaching the earth. It has been realized that the small scale anisotropy observed by the AGASA can be explained with the source number density ...

  2. Measurement of energy dependence of fission fragment angular anisotropy for resonance neutron induced fission of 235U aligned target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the experiment on measuring the energy dependence of fission fragment angular anisotropy in resonance neutron induced fission of 235U aligned target in energy region up to 42 eV are presented. The agreement with the data of Pattenden and Postma in resonances is good enough, while the theoretical curve, calculated using the R-matrix multilevel two fission channel approach, does not seem to describe the energy dependence of fission fragment angular anisotropy property. The necessity of taking into account the interference between levels with different spins is discussed. 11 refs., 2 figs

  3. Anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background after Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter cvis, we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with cvis2>0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to cvis2>0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state

  4. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  5. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Propagation and Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The status of the observations of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays will be reviewed, focusing on the the latest results of HiRes and Auger observatories. A comprehensive analytical computation scheme to compute the expected UHECR spectrum on earth will be presented, applying such scheme to interpret the experimental results. The phenomenological scenarios favored by HiRes and Auger in terms of chemical composition and spectrum will be also presented.

  6. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  7. First-principles calculations of the magnetic anisotropy energy of Fe-V multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of Fe2V-6, Fe3, and Fe4V4 multilayers are investigated using first-principles spin-polarized and relativistic band-structure calculations based upon the full-potential linearized muffin-tin-orbital method. A strong difference in the MAE and the easy axis of magnetization (calculated for the experimental lattice parameters) is observed between the three studied multilayer systems, with easy axes of (001), (110), and (100) for Fe2V6, Fe3V5, and Fe-4V4, respectively. The MAE of the Fe2V6 and Fe4V4 multilayers agrees well with the experimental data. The origin of this difference of behavior is analyzed, via a study of the influence of the atomic volume as well as a relaxation study of the multilayers with respect to the tetragonal deformation. The important role played by the c/a axial ratio, imposed by the alloying effects, is outlined. The magnetic anisotropy coefficients entering the expression of the MAE, as a function of the directional cosines, are extracted from a series of calculations for four independent spin directions. Finally, the band-filling effects on the MAE are analyzed as well as the different contributions in reciprocal space. (author)

  8. EFFECTS OF THE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY ON THE MASER INSTABILITY EXCITED BY LOWER ENERGY CUTOFF BEHAVIOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) conventionally driven by velocity anisotropies of energetic electrons trapped in magnetic fields is one of the most important radio-emission mechanisms in astrophysics. Recently, Wu and Tang proposed that a proper lower energy cutoff behavior of power-law electrons can effectively excite the ECM emission. This paper considers effects of temperature anisotropy on this new ECM mechanism. The results show that the growth rates of the ECM emissions increase with βperpendicular0 and β||0, where βperpendicular0 and β||0 are the perpendicular and parallel velocity spreads (in units of the light velocity c) of the energetic electron beam, respectively. Moreover, the growth rates of O1 and X2 modes both sensitively depend on the ratio of the electron-cyclotron frequency to the plasma frequency Ω and reach their extremum values at Ω ≅ 1.5 for the O1 mode and at Ω ≅ 1.0 for the X2 mode. Meanwhile, as the mean velocity of the electron beam βs (in units of c) increases, the growth rate of the O1 mode remains approximately constant and that of the X2 mode decreases considerably.

  9. Multislot Simultaneous Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio (CR, the spectrum sensing of the primary user (PU may consume some electrical power from the battery capacity of the secondary user (SU, resulting in a decrease in the transmission power of the SU. In this paper, a multislot simultaneous spectrum sensing and energy harvesting model is proposed, which uses the harvested radio frequency (RF energy of the PU signal to supply the spectrum sensing. In the proposed model, the sensing duration is divided into multiple sensing slots consisting of one local-sensing subslot and one energy-harvesting subslot. If the PU is detected to be present in the local-sensing subslot, the SU will harvest RF energy of the PU signal in the energy-harvesting slot, otherwise, the SU will continue spectrum sensing. The global decision on the presence of the PU is obtained through combining local sensing results from all the sensing slots by adopting “Or-logic Rule”. A joint optimization problem of sensing time and time splitter factor is proposed to maximize the throughput of the SU under the constraints of probabilities of false alarm and detection and energy harvesting. The simulation results have shown that the proposed model can clearly improve the maximal throughput of the SU compared to the traditional sensing-throughput tradeoff model.

  10. Interference Energy Spectrum of the Infinite Square Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordecai Waegell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain superposition states of the 1-D infinite square well have transient zeros at locations other than the nodes of the eigenstates that comprise them. It is shown that if an infinite potential barrier is suddenly raised at some or all of these zeros, the well can be split into multiple adjacent infinite square wells without affecting the wavefunction. This effects a change of the energy eigenbasis of the state to a basis that does not commute with the original, and a subsequent measurement of the energy now reveals a completely different spectrum, which we call the interference energy spectrum of the state. This name is appropriate because the same splitting procedure applied at the stationary nodes of any eigenstate does not change the measurable energy of the state. Of particular interest, this procedure can result in measurable energies that are greater than the energy of the highest mode in the original superposition, raising questions about the conservation of energy akin to those that have been raised in the study of superoscillations. An analytic derivation is given for the interference spectrum of a given wavefunction Ψ ( x , t with N known zeros located at points s i = ( x i , t i . Numerical simulations were used to verify that a barrier can be rapidly raised at a zero of the wavefunction without significantly affecting it. The interpretation of this result with respect to the conservation of energy and the energy-time uncertainty relation is discussed, and the idea of alternate energy eigenbases is fleshed out. The question of whether or not a preferred discrete energy spectrum is an inherent feature of a particle’s quantum state is examined.

  11. Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Anjos, J C; Aramo, C; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacelar, J; Backer, T; Badagnani, D O; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H M J; Barkhausen, M; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boghrat, P; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brunet, J M; Buchholz, P; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Capdevielle, J N; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Claes, D; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Clay, S B; Connolly, B; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dang Quang, T; Darriulat, Pierre; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; De Almeida, R M; De Carvalho, L A; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Oliveira, M A L; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L N; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Ewers, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Fauth, A C; Fazio, D; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fokitis, E; Fonte, R; Fuhrmann, D; Fulgione, W; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrard, L; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Geranios, A; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gobbi, F; Gold, M S; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gómez-Herrero, R; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; Gongora, J P; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Grupen, C; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Harakeh, M N; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Kaducak, M; Kalashev, O; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Kolotaev, Yu; Kopmann, A; Krömer, O; Kuhlman, S; Kuijpers, J; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Longo, G; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lucero, A; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Maltezos, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, N; Martínez, J; Martínez, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurin, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, G; Medina, M C; Medina Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, François; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nichol, R; Nierstenhofer, N; Nitz, D; Nogima, H; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Oliveira, L F A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, D; Pham Thi, T N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pisanti, O; Porter, T A; Pouryamout, J; Prado Junior, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rídky, J; Risi, A; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robbins, S; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodriguez Frias, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roucelle, C; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santos, E M; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Semikoz, Dmitry V; Sequeiros, G; Shellard, R C; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Skelton, P; Slater, W; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Ticona, R; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius $A$. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the `hybrid' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  12. Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Quang, T. Dang; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-04-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ‘hybrid’ data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  13. Low-energy ion bombardment induced anisotropy in sputtered MoS2-x thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy Ar+ ion bombardments (0.3 keV, 0-10 mA) at glancing angle (67o from substrate normal) on RF magnetron sputtered MoS2-x films give rise to a marked anisotropy in the plane parallel to the substrate. The (002) planes of all the crystallites align along the projected direction of irradiation. The electrical conductivity measurements show that the conductivity in the direction parallel to the projected direction of ion incidence is four times higher than that perpendicular to the projected direction. The strong increase in conductivity in the bombarded films (up to four orders of magnitude) is due to the loss of stoichiometry of the films. The film growth mechanism is finally discussed. (author)

  14. High Energy Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes From a Realistic Primary Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Penha, Felipe; Dembinski, Hans; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric neutrino fluxes depend on the energy spectrum of primary nucleons entering the top of the atmosphere. Before the advent of AMANDA and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, measurements of the neutrino fluxes were generally below ~ 1TeV , a regime in which a simple energy power law sufficed to describe the primary spectrum. Now, IceCube's muon neutrino data extends beyond 1PeV , including a combination of neutrinos from astrophysical sources with background from atmospheric neutrinos. At such high energies, the steepening at the knee of the primary spectrum must be accounted for. Here, we describe a semi-analytical approach for calculating the atmospheric differential neutrino fluxes at high energies. The input is a realistic primary spectrum consisting of 4 populations with distinct energy cutoffs, each with up to 7 representative nuclei, where the parameters were extracted from a global fit. We show the effect of each component on the atmospheric neutrino spectra, above 10TeV . The resulting features follow directly from recent air shower measurements included in the fit. Felipe Campos Penha gratefully acknowledges financial support from CAPES (Processo BEX 5348/14-5), CNPq (Processo 142180/2012-2), and the Bartol Research Institute.

  15. Clustering, Anisotropy, Spectra of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray: Finger-prints of Relic Neutrinos Masses in Dark Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, Daniele; Grossi, Marco; Lucentini, P. G. De Sanctis; Di Troia, C

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray UHECR, by UHE neutrino-relic neutrino Z showering in Hot Dark Halos HDM, should exhibits an energy spectra and an anisotropy reflecting (also) the relic neutrino masses and their hierarchical HDM halo clustering. A twin light neutrino mass splitting may reflect to twin Z resonance and into a complex UHECR spectra modulation, a twin bump, at the edge at highest GZK energy cut-off. Each possible neutrino mass associates a characteristic dark halo size (galactic,...

  16. Observation of anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays above TeV energies with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IceCube neutrino telescope, completed in December 2010, is a cubic-kilometer scale detector buried under the South Pole ice. Between May 2009 and May 2010, IceCube recorded 32 billion of atmospheric muons generated in air showers produced by cosmic rays in the TeV energy range. This high statistics data sample can be used to look for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic ray particles at the per-mille level. IceCube observes, for the first time in the southern hemisphere, an energy dependence in the Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy up to a few hundred TeV. This study shows that the same large-scale anisotropy observed at median energies around 20 TeV is not present at 400 TeV; the anisotropy observed at 400 TeV shows substantial differences with respect to that at lower energy. In addition to the large-scale features observed at 20 TeV in the form of strong dipole and quadrupole moments, the data include several localized regions of excess and deficit on scales between 10° and 30°. The features observed at both large and small scales are statistically significant, but their origin is currently unknown.

  17. Energy Spectrum of Anyons in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Illuminati, F

    1993-01-01

    For the many-anyon system in external magnetic field, we derive the energy spectrum as an exact solution of the quantum eigenvalue problem with particular topological constraints. Our results agree with the numerical spectra recently obtained for the 3- and the 4-anyon systems.

  18. Energy Spectrum of Anyons in a Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1992-01-01

    For the many-anyon system in external magnetic field, we derive the energy spectrum as an exact solution of the quantum eigenvalue problem with particular topological constraints. Our results agree with the numerical spectra recently obtained for the 3- and the 4-anyon systems.

  19. Energy Spectrum Of Nonthermal Electrons Accelerated At A Plane Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the energy spectra of cosmic ray (CR) protons and electrons at a plane shock with quasi-parallel magnetic fields, using time-dependent, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) simulations, including energy losses via synchrotron emission and Inverse Compton (IC) scattering. A thermal leakage injection model and a Bohm type diffusion coefficient are adopted. The electron spectrum at the shock becomes steady after the DSA energy gains balance the synchrotron/IC losses, and it cuts off at the equilibrium momentum p_{eq}. In the postshock region the cutoff momentum of the electron spectrum decreases with the distance from the shock due to the energy losses and the thickness of the spatial distribution of electrons scales as p^{-1}. Thus the slope of the downstream integrated spectrum steepens by one power of p for p_{br}spectrum exhibit a concave curvature and...

  20. Exact energy spectrum for models with equally spaced point potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Caudrelier, V.; Crampe, N.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a non-perturbative method for computing the energy band structures of one-dimensional models with general point potentials sitting at equally spaced sites. This is done thanks to a Bethe ansatz approach and the method is applicable even when periodicity is broken, that is when Bloch's theorem is not valid any more. We derive the general equation governing the energy spectrum and illustrate its use in various situations. In particular, we get exact results for boundary effects. We ...

  1. A Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of the CMB Temperature Anisotropy from the 2003 Flight of Boomerang

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, W C; Bock, J; Bond, J; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Cabella, P; Contaldi, C; Crill, B; De Bernardis, P; De Gasperis, G; De Oliveira-Costa, A; De Troia, G; Stefano, G D; Hivon, E; Jaffe, A; Kisner, T; Lange, A; MacTavish, C; Masi, S; Mauskopf, P; Melchiorri, A; Montroy, T; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Pogosyan, D; Polenta, G; Prunet, S; Ricciardi, S; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J; Santini, P; Tegmark, M; Veneziani, M; Vittorio, N

    2005-01-01

    We report on observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) obtained during the January 2003 flight of Boomerang . These results are derived from 195 hours of observation with four 145 GHz Polarization Sensitive Bolometer (PSB) pairs, identical in design to the four 143 GHz Planck HFI polarized pixels. The data include 75 hours of observations distributed over 1.84% of the sky with an additional 120 hours concentrated on the central portion of the field, itself representing 0.22% of the full sky. From these data we derive an estimate of the angular power spectrum of temperature fluctuations of the CMB in 24 bands over the multipole range (50 900). As a consistency check, the collaboration has performed two fully independent analyses of the time ordered data, which are found to be in excellent agreement.

  2. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic ray hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of the air shower experiment KASCADE a prototype of the central calorimeter was built. The construction of the TMS-ionization chambers and the trigger system are described in detail. With the prototype calorimeter single cosmic ray hadrons were measured. The identification of hadronic showers in the calorimeter and the determination of the hadron energy are explained. With about 50000 reconstructed single hadrons the differential energy spectrum in the energy range between 3 GeV and 15 TeV and the energy dependence of the inelastic proton-air cross section could be determined. The results are compared with those of earlier experiments. (orig.)

  3. Strain control of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and energy product of MnGa alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil, E-mail: nalaqtash@unomaha.edu; Sabirianov, Renat

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the energy product of MnGa alloys as function of Mn concentration and applied elastic strain. Using the density functional theory (DFT) based method we calculated the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MAE) and magnetization of Mn–Ga alloys as function of composition, e.g. Mn and Ga, and examined their variation under applied strain. Our calculations show that MAE is very large ~22–27 M erg/cm{sup 3} in all three considered compositions, e.g. MnGa, Mn{sub 3}Ga and Mn{sub 1.66}Ga. We show that MAE is very robust in MnGa system and remains large in wide range of concentrations and strains both compressive and tensile. We find that bi-axial tensile strain increases MAE in Mn{sub 1.66}Ga alloys. Our study shows that the variation of MAE as function of Mn content is related to the change in electronic structure and, specifically, the Fermi level position with electron population variation. We estimated the theoretical limit of the energy product (BH){sub max} of MnGa, Mn{sub 3}Ga and Mn{sub 1.66}Ga alloys as 23.65, 4.06 and 13.64 MGOe, respectively. We find that volume expansion of the MnGa alloys (by appropriate doping) should increase the magnetization and the energy product of these alloys.

  4. Study of the anisotropy of the threshold energy in copper using in-situ electrical resistivity measurements in the HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, electrical-resistivity measurements and high voltage electron microscopy-(HVEM) have been used separately to investigate the anisotropy of the threshold energy for Frenkel-pair production. Electrical resistivity, measured in a conventional electron accelerator, has been used to observe small changes in the concentration of isolated Frenekel pairs at low temperatures, while HVEM experiments have focussed on the observation of measurable changes in visible defect clusters, primarily at elevated temperatures. However, quantitative comparison of the threshold energies obtained with the two techniques has proved difficult. As a first step toward resolving this dilemma, the threshold-energy surface for copper was determined by in-situ electrical-resistivity measurements below 10 K in the HVEM. By combining the advantages of both techniques, this approach allowed a precise and detailed study of the anisotropy of the threshold energy for Frenkel-pair production

  5. Study of the anisotropy of the threshold energy in copper using in-situ electrical resistivity measurements in the HVEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.E.; Merkle, K.L.; Meshii, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the past, electrical-resistivity measurements and high voltage electron microscopy-(HVEM) have been used separately to investigate the anisotropy of the threshold energy for Frenkel-pair production. Electrical resistivity, measured in a conventional electron accelerator, has been used to observe small changes in the concentration of isolated Frenekel pairs at low temperatures, while HVEM experiments have focussed on the observation of measurable changes in visible defect clusters, primarily at elevated temperatures. However, quantitative comparison of the threshold energies obtained with the two techniques has proved difficult. As a first step toward resolving this dilemma, the threshold-energy surface for copper was determined by in-situ electrical-resistivity measurements below 10 K in the HVEM. By combining the advantages of both techniques, this approach allowed a precise and detailed study of the anisotropy of the threshold energy for Frenkel-pair production.

  6. Energy landscape and dynamics of an HP lattice model of proteins —The role of anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of exact numerical studies of the energy landscape and the dynamics of a 12-monomer chain comprised of two types of amino acids called the HP model. We benchmark our findings against the corresponding results of previous studies of a Go model, which encodes the native state conformation. We also show how the energy landscape gets modified dramatically and improves the folding properties on incorporating the inherent anisotropy of a chain, albeit in a simplified manner.

  7. Surface-Energy-Anisotropy-Induced Orientation Effects on RayleighInstabilities in Sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, Melissa; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of controlled-geometry, semi-infinite pore channels of systematically varied crystallographic orientation were introduced into undoped m-plane (10{bar 1}0) sapphire substrates using microfabrication techniques and ion-beam etching and subsequently internalized by solid-state diffusion bonding. A series of anneals at 1700 C caused the breakup of these channels into discrete pores via Rayleigh instabilities. In all cases, channels broke up with a characteristic wavelength larger than that expected for a material with isotropic surface energy, reflecting stabilization effects due to surface-energy anisotropy. The breakup wavelength and the time required for complete breakup varied significantly with channel orientation. For most orientations, the instability wavelength for channels of radius R was in the range of 13.2R-25R, and complete breakup occurred within 2-10 h. To first order, the anneal times for complete breakup scale with the square of the breakup wavelength. Channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction had a wavelength of {approx} 139R, and required 468 h for complete breakup. Cross-sectional analysis of channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction showed the channel to be completely bounded by stable c(0001), r{l_brace}{bar 1}012{r_brace}, and s{l_brace}10{bar 1}1{r_brace} facets.

  8. Radon measurement in α energy spectrum and its influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radon is one radioactive gas which should be monitored. Purpose: High sensitivity, good stability for distinguishing the characteristics of radon and thorium in air radon content measurement are required. Methods: One alpha energy spectrum measuring device was designed based on diffusion-accumulation theory. And the major influence factors were discussed. At the same time, the preliminary solution was proposed and testing was progressed. Results: We have got the results of energy calibration curve, energy resolution, sensitivity and other important information by standard radon chamber calibration. Conclusions: The experimental results show that this scheme is feasible and the performance is suited to the national standards for air radon measurement requirements. (authors)

  9. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metallic glasses using high-energy ion beam irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Amrute; U R Mhatre; S K Sinha; D C Kothari; R Nagarajan; D Kanjilal

    2002-05-01

    Heavy ion irradiation in the electronic stopping power region induces macroscopic dimensional change in metallic glasses and introduces magnetic anisotropy in some magnetic materials. The present work is on the irradiation study of ferromagnetic metallic glasses, where both dimensional change and modification of magnetic anisotropy are expected. Magnetic anisotropy was measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy of virgin and irradiated Fe40Ni40B20 and Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 metallic glass ribbons. 90 MeV 127I beam was used for the irradiations. Irradiation doses were 5 × 1013 and 7.5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The relative intensity ratios 23 of the second and third lines of the Mössbauer spectra were measured to determine the magnetic anisotropy. The virgin samples of both the materials display in-plane magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the spins are oriented parallel to the ribbon plane. Irradiation is found to cause reduction in magnetic anisotropy. Near-complete randomization of magnetic moments is observed at high irradiation doses. Correlation is found between the residual stresses introduced by ion irradiation and the change in magnetic anisotropy.

  10. Measurement of the magnetic anisotropy energy constants for magneto-optical recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, R. A.; Wu, T. H.; Mansuripur, M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the magneto-optical polar Kerr effect is performed on rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) amorphous films using in-plane fields. From this measurement and the measurement of the saturation magnetization using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the magnetic anisotropy constants are determined. The temperature dependence is presented of the magnetic anisotropy in the range of -175 to 175 C. The results show a dip in the anisotropy near magnetic compensation. This anomaly is explained based on the finite exchange coupling between the rare earth and transition metal subnetworks.

  11. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in L10-type CoPt single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L10-type Co100-xPtx single crystals were prepared by atomic ordering under compressive stress and the magnetic properties were investigated. The second order magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K1 at 298K exhibits a maximum value of 4.1x107ergcm-3 at x=50. On the other hand, the fourth order magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K2 becomes minimum at the same composition. The large uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant KU with a low saturation magnetization MS in L10-type Co100-xPtx would bring about the thermal stability of the single magnetic domain state, as well as the sharp coherent magnetization reversal

  12. Decay energy of 55Fe from its inner Bremsstrahlung spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S L Keshava; K Gopala; P Venkataramaiah

    2001-06-01

    Several measurements of decay energy using the inner Bremsstrahlung spectrum (IB) due to radiative electron capture in 55Fe has been made. But the results are not uniform. Hence another attempt has been made at the same. Experimental data was obtained with a 4.445 cm. dia × 5.08 cm thick NaI (Tl) detector. It was subjected to suitable statistical treatment and various corrections using Liden and Starfelt procedure. The corrected spectrum agrees well with the Glauber and Martin theory for 1s electron capture beyond 100 keV. From the Jauch plot, the decay energy of 232.36 ± 0.64 keV was obtained.

  13. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Véron-Cetty Véron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt–L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20,30,...,110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 49.3 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays

  14. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  15. Energy-Efficient Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic spectrum access employing cognitive radios has been proposed, in order to opportunistically use underutilized spectrum portions of a heavily licensed electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radios opportunistically share the spectrum, while avoiding any harmful interference to the primary licens

  16. Average Anisotropy Characteristics of High Energy Cosmic Ray Particles and Geomagnetic Disturbance Index Ap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. M. Tiwari; D. P. Tiwari; Ajay K. Pandey; Pankaj K. Shrivastava

    2005-12-01

    The average characteristics of the diurnal and semi-diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity at relativistic energies have been obtained by using data from the worldwide grid of neutron monitor for the period 1989 to 1996. The complex behaviour of the diurnal amplitudes and time of maxima (phase) and its association with the Ap index on a long-term and day-to-day basis have been studied. Even though the general characteristics, on a yearly average basis, have not changed significantly during this period, both the diurnal and semi-diurnal amplitudes and phases vary significantly, besides significant changes being observed for different interplanetary conditions on a short-term basis. It is found that the relationship between the Ap index and the diurnal vector is out of phase during the period 1991 to 1995. On a long-term basis, the correlation of diurnal variation with Ap index has been found to vary during the solar cycle. On a short-term basis, it has been observed that the high Ap days are usually associated with higher amplitudes with phase shifted to earlier hours.

  17. Exact energy spectrum for models with equally spaced point potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudrelier, V.; Crampé, N.

    2006-03-01

    We describe a non-perturbative method for computing the energy band structures of one-dimensional models with general point potentials sitting at equally spaced sites. This is done thanks to a Bethe ansatz approach and the method is applicable even when periodicity is broken, that is when Bloch's theorem is not valid any more. We derive the general equation governing the energy spectrum and illustrate its use in various situations. In particular, we get exact results for boundary effects. We also study non-perturbatively the effects of impurities in such systems. Finally, we discuss the possibility of including interactions between the particles of these systems.

  18. The energy spectrum and the optical absorption spectrum of C{sub 60} fullerene within the Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silant’ev, A. V., E-mail: kvvant@rambler.ru [Mari State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Anticommutator Green’s functions and the energy spectrum of C{sub 60} fullerene are calculated in the approximation of static fluctuations within the Hubbard model. On the basis of this spectrum, an interpretation is proposed for the experimentally observed optical absorption bands of C{sub 60} fullerene. The parameters of C{sub 60} fullerene that characterize it within the Hubbard model are calculated by the optical absorption spectrum.

  19. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustwick, Bryce A.

    2005-08-01

    Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the

  20. Simultaneous recording of high energy photon spectrum in phoswich detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phoswich detector with PSD electronics has been routinely used for lung counting at RSD, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. The PSD electronics has been optimized for obtaining only low energy photon (LEP) spectrum upto 200 keV. The pulses resulting from the NaI(Tl) portion i.e, mainly LEP interaction are selected by the PSD and used for the measurement. The pulses from the CsI portion i.e, mainly high energy photon (HEP) interactions are utilized only for the PSD electronics and are not being utilized for any spectral measurements. But processing of pulses originating from the CsI can also provide valuable information about HEP photon emitters if any during the in vivo monitoring. This requires modification the PSD electronics and two multichannel analysers for simultaneous recording the energy spectra derived. While the modification is done, care was taken not sacrifice the quality and fidelity of low energy monitoring. The phoswich detector with modified PSD electronics configuration enabled us to simultaneously record both LE photon and HE photon spectra from a single phoswich detector. The system performance evaluation showed that the system with new PSD configuration has very good gamma spectrometry characteristics. Analysis of recorded room background REP spectrum brought out the trace level detector contamination of 137Cs. The interference of 41Ar could be easily identified and its contribution to lower energy regions is quantified

  1. Study of Small-Scale Anisotropy of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays Observed in Stereo by HiRes

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Amann, J F; Archbold, G; Atkins, R; Bellido, J A; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Ben-Zvi, S Y; Bergman, D R; Boyer, J H; Burt, G W; Cao, Z; Clay, R W; Connolly, B M; Dawson, B R; Deng, W; Fedorova, Y; Findlay, J; Finley, C B; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Holzscheiter, M H; Hughes, G A; Jui, C C H; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Knapp, B C; Loh, E C; Maestas, M M; Manago, N; Mannel, E J; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; O'Neill, A; Painter, C A; Perera, L P; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M D; Sasaki, M; Schnetzer, S R; Seman, M; Simpson, K M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Snow, R; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Thomas, J R; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tupa, D; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L R; Zech, A

    2004-01-01

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment is an air fluorescence detector which, operating in stereo mode, has a typical angular resolution of 0.6 degrees and is sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV. HiRes is thus an excellent instrument for the study of the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present the results of a search for anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions on small scales (10^19 eV). The search is based on data recorded between 1999 December and 2004 January, with a total of 271 events above 10^19 eV. No small-scale anisotropy is found, and the strongest clustering found in the HiRes stereo data is consistent at the 52% level with the null hypothesis of isotropically distributed arrival directions.

  2. Global anisotropy of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: capabilities of space-based detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planned space-based ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray detectors (TUS, JEM-EUSO and S-EUSO) are best suited for searches of global anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic-ray particles because they will be able to observe the full sky with a single instrument. We calculate quantitatively the strength of anisotropies associated with two models of the origin of the highest-energy particles: the extragalactic model (sources follow the distribution of galaxies in the Universe) and the superheavy dark matter model (sources follow the distribution of dark matter in the Galactic halo). Based on the expected exposure of the experiments, we estimate the optimal strategy for efficient search of these effects

  3. Exploring the High-Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum with a Toy Model of Cosmic Ray Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Roger

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a static toy model of the cosmic ray (CR) universe in which cosmic ray propagation is taken to be diffusive and cosmic ray sources are distributed randomly with a density the same as that of local L* galaxies, $5 \\times 10^{-3}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. These sources "fire" at random times through the history of the universe but with a set expectation time for the period between bursts. Our toy model model captures much of the essential CR physics despite its simplicity and, moreover, broadly reproduces CR phenomenology for reasonable parameter values and without extreme fine-tuning. Using this model we investigate -- and find tenable -- the idea that the Milky Way may itself be a typical high-energy cosmic ray source. We also consider the possible phenomenological implications of the magnetic CR horizon for the overall cosmic ray spectrum observed at Earth. Finally, we show that anisotropy studies should most profitably focus on cosmic rays detected at energies above the so-called GZK cut-off, $\\sim 6 \\times...

  4. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 1015 eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  5. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-06-10

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  6. Universal Raising and Lowering Operators for a Discrete Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Gabino

    2016-06-01

    We consider the first-order finite-difference expression of the commutator between d / dx and x. This is the appropriate setting in which to propose commutators and time operators for a quantum system with an arbitrary potential function and a discrete energy spectrum. The resulting commutators are identified as universal lowering and raising operators. We also find time operators which are finite-difference derivations with respect to the energy. The matrix elements of the commutator in the energy representation are analyzed, and we find consistency with the equality [hat{T},hat{H}]=ihbar . We apply the theory to the particle in an infinite well and for the Harmonic oscillator as examples.

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENT COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING IN COGNITIVE RADIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Saifan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensing in cognitive radio (CR protects the primary user (PU from bad interference. Therefore, it is assumed to be a requirement. However, sensing has two main challenges; first the CR is required to sense the PU under very low signal to noise ratios which will take longer sensing time, and second, some CR nodes may suffer from deep fading and shadowing effects. Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS is supposed to solve these challenges. However, CSS adds extra energy consumption due to CRs send the sensing result to the fusion center and receive the final decision from the fusion center. This is in addition to the sensing energy itself. Therefore, CSS may consume considerable energy out of the battery of the CR node. Therefore in this paper, we try to find jointly the sensing time required from each CR node and the number of CR nodes who should perform sensing such that the energy and energy efficiency (i.e., ratio of throughput to energy consumed are optimized. Simulation results show that the joint optimization achieves better in terms of energy efficiency than other approaches that perform separate optimization.

  8. The toes of the ultra high energy cosmic ray spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Harari, Diego; Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban

    1999-01-01

    We study the effects of the galactic magnetic field on the ultra high energy cosmic ray propagation. We show that the deflections of the cosmic ray trajectories can have many important implications such as (de)magnification of the cosmic ray fluxes by lensing effects (which can modify the spectrum of individual sources), the formation of multiple images of a source or the existence of regions of the sky to which the Earth is almost blind. The appearance of image pairs is related to the existe...

  9. The high energy spectrum of 3C 273

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, V; R. Walter(ISDC); Jean, P.; Tramacere, A.; M. Türler; A. Lähteenmäki(Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Kylmälä, Finland); Tornikoski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The high energy spectrum of 3C 273 is usually understood in terms of inverse-Compton emission in a relativistic leptonic jet. This model predicts variability patterns and delays that could be tested with simultaneous observations from the radio to the GeV range. Methods. The instruments IBIS, SPI, JEM-X on board INTEGRAL, PCA on board RXTE, and LAT on board Fermi have enough sensitivity to follow the spectral variability of 3C 273 from the keV to the GeV. We looked for correlations betw...

  10. Calculating the role of composition in the anisotropy of solid-liquid interface energy using phase-field-crystal theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdutt, Bernadine A.; Ofori-Opoku, Nana; Provatas, Nikolas

    2015-10-01

    This work uses Ginzburg-Landau theory derived from a recent structural phase-field-crystal model of binary alloys developed by the authors to study the roles of concentration, temperature, and pressure on the interfacial energy anisotropy of a solid-liquid front. It is found that the main contribution to the change in anisotropy with concentration arises from a change in preferred crystallographic orientation controlled by solute-dependent changes in the two-point density correlation function of a binary alloy, a mechanism that leads to such phenomena as solute-induced elastic strain and dislocation-assisted solute clustering. Our results are consistent with experimental observations in recent studies by Rappaz et al. [J. Fife, P. Di Napoli, and M. Rappaz, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44, 5522 (2013), 10.1007/s11661-013-1912-7]. This is the first PFC work, to our knowledge, to incorporate temperature, pressure, and density into the thermodynamic description of alloys.

  11. Energy spectrum and arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays with energies above 1019 electrovolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from three experiments provide evidence that the cosmic-ray spectrum flattens above 1019 eV; no ''cutoff'' in the spectrum is observed to at least 1.6 x 1020 eV. Below 1019 eV the differential slope of the power-law spectrum is -3.09 +- 0.002 while at higher energies it is -2.31 +- 0.10. An analysis of the arrival direction distribution of over 4700 primaries above 1018 eV and 142 above 1019 recorded at Haverah Park suggests that the mean galactic latitude of these events increases beyond the energy at which the spectrum flattens. The implications of these results for theories of the origin of the highest-energy cosmic rays are discussed

  12. LARGE GAMMA ANISOTROPY OBSERVED IN THE CF-252 SPONTANEOUS-FISSION PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; BACELAR, JC; VANDENBERG, T; IACOB, VE; JONGMAN, [No Value; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1992-01-01

    The energy spectrum and the angular dependence relative to the fission direction of photons in the energy region between 2 and 40 MeV have been measured for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252. A large anisotropy was found in the energy region 8 to 12 MeV implying that photons in this region are emitt

  13. Sensitivity of EAS measurements to the energy spectrum of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Espadanal, J; Conceição, R

    2016-01-01

    We have studied how the energy spectrum of muons at production affects some of the most common measurements related to muons in extensive air shower studies, namely, the number of muons at the ground, the slope of the lateral distribution of muons, the apparent muon production depth, and the arrival time delay of muons at ground. We found that by changing the energy spectrum by an amount consistent with the difference between current models (namely EPOS-LHC and QGSjet-II.04), the muon surface density at ground increases $5\\%$ at $20^\\circ$ zenith angle and $17\\%$ at $60^\\circ$ zenith angle. This effect introduces a zenith angle dependence on the reconstructed number of muons which might be experimentally observed. The maximum of the muon production depth distribution at $40^\\circ$ increases $\\sim10\\text{ g/cm}^2$ and $\\sim0\\text{ g/cm}^2$ at $60^\\circ$, which, from pure geometrical considerations, increases the arrival time delay of muons. There is an extra contribution to the delay due to the subluminal velo...

  14. Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of AE Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Mauche, Christopher W

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The results of a Chandra X-ray Observatory High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) observation of the nova-like cataclysmic binary AE Aqr are described. First, the X-ray spectrum is that of an optically thin multi-temperature thermal plasma; the X-ray emission lines are broad, with widths that increase with the line energy, from sigma~1 eV for O VIII to sigma~5.5 eV for Si XIV; the X-ray spectrum is reasonably well fit by a plasma model with a Gaussian emission measure distribution that peaks at log T(K)=7.16, has a width sigma=0.48, an Fe abundance equal to 0.44 times solar, and other metal (primarily Ne, Mg, and Si) abundances equal to 0.76 times solar; and for a distance d=100 pc, the total emission measure EM=8.0E53 cm^-3 and the 0.5-10 keV luminosity L_X=1.1E31 erg/s. Second, based on the f/(i+r) flux ratios of the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and recombination (r) lines of the He alpha triplets of N VI, O VII, and Ne IX measured by Itoh et al. in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spec...

  15. Magnetic anisotropy energy and effective exchange interactions in Co intercalated graphene on Ir(111)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Hong, S.C.; Máca, František; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 47 (2014), "476003-1"-"476003-6". ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * Co monolayer * graphene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  16. Anisotropy of Magnetic Moments and Energy in Tetragonal Fe-Co Alloys from First Principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Carva, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1581-1584. ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : density functional theory * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  17. Possible dark energy imprints in gravitational wave spectrum of mixed neutron-dark-energy stars

    OpenAIRE

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we study the oscillation spectrum of neutron stars containing both ordinary matter and dark energy in different proportions. Within the model we consider, the equilibrium configurations are numerically constructed and the results show that the properties of the mixed neuron-dark-energy star can differ significantly when the amount of dark energy in the stars is varied. The oscillations of the mixed neuron-dark-energy stars are studied in the Cowling approximation. As a re...

  18. Effects of the D-T fusion neutron energy spectrum on high energy reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion neutron energy spectrum can affect the predicted average cross sections for neutron reactions with thresholds near 14 MeV. For vacuum wall materials, the high energy reactions leading to He production are important for wall life predictions. The effect of the fusion neutron spectrum on a few reactions and materials has been investigated by D. W. Muir. In the present work the effects of the fusion neutron spectrum on 19 high energy reactions for all of the naturally occurring isotopes of Ti, V, stainless steel, Nb, and Mo have been studied. The fusion neutron energy spectrum was determined using the ''exact'' equation given by G. Lehner. This equation was derived by assuming that the fusioning species could be adequately described by isotropic Maxwellian distributions at some characteristic plasma temperature. The D--T fusion reaction cross section data were taken from the recent compilation by G. Miley, H. Towner, and N. Ivich. Neutron energy spectra have been calculated and used to compute spectrum average cross sections for plasma temperatures of 4, 10, 20, 40, 100, 200, and 400 keV

  19. Low energy photon mimic of the tritium beta decay energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabre-O'Sullivan, Neville

    Tritium is a radioactive hydrogen isotope that is typically produced via neutron interaction with heavy water (D2O), producing tritiated water (DTO). As a result of this, tritium accounts for roughly a third of all occupational exposures at a CANDU type nuclear power plant. This identifies a need to study the biological effects associated with tritium (and low energy electrons in general). However, there are complications regarding the dosimetry of tritium, as well as difficulties in handling and using tritium for the purposes of biophysics experiments. To avoid these difficulties, an experiment has been proposed using photons to mimic the beta decay energy spectrum of tritium. This would allow simulation of the radiation properties of tritium, so that a surrogate photon source can be used for biophysics experiments. Through experimental and computational means, this work has explored the use of characteristic x-rays of various materials to modify the output spectrum of an x-ray source, such that it mimics the tritium beta decay spectrum. Additionally, the resultant primary electron spectrum generated in water from an x-ray source was simulated. The results from this research have indicated that the use of characteristic x-rays is not a viable method for simulating a tritium source. Also, the primary electron spectrum generated in water shows some promise for simulating tritium exposure, however further work must be done to investigate the slowing down electron spectrum. Keywords: Tritium, MCNP, low energy electrons, biophysics, characteristic x-rays.

  20. Energy Harvesting-Aided Spectrum Sensing and Data Transmission in Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Deyu; Ren, Zhigang Chen Ju; Zhang, Ning; Awad, Mohamad Khattar; Zhou, Haibo; Xuemin; Shen

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of Cognitive Radio (CR) and Energy Harvesting (EH) capabilities in wireless sensor networks enables spectrum and energy efficient heterogeneous cognitive radio sensor networks (HCRSNs). The new networking paradigm of HCRSNs consists of EH-enabled spectrum sensors and battery powered data sensors. Spectrum sensors can cooperatively scan the licensed spectrum for available channels, while data sensors monitor an area of interest and transmit sensed data to the sink over those ...

  1. Energy Spectrum Extraction and Optimal Imaging via Dual-Energy Material Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Qiude; Niu, Tianye

    2015-01-01

    Inferior soft-tissue contrast resolution is a major limitation of current CT scanners. The aim of the study is to improve the contrast resolution of CT scanners using dual-energy acquisition. Based on dual-energy material decomposition, the proposed method starts with extracting the outgoing energy spectrum by polychromatic forward projecting the material-selective images. The extracted spectrum is then reweighted to boost the soft-tissue contrast. A simulated water cylinder phantom with inserts that contain a series of six solutions of varying iodine concentration (range, 0-20 mg/mL) is used to evaluate the proposed method. Results show the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean energy difference between the extracted energy spectrum and the spectrum acquired using an energy-resolved photon counting detector(PCD), are 0.044 and 0.01 keV, respectively. Compared to the method using the standard energy-integrating detectors, dose normalized contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRD) for the proposed method are improved fro...

  2. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  3. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Arganda, E.; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; García Pinto, Diego; Ortiz Ramis, Montserrat; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Vázquez Peñas, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported. evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > E-th = 5.5 x 10(19) eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > E-th are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at ener...

  4. Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain_serra@bbox.fr [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Toutant, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.toutant@univ-Perp.fr [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Bataille, Françoise, E-mail: francoise.bataille@promes.cnrs.fr [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Zhou, Ye, E-mail: yezhou@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.

  5. Neutron energy spectrum in graphite blankets of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron flux measurements were performed in a graphite stack and compared with calculations made with a two dimensional transport computer code. In the present work it is observed that the calculated spectrum in the elastic and inelastic scattering ranges (the first collision range in both cases), is sensitive to details of the angular distribution of these neutrons. Regarding the discrepancies in the elastic scattering range it is concluded that the microscopic cross section library ENDF/B-IV overestimates the large angle scattering (back scattering) as can be seen from comparison of measured and calculated spectra. The two most important conclusions of the present work are: 1. Inelastic scattering interaction of D-T neutrons in graphite cannot be calculated without a proper account of energy-angle correlation. 2. An experimental setup supplying monoenergetic collimated D-T neutrons constitutes a sensitive although indirect means for measuring angular distributions in inelastic and elastic scattering

  6. Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.

  7. Clustering, Anisotropy, Spectra of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Finger-prints of Relic Neutrinos Masses in Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D; De Sanctis-Lucentini, P G; Troia, C D; Fargion, Daniele; Grossi, Marco

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray UHECR, by UHE neutrino-relic neutrino Z showering in Hot Dark Halos HDM, should exhibits an energy spectra and an anisotropy reflecting (also) the relic neutrino masses and their hierarchical HDM halo clustering. A twin light neutrino mass splitting may reflect to twin Z resonance and into a complex UHECR spectra modulation, a twin bump, at the edge at highest GZK energy cut-off. Each possible neutrino mass associates a characteristic dark halo size (galactic, local, Super Cluster) and its local anisotropy due to our peculiar position within that dark matter distribution. A neutrino HDM halo around a Mpc will allow to the UHECR neutron secondary component at E_n> 10^{20} eV (due to Z decay) to arise playing a role comparable with the charged p- anti{p} ones. Their un-deflected n-anti{n} (or decayed p-anti{p}) flight is shorter leading to a prompt and hard UHECR trace pointing toward the original UHECR source direction. The direct p -anti{p} pairs are split and spread by random...

  8. Effect of the fragment excitation energy distribution on the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cascade emission of neutrons from a nucleus and of distribution of the initial excitation energy upon characteristics of the emission spectrum are studied. Calculations of the emission spectrum are made in the Weisskopf form in the constant temperature approximation. It has been elucidated that the cascade character of particle emission is not sufficient for the total spectrum to approach the maxwellian one. A dependence of the distorting function upon energy has been obtained. The calculation spectrum is compared with the experimental and with the Weisskopf spectra. A conclusion is drawn that the temperature dependence upon excitation energy is predominant in formation of a fission neutron spectrum

  9. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code. PMID:27389881

  10. Study of the Solar Anisotropy for Cosmic Ray Primaries of about 200 GeV Energy with the L3+C Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benitez, M; van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, J; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, Valery P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bahr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillere, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Bohm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J; de Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degre, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; DeNotaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Duran, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El Hage, A; El Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagan, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S N; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Gruenewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, Ch; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, Lawrence W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; Konig, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Kraemer, R W; Kruger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladron de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levtchenko, P; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, F L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Mana, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, y G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novak, T; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J -F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroue, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, y S; Riles, Keith; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sanchez, E; Schafer, C; Schegelsky, V; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schopper, H; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Straessner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillasi, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Toth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vasquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitsky, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopianov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, An; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zhu, Q Q; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zoller, M; Zwart, A N M

    2008-01-01

    Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the nonuniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10^-4. The measurements have been performed in the years 1999 and 2000.

  11. Voltage Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy Based Low Energy Switching of a Ferromagnet on a Topological Insulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Dey, Rik; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel memory device that consists of a thin ferromagnetic layer of Fe deposited on topological insulator thin film, Bi2Se3. The ferromagnetic layer has perpendicular anisotropy, due to MgO deposited on the top surface of Fe. When current is passed on the surface of Bi2Se3, the surface of the Bi2Se3 becomes spin polarized and strong exchange interaction occurs between the d electrons in the ferromagnet and the electrons conducting the current on the surface of the Bi2Se3. Part of ...

  12. The energy spectrum of high energy gamma rays observed at an airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to get some knowledge of altitude variation of high energy cosmic rays in the atmosphere, an emulsion chamber (EC) has been flown at the atmospheric depth of 260 g/cm2 on an airplane jet cargo. The total amount of exposure is 165 m2hour. Approximately 400 showers with energy greater than 1.0 TeV are observed. The energy spectrum of high energy gamma rays is presented. The comparison with similar measurement at greater depth is made. (orig.)

  13. Magnetization reversal of nanodots with different magnetic anisotropy and magnetostatic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Y P; Nefedev, K V; Iljin, A I; Pustovalov, E V; Chebotkevich, L A, E-mail: yivanov@phys.dvgu.ru [Institute of Physics and Informational Technologies, Far Eastern National University, Vladivostok, Sukhanova street 8, 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-01

    The arrays of circle and square nanodots were prepared by Ga{sup +} ion-beam etching of thing cobalt films with induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The size of researched nanodots was d=600, 450 and 250 nm that equal or less then radius of ferromagnetic correlation for continuous Co film. The distances l=2d and 3d between center of nanodots in the arrays were taken. The interpretation of experimental magnetic force microscopy data was done by means of micromagnetic simulation and MFM-experiment simulation. Each nanodot of arrays with d=600 nm has multidomain structure at demagnetisation state for l=3d and magnetic vortex for l=2d. For arrays with size of element d<600 nm and l=2d and 3d at same condition occurred only vortex state.

  14. Evaluation, Energy Optimization, and Spectrum Analysis of an Artificial Noise Technique to Improve CWSN Security

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Blesa; Alvaro Araujo; Elena Romero; Octavio Nieto-Taladriz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the security evaluation, energy consumption optimization, and spectrum scarcity analysis of artificial noise techniques to increase physical-layer security in Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks (CWSNs). These techniques introduce noise into the spectrum in order to hide real information. Nevertheless, they directly affect two important parameters in Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks (CWSNs), energy consumption and spectrum utilization. Both are affected because the number...

  15. Hofstadter's butterfly energy spectrum of ultracold fermions on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed

  16. Measurement of the Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays using Hybrid Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Schüssler, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from simultaneous observation of fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Extending the nominal energy range of the Pierre Auger Observatory to lower energy, the hybrid energy spectrum above 10^{18} eV is measured. It shows a significant break of the power-law behavior at 10^{18.7} eV.

  17. Segmentation-free x-ray energy spectrum estimation for computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Tianye

    2016-01-01

    X-ray energy spectrum plays an essential role in imaging and related tasks. Due to the high photon flux of clinical CT scanners, most of the spectrum estimation methods are indirect and are usually suffered from various limitations. The recently proposed indirect transmission measurement-based method requires at least the segmentation of one material, which is insufficient for CT images of highly noisy and with artifacts. To combat for the bottleneck of spectrum estimation using segmented CT images, in this study, we develop a segmentation-free indirect transmission measurement based energy spectrum estimation method using dual-energy material decomposition. The general principle of the method is to compare polychromatic forward projection with raw projection to calibrate a set of unknown weights which are used to express the unknown spectrum together with a set of model spectra. After applying dual-energy material decomposition using high- and low-energy raw projection data, polychromatic forward projection ...

  18. Rising inelastic cross section and its contribution to steepening of the cosmic ray energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations have been carried out to investigate the contribution of an increasing total cross section to steepening of the cosmic ray energy spectrum at very high energies (E>approximately1012eV). Our results suggest that increasing total cross section contributes only a part to the steepening of primary energy spectrum at very high energies even if the composition is pure primary iron flux. (author)

  19. Analysis of large-scale anisotropy of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in HiRes data

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Allen, M; Amann, J F; Archbold, G; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Brusova, O A; Burt, G W; Cannon, C; Cao, Z; Deng, W; Fedorova, Y; Findlay, J; Finley, C B; Gray, R C; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Holzscheiter, M H; Hughes, G; Hüntemeyer, P; Ivanov, D; Jones, B F; Jui, C C H; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Koers, H; Loh, E C; Maestas, M M; Manago, N; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; Moore, S A; O'Neill, A; Painter, C A; Perera, L; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M D; Rodriguez, D; Sasaki, M; Schnetzer, S R; Scott, L M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Thomas, J R; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tupa, D; Wiencke, L R; Zech, A; Zhang, X

    2010-01-01

    Stereo data collected by the HiRes experiment over a six year period are examined for large-scale anisotropy related to the inhomogeneous distribution of matter in the nearby Universe. We consider the generic case of small cosmic-ray deflections and a large number of sources tracing the matter distribution. In this matter tracer model the expected cosmic ray flux depends essentially on a single free parameter, the typical deflection angle theta. We find that the HiRes data with threshold energies of 40 EeV and 57 EeV are incompatible with the matter tracer model at a 95% confidence level unless theta is larger than 10 degrees and are compatible with an isotropic flux. The data set above 10 EeV is compatible with both the matter tracer model and an isotropic flux.

  20. Time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time a time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced electron beam is constructed. A small portion of electron beam sampled at its axis is injected into a vacuum and the electrons passed through a negatively biased electrode are measured by a Faraday cup. The time-resolved energy spectrum is determined by analyzing the Faraday cup current waveforms measured at various bias voltages. The resultant spectrum reveals that the instantaneous beam energy is nearly monoenergetic. The energy is monotonically decreasing in time and resembles the anode-cathode voltage waveform. This suggests that electrons are accelerated by the full instantaneous anode-cathode voltage

  1. Energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Lu, Xingye; Abernathy, D. L.; Tam, David W.; Niedziela, J. L.; Tian, Wei; Luo, Huiqian; Si, Qimiao; Dai, Pengcheng

    2015-11-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to study the temperature and energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained electron-doped iron pnictide BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 near optimal superconductivity (Tc=20 K ). Our work has been motivated by the observation of in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase of electron-underdoped iron pnictides under uniaxial pressure, which has been attributed to a spin-driven Ising-nematic state or orbital ordering. Here we show that the spin excitation anisotropy, a signature of the spin-driven Ising-nematic phase, exists for energies below ˜60 meV in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 . Since this energy scale is considerably larger than the energy splitting of the dx z and dy z bands of uniaxial-strained Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 near optimal superconductivity, spin Ising-nematic correlations are likely the driving force for the resistivity anisotropy and associated electronic nematic correlations.

  2. Constraining the CDM spectrum normalization in flat dark energy cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, S; Basilakos, Spyros

    2006-01-01

    We study the relation between the rms mass fluctuations on 8$h^{-1}$Mpc scales and $\\Omega_{\\rm m}$ using the recent clustering results of XMM-{\\it Newton} soft (0.5-2 keV) X-ray sources, which have a median redshift of $z\\sim 1.2$. The relation can be represented in the form $\\sigma_{8}=0.34 (\\pm 0.01) \\Omega_{\\rm m}^{-\\gamma}$ where $\\gamma\\equiv \\gamma(\\Omega_{\\rm m},w)$ and it is valid for all $w<-1/3$ models. By combining the X-ray clustering and SNIa data we find that the model which best reproduces the observational data is that with: $\\Omega_{\\rm m}\\simeq 0.26$, $w\\simeq -0.90$ and $\\sigma_{8}\\simeq 0.73$, which is in excellent agreement with the recent 3-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results.

  3. Segmentation-free x-ray energy spectrum estimation for computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qiude; Niu, Tianye

    2016-01-01

    X-ray energy spectrum plays an essential role in imaging and related tasks. Due to the high photon flux of clinical CT scanners, most of the spectrum estimation methods are indirect and are usually suffered from various limitations. The recently proposed indirect transmission measurement-based method requires at least the segmentation of one material, which is insufficient for CT images of highly noisy and with artifacts. To combat for the bottleneck of spectrum estimation using segmented CT ...

  4. Searches for Anisotropies in the Arrival Directions of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in 10 years of operation. The data set, about three times larger than that used in earlier studies, includes arrival directions with zenith angles up to $80^\\circ$, thus covering from $-90^\\circ$ to $+45^\\circ$ in declination. After updating the fraction of events correlating with the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the V\\'eron-Cetty and V\\'eron catalog, we subject the arrival directions of the data with energies in excess of 40 EeV to different tests for anisotropy. We search for localized excess fluxes and for self-clustering of event directions at angular scales up to $30^\\circ$ and for different threshold energies between 40~EeV and 80~EeV. We then look for correlations of cosmic rays with celestial structures both in the Galaxy (the Galactic Center and Galactic Plane) and in the local Universe (the Super-Galactic Plane). We also examine their correlation with different populations ...

  5. Algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ energy spectrum is expanded in allied energy-frequency space. By the different characterization of the evolution of wavelet transform modulus maxima across scales between energy spectrum and noise, the algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales is presented. The results show, in contrast to the methods in energy space or in frequency space, the method has the advantages that the peak of energy spectrum can be indicated accurately and the energy spectrum can be reconstructed with a good approximation

  6. Coping with spectrum and energy scarcity in Wireless Networks: a Stochastic Optimization approach to Cognitive Radio and Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Michelusi, Nicolò

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, we have witnessed an explosion of wireless communications and networking, spurring a great interest in the research community. The design of wireless networks is challenged by the scarcity of resources, especially spectrum and energy. In this thesis, we explore the potential offered by two novel technologies to cope with spectrum and energy scarcity: Cognitive Radio (CR) and Energy Harvesting (EH). CR is a novel paradigm for improving the spectral efficiency in wireless n...

  7. Large-Angular Scales CMB Anisotropy from Excited Initial Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Sojasi, A; Yusofi, E

    2015-01-01

    According to the inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of the new physics hypothesis. Initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, which can affect on the observables such as CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. Indeed, considering the recent Planck constraint on spectral index, motivated us to examine the effect of new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy in large-angular scales. In so doing, it was revealed that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit $ \\ell<200 $ the tiny deviation is appeared. Also, it was shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon $.

  8. Calculations of x-ray anisotropy for energies > 150 keV and its comparison with PVO/ISEE-3 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of electron energy and angular distributions has been studied at different levels in the solar atmosphere by combining a smallangle analytical treatment with large-angle Monte Carlo calculations for electron energies greater than 500 keV. Using these distributions energy spectra and angular distributions of photons for energies greater than 150 keV have been computed as a function of height. The anisotropy ratio for these photon energies first decreases then increases with decrease in height (increase of column density). The results are compared with the observations of PVO/ISEE-3. The calculated characteristics of the x-ray flux ratio closely resemble the above observations. (author)

  9. Prediction of neutron energy spectrum in a typical MTR type research reactor using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The core of a typical MTR type research reactor was modelled, in three dimensions, using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5. ► The neutron energy spectrum at the central irradiation site was determined. ► Results are compared with earlier calculations performed by the deterministic code CITATION. - Abstract: In previous work, determination of the neutron energy spectrum in a typical pool type Material Test research Reactor (MTR) was discussed. Solution of the neutron spectrum adjustment problem, which adjusts a theoretically calculated spectrum to a set of experimentally measured reaction rates, was also analyzed. The calculated spectrum was obtained through modelling the reactor core and the surroundings in three dimensions using the deterministic code CITATION. In this work, the same core configuration was modelled in three dimensions using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5. The calculated spectrum by MCNP is compared to that calculated by CITATION. Both calculated spectra by CITATION and MCNP were also compared as input information in the experimental determination of the neutron spectrum through the use of experimentally measured reaction rates and the adjustment code MSITER. The good agreement between the calculated and adjusted spectra indicates that the MCNP approach can be used as pre-information in the experimental determination of the neutron spectrum as well as for the prediction of neutron spectrum at other locations

  10. A Modified Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing Algorithm for Green Cognitive Radio Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Rajput

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum Sensing is the first and fundamental function of Cognitive Cycle which plays a vital role in the success of CRs (Cognitive Radios. Spectrum Sensing indicate the presence and absence of PUs (Primary Users in RF (Radio Frequency spectrum occupancy measurements. In order to correctly determine the presence and absence of Primary Users, the algorithms in practice include complex mathematics which increases the computational complexity of the algorithm, thus shifted the CRs to operate as ?green? communication systems. In this paper, an energy efficient and computationally less complex, energy detection based Spectrum Sensing algorithm have been proposed. The design goals of the proposed algorithm are to save the processing and sensing energies. At first, by using less MAC (Multiply and Accumulate operation, it saves the processing energy needed to determine the presence and absence of PUs. Secondly, it saves the sensing energy by providing a way to find lowest possible sensing time at which spectrum is to be sensed. Two scenarios have been defined for testing the proposed algorithm i.e. simulate detection capability of Primary Users in ideal and noisy scenarios. Detection of PUs in both of these scenarios have been compared to obtain the probability of detection. Energy Efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been proved by making performance comparison between the proposed (less complex algorithm and the legacy energy detection algorithm. With reduced complexity, the proposed spectrum sensing algorithm can be considered under the paradigm of Green Cognitive Radio Communication

  11. A modified energy detection based spectrum sensing algorithm for green cognitive radio communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrum Sensing is the first and fundamental function of Cognitive Cycle which plays a vital role in the success of CRs (Cognitive Radios). Spectrum Sensing indicate the presence and absence of PUs (Primary Users) in RF (Radio Frequency) spectrum occupancy measurements. In order to correctly determine the presence and absence of Primary Users, the algorithms in practice include complex mathematics which increases the computational complexity of the algorithm, thus shifted the CRs to operate as ?green? communication systems. In this paper, an energy efficient and computationally less complex, energy detection based Spectrum Sensing algorithm have been proposed. The design goals of the proposed algorithm are to save the processing and sensing energies. At first, by using less MAC (Multiply and Accumulate) operation, it saves the processing energy needed to determine the presence and absence of PUs. Secondly, it saves the sensing energy by providing a way to find lowest possible sensing time at which spectrum is to be sensed. Two scenarios have been defined for testing the proposed algorithm i.e. simulate detection capability of Primary Users in ideal and noisy scenarios. Detection of PUs in both of these scenarios have been compared to obtain the probability of detection. Energy Efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been proved by making performance comparison between the proposed (less complex) algorithm and the legacy energy detection algorithm. With reduced complexity, the proposed spectrum sensing algorithm can be considered under the paradigm of Green Cognitive Radio Communication. (author)

  12. The energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at 1014-1016 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new data on electron and muon size spectra are obtained at Tien Shan complex array. The shape of the primary energy spectrum at 1014-1016 eV is analysed on the base of these characteristics. (orig.)

  13. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum Observed with the Surface Detector of the Telescope Array Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; B.G. Cheon; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with primary energies above 1.6 x 10^(18) eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 x 10^(18) eV and a steepening at 5.4 x 10^(19) eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of ultra-high energy cosmic ray ...

  14. Revisiting the hardening of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum at TeV energies

    CERN Document Server

    Thoudam, Satyendra

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic rays by experiments such as ATIC, CREAM, and PAMELA indicate a hardening of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum at TeV energies. In our recent work (Thoudam & H\\"orandel 2012a), we showed that the hardening can be due to the effect of nearby supernova remnants. We showed it for the case of proton and helium. In this paper, we present an improved and detailed version of our previous work, and extend our study to heavier cosmic-ray species such as boron, carbon, oxygen, and iron nuclei. Unlike our previous study, the present work involves a detailed calculation of the background cosmic rays and follows a consistent treatment of cosmic-ray source parameters between the background and the nearby components. Moreover, we also present a detailed comparison of our results on the secondary-to-primary ratios, secondary spectra, and the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum with the results expected from other existing models, which can be checked by future measurements at high energies.

  15. Energy spectrum of ultra high energy γ-rays from supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a newly born neutron star in SN1987A is a powerful injector of ultra high energy (UHE) protons, UHE γ-rays will be emitted by bombardment of supernova ejecta with these UHE particles. We compute energy spectrum of the UHE γ-rays generated by monoenergetic protons using Monte Carlo simulations at the period of high flux when the column density is 30∼100 g/cm2. If the column density of the ejecta is less than ∼100 g/cm2, low energy γ-rays do not increase as E-2, like the case for Cyg X-3, but they have much harder spectrum close to E-1. The expected numbers of PeV and TeV region γ-rays per hour are at least 0.16 counts (Lp/1041 ergs)(S/(50 m)2)(d/56 kpc)-2 and 132 counts (Lp/1041 ergs)(S/30000 m2)(d/56 kpc)-2 where Lp, S and d are the proton luminosity, the area of detectors, and the distance to LMC, respectively. (author)

  16. Anisotropy of low energy direct photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-09-01

    Using the Wigner function approach for electromagnetic radiation fields, we investigate the behavior of low energy photons radiated by the deceleration processes of two colliding nuclei in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The angular distribution reveals information of the initial geometric configurations, which is reflected in the anisotropic parameter v 2, with an increasing v 2 as energy decreases. This behavior is qualitatively different to the v 2 from the hadrons produced in the collisions.

  17. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations

  18. Comparatative Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing of Cognitive Radio Under Wireless Environment Using SEAMCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the Cognitive Radio technology imposed itself as a good solution to enhance the utilization of unused spectrum and globalized the radio environment for different band users that utilize or require different techniques for transmission. In this paper, the energy detection spectrum sensing technique that is used to detect the presence of unknown deterministic signal is studied under the non-time dispersive fading environment using the Hata propagation model for picocell communication systems. The different aspects of non-time dispersive fading regions over energy detection spectrum sensing and impact of changing a detection threshold of the secondary user Cognitive Radio on interference at primary user for non-cooperative spectrum access have been studied in the terms of probability of interference. The entire Comparatative Analysis of Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive radio has been carried out with the aid of SEAMCAT software platform.

  19. Development of gamma-ray energy spectrum remote-measurement system based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design techniques of a gamma-ray energy spectrum remote-measurement system based on Lab VIEW are described, including data acquicition and client control program, and network communication by DataSocket. The gamma-ray energy spectrum of 137Cs was measured by the system, indicating that performance of our remote-measurement system based on LabVIEW is better than that based on Java Applet. (authors)

  20. Phenomenological Rashba model for calculating the electron energy spectrum on a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinskiĭ, S. S.; Belosludtsev, A. V.

    2007-05-01

    The energy spectrum of an electron on the surface of a cylinder is calculated using the Pauli equation with an additional term that takes into account the spin-orbit interaction. This term is taken in the approximation of a phenomenological Rashba model, which provides exact expressions for the wave functions and the electron energy spectrum on the cylinder surface in a static magnetic field.

  1. Development and application of HFC-1 γ energy spectrum logging instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and application of HFC-1 γ energy spectrum logging instrument has been introduced. The instrument is an exclusive use equipment of measuring underground nuclear test radionuclide. The instrument system is made up of main instrument system, γ energy spectrum detector system, logging winch control system, data acquisition and processing system. Through application in nuclear test field, the instrument performance is stability, reliable and has attained anticipatory design purpose

  2. Research on influence of energy spectrum response of ICT detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectrum response is important characteristic for X-ray ICT detector. But there exist many difficulties to measure these parameters by experiments. The energy spectrum response of CdWO4 detector was simulated by using the EGSnrc code. Meanwhile the effect of detection efficiency was analyzed by the distribution of accelerator bremsstrahlung spectra and the X-ray spectrum hardening, and some theoretic parameters were offered for the consistent and no-linearity correction of detector arrays. It was applied to ICT image correction, and a satisfying result was obtained. (authors)

  3. Definition of X-ray equivalent energy spectrum by the subtraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique to reconstruct energy spectrum of X-ray radiation (initiating apparatus signal coinciding within the limits of measurement error with experimental one) at measurement conducted by filter technique, is described. The considered technique enables to determine minimal value of parameters necessary to describe energy spectrum. It may be useful when analyzing information contained in the experimental curve attenuation, especially in case of unadequacy or absence of a priori information on true spectrum. Criterion of choice of quantity and thickness of filters is suggested, as well

  4. Measurement of the high energy component of the neutron spectrum from a moderated source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high energy component of the neutron spectrum from a moderated source has been measured by an improved method at the LNS synchrotron. The detector size of 7 cm diam. by 30 cm long NE-213 liquid scintillator was used and a FERDOR unfolding code was adopted for the spectrum data analysis. This result is compared with a previous measurement employing a smaller detector and a rectangular unfolding technique. The accuracy of the new method was tested by measuring the same high energy neutron spectrum which was measured and analyzed both by time-of-flight and by the FERDOR unfolding method. (orig.)

  5. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k ∼4 Mpc–1. Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of μ and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  6. Observation of Anisotropy in the Arrival Direction Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Westerhoff, S

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100 m above sea level near Sierra Negra (19$^\\circ$ N) in Mexico, is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at these energies shows significant anisotropy on several angular scales, with a relative intensity ranging between 10$^{-3}$ and 10$^{-4}$. We present the results of a study of cosmic-ray anisotropy based on more than 86 billion cosmic-ray air showers recorded with HAWC since June 2013. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map, which has a median energy of 2 TeV, exhibits several regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux. We present the energy dependence of the anisotropy and the cosmic-ray spectrum in the regions of significant excess.

  7. Ab initio and work function and surface energy anisotropy of LaB6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijttewaal, M. A.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum hexaboride is one of the cathode materials most used in high-power electronics technology, but the many experimental results do not provide a consistent picture of the surface properties. Therefore, we report the first ab initio calculations of the work functions and surface energies of th

  8. Spectrum and Composition of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays from Semi-relativistic Hypernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that hypernova remnants, with a substantial amount of energy in semi-relativistic ejecta, can accelerate intermediate mass or heavy nuclei to ultra-high energies and provide sufficient amount of energy in cosmic rays to account for the observed flux. We here calculate the expected energy spectrum and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from such semi-relativistic hypernovae. With a chemical composition equal to that of the hypernova ejecta and a flat or...

  9. Anisotropy and effect of salinity in diffusion and activation energies of cations and anions in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion experiments for I- and Cs+ in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the orientated direction of smectite particles were performed as a function of smectite's dry density, salinity and temperature. The anisotropies and the effect of salinity in the apparent diffusivities (Da) and activation energies (ΔEa) for both ions were additionally discussed. The Da-values for both ions showed a tendency to be higher in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. The Da-values of I- in the parallel direction decreased with increasing salinity at low-dry density, but those of Cs+ increased with increasing salinity for all conditions. Based on this, it is interpreted that I- mainly diffuses in interstitial pores and that Cs+ diffuses in interlayer and interstitial pores. The ΔEa-values for I-, similar levels to that for the diffusivity in free water (Do) at low-dry density, increased with increasing dry density. The ΔEa-values for Cs+, higher than that for Do even at low-dry density, increased with increasing dry density. Such high ΔEa-values for Cs+ are considered to be due to the effects of ion exchange enthalpy (ΔHo) between Cs+ and Na+ and the decrease in the activity of porewater. (author)

  10. Comment on study of material irradiation damage. PKA energy spectrum effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study of damage correlation, experimental data on the Stage I recovery, defect production cross sections and radiation annealing cross sections in FCC metals irradiated with electrons, various ions and neutrons are analyzed as a function of PKA (i.e. Primary Knock-on Atom) median energy. It is shown that the PKA median energy is a good parameter to characterize the PKA energy spectrum. The defect accumulation as a function of dpa is predicted in Cu and Ni for two PKA median energies, 0.6 keV and 35 keV, and the PKA spectrum effect is discussed. (author)

  11. A Study on Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hang Bae

    2012-01-01

    We study the anisotropy in the arrival directions of PAO UHECRs, using the point source correlational angular distance distribution. The result shows that the anisotropy is characterized by one prominent excess region and one void region. The excess region is located near the Centaurus A direction, supporting that the Centaurus A is a promising UHECR source. The void region near the south pole direction may be used to limit the diffuse isotropic background contribution.

  12. On the interpretation of the cosmic-ray anisotropy at ultra-high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunov, D.S.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Tkachev, I. I.; Troitsky, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    A natural interpretation of the correlation between nearby Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and the highest-energy cosmic rays observed recently by the Pierre Auger Collaboration is that the sources of the cosmic rays are either AGN or other objects with a similar spatial distribution (the ``AGN hypothesis''). We question this interpretation. We calculate the expected distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays under the AGN hypothesis and argue that it is not supported by the data, one...

  13. Presumption of the energy-spectrum of high-energy electron beam based on the beta-distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectra of high-energy electron beams used in radiotherapy are the most important data for evaluating absorbed doses and/or dose distributions in the body of a patient. However, it is impossible to measure the actual spectra of a high-energy electron beam. In this study, we suggest a method to presume the spectra of high-energy electron beams by use of the beta distribution model. The procedure of this method is as follows: (1) the spectrum of the high-energy electron beam was assumed to have a maximum energy Emax, and α, β parameters of the beta probability density function. (2) The percentage depth dose (PDD) based on the assumed spectrum was calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation. (3) The best matching energy spectrum was searched in comparison with the experimental PDD curves. Finally, the optimal energy spectrum of the electron beam was estimated after reiterating the process from (1) to (3). With our method, the measured PDD curves were optimally simulated following the experimental data. It appeared that the assumed spectra approximated well to the actual spectra. However, the error between the assumed and experimental data was observed in the region under the incident surface. We believe this was due to the influence of low-energy electrons scattered at installed collimators, etc. In order to simulate PDDs in this region accurately, a further correction process is required for a spectrum based on the beta distribution model. (author)

  14. Influence of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability on the kinetic energy spectrum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christopher R. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI)

    2010-09-01

    The fluctuating kinetic energy spectrum in the region near the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity field is measured at a high spatial resolution in the light gas to observe the effects of turbulence production and dissipation. It is found that the RMI acts as a source of turbulence production near the unstable interface, where energy is transferred from the scales of the perturbation to smaller scales until dissipation. The interface also has an effect on the kinetic energy spectrum farther away by means of the distorted reflected shock wave. The energy spectrum far from the interface initially has a higher energy content than that of similar experiments with a flat interface. These differences are quick to disappear as dissipation dominates the flow far from the interface.

  15. Spectrum and Composition of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays from Semi-relativistic Hypernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruo-Yu

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that hypernova remnants, with a substantial amount of energy in semi-relativistic ejecta, can accelerate intermediate mass or heavy nuclei to ultra-high energies and provide sufficient amount of energy in cosmic rays to account for the observed flux. We here calculate the expected energy spectrum and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from such semi-relativistic hypernovae. With a chemical composition equal to that of the hypernova ejecta and a flat or hard spectrum for cosmic rays at the sources, the spectrum and composition of the propagated cosmic rays observed at the Earth can be compatible with the measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. Energy spectrum of cosmic-ray photons observed at the ground level in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray photons was estimated from the pulse-height spectra of cosmic-rays observed by a spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The pulse-height spectrum of cosmic-ray photons could be successfully separated on the basis of the difference between the pulse-height spectrum by a spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and that by coincidence counting method. It seemed that the pulse-height spectra of cosmic-ray muons by the each measuring system resemble each other in shape, while the pulse-height spectra of cosmic-ray electrons by the each system different each other. So the pulse-height distribution of cosmic-ray muons was determined from the pulse-height spectrum observed by the detector covered with lead. The pulse-height distribution of cosmic-ray electrons was determined as follows: The shape of pulse-height spectrum was calculated on the basis of the energy spectra of cosmic-ray electrons in the lower atmosphere. The pulse-height distributions of cosmic-ray electrons by the single detector system and by the coincidence detector system were calculated by using the EGS4 Monte Carlo Code. The intensity of cosmic-ray electrons was determined by subtracting the pulse-height spectrum observed by the detector covered with lead from that observed by the coincidence detector system. The pulse-height distribution of cosmic-ray photons could be determined from the pulse-height spectrum by the coincidence detector system subtracted from that by the single detector system. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray photons could be calculated from the pulse-height distribution of cosmic-ray photons by using an unfolding method. It became clear that the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray photons was identified above scores of MeV. (author)

  17. Dark Energy, Inflation, CMB Anisotropy and Polarization from Quantum Metric Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Marochnik, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model of cosmological evolution of the early and late Universe which is consistent with observational data and naturally explains the origin of inflation and dark energy (DE). We show that the de Sitter accelerated expansion of the FLRW space with no matter fields (hereinafter, empty space) is its natural state, and the model does not require either a scalar field or cosmological constant or any other hypotheses. Mathematically, this is due to the fact that the de Sitter state is an exact solution of the rigorous, mathematically consistent equations of one-loop quantum gravity for the empty FLRW space that are finite off the mass shell. Physically, this is due to the fact that the natural quantum metric fluctuations have the backreaction effect on the FLRW background, forming a self-polarized de Sitter graviton condensate. The energy required to maintain the accelerated expansion is drawn from the graviton vacuum. At the start and the end of cosmological evolution, the Universe is assumed to be e...

  18. The spectrum of high-energy cosmic rays measured with KASCADE-Grande

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, W D; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Finger, M; Fuhrmann, D; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Kickelbick, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays between 10**16 eV and 10**18 eV, derived from measurements of the shower size (total number of charged particles) and the total muon number of extensive air showers by the KASCADE-Grande experiment, is described. The resulting all-particle energy spectrum exhibits strong hints for a hardening of the spectrum at approximately 2x10**16 eV and a significant steepening at c. 8x10**16 eV. These observations challenge the view that the spectrum is a single power law between knee and ankle. Possible scenarios generating such features are discussed in terms of astrophysical processes that may explain the transition region from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  19. Neutron energy flux spectrum measurements for leu core of PARR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.; Ayazudin, S.K.; Pervez, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Pakistan Research Reactor-1 has been converted and upgraded from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel from 5 to 9MW. An experimental programme was undertaken to measure the neutron energy spectra in the core and at the irradiated and activity of the foils was measured using high efficiency HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy system. The measured saturation activities were used in the spectrum adjustment computer code SANDBP. A sample energy spectrum for the material test reactor supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used as the input to the SANDBP code, and the final spectra were obtained by iterative adjustment.

  20. Energy Spectrum of the Fe4 molecular magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The subject of molecular magnetism is a relatively new but very active area of research. A number of different molecular clusters containing paramagnetic metal ions have been synthesised and studied, among them 'Mn12' [Mn12O12(CH2COO)16(H2O)4] and 'Fe8' [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6], both of which have an S=10 ground state. These systems are of interest, not only because of potential applications in nanotechnology, but also because they may exhibit interesting fundamental quantum phenomena such as quantum spin tunnelling, topological interference effects, and exact degeneracies at so-called 'diabolical points' in magnetic field space. These have been observed in Fe8. A more recently discovered cluster is 'Fe4' [Fe4(OCH3)6(dpm)6], which has a ground state with s=5. We present a theoretical analysis of the Fe4 cluster, using a spin-exchange model to describe the overall spectrum and a crystal field Hamiltonian to describe the splitting in zero field, and demonstrate the existence of diabolical points in nonzero field. The possible observation of these phenomena in Fe4 is discussed

  1. A depression before a bump in the highest energy cosmic ray spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Anchordoqui, L. A.; Dova, M. T.; Epele, L. N.; Swain, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    We re-examine the interaction of ultra high energy nuclei with the microwave background radiation. We find that the giant dipole resonance leaves a new signature in the differential energy spectrum of iron sources located around 3 Mpc: A depression before the bump which is followed by the expected cutoff.

  2. The 4p6 electron energy-loss spectrum of Rb atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattered electron energy-loss spectrum due to the excitation of the 4p5n1l1n2l2 states in rubidium atoms was measured at 25.6 eV impact energy. New optically forbidden non-autoionizing states located between 16.5 and 16.8 eV were observed.

  3. The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)

  4. Corrections on energy spectrum and scatterings for fast neutron radiography at NECTAR facility

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Quan, Liu; Thomas, Bücherl; Hang, Li; Yu-Bin, Zou; Yuan-Rong, Lu; Zhi-Yu, Guo

    2013-01-01

    Neutron spectrum and scattered neutrons caused distortions are major problems in fast neutron radiography and should be considered for improving the image quality. This paper puts emphasis on the removal of these image distortions and deviations for fast neutron radiography performed at the NECTAR facility of the research reactor FRM-II in Technische Universit\\"at M\\"unchen (TUM), Germany. The NECTAR energy spectrum is analyzed and established to modify the influence caused by neutron spectru...

  5. Search for radiative decays of cosmic background neutrino using cosmic infrared background energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to search for the neutrino radiative decay by fitting a photon energy spectrum of the cosmic infrared background to a sum of the photon energy spectrum from the neutrino radiative decay and a continuum. By comparing the present cosmic infrared background energy spectrum observed by AKARI and Spitzer to the photon energy spectrum expected from neutrino radiative decay with a maximum likelihood method, we obtained a lifetime lower limit of 3.1x1012 to 3.8x1012 years at 95% confidence level for the third generation neutrino v3 in the v3 mass range between 50 and 150 meV/c2 under the present constraints by the neutrino oscillation measurements. In the left-right symmetric model, the minimum lifetime of v3 is predicted to be 1.5x1017 years for m3 of 50 meV/c2. We studied the feasibility of the observation of the neutrino radiative decay with a lifetime of 1.5x1017 years, by measuring a continuous energy spectrum of the cosmic infrared background. (author)

  6. Leptoquark models and the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhanov, I.

    2011-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has recently placed a new limit on the extremely-high energy (EHE) neutrino flux lower than the Greisen--Zatsepin--Kuzmin (GZK) cosmogenic neutrino intensities expected in the case of proton-dominated primary composition. This result favors the mixed chemical composition models and excludes scenarios with strongly interacting neutrinos proposed so far. Nevertheless we argue that it is possible to construct such models consistently with the IceCube data if to e...

  7. Energy spectrum of localization statas in vanadium-phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacitance-voltage characteristics of the Pt-vnadium-phosphate glass-Pt structures have been studied. A technique is proposed to determine the distribution of the density of loclized states versus energy, p(E). This distribution is shown to be exponential. For the 80% V2O5 - 20% P2O5 glass in the vicinity of the Fermi level p(Esub(F)) is determined to be approximately 6x1020 cm-3 eV-μ1

  8. Single particle spectrum and binding energy of nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, M; Fiasconaro, A.

    2000-01-01

    In non-relativistic Brueckner calculations of nuclear matter, the self-consistent single particle potential is strongly momentum dependent. To simplify the calculations, a parabolic approximation is often used in the literature. The variation in the binding energy value introduced by the parabolic approximation is quantitatively analyzed in detail. It is found that the approximation can introduce an uncertainty of 1-2 MeV near the saturation density.

  9. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the 252Cf (sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  10. On the groundstate energy spectrum of magnetic knots and links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using analytical results for the constrained minimum energy of magnetic knots we determine the influence of internal twist on the minimum magnetic energy levels of knots and links, and by using ropelength data from the RIDGERUNNER tightening algorithm (Ashton et al 2011 Exp. Math. 20 57–90) we obtain the groundstate energy spectra of the first 250 prime knots and 130 prime links. The two spectra are found to follow an almost identical logarithmic law. By assuming that the number of knot types grows exponentially with the topological crossing number, we show that this generic behavior can be justified by a general relationship between ropelength and crossing number, which is in good agreement with former analytical estimates (Buck and Simon 1999 Topol. Appl. 91 245–57, Diao 2003 J. Knot Theory Ramifications 12 1–16). Moreover, by considering the ropelength averaged over a given knot family, we establish a new connection between the averaged ropelength and the topological crossing number of magnetic knots. (paper)

  11. Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Using a Hybrid Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; B.G. Cheon; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than $10^{18.2}$ eV with the Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) and the Surface Detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27 2008 to September 7 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is ...

  12. Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Using a Hybrid Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, E J; Cho, W R; Fujii, H; Fujii, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Hiyama, K; Honda, K; Iguchi, T; Ikeda, D; Ikuta, K; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Iwamoto, S; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kanbe, T; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, H K; Kim, J H; Kitamoto, K; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Kondo, Y; Kuramoto, K; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, S; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuura, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Miyata, K; Murano, Y; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nam, S W; Nonaka, T; Ogio, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Oku, D; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Roh, S Y; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, J I; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Tsuyuguchi, Y; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Ukai, H; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamakawa, Y; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zhou, X; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2013-01-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than $10^{18.2}$ eV with the Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) and the Surface Detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27 2008 to September 7 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  13. Correlation of D-D neutron yield and D/sup +/ energy spectrum in focused discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectrum N(E) of the D/sup +/ ion emission from ≅ 0.6 MA focused discharges is determined with Thomson spectrometers for different conditions (D/sub 2/ filling pressure, capacitor bank voltage, and geometry of field distortion elements in the interelectrode gap). Linear correlation coefficients c/sub i/ for a characteristic element of the spectrum (e.g. the spectrum amplitude within a selected energy interval E, E+ΔE) and the neutron yield n is determined for a large number of discharges. The interplay of two leading processes in the neutron production, ion acceleration and ion trapping in the self magnetic field of the pinch, is analyzed in terms of correlation coefficients c/sub i/ and peak neutron energy

  14. Neutron energy spectrum adjustment using deposited metal films on Teflon in the miniature neutron source reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, L; Abdallah, B; Omar, H; Sarheel, A; Alsomel, N; Ghazi, N

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article was on the experimental estimation of the neutron energy spectrum in the inner irradiation site of the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR), using, for the first time, a selected set of deposited metal films on Teflon (DMFTs) neutron detectors. Gold, copper, zinc, titanium, aluminum, nickel, silver, and chromium were selected because of the dependence of their neutron cross-sections on neutron energy. Emphasis was placed on the usability of this new type of neutron detectors in the total neutron energy spectrum adjustment. The measured saturation activities per target nucleus values of the DMFTs, and the calculated neutron spectrum in the inner irradiation site using the MCNP-4C code were used as an input for the STAY'SL computer code during the adjustment procedure. The agreement between the numerically calculated and experimentally adjusted spectra results was discussed. PMID:26562448

  15. Energy spectrum of UHECRs measured by newly constructed fluorescence detectors in Telescope Array experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujii Toshihiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest hybrid detector to observe ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs in the northern hemisphere. In the TA experiment, we newly designed and constructed 24 fluorescence detectors (FDs located at two stations. We report the energy spectrum of UHECRs with energies above 1017.5 eV from analyzing data collected by the new FDs during the first 3.7 years in monocular mode.

  16. Interference Energy Spectrum of the Infinite Square Well

    OpenAIRE

    Waegell, Mordecai; Aharonov, Yakir; Patti, Taylor Lee

    2016-01-01

    Certain superposition states of the 1-D infinite square well have transient zeros at locations other than the nodes of the eigenstates that comprise them. It is shown that if an infinite potential barrier is suddenly raised at some or all of these zeros, the well can be split into multiple adjacent infinite square wells without affecting the wavefunction. This effects a change of the energy eigenbasis of the state to a basis that does not commute with the original, and a subsequent measuremen...

  17. The high-energy spectrum of 3C 273

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Valentino; Walter, Roland; Jean, Pierre; Tramacere, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The high energy spectral shape of 3C 273 is usually understood in terms of Inverse-Compton emission in a relativistic leptonic jet. This model predicts variability patterns and delays which could be tested if simultaneous observations are available from the infrared to the GeV range. The instruments IBIS, SPI, JEM-X on board INTEGRAL, PCA on board RXTE and LAT on board Fermi have enough sensitivity to follow the spectral variability from the keV to the GeV and to compare them with model predi...

  18. Power Laws and the Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Hague, J. D.; Becker, B. R.; Gold, M.S.; Matthews, J. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Two separate statistical tests are applied to the AGASA and preliminary Auger Cosmic Ray Energy spectra in an attempt to find deviation from a pure power-law. The first test is constructed from the probability distribution for the maximum event of a sample drawn from a power-law. The second employs the TP-statistic, a function defined to deviate from zero when the sample deviates from the power-law form, regardless of the value of the power index. The AGASA data show no significant deviation ...

  19. Energy spectrum and phase diagrams of two-sublattice hard-core boson model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Stasyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum, spectral density and phase diagrams have been obtained for two-sublattice hard-core boson model in frames of random phase approximation approach. Reconstruction of boson spectrum at the change of temperature, chemical potential and energy difference between local positions in sublattices is studied. The phase diagrams illustrating the regions of existence of a normal phase which can be close to Mott-insulator (MI or charge-density (CDW phase diagrams as well as the phase with the Bose-Einstein condensate (SF phase are built.

  20. Improved Energy Detector for Wideband Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Eghbali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved energy detector for a wideband spectrum sensing is proposed. For a better detection of the spectrum holes the overall band is divided into equal non-overlapping sub-bands. The main objective is to determine the detection thresholds for each of these subbands jointly. By defining the problem as an optimization problem, we aim to find the maximum aggregated opportunistic throughput of cognitive radio networks. Introducing practical constraints to this optimization problem will change the problem into a convex and solvable one. The results of this paper show that the proposed improved energy detector will increase the aggregated throughput considerably.

  1. All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured with 26 IceTop stations

    OpenAIRE

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysis were taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 km^2. The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three differen...

  2. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports a summary of the contents contents of six hours of lectures on the CMB anisotropy experiments given at the Strasbourg NATO school on the CMB and cosmology. (Its companion paper, astro-ph/9705101 reports the lectures on the CMB spectrum.) A context is set as a bridge from the theoretical CMB anisotropy lectures and the experimental situation. The COBE DMR results are reveiwed in detail and as pioneer for future space missions. Current and planned experiments are discussed in...

  3. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  4. Dependence of the Energy Spectrum of UHE Cosmic Rays on the Latitude of an Extensive Air Shower Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glushkov, A V

    2012-01-01

    Several energy spectra of cosmic rays with energies E_0 \\geq 10^17 eV measured at the Yakutsk EAS, AGASA, Haverah Park, HiRes, Auger, and SUGAR arrays are considered. It is shown that the fairly good mutual agreement of the spectrum shapes can be achieved if the energy of each spectrum is multiplied by a factor K specific for each spectrum. These factors exhibit a pronounced dependence on the latitude of the above-mentioned arrays.

  5. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  6. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f−β, where k and β are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent β would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (fg) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of fg and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20–80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f−β. The energy dependence of k and β were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent β was found to be in the range of 2.34–2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f−β, β was independent of E and k(E) =k1[μg(E) −μa(E)]2, where k1 is a constant, and μg(E) and μa(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical simulations confirmed the theoretical predictions that in dedicated breast CT, the spatial frequency

  7. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter are investigated in a study of solar hard X-rays. Effect of backscatter are found particularly important for anisotropic sources which emit hard X-rays predominantly toward the photosphere; for such anisotropic primary X-ray sources, the observed X-ray flux near 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of the flare. In addition, the degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies in the 15 to 30 keV range may be as high as 30%. Determination of the height and anisotropy of the primary X-ray sources from study of the albedo patch is also discussed.

  8. Spallation Neutron Energy Spectrum Determination with Yttrium as a Threshold Detector on U/Pb-assembly "Energy plus Transmutation"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kilim, S.; Bielewicz, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Szuta, M.; Wojciechowski, A.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Adam, Jindřich; Krása, Antonín; Majerle, Mitja; Wagner, Vladimír

    Dordrecht : SPRINGER, PO BOX 17, 3300 AA DORDRECHT, 2009, s. 343-352. ISBN 978-90-481-2285-1. ISSN 1871-465X. [NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Safe Nuclear Energy. Yalta (UA), 27.09.2008-02.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Spallation * neutron energy spectrum * Energy plus Transmutation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  9. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Salim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  10. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead. PMID:27376290

  11. A new neutron energy spectrum unfolding code using a two steps genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabinejad, H.; Hosseini, S. A.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2016-03-01

    A new neutron spectrum unfolding code TGASU (Two-steps Genetic Algorithm Spectrum Unfolding) has been developed to unfold the neutron spectrum from a pulse height distribution which was calculated using the MCNPX-ESUT computational Monte Carlo code. To perform the unfolding process, the response matrices were generated using the MCNPX-ESUT computational code. Both one step (common GA) and two steps GAs have been implemented to unfold the neutron spectra. According to the obtained results, the new two steps GA code results has shown closer match in all energy regions and particularly in the high energy regions. The results of the TGASU code have been compared with those of the standard spectra, LSQR method and GAMCD code. The results of the TGASU code have been demonstrated to be more accurate than that of the existing computational codes for both under-determined and over-determined problems.

  12. Factorization with a logarithmic energy spectrum of a two-dimensional potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, F., E-mail: ferdinand.gleisberg@uni-ulm.de [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, IQ" S" T, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Volpp, M. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, IQ" S" T, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Schleich, W.P. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, IQ" S" T, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Texas A & M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Studies and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2015-10-23

    We propose a method to factor numbers using a single particle caught in a separable two-dimensional potential with a logarithmic energy spectrum. The particle initially prepared in the ground state is excited with high probability by a sinusoidally time-dependent perturbation into a state whose two quantum numbers represent the factors of a number encoded in the frequency of the perturbation. We discuss the limitations of our method arising from off-resonant transitions and from decoherence. - Highlights: • A new protocol for factorization of an integer into two primes is proposed. • We report an energy spectrum optimally adapted for the factorization. • A potential for our single particle spectrum was calculated numerically. • We determined a Rabi frequency for the transition into the factor state. • An explicit limit caused by decoherence for numbers to be factored is reported.

  13. Factorization with a logarithmic energy spectrum of a two-dimensional potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method to factor numbers using a single particle caught in a separable two-dimensional potential with a logarithmic energy spectrum. The particle initially prepared in the ground state is excited with high probability by a sinusoidally time-dependent perturbation into a state whose two quantum numbers represent the factors of a number encoded in the frequency of the perturbation. We discuss the limitations of our method arising from off-resonant transitions and from decoherence. - Highlights: • A new protocol for factorization of an integer into two primes is proposed. • We report an energy spectrum optimally adapted for the factorization. • A potential for our single particle spectrum was calculated numerically. • We determined a Rabi frequency for the transition into the factor state. • An explicit limit caused by decoherence for numbers to be factored is reported

  14. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead. PMID:27376290

  15. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  16. A two-stage spectrum sensing scheme based on energy detection and a novel multitaper method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐佩汉; 李赞; 司江勃; 熊天意

    2015-01-01

    Wideband spectrum sensing has drawn much attention in recent years since it provides more opportunities to the sec-ondary users. However, wideband spectrum sensing requires a long time and a complex mechanism at the sensing terminal. A two-stage wideband spectrum sensing scheme is considered to proceed spectrum sensing with low time consumption and high performance to tackle this predicament. In this scheme, a novel multitaper spectrum sensing (MSS) method is proposed to mitigate the poor performance of energy detection (ED) in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. The closed-form expression of the decision threshold is derived based on the Neyman–Pearson criterion and the probability of detection in the Rayleigh fading channel is analyzed. An optimization problem is formulated to maximize the probability of detection of the proposed two-stage scheme and the average sensing time of the two-stage scheme is analyzed. Numerical results validate the efficiency of MSS and show that the two-stage spectrum sensing scheme enjoys higher performance in the low SNR region and lower time cost in the high SNR region than the single-stage scheme.

  17. On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider second-quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions at zero temperature. We discuss the energy-momentum spectrum of the Bose gas and its physical significance. We review various rigorous and heuristic results as well as open conjectures about its...

  18. Method for measuring prompt fission neutron energy spectrum by means of threshold activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt fission neutron energy spectrum as a function of energies of neutron inducing fission has been calculated on the basis of the Madland-Nix(MN) model. The resultant spectra have been weighted to excitation functions of 27Al(n,α), 32S(n,p) and 115In(n,n) threshold reactions in order to get the average cross sections and then spectral indices which are defined as the average cross section ratio for two selective threshold reactions among the above three. It is appeared that spectral indices together with the neutron spectra are varying with energies of neutron inducing fission. This may indicate that the prompt fission neutron energy spectrum can be determined by measuring experimentally the spectral index.(Author)

  19. Determination of the Spectral Index in the Fission Spectrum Energy Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Neutron reaction cross sections play a vital role in tracking the production and destruction of isotopes exposed to neutron fluence. They are central to the process of reconciling the initial and final atom inventories. Measurements of irradiated samples by radiochemical methods in tangent with an algorithm are used to evaluate the fluence a sample is exposed to over the course of the irradiation. This algorithm is the Isotope Production Code (IPC) created and used by the radiochemistry data assessment team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An integral result is calculated by varying the total neutron fluence seen by a sample. A sample, irradiated in a critical assembly, will be exposed to a unique neutron flux defined by the neutron source and distance of the sample from the source. Neutron cross sections utilized are a function of the hardness of the neutron spectrum at the location of irradiation. A spectral index is used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum. Cross sections fit forms applied in IPC are collapsed from a LANL 30-group energy structure. Several decades of research and development have been performed to formalize the current IPC cross section library. Basis of the current fission spectrum neutron reaction cross section library is rooted in critical assembly experiments performed from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s at LANL. The focus of this report is development of the spectral index used an indicator of the hardness of the neutron spectrum in the fission spectrum energy regime.

  20. Power Versus Spectrum 2-D Sensing in Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Weijia; Li, Di; Zhang, Ping; Cui, Shuguang

    2015-12-01

    Energy harvester based cognitive radio is a promising solution to address the shortage of both spectrum and energy. Since the spectrum access and power consumption patterns are interdependent, and the power value harvested from certain environmental sources are spatially correlated, the new power dimension could provide additional information to enhance the spectrum sensing accuracy. In this paper, the Markovian behavior of the primary users is considered, based on which we adopt a hidden input Markov model to specify the primary vs. secondary dynamics in the system. Accordingly, we propose a 2-D spectrum and power (harvested) sensing scheme to improve the primary user detection performance, which is also capable of estimating the primary transmit power level. Theoretical and simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, in term of the performance gain achieved by considering the new power dimension. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to jointly consider the spectrum and power dimensions for the cognitive primary user detection problem.

  1. Strong anisotropy in quasi-static MHD turbulence for high interaction parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    We simulate forced quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and investigate the anisotropy, energy spectrum, and energy flux of the flow, specially for large interaction parameters (N). We show that the angular dependence of the energy spectrum is well quantified using Legendre polynomials. For large N, the energy spectrum is exponential. Our direct computation of energy flux reveals an inverse cascade of energy at low wavenumbers, similar to that in two-dimensional turbulence. We observe the flow be two-dimensional (2D) for moderate N (N ~ 20), and two-dimensional three-component (2D-3C) type for N >= 27. In our forced simulation, the transition from 2D to 2D-3C occurs at higher value of N than Favier et al. (2010), who employ decaying simulations.

  2. Spin diffusion in an inhomogeneous internal field (non equidistant energy spectrum)

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Gregory B.; Goren, Shaul D.

    2004-01-01

    The theory of spin diffusion is extended to the case of spin lattice relaxation and spin diffusion in an inhomogeneous field in spin systems with non-equidistant energy spectrum. Two coupled equations describing the mutual relaxation and the spin diffusion of the nuclear magnetization and dipolar energy were obtained by using the method of nonequilibrium state operator. The equations were solved for short and long times approximation corresponding to the direct and diffusion relaxation regimes.

  3. The Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum Measured by the Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Douglas; Collaboration, Matt Wood for the Telescope Array

    2011-01-01

    The Telescope Array's Middle Drum fluorescence detector was constructed using refurbished telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. As such, there is a direct comparison between these two experiments' fluorescence energy spectra. An energy spectrum has been calculated based on one year of collected data by the Middle Drum site of Telescope Array and agrees well with the HiRes monocular spectra. The quality of the Middle Drum results has also been determined to show goo...

  4. A Fractal Scheme for Interaction Probabilities and the High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article is an attempt to provide a parametrization of particle production for the extreme energy range combining a fractal scheme for interaction probabilities and the observed power law energy spectrum for cosmic ray particles. As a first result towards a genuine transition matrix we conclude that for a scaling factor of d ∼ 2 the matrix element vertical bar Mk vertical bar ∝ √(Y(k))Ek5

  5. Primary CR energy spectrum and mass composition by the data of Tunka-133 array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosin V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov light array for the registration of extensive air showers (EAS Tunka-133 collected data during 5 winter seasons from 2009 to 2014. The differential energy spectrum of all particles and the dependence of the average maximum depth on the energy in the range of 6 ⋅ 1015–1018 eV measured for 1540 hours of observation are presented.

  6. Design of energy spectrum device for radon measuring with electrostatic collection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: This research is to take energy spectrum of α particle into consideration in the measurement of radon. Purpose: We aim to find the influence factors of screening particle energy. during the process of detector design. Methods: Based on the electrostatic collection radon measurement method, in order to study the influence factors of the measurement such as aluminum foil and air layer, the reasonable radiation source and geometric model are abstracted and calculated with Geant4 software. Results: The best ranges of aluminum foil thickness and air layer thickness are obtained by analyzing their relationship with a energy, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), the energy resolution, the distance of peaks and the peaks screening power. Conclusion: With the results adopted above, the energy spectrum device is fabricated. Based on the α energy spectrum sampled in a radon chamber, the validity of this design has been proved. It provides a set of reliable data for the design of radon measuring device with electrostatic collection method. (authors)

  7. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Tapia, I Fajardo; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Guzman, A; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Ruiz, C G Tavera; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than $60^\\circ$, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the ~2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for.

  8. The Search for Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye Detector in Monocular Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye HiRes-I detector has now been in operation in monocular mode for over six years. During that time span, HiRes-I has accumulated a larger exposure to Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) above 1019 eV than any other experiment built to date. This presents an unprecedented opportunity to search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECRs. We present results of a search for dipole distributions oriented towards major astrophysical landmarks and a search for small-scale clustering. We conclude that the HiRes-I data set is, in fact, consistent with an isotropic source model

  9. The KASCADE-Grande experiment: measurements of the all-particle energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Finger, M; Fuhrmann, D; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kickelbick, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schröder, F; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J

    2010-01-01

    The all-particle energy spectrum as measured by the KASCADE-Grande experiment for E = 10^{16} - 10^{18} eV is presented within the framework of the QGSJET II/FLUKA hadronic interaction models. Three different methods were applied based on the muon size and the total number of charged particles individually and in combination. From the study it is found that the spectrum cannot be completely described by a smooth power law due to the presence of characteristic features.

  10. Measurement of the Solar Neutrino Energy Spectrum Using Neutrino-Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the energy spectrum of recoil electrons from solar neutrino scattering in the Super-Kamiokande detector is presented. The results shown here were obtained from 504 days of data taken between 31 May 1996 and 25 March 1998. The shape of the measured spectrum is compared with the expectation for solar 8B neutrinos. The comparison takes into account both kinematic and detector related effects in the measurement process. The spectral shape comparison between the observation and the expectation gives a χ2 of 25.3 with 15 degrees of freedom, corresponding to a 4.6% confidence level. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Energy spectrum of cosmic rays as derived from GPS-synchronized EAS array experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data from 2.5 years of observations with the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) experiments in Okayama area, we report the cosmic ray energy spectrum obtained by applying cuts on the number of coincidences of 4 extensive air shower (EAS) arrays, which are synchronized by GPS time stamp system with an accuracy of 1 μs. The spectral indices in the energy ranges of 1015 - 1016eV and 1016 - 1018eV are obtained and are consistent with assumed ones within statistical errors. The methods to determine the energy spectrum without evaluating the parameters for each individual EAS in each LAAS array, are reported in this paper. The performances of each single array are simulated as well as those of multiple arrays coincident within a several μs time interval

  12. Neutron energy flux spectrum measurements for LEU core of PARR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pakistan Research Reactor-1 has been converted and upgraded from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel from 5 to 9 MW. An experimental programme was undertaken to measure the neutron energy spectra in the core and at the irradiation facilities of the new core. several threshold activation detectors were irradiated and activity of the foils was measured using high efficiency HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy system. The measured saturation activities were used in the spectrum adjustment computer code SANDBP. A sample energy spectrum for the material test reactor supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used as the input to the SANDBP code, and the final spectra were obtained by iterative adjustment. (author) 7 figs

  13. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:27062543

  14. Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized zirconium (Zr VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Joseph; Lindsay, Mark D.

    2016-02-01

    We carried out a new analysis of the spectrum of five-times-ionized zirconium Zr VI. For this we used sliding-spark discharges together with normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs to observe the spectrum from 160 to 2000 Å. These observations showed that the analysis of this spectrum by Khan et al (1985 Phys. Scr. 31 837) contained a significant number of incorrect energy levels. We have now classified ˜420 lines as transitions between 23 even-parity levels 73 odd-parity levels. The 4s24p5, 4s4p6, 4s24p44d, 5s, 5d, 6s configurations are now complete, although a few levels of 4s24p45d are tentative. We determined Ritz-type wavelengths for ˜135 lines from the optimized energy levels. The uncertainties range from 0.0003 to 0.0020 Å. Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels were used to interpret the observed configurations. Oscillator strengths for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters. The results are compared with values for the level energies, percentage compositions, and transition probabilities from recent ab initio theoretical calculations. The ionization energy was revised to 777 380 ± 300 cm-1 (96.38 ± 0.04 eV).

  15. High-energy spectrum and zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

    2011-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons produced through the collisions of cosmic ray particles with air nuclei, form the background in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. An ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. We present results of the calculation of the energy spectrum and zenith-angle distribution of the muon and electron atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range 10 GeV to 10 PeV. The calculation was performed with usage of known hadronic models (QGSJET-II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, Kimel & Mokhov) for two of the primary spectrum parametrizations, by Gaisser & Honda and by Zatsepin & Sokolskaya. The comparison of the calculated muon neutrino spectrum with the IceCube40 experiment data make it clear that even at energies above 100 TeV the prompt neutrino contribution is not so apparent because of tangled uncertainties of the strange (kaons) and charm...

  16. Corrections on energy spectrum and scatterings for fast neutron radiography at NECTAR facility

    CERN Document Server

    Shu-Quan, Liu; Hang, Li; Yu-Bin, Zou; Yuan-Rong, Lu; Zhi-Yu, Guo

    2013-01-01

    Neutron spectrum and scattered neutrons caused distortions are major problems in fast neutron radiography and should be considered for improving the image quality. This paper puts emphasis on the removal of these image distortions and deviations for fast neutron radiography performed at the NECTAR facility of the research reactor FRM-II in Technische Universit\\"at M\\"unchen (TUM), Germany. The NECTAR energy spectrum is analyzed and established to modify the influence caused by neutron spectrum, as well as the Point Scattered Function (PScF) simulated by the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX is used to evaluate scattering effects from the object and improve images qualities. Good analysis results prove the sounded effects of above two corrections.

  17. Corrections on energy spectrum and scattering for fast neutron radiography at NECTAR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distortions caused by the neutron spectrum and scattered neutrons are major problems in fast neutron radiography and should be considered for improving the image quality. This paper puts emphasis on the removal of these image distortions and deviations for fast neutron radiography performed at the NECTAR facility of the research reactor FRM-Ⅱ in Technische Universitaet Mounchen (TUM), Germany. The NECTAR energy spectrum is analyzed and established to modify the influence caused by the neutron spectrum, and the Point Scattered Function (PScF) simulated by the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX is used to evaluate scattering effects from the object and improve image quality. Good analysis results prove the sound effects of the above two corrections. (authors)

  18. CMB Anisotropies by Collapsing Textures

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon

    2013-01-01

    CMB photons passing through a collapsing texture knot receive an energy shift, creating characteristic cold and hot spots on the sky. We calculate the anisotropy pattern produced by collapsing texture knots of arbitrary shape. The texture dynamics are solved numerically on a Minkowski background.

  19. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from Galactic dark matter annihilation: Anisotropy signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Le; Miniati, Francesco; Sigl, Guenter

    2010-01-01

    High energy electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter can imprint unique angular anisotropies on the diffuse gamma-ray flux by inverse Compton scattering off the interstellar radiation field. We develop a numerical tool to compute gamma-ray emission from such electrons and positrons produced in the smooth host halo and in substructure halos with masses down to 10^(-6)M_sun. We show that the angular power spectrum from inverse Compton scattering is exponentially suppressed below an...

  20. Improved Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Energy Spectrum of eta' from Upsilon(1S) Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aquines, O; Adams, G S; Alexander, J P; Anderson, M; Aquines, O; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Athar, S B; Berkelman, K; Besson, D; Blusk, S; Bonvicini, G; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Butt, J; Cassel, D G; Cawlfield, C; Chen, J; Cinabro, D; Coan, T E; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S E; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Dobbs, S; Duboscq, J E; Dubrovin, M; Dytman, S A; Ecklund, K M; Edwards, K W; Ehrlich, R; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Ferguson, T; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gao, K Y; Gao, Y S; Gibbons, L; Gong, D T; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; He, Q; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hietala, J; Huang, G S; Insler, J; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Klein, T; Kreinick, D L; Kubota, Y; Kuznetsov, V E; Lang, B W; Li, J; Li, Z; Lincoln, A; Liu, F; Love, W; Lowrey, N; López, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mehrabyan, S S; Menaa, N; Metreveli, Z V; Miller, D H; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Méndez, H; Naik, P; Napolitano, J; Nisar, S; Onyisi, P U E; Park, C S; Patel, R; Patterson, J R; Pavlunin, V; Pedlar, T K; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Poling, R; Potlia, V; Ramírez, J; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Riley, D; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Sanghi, B; Savinov, V; Schwarthoff, H; Scott, A W; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Seth, K K; Severini, H; Shepherd, M R; Shi, X; Shipsey, I P J; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A; Stone, S; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Tatishvili, G T; Thorndike, E H; Tomaradze, A G; Vogel, H; Wang, J C; Watkins, M E; Weinberger, M; White, E J; Wilksen, T; Wiss, J; Xin, B; Yang, F; Yelton, J; Zhang, K; Zweber, P; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We present an improved measurement of the eta' meson energy spectrum in Upsilon(1S) decays, using 1.2 fb^{-1} of data taken at the Upsilon(1S) center-of-mass energy with the CLEO III detector. We compare our results with models of the eta' gluonic form factor that have been suggested to explain the unexpectedly large B to eta' X_s rate. Models based on perturbative QCD fail to fit the data for large eta' energies, and thus an explanation outside the realm of the Standard Model or an improved understanding of non-perturbative QCD effects may be needed to account for this large rate.

  1. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bijay, Biplab; Bhadra, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  2. Ion irradiation-induced structure damage to botanic samples using the ion transmission energy spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of irradiation-induced damage ofbotanic samples caused by low energy heavy ions, transmission energy spectrum mea-surement was performed. Kidney bean slice samples 100μm in thickness were irradi-ated by 50 kev N+ ions. The irradiation beam current density was about 30μA/cm2,and the irradiation ion doses were 1×1015, 1×1016, 3×1016 and 1×1017 ions@cm-2,respectively. A target set up that could greatly reduce the incident ion current densitywas designed to achieve the damage-free measurement. The 3.2 MeV H+ transmittedion energy spectrum measurement was carried out before and after the irradiation.From the transmission ion energy spectrum, it was found that the kidney bean sliceitself was structurally inhomogeneous compared with the PET films (C10HsO4). Ourresults indicated that the average mass thickness changed little when the N+ iondose was below 3×1016 ions.cm-2, but changed obviously whcn ion dose was beyond3×1016 ions.cm-2.

  3. All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured with 26 IceTop stations

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Degner, T; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, B; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Schmidt, T; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, M W E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Stüer, M; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysis were taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 km^2. The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenith angle ranges between 0{\\deg} and 46{\\deg}. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectra from all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under different assumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenith angle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. For zenith angles {\\theta} < 30{\\deg}, where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray ener...

  4. Ion irradiation-induced structure damage to botanic samples using the ion transmission energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the mechanism of irradiation-induced damage of botanic samples caused by low energy heavy ions, transmission energy spectrum measurement was performed. Kidney bean slice samples 100 μm in thickness were irradiated by 50 keV N+ ions. The irradiation beam current density was about 30 μA/cm2, and the irradiation ion doses were 1 x 1015, 1 x 1016, 3 x 1016 and 1 x 1017 ions·cm-2, respectively. A target set up that could greatly reduce the incident ion current density was designed to achieve the damage-free measurement. The 3.2 MeV H+ transmitted ion energy spectrum measurement was carried out before and after the irradiation. From the transmission ion energy spectrum, it was found that the kidney bean slice itself was structurally inhomogeneous compared with the PET films (C10H8O4). The results indicated that the average mass thickness changed little when the N+ ion dose was below 3 x 1016 ions·cm-2, but changed obviously when ion dose was beyond 3 x 1016 ions·cm-2

  5. Induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of induced anisotropy Kind was studied in nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9, as well as in the amorphous precursor and in amorphous Fe78B13Si9. The nanocrystalline alloy was produced from the precursor by annealing at 813 K for 1 h and possessed an average FeSi grain size of 13 nm, as determined from x-ray diffraction. Annealing in a 0.2 T field at 723--773 K, above Tc of the amorphous phase, resulted in low values of Kind. The data were compared to the micromagnetic theory of Kronmueller to determine activation energy spectra. Kind for the nanocrystalline alloy is well described by this theory, however, with an activation energy spectrum that is much narrower than for the amorphous alloys. The limiting value of the anisotropy is K∞ ∼ 13 J/m3 consistent with that expected for the anisotropy in Fe-20at%.Si with the DO3 structure

  6. Role of staircase potential in the energy spectrum of a periodic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exhaustive study on the energy spectrum and the wave functions of semiconductor superlattices (SLs) in the presence of saw-tooth potential, step potential and the combined potential has been carried out. The study uses a realistic model for the SL based on the periodic crystal potential of the host crystals. The application of the staircase potential results in the formation of discrete Wannier-Stark ladder (WSL) which is experimentally exploited to achieve quantum cascade laser. The conditions for the WSL in SL has been pointed out. For the purpose of comparison, the effect of these potentials on the energy spectrum and the wave functions has also been reported for a single crystal

  7. Shape variation of the two-electron photoionization spectrum with photon energy growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We trace the evolution of the shape of the two-electron photoionization spectrum with photon energy growth using quite a precise two-electron wave function, obtained by the correlation function hyperspherical harmonic method. We obtain the values of ω1 and ω2 at which the spectrum curve changes its shape. At ω=ω1 the U shape changes to a W shape. At ω=ω2 the central W peak splits into two. We consider ground states of the helium atom and of heliumlike ions with the nuclear charge Z, the negative ion of hydrogen H-, and the excited n1S state of helium. The limiting laws for Z>>1 and n>>1 are obtained. The analysis is carried out without calculations of the particular energy distributions themselves

  8. Minimax determination of the energy spectrum of the Dirac equation in a Schwarzschild background

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, A; Caceres, Alejandro; Doran, Chris

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the bound-state energy spectrum of the Dirac Equation in a Schwarzschild black hole background using a minimax variational method. Our method extends that of Talman to the case of non-Hermitian interactions, such as a black hole. The trial function is expressed in terms of a basis set that takes into account both the Hermitian limit of the interaction in the non-relativistic approximation, and the general behaviour of the solutions at the origin, the horizon and infinity. Using this trial function an approximation to the full complex energy bound-state spectrum is computed. We study the behaviour of the method as the coupling constant of the interaction is increased, which increases both the relativistic effects and the size of the non-Hermitian part of the interaction. Finally we confirm that the method follows the expected Hylleraas-Undheim behaviour.

  9. Energy-Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing of SC-FDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucheng Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a frequency-hopping M-ary frequency-shift keying spectrum sensing network (FH/MFSK SSN for identifying the on/off states of the users supported by a single-carrier frequency-division multiple assess (SC-FDMA primary radio (PR system. Specifically, the spectrums of an uplink interleaved frequency-division multiple access (IFDMA PR system are monitored by a number of cognitive radio sensing nodes (CRSNs. These CRSNs distributedly detect the on/off states of users based on one of the three energy detection schemes. After the local spectrum sensing, the CRSNs transmit their detected states to a fusion centre (FC with the aid of FH/MFSK techniques. At the FC, the on/off states of the users supported the IFDMA PR system are finally classified according to either the conventional equal-gain combining (EGC scheme or the novel erasure-supported EGC (ES-EGC scheme. In this way, the on/off information about the spectrums occupied by an IFDMA PR systemcan be obtained, so that they can be exploited by a cognitive radio (CR system. For local spectrum sensing, in this paper, we consider four synchronisation scenarios concerning the synchronisation between the received IFDMA signals and the CRSNs. The performance of the FH/MFSK SSN associated with various schemes is investigated by simulations. Our studies show that the FH/MFSK SSN constitutes one of the highly reliable spectrum sensing schemes, which are capable of exploiting both the space diversity provided by local CRSNs and the frequency diversity provided by the subcarriers of IFDMA system.

  10. Energy spectrum of an electron confined in the hexagon-shaped quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu.; V.; VOROBIEV; V.; R.; VIEIRA; P.; P.; HORLEY; P.; N.; GORLEY; J.; GONZLEZ-HERNNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Considering the hexagonal-shaped quantum-scale formations on the surface of thin semiconductor films, a methodology was developed to obtain the analytical solution of the Schrdinger equation when impenetrable walls of a quantum well are treated as mirrors. The results obtained allowed the calculation of the space probability distributions and the energy spectrum of the particle confined in a hex-agonal-shaped well.

  11. Energy spectrum of an electron confined in the hexagon-shaped quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu.V.VOROBIEV; V.R.VlEIRA; P.P.HORLEY; P.N.GORLEY; J.GONZ(A)LEZ-HERN(A)NDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Considering the hexagonal-shaped quantum-scale formations on the surface of thin semiconductor films, a methodology was developed to obtain the analytical solution of the Schr(o)dinger equation when impenetrable walls of a quantum well are treated as mirrors. The results obtained allowed the calcula-tion of the space probability distributions and the energy spectrum of the particle confined in a hex-agonal-shaped well.

  12. Is the primary energy spectrum around the knee a statistical game?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of research of the shape of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic ray nuclei and the chemical composition in the region of the so-called, knee, and beyond is highly unsatisfactory. It was not very successful when using extensive air showers. In the present paper an attempt is made to explain what is the cause of such a situation. The experimental results as to which there is no doubt that they were wrongly interpreted, will be indicated

  13. Study of natural γ-energy spectrum measurement system based on the microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microcomputer-based measurement system for the natural γ-energy spectrum is developed, which delivers a high quality automatic acquisition and analysis capability. By means of designing a simple interface, 2048-channel ADC can be connected with a microcomputer. The measuring results of soil-samples and rock-samples show that system improves reliability, measurement accuracy and automatic level. It can be applied to environmental and geological investigations

  14. Energy Spectrum of Helium Confined to a Two-Dimensional Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEWen-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional helium in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of helium in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  15. Measurememnt of the linear energy losses spectrum of cosmic radiation aboard the Kosmos-1129 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of measuring the linear energy losses spectrum (LEL) of cosmic radiation (CR) aboard the ''Kosmos-1129'' satellite. Experiments were carried out using a detector of normal nuclear emulsion with a detection threshold controlled in a wide range of LEL. As a result of comparison with experimental data obtained aboard the ''Kosmos-782'' and ''Kosmos-936'' satellites it is concluded that the technique in use allows to increase the range of particle detection

  16. Constraints on dark energy from the observed density fluctuations spectrum and supernova data

    CERN Document Server

    Opher, R; Opher, Reuven; Pelinson, Ana

    2005-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in cosmology today is to determine the nature of dark energy, the source of the observed present acceleration of the universe. High precision experiments are being developed to reduce the uncertainties in the observations. Recently, we showed that the agreement to an accuracy of 10% of measurements of the present density fluctuations (\\delta\\rho/\\rho)^2, derived from galaxy distribution (GD) data and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in the \\LambdaCDM model, puts very strong limits on the possible decay of the vacuum energy into cold dark matter. Using this agreement, combined with the evidence that the matter density \\Omega_M^0=0.28\\pm 0.02 and that the universe is approximately flat, we show that the vacuum metamorphosis model (VMM) and the popular brane-world model (BWM), both used to explain dark energy, can be discarded. When we relax the \\Omega_M^0 requirement, we find that an agreement within 10% can be obtained only with \\Omega_M^0\\simeq 0.36 for the VMM and...

  17. Kolmogorov argument for the scaling of the energy spectrum in a stratified fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we show that the global energy balance part of the Kolmogorov argument for the kinetic energy spectrum in a homogeneous fluid repeated for the stratified fluid will inevitably exhibit a small deviation from perfect scaling. It is shown that an unambiguous scaling with an exponent of 11/5 can be observed only if the fluid is stably stratified in agreement with the original suggestion of Bolgiano. We find that even if the kinetic energy flux shows the predicted fall-off with wave-vector and the thermal energy (entropy) flux is constant, the kinetic energy spectrum will show a small deviation from perfect scaling. - Highlights: • A Kolmogorov argument for global energy balance for turbulence in a stratified fluid is presented. • It is seen that for unstable stratification an unambiguous argument cannot be set up. • For stable stratification there is clear Kolmogorov scenario but the flux is a combination of kinetic and thermal fluxes. • A pure Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling is seen only for wave-numbers greater than a critical wave-number. • The critical wave-number decreases as the Richardson number increases

  18. Investigations of the Turbulent Energy Spectrum in an Oscillating Grid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephen C.; Honey, Rose E.; Donnelly, Russell J.

    1998-03-01

    We report a novel technique to investigate the turbulent energy spectrum generated by an oscillating grid in water. We suspend tubes of a variety of diameters below the oscillating grid and measure the steady state position in the tube of the turbulent front. This position decreases (becomes closer to the grid) as the tube diameter is decreased. We present a model, in which the tubes act as low-pass filters that exclude eddies larger than the tube diameter, to explain the observations and discuss the implications for the turbulent energy spectrum. We estimate the effect of boundary layers formed on the tubes. due to viscosity before the larger ones. The energy spectrum in cross-sections further and further from the grid is contained in an increasingly narrow range of eddy sizes towards the larger eddies. The tubes, acting as low-pass filters, exclude eddies of size larger than the tube diameter and are only filled with eddies smaller than the tube. Therefore, the turbulence in a smaller tube is expected to decay away before turbulence in a larger tube which contains more larger, longer lived eddies.

  19. Interferometric Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    White, M; Dragovan, M; White, Martin; Carlstrom, John E.; Dragovan, Mark

    1999-01-01

    We present a formalism for analyzing interferometric observations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy and polarization data. The formalism is based upon the ell-space expansion of the angular power spectrum favoured in recent years. Explicit discussions of maximum likelihood analysis, power spectrum reconstruction, parameter estimation, imaging and polarization are given. As an example, several calculations for the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) and Cosmic Background Interferometer (CBI) experiments are presented.

  20. Fermi-LAT γ-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the γ-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations

  1. Analysis of the hadronic energy spectrum in high-energy cosmic-ray families detected by emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the hadronic energy spectrum for cosmic-ray families detected by emulsion chambers in the high-energy region, by means of the solution of diffusion equations for the hadronic cascade induced by one single nucleon in the atmosphere, assuming three different models for the energy distribution function in multiple pion production. We describe the experimental data for the energy of three high-energy families detected in emulsion chamber of Brazil-Japan Colloboration (BJC) at Mt. Chacaltaya and of two families detected by Pamir Collaboration (PC). We look also for consistency of the rapidity-density distribution, obtained for the different hypotheses for multiple pion production above, with accelerator data in the ISR and Collider regions. Finally, the Models are analysed with respect to the energy dependence of the mean inelasticity

  2. Thermodynamic properties of a solid exhibiting the energy spectrum given by the logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the infinite-dimensional representation of the recently introduced Logistic algebra can be interpreted as a non-trivial generalization of the Heisenberg or oscillator algebra. This allows to construct a quantum Hamiltonian having the energy energy spectrum given by the logistic map. We analyze the Hamiltonian of a solid whose collective modes of vibrations are described by this generalized oscillator and compute the thermodynamic properties of the model in the two-cycle and γ3.6785 chaotic region of the logistic map. (author)

  3. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: a closer look

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Sellerholm, A.; Conrad, J.;

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds......V. The anisotropy method for DM searches has a sensitivity comparable to the usual methods based only on the energy spectrum and thus constitutes an independent and complementary piece of information in the DM puzzle....

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper given at the Strasbourg NATO school on the CMB and cosmology reports the contents of four hours of lectures on the CMB spectrum, potential distortions, and implications. It was followed by 6 hours of lectures on CMB anisotropy. This paper reviews the observations and theoretical implications for the CMB frequency spectrum - both for the monopole (essentially total power) and the dipole and higher order anisotropies including the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.

  5. Contribution of Extragalactic Infrared Sources to CMB Foreground Anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Gawiser, Eric; Smoot, George F.

    1996-01-01

    We estimate the level of confusion to Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements caused by extragalactic infrared sources. CMB anisotropy observations at high resolution and high frequencies are especially sensitive to this foreground. We use data from the COBE satellite to generate a Galactic emission spectrum covering mm and sub-mm wavelengths. Using this spectrum as a template, we predict the microwave emission of the 5319 brightest infrared galaxies seen by IRAS. We simulate skym...

  6. Higher order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model -- disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Lökös, Sándor; Csörgő, Tamás; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii.

  7. Energy spectrum and mass composition around the knee by EAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary cosmic ray particles above energies of about 100 TeV are investigated by large-area ground-based detector installations, observing various components of the development of extensive air-showers (EAS). By such an indirect access to the primary cosmic ray spectrum a steepening of the power-law falls off at around 3-5 PeV, known as the knee has been identified. Different experimental techniques are used to deduce mass- and energy-sensitive observables of EAS experiments. The experiments involve measurements of secondary particle distributions at various observation levels and of muons deep underground as well as of observables reconstructed by measuring the air Cherenkov light emitted with the shower development in the atmosphere. Recently methods for analysing multidimensional distributions get favoured since they are able to take into account the correlations between different observables and the influence of large intrinsic fluctuations of the air-shower development. Additionally the use of a larger set of observables provides the possibility of simultaneously testing the consistency of the Monte Carlo models underlying the reconstruction procedures. From a number of experiments the existence of the knee in the primary energy spectrum is confirmed and a tendency of an increasing mean mass above the knee energy is indicated. Recent results show that the knee originates from a decrease of the flux of light primary particles, whereas heavy cosmic ray particles seem to miss a kink in the energy range of 1-10 PeV

  8. Neutrino Anisotropies after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbino, Martina; Said, Najla

    2013-01-01

    We present new constraints on the rest-frame sound speed, c_eff^2, and the viscosity parameter, c_vis^2, of the Cosmic Neutrino Background from the recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite. While broadly consistent with the ex- pectations of c_eff^2 = c_vis^2 = 1/3 in the standard scenario, the Planck dataset hints for a higher value of the viscosity parameter, with c_vis^2 = 0.60 +/- 0.18 at 68% c.l., and a lower value of the sound speed, with c_eff^2 = 0.304 +/- 0.013 at 68% c.l.. We find a correlation between the neutrino parameters and the lensing amplitude of the temperature power spectrum A_L. When the latter parameter is allowed to vary, we find a better consistency with the standard model with c_vis^2 = 0.51 +/- 0.22, c_eff^2 = 0.311 +/- 0.019 and A_L = 1.08 +/- 0.18 at 68% c.l.. This result indicates that the anomalous large value of A_L measured by Planck could be connected to non-standard neutrino properties. Including additional datasets ...

  9. AutoCal. A method for automatic energy calibration of β-γ systems based on a 137Cs spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed and implemented that calculates energy versus channel calibrations. This method utilizes a 137Cs spectrum acquired in β-γ coincidence. Both the γ singles and the β-γ coincident spectrum are utilized. The γ singles spectrum is utilized to calculate the γ detector energy versus resolution function. The Compton line in the β-γ coincidence is then used to calculate the β detector energy versus resolution function. Currently a linear regression (y = mx + b) is utilized to fit the data. However, higher order polynomials may easily be implemented if desired. (author)

  10. Lagrangian perturbation theory: exact one-loop power spectrum in general dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we found that the correction for the Einstein-de Sitter (EdS) assumption on the one-loop matter power spectrum for general dark energy models using the standard perturbation theory is not negligible (Lee et al., arXiv:1407.7325, 2014). Thus, we investigate the same problem by obtaining the exact displacement vector and kernels up to the third order for the general dark energy models in the Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT). Using these exact solutions, we investigate the present one-loop matter power spectrum in the ΛCDM model with Ωm0 = 0.25 (0.3) to obtain a 0.2 (0.18) % error correction compared to that obtained from the EdS assumption for the k = 0.1 h Mpc-1 mode. If we consider the total matter power spectrum, the correction is only 0.05 (0.03) % for the same mode. It means that the EdS assumption is a good approximation for the ΛCDM model in LPT theory. However, one can use this method for general models where the EdS assumption is improper. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the UHECR Energy Spectrum by the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Thomas; Bergman, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), subatomic charged particles of extraterrestrial origin and with kinetic energies near or exceeding 10^18 eV, are very rare. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment in western Utah is the northern hemisphere's largest UHECR detector, and consists of three atmospheric fluorescence detectors (FDs) and a ground array of 507 scintillator detectors. In stand-alone ``monocular'' operation, the FDs can observe the widest range in primary UHECR energies. One FD employs refurbished hardware from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye experiment; the remaining two FDs were designed for TA and employ new hardware and analysis. We will present the UHECR energy spectrum measured by the FDs in monocular mode using data collected during the first four years of operation.

  12. The TeV Energy Spectrum of Mrk 421 Measured in A High Flaring State

    CERN Document Server

    Konopelko, A; Duke, C; Finley, J P

    2007-01-01

    The BL Lac object (blazar) Mrk 421 was observed during its outburst in April 2004 with the Whipple 10 m telescope for a total of about 24.5 hours. The measured gamma-ray rate varied substantially over the range from 4 to 10 gamma's/min and eventually exceeded the steady gamma-ray rate of the Crab Nebula (standard candle) by a factor of 3. The overall significance of the gamma-ray signal exceeded 70 sigma and the total number of excess events was more than 10,000. The signal light curve does not show any particular variability pattern. This unique Mrk 421 outburst enabled the measurement of a high quality spectrum of very high-energy gamma rays in a high state of emission. This spectrum is a power-law and it extends beyond 10 TeV.

  13. Effect of dark energy sound speed and equation of state on CDM power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan Ul Haq

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of equation of state $w$ and effective sound speed $c_e$ of the dark energy perturbations on the cold dark matter(CDM) power spectrum.We consider different cases of the equation of state and the effective sound speed, the cold dark matter power spectrum is found to be generically suppressed in these cases as compared to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. The suppression at different length scales depends on the value of $w$ and $c_e$, and the effect of different $w$ is profoundly seen at all length scales. The influence of sound speed is significantly seen only at the intermediate length scales and is negligible at scales very much larger and smaller than the Hubble scale.

  14. BONDI-97: A novel neutron energy spectrum unfolding tool using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron spectrum unfolding procedure using the count rate data obtained from a set of Bonner sphere neutron detectors requires the solution of the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind by using complex mathematical methods. This paper reports a new approach for the unfolding of neutron spectra using the Genetic Algorithm tool BONDI-97 (BOnner sphere Neutron DIfferentiation). The BONDI-97 was used as the input for Genetic Algorithm engine EVOLVER to search for a globally optimised solution vector from a population of randomly generated solutions. This solution vector corresponds to the unfolded neutron energy spectrum. The Genetic Algorithm engine emulates the Darwinian 'Survival of the Fittest' strategy, the key ingredient of the 'Theory of Evolution'. The spectra of 241Am/Be (α,n) and 239Pu/Be (α,n) neutron sources were unfolded using the BONDI-97 tool. (author)

  15. Detecting gamma-ray anisotropies from decaying dark matter. Prospects for Fermi LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaying dark matter particles could be indirectly detected as an excess over a simple power law in the energy spectrum of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background. Furthermore, since the Earth is not located at the center of the Galactic dark matter halo, the exotic contribution from dark matter decay to the diffuse gamma-ray flux is expected to be anisotropic, offering a complementary method for the indirect search for decaying dark matter particles. In this paper we discuss in detail the expected dipole-like anisotropies in the dark matter signal, taking also into account the radiation from inverse Compton scattering of electrons and positrons from dark matter decay. A different source for anisotropies in the gamma-ray flux are the dark matter density fluctuations on cosmic scales. We calculate the corresponding angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray flux and comment on observational prospects. Finally, we calculate the expected anisotropies for the decaying dark matter scenarios that can reproduce the electron/positron excesses reported by PAMELA and the Fermi LAT, and we estimate the prospects for detecting the predicted gamma-ray anisotropy in the near future. (orig.)

  16. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons measured with H.E.S.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egberts, Kathrin

    2009-03-30

    The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has so far been measured using balloon and satellite-based instruments. At TeV energies, however, the sensitivity of such instruments is very limited due to the low flux of electrons at very high energies and small detection areas of balloon/satellite based experiments. The very large collection area of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon/ satellite based instruments when detecting very-high-energy electrons (> 300 GeV). By analysing data taken by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), this work extends the known electron spectrum up to 4 TeV - a range that is not accessible to direct measurements. However, in contrast to direct measurements, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. detect air showers that cosmic-ray electrons initiate in the atmosphere rather than the primary particle. Thus, the main challenge is to differentiate between air showers initiated by electrons and those initiated by the hadronic background. A new analysis technique was developed that determines the background with the support of the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest. It is shown that this analysis technique can also be applied in other areas such as the analysis of diffuse {gamma} rays from the Galactic plane. (orig.)

  17. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons measured with H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has so far been measured using balloon and satellite-based instruments. At TeV energies, however, the sensitivity of such instruments is very limited due to the low flux of electrons at very high energies and small detection areas of balloon/satellite based experiments. The very large collection area of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon/ satellite based instruments when detecting very-high-energy electrons (> 300 GeV). By analysing data taken by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), this work extends the known electron spectrum up to 4 TeV - a range that is not accessible to direct measurements. However, in contrast to direct measurements, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. detect air showers that cosmic-ray electrons initiate in the atmosphere rather than the primary particle. Thus, the main challenge is to differentiate between air showers initiated by electrons and those initiated by the hadronic background. A new analysis technique was developed that determines the background with the support of the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest. It is shown that this analysis technique can also be applied in other areas such as the analysis of diffuse γ rays from the Galactic plane. (orig.)

  18. Anisotropy of rare-earth magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Skomski; D.J.Sellmyer

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth intermetallics such as Nd2FeI4B and Sm-Co are widely used as high-performance permanent magnets,because they combine high magnetocrystalline anisotropy with reasonable magnetization and Curie temperature.The anisotropy is a combined effect of spin-orbit coupling and electrostatic crystal-field interactions.The main contribution comes from the rare-earth 4f electrons,which are well-screened from the crystalline environment but exhibit a strong spin-orbit coupling.In this limit,the magnetocrystalline anisotropy has a very transparent physical interpretation,the anisotropy energy essentially being equal to the energy of Hund's-rules 4f ion in the crystal field.The corresponding expression for the lowest-order uniaxial anisotropy constant K1 is used to discuss rare-earth substitutions,which have recently attracted renewed interest due to shifts in the rare-earth production and demand.Specific phenomena reviewed in this article are the enhancement of the anisotropy of Sm2Fe17 due to interstitial nitrogen,the use of Sm-Co magnets for high-temperature applications,and the comparison of rare-earth single-ion anisotropy with other single-ion and two-ion mechanisms.

  19. Classification of vibrational resonances in the energy spectrum of the formaldehyde molecule and Katz's branch points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. D.; Duchko, A. N.

    2016-05-01

    The Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory of high orders and the algebraic Padé-Hermite approximants are used to determine the singular points of a vibrational energy function of the formaldehyde molecule dependent on a complex perturbation parameter as on the argument. It is shown that the Fermi, Darling-Dennison, and other higher-order vibrational resonances are related to Katz's points—common branch points on the complex plane of the energy of two vibrational states. Analysis of Katz's points that connect different vibrational states allows one to reveal essential resonance perturbations, to introduce an additional classification for them, and to determine the polyad structure of an energy spectrum.

  20. Energy spectrum of electron beam at its multiple scattering from target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the inelastically reflected electrons, returning to the target after reflection from the acceleration area, on the energy spectrum of the pulse electron beam, formed in the direct action diode and transported to the target in the leading magnetic field, is considered. The formulas for the general and differential flows of reflected and absorbed electrons of various orders are presented. It is shown that accounting for the electrons multiple reflection leads to essential change in the profile of the normalized function of thermal sources in the target: the energy release at the irradiated target surface is noticeably increased on the account of energy release in the deep-seated layers of the material

  1. Molecular Structure, Vibrational Spectrum and Ionization Energy of m-Dimethoxybenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG,Jian-Han; HUANG,Ke-Long; LIU,Su-Qin; LUO,Qiong

    2007-01-01

    The optimized molecular geometries of the three rotamers of m-dimethoxybenzene in the ground S0 and electronically excited S1 states were predicted by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Their vibrational spectra in the S1 state were studied by one color resonant two photon ionization (1C-R2PI) method, and their ionization energies were measured by two color resonant two photon ionization (2C-R2PI) experiment. The optimized molecular geometries showed that the total energy of conformer a was the lowest in the S0 state. Most of the active vibrations assigned from the 1C-R2PI spectrum were found to be of the in-plane ring modes. The ionization energies (IE) of conformers a, b and c were determined to be 63521, 64487 and 63755 cm-1, respectively.

  2. A multigroup analysis from a continuos energy spectrum approach by a MC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the Monte Carlo method is applied to the energy dependent three- dimensional neutron transport equation, in order to analyze the change in the spectrum energy depending on the Monte Carlo step. The present work is a first step into a new direction where spectral influence on criticality may be analyzed. The method is based on the monitoring of a large number of individual realizations of neutron histories (i.e. microscopic interaction sequence) where the average behavior of neutrons yields an approximate solution for the neutron transport equation. The Monte Carlo is implemented using continuous functions, with respect to energy, for the cross sections of materials, functions which are obtained by parametrizations of the cross sections. The type of interaction that the neutron will suffer and the characteristics of their displacement in the element are estimated randomly following the relevant probability distributions. (author)

  3. The energy spectrum of X-rays from rocket-triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Grove, J. E.; Gwon, C.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Lucia, R. J.; Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Uman, M. A.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Although the production of X-rays from natural and rocket-triggered lightning leaders have been studied in detail over the last 10 years, the energy spectrum of the X-rays has never been well measured because the X-rays are emitted in very short but intense bursts that result in pulse pileup in the detectors. The energy spectrum is important because it provides information about the source mechanism for producing the energetic runaway electrons and about the electric fields that they traverse. We have recently developed and operated the first spectrometer for the energetic radiation from lightning. The instrument is part of the Atmospheric Radiation Imagery and Spectroscopy (ARIS) project and will be referred to as ARIS-S (ARIS Spectrometer). It consists of seven 3'' NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube scintillation detectors with different thicknesses of attenuators, ranging from no attenuator to more than 1'' of lead placed over the detector (all the detectors are in a 1/8'' thick aluminum box). Using X-ray pulses preceding 48 return strokes in 8 rocket-triggered lightnings, we found that the spectrum of X-rays from leaders is too soft to be consistent with Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche. It has a power law dependence on the energies of the photons, and the power index, λ, is between 2.5 and 3.5. We present the details of the design of the instrument and the results of the analysis of the lightning data acquired during the summer of 2012.

  4. Indoor measurement of photovoltaic device characteristics at varying irradiance, temperature and spectrum for energy rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three-dimensional performance matrix for use in photovoltaic (PV) energy rating is reported utilizing a novel energy rating solar simulator based on LEDs. Device characteristics are measured indoors at varying irradiance (G), temperature (T) and spectrum (E). This opens the possibility for a more accurate measurement system for energy yield prediction of PV devices, especially for devices with high spectral dependence such as wide bandgap solar cells as they take into account spectral changes in the light. The main aspects of the LED-based solar simulator used are briefly described. A measurement method is developed and detailed in the paper, which takes into account the current imperfections in the achievable spectrum. Measurement results for a crystalline silicon solar cell are used to demonstrate the measurement approach. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system is given, resulting in an overall absolute uncertainty of 4.3% (coverage factor k = 2) in maximum power measurements at 765 W m−2 irradiance with scope for further improvements

  5. Energy-Based Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive UWB Impulse Radio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Chiang Wu; Chun-Te Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of collaborative spectrum sensing in cognitive ultra wideband (CUWB) impulse radio. We employ energy-based signal detection method and apply the Neyman-Pearson (NP) decision rule to determine the optimum threshold. Two cooperative spectrum sensing schemes are developed in this paper. The decision fusion scheme is based on hard decision, in which each cooperating cognitive user (CU) sends its own local decision to the fusion center (FC). The FC then makes a final decision according to the majority voting rule. Alternatively, the data fusion scheme is based on soft decision, in which each local CU sends its observed value directly to the FC. The FC combines these values, compares to a threshold and then makes the final decision. The performances of both schemes are studied by using analytical tools and computer simulations. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC), which reveal the probability of detection versus false-alarm curve, are employed to evaluate the system performance under different scenarios.Simulation results demonstrate that the data fusion scheme outperforms the decision fusion scheme and verify that the collaborative spectrum sensing has practical importance in CUWB networks.

  6. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Mekaru, H; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the p...

  7. Prediction and measurement of neutron energy spectrum in a material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to calculate and measure the neutron energy spectrum in the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical Material Test Reactor (MTR) fueled with low enriched uranium. The method of multiple foil activation was used with the adjustment code MSITER, a modified version of the code STAY'SL, to obtain the experimentally measured spectrum. The calculated spectrum, which was used as pre-information in the adjustment procedure, was obtained through modeling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions and the use of the transport code WIMS-D/4 and the diffusion code CITATION. A comparison between the calculated and measured spectra shows that the ratio of measured to calculated flux density in the thermal region (E≤0.5 eV) is 0.998. This ratio is 1.02 for resonance (1/E) region (0.5 eV0.5 MeV). This result is compared with other published results that report an agreement within 10 to 30% between the calculated and measured spectra

  8. Prediction and measurement of neutron energy spectrum in a material test research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkawi, S.R.; Ahmad, N. E-mail: epg.pieas@dgcc.org.pk

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work is to calculate and measure the neutron energy spectrum in the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical Material Test Reactor (MTR) fueled with low enriched uranium. The method of multiple foil activation was used with the adjustment code MSITER, a modified version of the code STAY'SL, to obtain the experimentally measured spectrum. The calculated spectrum, which was used as pre-information in the adjustment procedure, was obtained through modeling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions and the use of the transport code WIMS-D/4 and the diffusion code CITATION. A comparison between the calculated and measured spectra shows that the ratio of measured to calculated flux density in the thermal region (E{<=}0.5 eV) is 0.998. This ratio is 1.02 for resonance (1/E) region (0.5 eV0.5 MeV). This result is compared with other published results that report an agreement within 10 to 30% between the calculated and measured spectra.

  9. Energy Spectrum of a Degenerate Fermi Gas at the BEC-BCS Crossover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical study of the BCS-BEC crossover is presented. Starting from a two-channel Boson-Fermion resonance model, the BCS-Bogoiubov mean-field method and the Green's function method are adopted. The result shows that we can end up with a BCS-type theory but with a composite order parameter. Calculation shows that the Bose condensate of BCS Cooper pairs is proportional to the molecular BEC of Bose molecules. The resonance superfluid phase is indicated by the energy spectrum with an obvious interpretation of the transition mechanism.

  10. Quantum control of isomerization by robust navigation in the energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the application of the quantum control technique of navigation in the energy spectrum to chemical isomerization processes, namely, CN–Li⇆ Li–CN. This technique is based on the controlled time variation of a Hamiltonian parameter, an external uniform electric field in our case. The main result of our work establishes that the navigation involved in the method is robust, in the sense that quite sizable deviations from a pre-established control parameter time profile can be introduced and still get good final results. This is specially relevant thinking of a experimental implementation of the method

  11. Minimax determination of the energy spectrum of the Dirac equation in a Schwarzschild background

    OpenAIRE

    Caceres, Alejandro; Doran, Chris

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the bound-state energy spectrum of the Dirac Equation in a Schwarzschild black hole background using a minimax variational method. Our method extends that of Talman to the case of non-Hermitian interactions, such as a black hole. The trial function is expressed in terms of a basis set that takes into account both the Hermitian limit of the interaction in the non-relativistic approximation, and the general behaviour of the solutions at the origin, the horizon and infinity. Using t...

  12. Fractal energy spectrum of a polariton gas in a Fibonacci quasiperiodic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanese, D; Gurevich, E; Baboux, F; Jacqmin, T; Lemaître, A; Galopin, E; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E

    2014-04-11

    We report on the study of a polariton gas confined in a quasiperiodic one-dimensional cavity, described by a Fibonacci sequence. Imaging the polariton modes both in real and reciprocal space, we observe features characteristic of their fractal energy spectrum such as the opening of minigaps obeying the gap labeling theorem and log-periodic oscillations of the integrated density of states. These observations are accurately reproduced solving an effective 1D Schrödinger equation, illustrating the potential of cavity polaritons as a quantum simulator in complex topological geometries. PMID:24765996

  13. Quantum control of isomerization by robust navigation in the energy spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgida, G. E., E-mail: murgida@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Constituyentes, GIyA, CNEA, San Martín, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arranz, F. J., E-mail: fj.arranz@upm.es [Grupo de Sistemas Complejos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Borondo, F., E-mail: f.borondo@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the application of the quantum control technique of navigation in the energy spectrum to chemical isomerization processes, namely, CN–Li⇆ Li–CN. This technique is based on the controlled time variation of a Hamiltonian parameter, an external uniform electric field in our case. The main result of our work establishes that the navigation involved in the method is robust, in the sense that quite sizable deviations from a pre-established control parameter time profile can be introduced and still get good final results. This is specially relevant thinking of a experimental implementation of the method.

  14. On Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Electron-Positron Spectrum Measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.

    2009-05-15

    The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. Here we discuss several interpretations of the Fermi results based either on a single large scale Galactic CRE component or by invoking additional electron-positron primary sources, e.g. nearby pulsars or particle Dark Matter annihilation. We show that while the reported Fermi-LAT data alone can be interpreted in terms of a single component scenario, when combined with other complementary experimental results, specifically the CRE spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. and especially the positron fraction reported by PAMELA between 1 and 100 GeV, that class of models fails to provide a consistent interpretation. Rather, we find that several combinations of parameters, involving both the pulsar and dark matter scenarios, allow a consistent description of those results. We also briefly discuss the possibility of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter interpretations by looking for a possible anisotropy in the CRE flux.

  15. Variability in fluence and spectrum of high-energy photon bursts produced by lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor P.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we model the production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons during negative corona flash stages of stepping lightning leaders and the corresponding terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) or negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning-produced X-ray bursts in a unified fashion. We show how the source photon spectrum and fluence depend on the potential drop formed in the lightning leader tip region during corona flash and how the X-ray burst spectrum progressively converges toward typical TGF spectrum as the potential drop increases. Additionally, we show that the number of streamers produced in a negative corona flash, the source electron energy distribution function, the corresponding number of photons, and the photon energy distribution and transport through the atmosphere up to low-orbit satellite altitudes exhibit a very strong dependence on this potential drop. This leads to a threshold effect causing X-rays produced by leaders with potentials lower than those producing typical TGFs extremely unlikely to be detected by low-orbit satellites. Moreover, from the number of photons in X-ray bursts produced by -CGs estimated from ground observations, we show that the proportionality between the number of thermal runaway electrons and the square of the potential drop in the leader tip region during negative corona flash proposed earlier leads to typical photon fluences on the order of 1 ph/cm2 at an altitude of 500 km and a radial distance of 200 km for intracloud lightning discharges producing 300 MV potential drops, which is consistent with observations of TGF fluences and spectra from satellites.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1970-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the energy of long- wavelength magnons in Tb-10%Ho has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The results agree with the `frozen-lattice' model, provided that the second-order magnetoelastic effect is taken into account. The planar anisotropy is almost...... entirely the result of magnetoelastic effects. The temperature dependences of the anisotropy parameters have been deduced from the results...

  17. Cutoff in the TeV Energy Spectrum of Markarian 421 During Strong Flares in 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Krennrich, F; Bond, I H; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Carter-Lewis, D A; Catanese, M; Cui, W; Dunlea, S; Das, D; De la Calle-Perez, I; Fegan, D J; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G H; Hall, T A; Hillas, A M; Holder, J; Horan, D; Jordan, M; Kertzman, M P; Kieda, D B; Kildea, J; Knapp, J; Kosack, K; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; McKernan, B; Moriarty, P; Müller, D; Ong, R; Pallassini, R; Petry, D; Quinn, J; Reay, N W; Reynolds, P T; Rose, H J; Sembroski, G H; Sidwell, R A; Stanton, N; Swordy, S P; Vasilev, V; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C

    2001-01-01

    Exceptionally strong and long lasting flaring activity of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) occurred between January and March 2001. Based on the excellent signal-to-noise ratio of the data we derive the energy spectrum between 260 GeV - 17 TeV with unprecedented statistical precision. The spectrum is not well described by a simple power law even with a curvature term. Instead the data can be described by a power law with exponential cutoff: $\\rm {{dN}\\over{dE}} \\propto \\rm E^{-2.14 \\pm 0.03_{stat}} \\times e^{-E/E_{0}} m^{-2} s^{-1} TeV^{-1}$ with $\\rm E_{0} = 4.3 \\pm 0.3_{stat} TeV$. Mrk 421 is the second $\\gamma$-ray blazar that unambiguously exhibits an absorption-like feature in its spectral energy distribution at 3-6 TeV suggesting that this may be a universal phenomenon, possibly due to the extragalactic infra-red background radiation.

  18. Application of Wavelet Packet Energy Spectrum to Extract the Feature of the Pulse Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-guo CAO; Yu-qiang WU; Xue-wen SHI; Peng WANG

    2010-01-01

    The wavelet packet is presented as a new kind of multi-scale analysis technique followed by Wavelet analysis. The fundamental and realization arithmetic of the wavelet packet analysis method are described in this paper. A new application approach of the wavelet packed method to extract the feature of the pulse signal from energy distributing angle is expatiated. It is convenient for the microchip to process and judge by using the wavelet packet analysis method to make the pulse signals quantized and analyzed. Kinds of experiments are simulated in the lab, and the experiments prove that it is a convenient and accurate method to extract the feature of the pulse signal based on wavelet packed-energy spectrum analysis.

  19. Energy enhancement and spectrum narrowing in terahertz electron sources due to negative mass instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Yu.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Simulations of coherent spontaneous undulator radiation in a waveguide demonstrate that the use of negative mass instability (NMI) for retaining longitudinal sizes of dense electron bunches, which are formed in laser-driven photoinjectors, allows one to increase power capabilities of a terahertz radiation source by many times. The NMI is realized in an undulator with combined helical and over-resonance uniform longitudinal magnetic fields due to nonisochronous longitudinal oscillations of electrons, whose frequencies increase/decrease with increasing/decreasing particle energy. In such conditions, an effective longitudinal size of the bunches can be preserved at long distance even at an extremely high electron density. Correspondingly, an energy extraction efficiency of more than 20% is revealed at a narrow frequency radiation spectrum, suggesting realization of a compact and powerful THz source.

  20. Development of the soft X-ray energy spectrum diagnostic system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Electron temperature is one of most important parameters in the controlled magnetic confinement fusion experiments. Purpose: We attempt to develop a set of soft X-ray energy spectrum diagnostic system for measuring the plasma soft X-ray (1-30 keV) spectra on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Methods: The diagnostic system is based on a 10-element Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) array and fast electronics, and basically views lower half-space of the plasma. Results: The diagnostic system can measure electron temperature under various plasma configuration conditions and the electron temperature obtained from the system is consistent with election circle emission (ECE) and X-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) diagnostic systems. And the system can monitor the middle and high Z impurities in the plasma as the good energy resolution of the system. Conclusion: The diagnostic system had been installed on EAST and verified its reliability and effectiveness and gained the good experimental results. (authors)

  1. Broad energy spectrum of laser-accelerated protons for spallation-related physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam of MeV protons, accelerated by ultraintense laser-pulse interactions with a thin target foil, is used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for spallation physics. The laser-generated proton beam is shown (protons were measured) to have a broad energy distribution, which closely resembles the expected energy spectrum of evaporative protons (below 50 MeV) produced in GeV-proton-induced spallation reactions. The protons are used to quantify the distribution of residual radioisotopes produced in a representative spallation target (Pb), and the results are compared with calculated predictions based on spectra modeled with nuclear Monte Carlo codes. Laser-plasma particle accelerators are shown to provide data relevant to the design and development of accelerator driven systems

  2. Exclusive Measurements of the b to s gamma Transition Rate and Photon Energy Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

    2012-08-30

    We use 429 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b {yields} s{gamma} with a sum of 38 exclusive final states. The inclusive branching fraction with a minimum photon energy of 1.9 GeV is found to be {Beta}({bar B} {yields} Xs{gamma}) = (3.29 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.48) x 10{sup -4} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum and extract the best fit values for the heavy-quark parameters, m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}, in the kinetic and shape function models.

  3. Intensity and energy spectrum of electrons accelerated in the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves accelerate charged particles in the solar atmosphere, in interplanetary space and around the earth's magnetosphere. Acceleration of both electrons and protons occurs in the earth's bow-shock. The acceleration of protons up to 100 keV appears to be a steady state process and may even occur upstream from the bow shock due to waves generated by reflected solar wind protons. The electrons, on the other hand, are known to be accelerated in or near the shock. The intensity of these electrons ranges from about 100 to 2,000 per sr-sq cm-sec-keV at 14 keV. The energy spectrum is not a simple power low and is highly variable. If segments of the spectra are fitted to a power low, slopes ranging from -2 to -4.5 result over the energy range 0.5 to 100 keV.

  4. The Hybrid Energy Spectrum of TA's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A com...

  5. An approach to an accurate determination of the energy spectrum of high-energy electron beams using magnetic spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the national metrology institute of Germany, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, a research accelerator for dosimetry in radiation therapy has been installed. Magnetic spectrometry is used to determine the spectrum of high-energy electrons generated by this accelerator. Regarding the intended experiments at the accelerator, a high accuracy for the energy determination of the electron beam is required. For this purpose, an experimental setup is used that has a number of additional devices assembled around the spectrometer to determine geometric characteristics of the electron beam, which influence the energy analysis. For the analysis of the acquired data, a software was developed which meets specific needs. One important aspect is that the software is based on an algorithm for energy determination which considers the measured magnetic flux density of the spectrometer and geometric details of the beam and the spectrometer. The software also meets the demand that it can be used to estimate the uncertainty assigned to the energy. This paper covers the experimental and analytical background of magnetic spectrometry at the high-energy beamline of PTB's research accelerator. A comparison of results calculated with the specific algorithm for energy determination which was developed for this experimental setup and with well-known algorithms is given to show the advantage of the specific method. Results of measurements and their analysis with the algorithm are presented as well

  6. Measuring the low-energy cosmic ray spectrum with the AFIS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Gaisbauer, Dominic; Greenwald, Daniel; Hahn, Alexander; Hauptmann, Philipp; Konorov, Igor; Meng, Lingxin; Paul, Stephan; Poeschl, Thomas [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Renker, Dieter [Physics Department E17, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    High-energy cosmic rays interact with Earth's upper atmosphere and produce antiprotons, which can be trapped in Earth's magnetic field. The Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) Mission will measure the flux of trapped antiprotons with energies less than 100 MeV aboard the nanosatellite MOVE 2. An active-target tracking detector comprised of scintillating plastic fibers and silicon photomultipliers is already under construction at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. As a precursor to the space-bound mission, a prototype version of the detector will be launched aboard a balloon from Kiruna, Sweden as part of the REXUS/BEXUS student program by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Named AFIS-P, it will be used to measure the low-energy part of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies less than 100 MeV-per-nucleon. Spectrometers in previous balloon missions were not sensitive in this low-energy region. Thus AFIS-P will deliver unprecedented data, while simultaneously allowing us to field-test the AFIS detector.

  7. Prediction of background in low-energy spectrum of phoswich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo monitoring of actinides in occupational workers is done using Phoswich detector by measuring the low-energy X ray and gamma rays. Quantification of actinides like plutonium and americium in the lungs is extremely difficult due to higher background in the low-energy regions, which is from ambient background as well as from the subject. In the latter case, it is mainly due to the Compton scattering of body potassium, which varies person-to-person. Hence, an accurate prediction of subject-specific background counts in the lower-energy regions is an essential element in the in vivo measurement of plutonium and americium. Empirical equations are established for the prediction of background count rate in 239Pu and 241Am lower-energy regions, called 'target regions', as a function of count rate in the monitoring region (97-130 keV)/40K region in the high-energy spectrum, weight-to-height ratio of the subject (scattering parameter) and the gender. (authors)

  8. Research on the Application of the Light-Energy Spectrum Fusion Technique to Land and Resources Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use remote sensing images including Landsat (MSS and TM) and airborne radioactivity images to identify the type of rocks in the areas covered by vegetation. The relationship between light spectrum (Landsat MSS and TM) and energy spectrum (U, Th and K) is discussed on the basis of correlation analysis, and it is proven that there are correlations between the Landsat MSS or TM data and the U, Th and K data. By using the fusion technique, new images were generated, which contain both the light spectrum and the energy spectrum information.Taking the Lucong basin as the study area, the present paper demonstrates the successful identification of various types of rocks using the fusion technique. Different types of rocks are represented by different colours on the new light-energy spectrum images, so that volcanic rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods can be discriminated. Another example, in the Lingquan basin in Northeast China, not only the different types of rocks are successfully distinguished, but corrections and modifications are also made on the original geological map after some field investigation. Practice has proven that the light-energy spectrum fusion technique is a good way in lithologic identification.

  9. Energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic radiation in the region above the knee from the GAMMA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Martirosov, R M; Vardanyan, H S; Erlykin, A D; Nikolskaya, N M; Gallant, Y A; Jones, L W; Babayan, H A

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the primary cosmic radiation in the energy range 1 - 100 PeV and the extensive air shower (EAS) characteristics obtained on the basis of the expanded data bank of the GAMMA experiment (Mt. Aragats, Armenia) are presented. With increased statistics we confirm our previous results on the energy spectrum. The spectral index above the knee is about -3.1, but at energies beyond 20 PeV a flattening of the spectrum is observed. The existence of the 'bump' at about 70 PeV is confirmed with a significance of more than 4{\\sigma}. In the energy range of 10 - 100 PeV the shower age becomes energy independent and we observe a direct proportionality of the EAS size to the primary energy. This suggests an approximately constant depth of the EAS maximum in this energy range. This is evidence in favour of an increasing average mass of primary particles at energies above 20 PeV. The additional source scenario, which is a possible explanation of the 'bump' in the spectrum, also leads to the conclusion of ...

  10. Angular Anisotropy and Mass Asymmetry of Thorium-232 Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of experimental and theoretical papers on the angular distribution of the fission fragments of nuclei indicate that it is satisfactorily described by the parameters of the fissioning nucleus at the saddle point. The problem of the effect of these parameters on the distribution of the fragments according to mass has as yet found no generally accepted solution. It remains unclear to what extent the 'good' quantum numbers characteristic of the nucleus at the saddle point remain equally ''good'' when the nucleus passes from the saddle point to the moment of breakdown. If at the saddle point the nucleus has a set of different configurations, this must be apparent in some way in the distribution of the fragments by mass and in their angular distribution (via the moment of inertia of the nucleus). The paper investigates the angular anisotropy of fragments with different masses in the fission of thorium-232 by fast neutrons. The masses of the fragments were determined by simultaneous recording of the kinetic energy of paired fragments in a double ionization chamber with grids. The direction of flight of the fragments was determined using a mechanical collimator. The neutrons causing fission had an extended spectrum, but the contribution of fissions via the (n, n'f) reaction did not exceed a few per cent. The fragments were sorted out according to energy by a two-dimensional 128 x 128 channel analyser with a memory on ferrite. The dependence of angular anisotropy on the mass of the fragments and on their kinetic energy with fixed mass is discussed. The first dependence makes it possible to judge the degree to which the saddle point affects the distribution of the fragments according to mass, while the second gives information about the degree to which the configuration of the nucleus at the moment of breakdown affects the angular anisotropy of the fragments. (author)

  11. Spin–orbit-coupled BEC in a double-well potential: Quantum energy spectrum and flat band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) provide a powerful platform for studies on physical problems in various fields. Here we study the energy spectrum of a tunable spin–orbit-coupled BEC in a double-well potential with adjustable Raman laser intensity. We find in the single-particle spectrum there is a highly degenerate flat band in the ground state of the BEC, which remains stable against changes of the Raman strength. Many-body interactions between atoms remove this high degeneracy. Analytical results for particular cases are obtained by using the perturbation theory, which are in good agreement with the numerical results. - Highlights: • Energy spectrum of a tunable SOC BEC in a double-well potential is obtained. • Single-particle spectrum shows a highly degenerate flat band in the ground state. • Weak interactions between atoms remove this high degeneracy. • Analytical results are obtained by perturbation theory

  12. Characterization of optical anisotropy in quantum wells under compressive anisotropic in-plane strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Mark L [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Walters, Matthew [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Diaz-Barriga, James [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Rabinovich, W S [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5652, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2003-10-21

    Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain.

  13. Constructing ab initio and empirical potential energy surfaces for water Infrared spectrum; Vibrational and rotational energy levels; Born- Oppenheimer surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, J S

    2001-01-01

    The infrared spectrum of water is possibly one of the most well studied and yet portions of it are still poorly understood. Recently, significant advances have been made in assigning water spectra using variational nuclear calculations. The major factor determining the accuracy of ro-vibrational spectra of water is the accuracy of the underlying Potential Energy Surface. Even the most accurate ab initio Potential Energy Surface does not reproduce the Born-Oppenheimer surface to sufficient accuracy for spectroscopic studies. Furthermore, effects beyond this model such as the adiabatic correction, the relativistic correction and the non-adiabatic correction have to be considered. This thesis includes a discussion on how the relativistic correction was calculated, for the water molecule, from first-order perturbation theory. The relativistic correction improved vibrational stretching motion while making the prediction of the bending modes far worse. For rotational motion the relativistic effect had an increasing...

  14. Oscillatory rule in the energy spectrum of traps in KCl and NaI crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gumenyuk, A F; Stanovyi, O P; Pashchenko, V G; Tomylko, S V

    2010-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method is used for the investigation of the energy spectrum of traps in KCl and NaI crystals in the temperature range 80-500 K. It is shown that the thermal activation energies of traps in KCl and NaI form one oscillatory series E=hwn with vibrational quantum energies of 0.121 eV in KCl and 0.061 eV in NaI. In this case, the quantum number n assumes half-integer and integer values. Based on the generalized data on the investigated alkali-halide crystals (AHC), we confirmed the earlier proposed model of TL in AHCs. It is assumed that, in addition to the nonradiative H-F recombination, there exists the two-stage recombination of H-centers at anion vacancies resulting in the radiative recombination of a hole at an F-center. The energy of a quantum in the oscillatory rule corresponds to a local vibrational mode of an X2 halide molecule.

  15. Are protons still dominant at the knee of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum?

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, J Y; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Sakata, M; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxi Sang Zhu; Zhou, X X

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid experiment consisting of emulsion chambers, burst detectors and the Tibet II air-shower array was carried out at Yangbajing (4,300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm$^2$) in Tibet to obtain the energy spectra of primary protons and heliums. From three-year operation, these energy spectra are deduced between $10^{15}$ and $10^{16}$ eV by triggering the air showers associated with a high energy core and using a neural network method in the primary mass separation. The proton spectrum can be expressed by a single power-law function with a differential index of $-3.01 \\pm 0.11$ and $-3.05 \\pm 0.12$ based on the QGSJET+HD and SIBYLL+HD models, respectively, which are steeper than that extrapolated from the direct observations of $-2.74 \\pm 0.01$ in the energy range below $10^{14}$ eV. The absolute fluxes of protons and heliums are derived within 30% systematic errors depending on the hadronic interaction models used in Monte Carlo simulation. The result of our experiment suggests that the main component responsible for t...

  16. Measurement of anisotropies in the large-scale diffuse gamma-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vargas, German Gomez

    2010-01-01

    We have performed the first measurement of the angular power spectrum in the large-scale diffuse emission at energies from 1-50 GeV. We compared results from data and a simulated model in order to identify significant differences in anisotropy properties. We found angular power above the photon noise level in the data at multipoles greater than ~ 100 for energies 1< E <10 GeV. The excess power in the data suggests a contribution from a point source population not present in the model.

  17. Observation of the Ankle and Evidence for a High-Energy Break in the Cosmic Ray Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Amman, J F; Archbold, G; Atkins, R; Bellido, J A; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Ben-Zvi, S Y; Bergman, D R; Burt, G W; Cao, Z; Clay, R W; Connolly, B C; Deng, W; Dawson, B R; Fedorova, Y; Findlay, J; Finley, C B; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Hughes, G A; Holzscheiter, M H; Hüntemeyer, P; Jui, C C H; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Loh, E C; Maestas, M M; Manago, N; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; O'Neill, A; Painter, C A; Perera, L P; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M; Sasaki, M; Schnetzer, S R; Simpson, K M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Snow, R; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Thomas, J R; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tupa, D; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L R; Zech, A

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the cosmic ray spectrum at energies above $10^{17}$ eV using the two air fluorescence detectors of the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment operating in monocular mode. We describe the detector, PMT and atmospheric calibrations, and the analysis techniques for the two detectors. We fit the spectrum to models describing galactic and extragalactic sources. Our measured spectrum gives an observation of a feature known as the ``ankle'' near $3\\times 10^{18}$ eV, and strong evidence for a suppression near $6\\times 10^{19}$ eV.

  18. SPECTRUM - a computer algorithm to derive the flux-energy spectrum of precipitating particles from EISCAT electron density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major improvements are included. First the new algorithm includes the time rate of change of ionisation. This can be measured on a time scale of a few seconds with the EISCAT radar during auroral precipitation. Second, the fixed energies of the incident electron beams assumed in the UNTANGLE program are replaced by energies which are calculated according to the altitudes at which measurements are made. Thus the energy resolution and energy interval included in the derived spectra are determined in a physically reasonable way by the altitude resolution and the altitude interval of the electron density measurements. Third, the equations relating the incident fluxes at each energy to the electron density at each altitude are written in matrix form which allows them to be solved using standard numerical algorithms. A possibility to fit proton fluxes rather than electron fluxes is also included. A companion program (PROFILE) which calculates ionisation rate or equilibrium electron density profiles for user-defined monoenergetic or Maxwellian particle precipitation has also been developed. (author)

  19. The expected anisotropy in solid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ''solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales

  20. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dichiara, S; Amati, L; Frontera, F; Margutti, R

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long gamma-ray bursts with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,i of the time-averaged nuFnu spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope alpha detected with Swift, Fermi and past s...

  1. Collective behaviour of linear perturbation waves observed through the energy density spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the collective behaviour of small three-dimensional transient perturbations in sheared flows. In particular, we observe their varied life history through the temporal evolution of the amplification factor. The spectrum of wave vectors considered fills the range from the size of the external flow scale to the size of the very short dissipative waves. We observe that the amplification factor distribution is scale-invariant. In the condition we analyze, the system is subject to all the physical processes included in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. With the exception of the nonlinear interaction, these features are the same as those characterizing the turbulent state. The linearized perturbative system offers a great variety of different transient behaviours associated to the parameter combination present in the initial conditions. For the energy spectrum computed by freezing each wave at the instant where its asymptotic condition is met, we ask whether this system is able to show a power-law scaling analogous to the Kolmogorov argument. At the moment, for at least two typical shear flows, the bluff-body wake and the plane Poiseuille flow, the answer is yes.

  2. a New Study on the Energy Spectrum and Composition of Primary Cosmic Ray Flux at Energies ~ 1014 - 1016 EV Using the GRAPES-3 Array at Ooty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.; Gupta, S. K.; Mohanty, D. K.; Mohanty, P. K.; Sivaprasad, K.; Sreekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Nonaka, T.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshikoshi, T.

    Data collected with the 217-detector air shower array and the 560 m2 area tracking muon detector, being operated at Ooty in southern India by the India-Japan (Tata Institute-Osaka City University) collaboration, GRAPES, have been analyzed to study the shape of the energy spectrum and the composition around the knee. It is shown that the muon multiplicity distribution, observed with the highly modular muon detector, permits a relatively reliable measurement on the composition of primary flux which then helps in a more accurate reconstruction of the energy spectrum from the observed shower size spectrum. The highlights of the GRAPES array, the analysis procedure and the results are presented.

  3. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  4. Turbulent magnetic energy spectrum and the cancellation function of solar photospheric magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marschalkó, G

    2014-01-01

    A simple analytical relation of form {\\alpha} = 2 {\\kappa} -1 between the magnetic energy spectral exponent {\\alpha} of the turbulent magnetic field in the solar photosphere and its magnetic flux cancellation exponent {\\kappa}, valid under certain restrictive assumptions, is tested and extended outside its range of validity in a series of Monte Carlo simulations. In these numerical tests artificial "magnetograms" are constructed in 1D and 2D by superposing a discrete set of Fourier modes of the magnetic field distribution with amplitudes following a power law spectrum and measuring the cancellation function on these simulated magnetograms. Our results confirm the validity of the analytical relation and extend it to the domain {\\alpha} 0 as {\\alpha} ---> - infinity. The observationally derived upper limit of 0.38 on {\\kappa} implies {\\alpha} < -0.24 in the granular size range, apparently at odds with a small scale dynamo driven in the inertial range.

  5. On the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a photon field. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1930 Weisskopf and Wigner gave an account, based on the Maxwell endash Schroedinger equations, of the natural spectral line broadening of radiation emitted by a hydrogen atom. Their calculations were based on an approximation involving certain single-photon transitions in the perturbation series for the solutions of these equations. In Part I of this series of papers the exact expressions for both the line shift and the line broadening are obtained from the Maxwell endash Dirac equations in such a way that the Weisskopf endash Wigner results appear as a second order approximation. The Maxwell endash Dirac Hamiltonian for the coupled fields is first shown to admit a complex analytic dilation in the energy variables. The Fredholm endash Born series for the resolvent is shown to converge uniformly when certain high-energy cutoff factors are included in the interaction and the photons are given a small mass. The series is then rearranged to show that the spectrum of the modified dilated Hamiltonian, which consists of a complete set of complex eigenvalues, thresholds, and branch cuts, is only a slight perturbation of the known spectrum of the dilated Hamiltonian for the uncoupled fields. The real part of the shift of each complex eigenvalue then accounts for the spectral line shift, and the complex part accounts for the associated line broadening. Finally, the implications for the scattering matrix and the various phenomena of resonance scattering are discussed. In Part II of this series these results are shown to remain valid when the cutoff factors and the photon mass are removed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Effects of primary recoil (PKA) energy spectrum on radiation damage in fcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Tadao; Iwase, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    Irradiation effects by different energetic particles such as electrons, various ions and neutrons are compared in fcc metals, particularly in Cu and Ni. It is discussed on the statistical consideration that the logarithm of the so-called PKA median energy, log T{sub 1/2}, is a good representative to characterize the primary recoil (i.e. PKA) energy spectrum with the resultant defect production. For the irradiations of electrons, various ions and neutrons to Cu and Ni, fundamental physical quantities such as the fraction of stage I recovery, the defect production cross sections and the radiation annealing cross sections can be well scaled as a function of log T{sub 1/2}, if the effects of the electron excitation caused by irradiating ions are excluded. Namely, all data of the respective physical quantity lie on a single continuous curve as a function of log T{sub 1/2}. This characteristic curve is utilized to predict the damage accumulation (i.e. defect concentration) as a function of dpa in Cu and Ni with the PKA median energy as a parameter. (author)

  7. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Anwar; Naqvi, Husnain; Sher, Muhammad; Khan, Muazzam Ali; Khan, Imran; Irshad, Azeem

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network's life time. PMID:27447489

  8. Effects of primary recoil (PKA) energy spectrum on radiation damage in fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation effects by different energetic particles such as electrons, various ions and neutrons are compared in fcc metals, particularly in Cu and Ni. It is discussed on the statistical consideration that the logarithm of the so-called PKA median energy, log T1/2, is a good representative to characterize the primary recoil (i.e. PKA) energy spectrum with the resultant defect production. For the irradiations of electrons, various ions and neutrons to Cu and Ni, fundamental physical quantities such as the fraction of stage I recovery, the defect production cross sections and the radiation annealing cross sections can be well scaled as a function of log T1/2, if the effects of the electron excitation caused by irradiating ions are excluded. Namely, all data of the respective physical quantity lie on a single continuous curve as a function of log T1/2. This characteristic curve is utilized to predict the damage accumulation (i.e. defect concentration) as a function of dpa in Cu and Ni with the PKA median energy as a parameter. (author)

  9. A measurement of the energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Dawson, J; Fuess, T A; Guarino, V; Hill, N; Magill, S; May, E; Nodulman, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R; Underwood, D G; Wagner, R; Wicklund, B; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Casado, M P; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Juste, A; Miralles, L; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Ronceux, B; Teubert, F; Anderson, K J; Blucher, E; Evans, H; Merritt, F S; Pilcher, J E; Sanders, H; Shochet, M J; Tang, F; Turcot, A S; Wagner, D; Arsenescu, R; Constantinescu, S; Blaj, C; Boldea, V; Dita, S; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Brossard, M; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; Dugne, J J; Michel, B; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Pallin, D; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poirot, S; Reinmuth, G; Says, L P; Vazeille, F; Cobal, M; Gildemeister, O; Nessi, Marzio; Henriques, A; Poggioli, Luc; Sonderegger, P; Karapetian, G V; Astvatsaturov, A R; Borisov, O N; Budagov, Yu A; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Glagolev, V V; Kakurin, S; Kolomoets, V; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Lebedev, A; Liba, I; Lomakina, O V; Lomakin, Yu F; Malyukov, S N; Minashvili, I A; Pantea, D; Pukhov, O; Romanov, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Senchyshyn, V G; Semenov, V; Sissakian, A N; Shchelchkov, V; Shevtsov, A; Studenov, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Yarygin, G; Cogswell, F; Downing, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Haney, M; Simaitis, V J; Thaler, J J; Amaral, P; Amorim, A; Carvalho, J; David, M; Gómez, A; Maio, A; Martins, J P; Onofre, A; Wolters, H; Bromberg, C; Huston, J; Miller, R; Richards, R; Yosef, C; Alifanov, A; Bogush, A A; Golubev, V B; Rumyantsev, V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Angelini, C; Autiero, D; Cavasinni, V; Costanzo, D; De Santo, A; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Lami, S; Lazzeroni, C; Mazzoni, E; Renzoni, G; Davidek, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Leitner, R; Soustruznik, K; Suk, M; Tas, P; Trka, Z; Valkár, S; Zdrazil, M; Lokajícek, M; Némécek, S; Karyukhin, A N; Klioukhine, V I; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kulagin, M; Lapin, V; Protopopov, Yu; Sidorov, V; Solodkov, A A; Starchenko, E A; Surkov, A; Zaitsev, A; Calôba, L P; Gaspar, M; Marroquin, F; Pereira, A; Seixas, J M; Berglund, S R; Bohm, C; Johansson, E K; Hellman, S; Holmgren, S O; Jon-And, K; Selldén, B; Tardell, S; Yamdagni, N; Ferrer, A; Honoré, P F; Albiol, F; De, K; Gallas, E J; Li, J; Sawyer, L; Stephens, R; Turcotte, M; White, A; Hakopian, H H; Grabskii, V; Mnatzakanian, E A; Vartapetian, A H

    1997-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons has been measured with a prototype of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter in the H8 beam of the CERN SPS.\\\\ The differential probability $dP/dv$ per radiation length of a fractional energy loss $v = \\Delta E_{\\mu} / E_{\\mu}$ has been measured in the range $v = 0.01 \\div 0.95 $; it is then compared with the theoretical predictions for energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and production of electron-positron pairs or of energetic knock-on electrons.\\\\ The integrated probability $\\int_{0.01}^{0.95} (dP/dv) dv$ is $(1.610\\pm0.015_{stat.}\\pm0.105_{syst.})\\cdot10^{-3}$ in agreement with the theoretical predictions of $1.556\\cdot10^{-3}$ and $1.619\\cdot10^{-3}$. %7.8.96 - start Agreement with theory is also found in two intervals of $v$ where production of electron-positron pairs and knock-on electrons dominates. In the region of bremsstrahlung dominance ($v = 0.12\\div0.95$) the measured integrated probability $(1.160\\pm0.040_{stat}\\pm0.075_{syst})\\cdot 10^{-4}$ is in agreement with ...

  10. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network’s life time. PMID:27447489

  11. Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. In the low energies, MAGIC results, combined with the Fermi-LAT data, show a flat Inverse Compton peak. The Fermi-LAT and MAGIC spectral data were fit from 1 GeV to 30 TeV with a log-parabola, yielding a peak position at (53 $\\pm$ 3) GeV with a $\\chi^2_{red}$ = 82/27 (error probably underestimated due to the bad fit quality), showing that the log-parabola is not a good representation of the Inverse Compton peak of the Crab Nebula. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV if accounting for systematic uncertainties of the measurement. We ...

  12. Primordial Statistical Anisotropies: The Effective Field Theory Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the effective field theory of primordial statistical anisotropies generated during anisotropic inflation involving a background $U(1)$ gauge field. Besides the usual Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of time diffeomorphism we have two additional Goldstone bosons associated with the breaking of spatial diffeomorphisms. We further identify these two new Goldstone bosons with the expected two transverse degrees of the $U(1)$ gauge field fluctuations. Upon defining the appropriate unitary gauge, we present the most general quadratic action which respects the remnant symmetry in the unitary gauge. The interactions between various Goldstone bosons leads to statistical anisotropy in curvature perturbation power spectrum. Calculating the general results for power spectrum anisotropy, we recover the previously known results in specific models of anisotropic inflation. In addition, we present novel results for statistical anisotropy in models with non-trivial sound speed for inflaton ...

  13. Small-scale anisotropies of cosmic rays from relative diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small scale structure is reflecting the local, turbulent magnetic field in the presence of a global dipole anisotropy in cosmic rays as determined by diffusion. This effect is analogous to weak gravitational lensing of temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. We show that the non-trivial power spectrum in this setup can be related to the properties of relative diffusion and we study the convergence of the angular power spectrum to a steady-state as a function of backtracking time. We also determine the steady-state solution in an analytical approach based on a modified BGK ansatz. A rigorous mathematical treatment of the generation of small scale anisotropies will help in unraveling the structure of the local magnetic field through cosmic ray anisotropies.

  14. The energy spectrum observed by the AGASA experiment and the spatial distribution of the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Medina-Tanco, G A

    1999-01-01

    Seven and a half years of continuous monitoring of giant air showers triggered by ultra high-energy cosmic rays have been recently summarized by the AGASA collaboration. The resulting energy spectrum indicates clearly that the cosmic ray spectrum extends well beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cut-off at $\\sim 5 \\times 10^{19}$ eV. Furthermore, despite the small number statistics involved, some structure in the spectrum may be emerging. Using numerical simulations, it is demonstrated in the present work that these features are consistent with a spatial distribution of sources that follows the distribution of luminous matter in the local Universe. Therefore, from this point of view, there is no need for a second high-energy component of cosmic rays dominating the spectrum beyond the GZK cut-off.

  15. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV

  16. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, M.; Honda, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  17. Neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region of eV with the slowing down time method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region of eV, no general-purpose method has been established so far. The time-of-flight (TOF) method, the multi-foil activation (MFA) method and the multi-spherical Bonner counter (MSB) method have been applied for the spectrum measurement in the energy range, however, these techniques have their own weak points and restrictions for the measurement. On the other hand, the slowing down time (SDT) method was proposed by Bergman, et al. in 1955 and the principle of the method has been applied for the so-called 'lead slowing down spectrometer'. In this study, the SDT method was investigated as another possibility of measuring method of neutron spectrum in the energy region of eV. (J.P.N.)

  18. Measurement of low energy neutron spectrum below 10 keV with the slowing down time method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, F.; Oyama, Y.

    1996-02-01

    No general-purpose method of neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region around eV has been established so far. Neutron spectrum measurement in this energy region was attempted by applying the slowing down time (SDT) method, for the first time, inside two types of shield for fusion reactors, type 316 stainless steel (SS316) and SS316/water layered assemblies, incorporating with pulsed neutrons. In the SS316 assembly, neutron spectra below 1 keV were measured with an accuracy less than 10%. Although application of the SDT method was expected very difficult for SS316/water assembly since it contained lightest atoms of hydrogen, the measurement demonstrated that the SDT method was still effective for such shield assembly. The SDT method was also extended to thermal flux measurement in the SS316/water assembly. The present study demonstrated that the SDT method was effective for neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region around eV.

  19. Measurement of γ absorption dose rate through measuring the full energy peak of γ spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: At present most radiation dose meters have the serious problem of energy response, and they just use the count rate plus relative correction method to measure the dose rate. This method has large error, and cannot distinguish the type of radionuclide, also cannot obtain the contribution of each radionuclide to the dose rate. Purpose: The research of new method is to measure the dose rate and improve the accuracy of measurement. Methods: The method of γ dose rate measurement through measuring full energy peak of γ spectrum was put forward, the angular response function of parallel γ ray injected into detector was defined. The average angular response over full space in the energy range from 0.02 MeV to 3 MeV was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation for Ø50 mm×50 mm NaI(Tl) detector. Measurement tests have been done using standard radioactive sources of 137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, 133Ba and in reference radioactive field of 137Cs, 60Co, 226Ra, 241Am in a national lab. Results: The test errors are smaller than 2% compared with the theoretical value for standard sources, and smaller than 3% compared with the value of PTW 10 L spherical chamber for reference radiation field. Conclusion: The results show that the method is suitable for the dose rate measurement for a wide range of energy without experimental calibration, can calculate the dose rate of different energy ray, and at the same time identify the radioactive nuclides in the radiation source. (authors)

  20. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured with the HEAT extension at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the calculation of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays, that is the absolute flux of cosmic rays as a function of energy, from data of air showers observed with the HEAT (High Elevation Auger Telescopes) extension and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest observatory for the study of cosmic rays. The Pierre Auger Observatory observes air showers, that are cascades of particles that were instigated by cosmic rays hitting the Earth's atmosphere, with two different detection concepts. The surface detector samples the secondary particles of air showers that hit the ground with an array of surface detector stations, whereas the fluorescence detector measures the energy loss profile of air showers by detecting fluorescence light, produced by the air showers when they travel through the atmosphere, with optical telescopes. The properties of the cosmic rays are not directly measurable but have to be reconstructed from the observed air shower parameters. Properties of particular interest are the type of the primary cosmic ray particle, its energy and its arrival direction. HEAT is an extension to the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. It is designed to lower the energy threshold by one order of magnitude down to 1017 eV or lower. HEAT is taking data since 2010. The calculation of the absolute flux of cosmic rays needs two ingredients: the number of detected air showers as a function of shower energy and the exposure of the detector as a function of energy. The studied air shower class are hybrid events, which are events that have been detected by a fluorescence detector and at least one surface detector station. The used air showers were observed in a time period of fifteen month starting from June 2010. A first step of the analysis is the reconstruction of air showers and cosmic ray parameters from raw data. To calculate the exposure, the uptime, that is the integral

  1. Microwave anisotropies from the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M; Mori, M; Walker, Mark; Ohishi, Michiko; Mori, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    Models in which a large fraction of the Galactic dark matter takes the form of cold gas clouds imply that there is thermal microwave emission from the Galactic dark halo. Such models can therefore be directly constrained by existing data on the microwave sky, and in particular the very sensitive observations of microwave anisotropies. To this end we have computed the anisotropy power-spectrum expected for a Galactic dark halo made of cold, dense gas clouds, including the effects of clustering with a CDM-like mass spectrum of mini-halo substructure. The power-spectrum displays two peaks: one, at l~50, is the Poisson noise for the mini-halos, and the second, much larger and at much higher l, is the Poisson noise of the individual clouds. The predicted fluctuation amplitude on degree-scales is a small (~1%) fraction of the observed (~70 micro-K) anisotropies if one considers small areas of sky at high Galactic latitude, increasing by a factor of a few for large areas of sky around 30 degrees latitude. Consequent...

  2. The anisotropy of granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Luding, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the anisotropy on the elastoplastic response of two dimensional packed samples of polygons is investigated here, using molecular dynamics simulation. We show a correlation between fabric coefficients, characterizing the anisotropy of the granular skeleton, and the anisotropy of the elastic response. We also study the anisotropy induced by shearing on the subnetwork of the sliding contacts. This anisotropy provides an explanation to some features of the plastic deformation of gra...

  3. Azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching at LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I P Lokhtin; S V Petrushanko; L I Sarycheva; A M Snigirev

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the azimuthal anisotropy of jet spectra due to energy loss of hard partons in quark–gluon plasma, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with non-zero impact parameter. The calculations are performed for semi-central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy.

  4. Analysis of effectiveness of spectrum of energy and image quality evaluation by aluminium filter in the added compound filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Dignostic Radiology, Seoul National University hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study analysed the effectiveness of aluminium(Al) filter in the added compound filtration for the removal of characteristic radiation by energy spectrum and image evaluation. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm copper with and without 1 mm Al were evaluated. The energy spectrum was measured using the GATE and evaluated separately by each energy. Image quality was evaluated by PSNR, MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis was performed by seven items for resolution and contrast from chest x-ray criteria of National Cancer Screening and Cardiovascular evaluation table. In the analysis of the quality of the energy per photon spectrum with the exception of a low energy region, without Al were superior in all area. PSNR MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis were the same or slightly better. PSNR was over 30 dB and all significant and the p>0.05 in the T-test of qualitative analysis. The energy spectrum and image quality have little difference between before and after use of Al filter. Therefore, it is effective to use the Al filter for the radiation dose management with the compensation capability of DR system.

  5. Analysis of effectiveness of spectrum of energy and image quality evaluation by aluminium filter in the added compound filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analysed the effectiveness of aluminium(Al) filter in the added compound filtration for the removal of characteristic radiation by energy spectrum and image evaluation. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm copper with and without 1 mm Al were evaluated. The energy spectrum was measured using the GATE and evaluated separately by each energy. Image quality was evaluated by PSNR, MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis was performed by seven items for resolution and contrast from chest x-ray criteria of National Cancer Screening and Cardiovascular evaluation table. In the analysis of the quality of the energy per photon spectrum with the exception of a low energy region, without Al were superior in all area. PSNR MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis were the same or slightly better. PSNR was over 30 dB and all significant and the p>0.05 in the T-test of qualitative analysis. The energy spectrum and image quality have little difference between before and after use of Al filter. Therefore, it is effective to use the Al filter for the radiation dose management with the compensation capability of DR system

  6. Full-Sky Analysis of Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy with IceCube and HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, experiments in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres have observed a small but measurable energy-dependent sidereal anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of galactic cosmic rays. The relative amplitude of the anisotropy is $10^{-4} - 10^{-3}$. However, each of these individual measurements is restricted by limited sky coverage, and so the pseudo-power spectrum of the anisotropy obtained from any one measurement displays a systematic correlation between different multipole modes $C_\\ell$. To address this issue, we present the preliminary status of a joint analysis of the anisotropy on all angular scales using cosmic-ray data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole ($90^\\circ$ S) and the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory located at Sierra Negra, Mexico ($19^\\circ$ N). We describe the methods used to combine the IceCube and HAWC data, address the individual detector systematics and study the region of overlapping field of view be...

  7. The quantum Kirchhoff equation and quantum current and energy spectrum of a homogeneous mesoscopic dissipation transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of quantization of charge, the loop equations of quantum circuits are investigated by using the Heisenberg motion equation for a mesoscopic dissipation transmission line. On the supposition that the system has a symmetry under translation in charge space, the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum in the mesoscopic transmission line are given by solving their eigenvalue equations. Results show that the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum are not only related to the parameters of the transmission line, but also dependent on the quantized character of the charge obviously.

  8. 3D and 1D calculation of hysteresis loops and energy products for anisotropic nanocomposite films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness Ls increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation

  9. Searches for anisotropies in the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 804, č. 1 (2015), s. 15. ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acceleration of particles * astroparticle physics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  10. Small-scale Anisotropies of Cosmic Rays from Relative Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Markus; Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

  11. Influence of boron diffusion on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|CoFeB|MgO ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Jaivardhan; Gruber, Maria; Kodzuka, Masaya; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Mitani, Seiji; Hono, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masamitsu, E-mail: hayashi.masamitsu@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-01-28

    We have studied structural and magnetic properties of Ta|CoFeB|MgO heterostructures using cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) imaging, and vibrating sample magnetometry. From the TEM studies, the CoFeB layer is found to be predominantly amorphous for as deposited films, whereas small crystallites, diameter of ∼5 nm, are observed in films annealed at 300 °C. We find that the presence of such nanocrystallites is not sufficient for the occurrence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using EELS, we find that boron diffuses into the Ta underlayer upon annealing. The Ta underlayer thickness dependence of the magnetic anisotropy indicates that ∼0.2 nm of Ta underlayer is enough to absorb the boron from the CoFeB layer and induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Boron diffusion upon annealing becomes limited when the CoFeB layer thickness is larger than ∼2 nm, which coincides with the thickness at which the saturation magnetization M{sub S} and the interface magnetic anisotropy K{sub I} drop by ∼20%. These results show the direct role which boron plays in determining the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB|MgO heterostructures.

  12. Energy spectrum of ensemble of weakly nonlinear gravity-capillary waves on a fluid surface

    CERN Document Server

    Tobisch, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter we regard nonlinear gravity-capillary waves with parameter of nonlinearity being $\\varepsilon \\sim 0.1 \\div 0.25$. For this nonlinearity time scale separation does not occur and kinetic wave equation does not hold. An energy cascade in this case is built at the dynamic time scale (D-cascade) and is computed by the increment chain equation method first introduced in \\emph{Kartashova, \\emph{EPL} \\textbf{97} (2012), 30004.} We compute for the first time an analytical expression for the energy spectrum of nonlinear gravity-capillary waves as an explicit function depending on the ratio of surface tension to the gravity acceleration. It is shown that its two limits - pure capillary and pure gravity waves on a fluid surface - coincide with the previously obtained results. We also discuss relations of the model of D-cascade with a few known models used in the theory of nonlinear waves such as Zakharov's equation, resonance of the modes with nonlinear Stokes corrected frequencies and Benjamin-Feir index...

  13. Polynomial potentials determined from the energy spectrum and transition dipole moments that give the largest hyperpolarizabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Nathan J

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to get a polynomial solution to the inverse problem, that is, to determine the form of the mechanical Hamiltonian when given the energy spectrum and transition dipole moment matrix. This is related to the famous problem of "hearing the shape of a drumhead," as originally stated by Koch [see Mark Kac, "Can One Hear the Shape of a Drum?" Mathematical Monthly vol. 73, 1 (1966)]. The ideal energy spacing to get hyperpolarizabilities at the limit can be determined from Monte Carlo techniques [see M. C. Kuzyk and M. G. Kuzyk, "Monte Carlo Studies of the Fundamental Limits of the Intrinsic Hyperpolarizability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B vol. 23, 103 (2008).]; but, there is no reliable way to get the underlying Hamiltonian. Our approach is to determine the potential in the form of a polynomial by finding an approximate solution to the inverse problem, then to determine the hyperpolarizability for that system's Hamiltonian. We find that the largest hyperpolarizabilities approach the apparent limit of previous pote...

  14. Heisenberg antiferromagnet on Cayley trees: Low-energy spectrum and even/odd site imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changlani, Hitesh J.; Ghosh, Shivam; Henley, Christopher L.; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2013-02-01

    To understand the role of local sublattice imbalance in low-energy spectra of s=(1)/(2) quantum antiferromagnets, we study the s=(1)/(2) quantum nearest neighbor Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the coordination 3 Cayley tree. We perform many-body calculations using an implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique for generic tree graphs. We discover that the bond-centered Cayley tree has a quasidegenerate set of a low-lying tower of states and an “anomalous” singlet-triplet finite-size gap scaling. For understanding the construction of the first excited state from the many-body ground state, we consider a wave function ansatz given by the single-mode approximation, which yields a high overlap with the DMRG wave function. Observing the ground-state entanglement spectrum leads us to a picture of the low-energy degrees of freedom being “giant spins” arising out of sublattice imbalance, which helps us analytically understand the scaling of the finite-size spin gap. The Schwinger-boson mean-field theory has been generalized to nonuniform lattices, and ground states have been found which are spatially inhomogeneous in the mean-field parameters.

  15. Obscured flat spectrum radio AGN as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Maggi, G; Correa, P; de Vries, K D; Gentile, G; Tavares, J Leon; Scholten, O; van Eijndhoven, N; Vereecken, M; Winchen, T

    2016-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific sub-class of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This sub-class contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative X-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source cat...

  16. An Evaluation of Neutron Energy Spectrum Effects in Iron Based on Molecular Dynamics Displacement Cascade Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of molecular dynamics (MD) displacement cascade simulations in bcc iron have been used to obtain effective cross sections for two measures of primary damage production: (1) the number of surviving point defects expressed as a fraction of the displacements calculated using the standard secondary displacement model of Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens (NRT), and (2) the fraction of the surviving interstitials contained in clusters that formed during the cascade event. Primary knockon atom spectra for iron obtained from the SPECTER code have been used to weight these MD-based damage production cross sections in order to obtain spectrally-averaged values for several locations in commercial fission reactors and materials test reactors. An evaluation of these results indicates that neutron energy spectrum differences between the various enviromnents do not lead to significant differences between the average primary damage formation parameters. In particular, the defect production cross sections obtained for PWR and BWR neutron spectra were not significantly different. The variation of the defect production cross sections as a function of depth into the reactor pressure vessel wall is used as a sample application of the cross sections. A slight difference between the attenuation behavior of the PWR and BWR was noted; this difference could be explained by a subtle difference in the energy dependence of the neutron spectra. Overall, the simulations support the continued use of dpa as a damage correlation parameter

  17. Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target

    CERN Document Server

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Saito, Kiwamu; Ishibashi, Kenji; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Lee, Hee-Seock; Ramberg, Erik; Meyhoefer, Aria A; Coleman, Rick; Jensen, Doug; Leveling, Anthony F; Boehnlein, David J; Mokhov, Nikolai V

    2012-01-01

    Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, proton-induced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30^{\\circ} and 5 m 90^{\\circ} with respect to the...

  18. Dimensionality effect on two-electron energy spectrum: A fractional-dimension-based formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R.; Gutiérrez, W.; Mikhailov, I. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Fulla, M.R. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840, Medellín (Colombia); Marín, J.H., E-mail: jhmarin@unal.edu.co [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-07-17

    We analyze the spectrum of two-electron quantum dot with anisotropic parabolic confinement by using the fractional-dimension formulation which allows us to reduce the two-particle problem to two equations for independent particles in an effective space with variable dimension, ranging between two and three for ellipsoidal-shaped quantum dots and between one and two for elliptical-shaped quantum disks. The dependencies of energy levels on the heterostructure sizes for quantum dots, disks and wires are presented. - Highlights: • We report the two-electron eigenenergies in a quantum dot with anisotropic parabolic confinement. • Our model is versatile enough to consider changes in the dimension space from 3 to 2 and 2 to 1. • The two-electron structure is calculated in integer and fractional dimensional spaces. • The two-electron energy structure is sensitive to the quantum dot size and morphology changes. • The electron–electron Coulomb interaction is strongly dependent on the space dimensionality.

  19. Cosmic-ray energy spectrum and composition up to the ankle - the case for a second Galactic component

    CERN Document Server

    Thoudam, S; van Vliet, A; Achterberg, A; Buitink, S; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study to understand the observed energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays with energies up to ~10^18 eV. Our study shows that a single Galactic component with subsequent energy cut-offs in the individual spectra of different elements, optimised to explain the observed spectra below ~10^14 eV and the knee in the all-particle spectrum, cannot explain the observed all-particle spectrum above ~2x10^16 eV. We discuss two approaches for a second component of Galactic cosmic rays -- re-acceleration at a Galactic wind termination shock, and supernova explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars, and show that the latter scenario can explain almost all observed features in the all-particle spectrum and the composition up to ~10^18 eV, when combined with a canonical extra-galactic spectrum expected from strong radio galaxies or a source population with similar cosmological evolution. In this two-component Galactic model, the knee at ~ 3x10^15 eV and the second knee at ~10^17 eV in the all-particl...

  20. Development of analytical software for semi-quantitative analysis of x-ray spectrum acquired from energy-dispersive spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software package for elemental analysis for X-ray spectrum obtained from Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) attached with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been developed: A Personal Computer Analyzer card PCA-800 is used to acquire data from the EDS. This spectrum is obtained in binary format, which is transformed into ASCII format using PCAII card software. The program is modular in construction and coded using Microsoft's QUICKBASIC compiler linker. Energy line library containing all lines of elements is created for analysis of acquired characteristic X-ray spectrum. Two techniques of peak identification are provided. Statistical tools are employed for smoothing of a curve and for computing area under the curve. Elemental concentration is calculated in weight % and in atomic. (author)

  1. Magnetotransport in double quantum well with inverted energy spectrum: HgTe/CdHgTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, M. V.; Suslov, A. V.; Popov, M. R.; Novik, E. G.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the double-quantum-well (DQW) system made of two-dimensional layers with inverted energy band spectrum: HgTe. The magnetotransport reveals a considerably larger overlap of the conduction and valence subbands than in known HgTe single quantum wells (QW), which may be regulated here by an applied gate voltage Vg. This large overlap manifests itself in a much higher critical field Bc separating the range above it with a plain behavior of the Hall magnetoresistance ρx y(B ) , where the quantum peculiarities shift linearly with Vg, and the range below with a complicated behavior. In the latter case, specific structures in ρx y(B ) are formed like a double-N -shaped ρx y(B ) , reentrant sign-alternating quantum Hall effect with transitions into a zero-filling-factor state, etc., which are clearly manifested here due to better magnetic quantization at high fields, as compared to the features seen earlier in a single HgTe QW. The coexisting electrons and holes were found in the whole investigated range of positive and negative Vg as revealed (i) from fits to the low-field N -shaped ρx y(B ) , (ii) from the Fourier analysis of oscillations in ρx x(B ) , and (iii) from a specific behavior of ρx y(B ) at high positive Vg. A peculiar feature here is that the found electron density n remains almost constant in the whole range of investigated Vg while the hole density p drops down from the value a factor of 6 larger than n at extreme negative Vg to almost zero at extreme positive Vg passing through the charge-neutrality point. We show that this difference between n and p stems from an order of magnitude larger density of states for holes in the lateral valence subband maxima than for electrons in the conduction subband minimum. We analyze our observations on the basis of a calculated picture of magnetic levels in a DQW and suggest that their specificity is due to (i) a nonmonotonic course of the valence subband magnetic levels and an

  2. The gamma-ray spectrum of Geminga and the inverse Compton model of pulsar high energy emission

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is exceptionally well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cut-off, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband gamma-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cut-off and the double power law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright \\gamma-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parametrization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cut-off gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high energy emission. A number of observed properties of \\gamma-ray pulsars, i.e., the broken power law spectra without exponential cut-of...

  3. Energy Spectrum of the Recurrent Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays During the Solar Minimum of Cycles 23/24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Alania, Michael V.

    2016-07-01

    The Sun during the recent epoch of solar activity operated in a different way than during the last 60 years, being less active. We study temporal changes of the energy spectrum of the first three harmonics of the 27-day variation of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity during the unusual, recent solar minimum, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24 (SC 23/24) and compare with four previous minima. We show that the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity is hard in the maximum epochs and is soft in the minimum epochs during Solar Cycles 20 - 24, but with peculiarities during the Solar Minimum 23/24. In particular, while the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the first harmonic of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity behaves practically the same as for previous epochs, the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the second and the third harmonics demonstrates a pronounced softening. We attribute this phenomenon to the decrease of the extension of the heliosphere caused by the decrease of the solar-wind dynamic pressure during the unusual Solar Minimum 23/24.

  4. Experimental Investigation of the Nature of the Knee in the Primary Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum with the GAMMA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlyuchenko, V P; Nikolskaya, N M; Erlykin, A D; Babayan, H A; Garyaka, A P; Vardanyan, H S; Jones, L W; Kempa, J; Pattison, B; Procureur, J

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results obtained by a novel difference method for the study of the nature of the knee in the energy spectrum of the primary cosmic radiation. We have applied this method to data from the GAMMA experiment in Armenia. The analysis provides evidence for the possible existence of a nearby source of primary cosmic rays in the Southern hemisphere.

  5. Energy Spectrum of the Recurrent Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays During the Solar Minimum of Cycles 23/24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Alania, Michael V.

    2016-08-01

    The Sun during the recent epoch of solar activity operated in a different way than during the last 60 years, being less active. We study temporal changes of the energy spectrum of the first three harmonics of the 27-day variation of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity during the unusual, recent solar minimum, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24 (SC 23/24) and compare with four previous minima. We show that the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity is hard in the maximum epochs and is soft in the minimum epochs during Solar Cycles 20 - 24, but with peculiarities during the Solar Minimum 23/24. In particular, while the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the first harmonic of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity behaves practically the same as for previous epochs, the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the second and the third harmonics demonstrates a pronounced softening. We attribute this phenomenon to the decrease of the extension of the heliosphere caused by the decrease of the solar-wind dynamic pressure during the unusual Solar Minimum 23/24.

  6. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the region 2.1016-4.1017 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four triggering detectors of the Haverah Park array impose a well defined threshold energy of 2.1017 eV (rho(600) = 0.3 m-2). To investigate the spectrum at lower energies an inner group of detectors, spaced at 150 m, has been used to generate a separate trigger and data recorded over a period of almost two years have now been analysed. The most directly determined ground parameter for such showers is the density at 150 m from the axis (rho(150)) and conversion to a primary energy spectrum has assumed a constant ratio of rho(150)/rho(600). Comparison is made with the Chacaltaya experiment at similar energies. (orig.)

  7. Energy spectrum of cosmic protons and helium nuclei by a hybrid measurement at 4300 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectrum of cosmic Hydrogen and Helium nuclei has been measured below the so-called 'knee' by using a hybrid experiment with a wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope and the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) array of the ARGO-YBJ experiment at 4300 m above sea level. The Hydrogen and Helium nuclei have been well separated from other cosmic ray components by using a multi-parameter technique. A highly uniform energy resolution of about 25% is achieved throughout the whole energy range (100-700 TeV). The observed energy spectrum is compatible with a single power law with index γ=-2.63±0.06. (authors)

  8. Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Protons and Helium Nuclei by a Hybrid Measurement at 4300 m a.s.l

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoli, B; Bi, X J; Bolognino, I; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Melcarne, A K Calabrese; Camarri, P; Cao, Z; Cardarelli, R; Catalanotti, S; Chen, S Z; Chen, T L; Creti, P; Cui, S W; Dai, B Z; D'Amone, A; Danzengluobu,; De Mitri, I; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T; Di Sciascio, G; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; He, H H; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M; Iuppa, R; Jia, H Y; Labaciren,; Li, H J; Liguori, G; Liu, C; Liu, J; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Mancarella, G; Mari, S M; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Mastroianni, S; Montini, P; Ning, C C; Panareo, M; Panico, B; Perrone, L; Pistilli8, P; Ruggieri, F; Salvini, P; Santonico, R; Sbano, S N; Shen, P R; Sheng, X D; Shi, F; Surdo, A; Tan, Y H; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Wang, H; Wu, C Y; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yang, Q Y; Yang, X C; Yao, Z G; Yuan, A F; Zha, M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zhaxiciren,; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X; Zhu, F R; Zhu, Q Q; Bai, B X; Chen, M J; Chen, Y; Feng, S H; Gao, B; Gu, M H; Hou, C; Li, X X; Liu, J L; Wang, X; Xiao, G; Zhang, B K; Zhang, S S; Zhou, B

    2014-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic Hydrogen and Helium nuclei has been measured, below the so-called "knee", by using a hybrid experiment with a wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope and the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) array of the ARGO-YBJ experiment at 4300 m above sea level. The Hydrogen and Helium nuclei have been well separated from other cosmic ray components by using a multi-parameter technique. A highly uniform energy resolution of about 25% is achieved throughout the whole energy range (100 TeV - 700 TeV). The observed energy spectrum is compatible with a single power law with index gamma=-2.63+/-0.06.

  9. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi LAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, M; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Fermi LAT collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Artículo escrito por muchos autores, sólo se relacionan el que aparece en primer lugar, los de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid y el grupo de colaboración The contribution of unresolved sources to the diffuse gamma-ray background could induce anisotropies in this emission on small angular scales. We analyze the angular power spectrum of the diffuse emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope at Galactic latitudes │b│ > 30˚ in four energy bins spanning 1–50 GeV. At multipoles ℓ ≥ 1...

  10. The Energy Spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and the Direct Comparison to the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; B.G. Cheon; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array's Middle Drum fluorescence detector was instrumented with telescopes refurbished from the High Resolution Fly's Eye's HiRes-1 site. The data observed by Middle Drum in monocular mode was analyzed via the HiRes-1 profile-constrained geometry reconstruction technique and utilized the same calibration techniques enabling a direct comparison of the energy spectra and energy scales between the two experiments. The spectrum measured using the Middle Drum telescopes is based on a...

  11. Measurements of cosmic ray anisotropies from Pioneers 10 and 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray anisotropy measurements are performed by the University of California, San Diego experiments on Pioneers 10 and 11. A directional Cerenkov counter sensitive to protons and α particles with kinetic energies >= 480 MeV/nucleon is used to determine east-west and north-south anisotropies. (orig./WBU)

  12. The energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays estimated by using the arrival time spread of air shower particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary energy of cosmic rays in the energy region above 1016 eV has been studied with the use of a compact extensive air shower (EAS) array which consists of 8 scintillation counters in 200m2 area. We report on the simulation results for estimating the primary energy and its spectrum by using Linsley's method, and on the improvement of the determination accuracy of the primary energy by applying the zenith angle restricted observation of EAS muons with the new array as well as a brief description of the apparatus.

  13. A simple setup to measure muon lifetime and electron energy spectrum of muon decay and its Monte Carlo simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yushi; Mei, Yefeng; Zhang, Zhao; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-01-01

    We designed a simple setup to measure the muon lifetime and the electron energy spectra of muon decay. A low cost coincidental circuit was designed to select the signals of muon decay events detected by a plastic scintillator detector. It triggered a digital oscilloscope to record the signals of muon decay events for measuring the muon lifetime and electron energy spectrum. A Landau-distribution energy loss method was introduced to conduct the energy calibration of the system. The experimental results were well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation. The software and hardware of the system are completely open to students, thus more helpful for instruction and motivation.

  14. Research on seasonal correlation of wavelet packet energy spectrum and temperature of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish an environmental-condition-normalized structural damage alarming method,the seasonal correlation analysis of wavelet packet energy spectrum(WPES)and temperature of Runyang Suspension Bridge is performed by means of the 236-day health monitoring data.The analysis results reveal that the measured WPES has remarkable seasonal correlation with the environmental tempera-ture.The seasonal change of environmental temperature accounts for the variation of the damage alarming parameter Ip of the dominant frequency bands with an averaged variance of 200%.The statis-tical modeling technique using a 6th-order polynomial is adopted to formulate the correlation between the WPES and temperature,on the basis of which the abnormal changes of measured damage alarming parameter Ip are detected using the mean value control chart.It is found that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from the time series of WPES and exhibit good capa-bility for detecting the damage-induced 10% variances of the damage alarming parameter Ip.And the proposed WPES-based method is superior the modal frequency and hence is more suitable for online real-time damage alarming for long-span bridges.

  15. Combined diversity and improved energy detection in cooperative spectrum sensing with faded reporting channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nallagonda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS where each cognitive radio (CR employs an improved energy detector (IED with multiple antennas and uses selection combining (SC for detecting the primary user (PU in noisy and faded sensing (S channels. We derive an expression for the probability of false alarm and expressions for probability of missed detection in non-faded (AWGN and Rayleigh faded sensing environments in terms of cumulative distribution function (CDF. Each CR transmits its decision about PU via noisy and faded reporting (R channel to fusion center (FC. In this paper we assume that S-channels are noisy and Rayleigh faded while several cases of fading are considered for R-channels such as: (i Hoyt (or Nakagami-q, (ii Rayleigh, (iii Rician (or Nakagami-n, and (iv Weibull. A Binary Symmetric channel (BSC with a fixed error probability (r in the R-channel is also considered. The impact of fading in R-channel, S-channel and several network parameters such as IED parameter, normalized detection threshold, number of CRs, and number of antennas on missed detection and total error probability is assessed. The effects of Hoyt, Rician, and Weibull fading parameters on overall performance of IED-CSS are also highlighted.

  16. Infrared properties of the energy spectrum in freely decaying isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, W. D.

    2016-01-01

    The low wave number expansion of the energy spectrum takes the well known form E (k ,t ) =E2(t ) k2+E4(t ) k4+⋯ , where the coefficients are weighted integrals against the correlation function C (r ,t ) . We show that expressing E (k ,t ) in terms of the longitudinal correlation function f (r ,t ) immediately yields E2(t ) =0 by cancellation. We verify that the same result is obtained using the correlation function C (r ,t ) , provided only that f (r ,t ) falls off faster than r-3 at large values of r . As power-law forms are widely studied for the purpose of establishing bounds, we consider the family of model correlations f (r ,t ) =αn(t ) r-n , for positive integer n , at large values of the separation r . We find that for the special case n =3 , the relationship connecting f (r ,t ) and C (r ,t ) becomes indeterminate, and (exceptionally) E2≠0 , but that this solution is unphysical in that the viscous term in the Kármán-Howarth equation vanishes. Lastly, we show that E4(t ) is independent of time, without needing to assume the exponential decrease of correlation functions at large distances.

  17. The infrared properties of the energy spectrum in freely decaying isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    McComb, W D

    2014-01-01

    The low wavenumber expansion of the energy spectrum takes the well known form: $ E(k,t) = E_2(t) k^2 + E_4(t) k^4 + ... $, where the coefficients are weighted integrals against the correlation function $C(r,t)$. We show that expressing $E(k,t)$ in terms of the longitudinal correlation function $f(r,t)$ immediately yields $E_2(t)=0$ by cancellation. We verify that the same result is obtained using the correlation function $C(r,t)$, provided only that $f(r,t)$ falls off faster than $r^{-3}$ at large values of $r$. As power-law forms are widely studied for the purpose of establishing bounds, we consider the family of model correlations $f(r,t)=\\alpha_n(t)r^{-n}$, for positive integer $n$, at large values of the separation $r$. We find that for the special case $n=3$, the relationship connecting $f(r,t)$ and $C(r,t)$ becomes indeterminate, and (exceptionally) $E_2 \

  18. Limitations for Measuring the Low-Energy Range of the Electron Spectrum by Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J'' ≡ ∂2J/∂V2 (J = probe current, V = probe voltage) has four components: J''er, J''ea, J''ir, and J''ia (e = electron, i = ion, r = repulsion, a = attraction). For ''ideal'' probes in ''ideal'', collisionless, ambi-Maxwellian plasmas, J''er = Aere-V/Ue (V ≥ 0 e-repelling, Ue = kTe/e); J''er = 0 for V er is J''ia which is ''ill behaved'' and hence is an unavoidable limitation for measuring J''er which yields the e-spectrum. (However, J''ea → 0 and J''ia → 0 for λD/rp → ∞; λD = Debye length, rp = radius of spherical probe.) In practice, for i-energy « e-energy ''secondary effects'' (SE) in ''ordinary'' probes make J''ia undetectable. The small planar guard-sleeve (G) probe (PGP) with VG = VS (VS = space potential) is least affected by the usual SE's and hence seems to yield traces of J''ia, even in Hg plasmas with their small Ji's; VG = VS makes J'' extremal and thus indicates the space potential point in J(V). The real JPGP can be expressed as the sum of ideal contributions, shifted from a most probable position along the V-axis and weighted by a Gaussian with a certain half-width (fluctuations in Vg and/or inhomogeneous work function?). The J''s and J's for a PGP, for a spherical and a hemispherical GP, and for a cylindrical probe in Hg plasmas are compared. (author)

  19. Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zanin, R.; Horns, D.; Martín, J.; Meyer, M.

    2015-03-01

    The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. At low energies, MAGIC results, combined with Fermi-LAT data, show a flat and broad Inverse Compton peak. The overall fit to the data between 1 GeV and 30 TeV is not well described by a log-parabola function. We find that a modified log-parabola function with an exponent of 2.5 instead of 2 provides a good description of the data (χred2 = 35 / 26). Using systematic uncertainties of the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT measurements we determine the position of the Inverse Compton peak to be at (53 ±3stat +31syst -13syst) GeV, which is the most precise estimation up to date and is dominated by the systematic effects. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV when systematic uncertainties are included in the flux measurement. We consider three state-of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, having particular difficulty reproducing the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 μG magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.

  20. Propagation of extragalactic ultra-high energy cosmic-ray nuclei : implications for the observed spectrum and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Allard, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei and protons. We emphasize the influence of the source composition on the expected spectrum and composition on Earth as well as on the phenomenology of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic-rays and the interpretation of the ankle. We point out that the different source composition models cannot be distinguished on the sole basis of the cosmic-ray spectrum but that the the energy evolution of $$ should remove this dege...

  1. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,i of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,i-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,i-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,i ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,i are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,i. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  2. Towards the energy spectrum and composition of primary cosmic rays in the knee region: methods and results at KASCADE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is a multi-detector setup to observe the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic air shower components simultaneously at primary energies in the region of the 'knee'. A large number of observables per single shower are registered. The main aims of the experiment are the determination of the primary energy spectrum around the 'knee' and the energy variation of the chemical composition. The measurements reveal an increasing mean mass of the primary cosmic rays above the observed kink, and a sharper knee for the light primary component than for the all-particle spectrum, and the absence of a knee for the heavy component between 1 and 10 PeV

  3. Magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Lindgård, Per-Anker;

    1970-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the energy of long- wavelength magnons in Tb-10%Ho has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The results agree with the `frozen-lattice' model, provided that the second-order magnetoelastic effect is taken into account. The planar anisotropy is almost enti...

  4. CMB Anisotropy due to Cosmic Strings in an Accelerated Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rokni, S Y; Bordbar, M R

    2013-01-01

    We want to find the cosmological constant influence on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy due to cosmic strings. Considering the space-time metric of a cosmic string under the effect of a positive cosmological constant, the CMB anisotropy is studied. The result shows that a positive cosmological constant (i.e. the presence of cosmic strings in an accelerated expanding universe) weakens the anisotropy so that more strong resolution is needed to detect the corresponding influences on the CMB power spectrum.

  5. Statistical and evaporation models for the neutron emission energy spectrum in the center-of-mass system from fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron emission energy spectra in the CMS (center-of-mass) frame from two compound nuclei produced by fission are studied. The neutron spectra calculated with the Hauser–Feshbach statistical model are compared with the evaporation theory, and the definition of the temperature is revisited. Using the Monte Carlo technique we average the CMS neutron spectra from many fission fragments to construct the representative CMS spectrum from both the light and heavy fragments. The CMS spectra for each fission fragment pair are also converted into the laboratory frame to calculate the total prompt fission neutron spectrum that can be observed experimentally. This is compared to measured laboratory data for thermal neutron induced fission on 235U. We show that the Hauser–Feshbach calculation gives a different spectrum shape than the Madland–Nix model calculation

  6. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at a pneumatic rabbit station of a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkawi, S.R.; Ahmad, N. E-mail: nasir@pieas.edu.pk

    2002-01-01

    The method of multiple foil activation was used to measure the neutron energy spectrum, experimentally, at a rabbit station of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor. The computer codes MSITER and SANDBP were used to adjust the spectrum. The pre-information required by the adjustment codes was obtained by modelling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions by using the one dimensional transport theory code WIMS-D/4 and the multidimensional finite difference diffusion theory code CITATION. The input spectrum covariance information required by MSITER code was also calculated from the CITATION output. A comparison between calculated and adjusted spectra shows a good agreement.

  7. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at a pneumatic rabbit station of a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of multiple foil activation was used to measure the neutron energy spectrum, experimentally, at a rabbit station of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor. The computer codes MSITER and SANDBP were used to adjust the spectrum. The pre-information required by the adjustment codes was obtained by modelling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions by using the one dimensional transport theory code WIMS-D/4 and the multidimensional finite difference diffusion theory code CITATION. The input spectrum covariance information required by MSITER code was also calculated from the CITATION output. A comparison between calculated and adjusted spectra shows a good agreement

  8. An extended formula for the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a material irradiated by light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a formula proposed by Kenmotsu et al. (hereafter Paper I), which fits with the energy spectrum of atoms sputtered from a heavy material hit by low-energy light ions (H+, D+, T+, He+) by taking into account an inelastic energy loss neglected in Paper I. We assume that primary knock-on atoms produced by ions backscattered at large angles do not lose energy while penetrating the material up to the surface, instead of the energy-loss model used in Paper I. The extended formula is expressed in terms of a normalized energy-distribution function and is compared with the data calculated with the ACAT code for 50 eV, 100 eV and 1 keV D+ ions impinging on a Fe target. Our formula fits well with the data in a wide range of incident energy. (author)

  9. Induction and anisotropy of fluorescence of reaction center from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Gábor; Maróti, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Submillisecond dark-light changes of the yield (induction) and anisotropy of fluorescence under laser diode excitation were measured in the photosynthetic reaction center of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Narrow band (1-2 nm) laser diodes emitting at 808 and 865 nm were used to selectively excite the accessory bacteriochlorophyll (B, 800 nm) or the upper excitonic state of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer (P-, 810 nm) and the lower excitonic state of the dimer (P+, 865 nm), respectively. The fluorescence spectrum of the wild type showed two bands centered at 850 nm (B) and 910 nm (P-). While the monotonous decay of the fluorescence yield at 910 nm tracked the light-induced oxidation of the dimer, the kinetics of the fluorescence yield at 850 nm showed an initial rise before a decrease. The anisotropy of the fluorescence excited at 865 nm (P-) was very close to the limiting value (0.4) across the whole spectral range. The excitation of both B and P- at 808 nm resulted in wavelength-dependent depolarization of the fluorescence from 0.35 to 0.24 in the wild type and from 0.30 to 0.24 in the reaction center of triple mutant (L131LH-M160LH-M197FH). The additivity law of the anisotropies of the fluorescence species accounts for the wavelength dependence of the anisotropy. The measured fluorescence yields and anisotropies are interpreted in terms of very fast energy transfer from (1)B* to (1)P- (either directly or indirectly by internal conversion from (1)P+) and to the oxidized dimer. PMID:25698106

  10. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramasesha; Shaon Sahoo; Rajamani Raghunathan; Diptiman Sen

    2009-09-01

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial and spin symmetry adaptation and we illustrate this technique by solving the exchange Hamiltonian of the Cu6Fe8 system. Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute the and values for various eigenstates of the exchange Hamiltonian. Since, the dipolar contribution to the magnetic anisotropy is negligibly small, we calculate the molecular anisotropy from the single-ion anisotropies of the metal centers. We have studied the variation of and by rotating the single-ion anisotropies in the case of Mn12Ac and Fe8 SMMs in ground and few low-lying excited states of the exchange Hamiltonian. In both the systems, we find that the molecular anisotropy changes drastically when the single-ion anisotropies are rotated. While in Mn12Ac SMM values depend strongly on the spin of the eigenstate, it is almost independent of the spin of the eigenstate in Fe8 SMM. We also find that the value is almost insensitive to the orientation of the anisotropy of the core Mn(IV) ions. The dependence of on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Smoot, G F

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports a summary of the contents contents of six hours of lectures on the CMB anisotropy experiments given at the Strasbourg NATO school on the CMB and cosmology. (Its companion paper, astro-ph/9705101 reports the lectures on the CMB spectrum.) A context is set as a bridge from the theoretical CMB anisotropy lectures and the experimental situation. The COBE DMR results are reveiwed in detail and as pioneer for future space missions. Current and planned experiments are discussed in preference to reviewing already completed observations. The NASA MidEX mission MAP is discussed in some detail including figures. The ESA M3 mission Max Planck Surveyor is also reviewed in some detail though its final configuration is not yet fully settled. The recent history and current versions are presented. Tables and references for experiments are included.

  12. Physics of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), especially of its frequency spectrum and its anisotropies, both in temperature and in polarization, have played a key role in the development of modern cosmology and our understanding of the very early universe. We review the underlying physics of the CMB and how the primordial temperature and polarization anisotropies were imprinted. Possibilities for distinguishing competing cosmological models are emphasized. The current status of CMB experiments and experimental techniques with an emphasis toward future observations, particularly in polarization, is reviewed. The physics of foreground emissions, especially of polarized dust, is discussed in detail, since this area is likely to become crucial for measurements of the B modes of the CMB polarization at ever greater sensitivity.

  13. Energy Dependence of Near-relativistic Electron Spectrum at Geostationary Orbit during the SEP Events of 2005

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Chandrasekhar Reddy; Jatin Rathod; Girija Rajaram; Radharani Alyana; D. S. Misra; C. G. Patil; M. Y. S. Prasad; A. G. Ananth

    2008-03-01

    In view of the renewed interest in the study of energetic particles in the outer radiation belt of the earth, we feel it will be helpful in looking for the energy dependence of the electron energy spectrum at geostationary orbit. This may give us some insight into how we can safeguard geostationary satellites from functional anomalies of the deep dielectric charging type, which are caused by charge accumulation and subsequent discharge of relativistic electrons. In this study we examine whether there is any energy dependence in relativistic electron enhancements at geosynchronous altitudes during solar energetic proton events of 2005.

  14. Two-dimensional angular energy spectrum of electrons accelerated by the ultra-short relativistic laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovskiy, A. V. [Department of Computer Science and Cybernetics, Baikal State University of Economics and Law, 11 Lenin Street, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Galkin, A. L. [Coherent and Nonlinear Optics Department, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics of MBF, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovitianov Street, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, M. P., E-mail: galkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short-Time Spectroscopy, 2a Max-Born-Strasse, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The new method of calculating energy spectra of accelerated electrons, based on the parameterization by their initial coordinates, is proposed. The energy spectra of electrons accelerated by Gaussian ultra-short relativistic laser pulse at a selected angle to the axis of the optical system focusing the laser pulse in a low density gas are theoretically calculated. The two-peak structure of the electron energy spectrum is obtained. Discussed are the reasons for its appearance as well as an applicability of other models of the laser field.

  15. Measurements of the T(t,2n)4He neutron spectrum at low reactant energies from inertial confinement implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Manuel, M J-E; Sinenian, N; Zylstra, A B; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Radha, P B; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; McNabb, D P; Amendt, P A; Boyd, R N; Hatchett, S P; Quaglioni, S; Rygg, J R; Thompson, I J; Bacher, A D; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H

    2012-07-13

    Measurements of the neutron spectrum from the T(t,2n)4He (tt) reaction have been conducted using inertial confinement fusion implosions at the OMEGA laser facility. In these experiments, deuterium-tritium (DT) gas-filled capsules were imploded to study the tt reaction in thermonuclear plasmas at low reactant center-of-mass (c.m.) energies. In contrast to accelerator experiments at higher c.m. energies (above 100 keV), these results indicate a negligible n + 5He reaction channel at a c.m. energy of 23 keV. PMID:23030170

  16. Anisotropy of successive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, N.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Ohashi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Nakatsuka, T.; Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) Group

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the anisotropy of successive air shower (SAS) events, which we define as the detection of many air showers within a short time window, using data from six stations of the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. On the criterion of 22 air showers within 20 minutes, five SAS events are found against 1.4 expected from the Poisson distribution in Okayama University station's data. From six stations' data, we find 24 SAS events in total. By plotting them in equatorial coordinates, it is revealed that SAS events are observed more frequently when the Galactic plane is around the zenith. This can be attributed to a hypothetical small flux of ultra-high-energy γ-rays from the direction of the Galactic plane superposed on conventional cosmic rays. If this hypothesis is true, the analytical procedure used here has potential to measure ultra-high-energy γ-ray sources by even small air shower arrays like ours.

  17. Anisotropy of successive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the anisotropy of successive air shower (SAS) events, which we define as the detection of many air showers within a short time window, using data from six stations of the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. On the criterion of 22 air showers within 20 minutes, five SAS events are found against 1.4 expected from the Poisson distribution in Okayama University station's data. From six stations' data, we find 24 SAS events in total. By plotting them in equatorial coordinates, it is revealed that SAS events are observed more frequently when the Galactic plane is around the zenith. This can be attributed to a hypothetical small flux of ultra-high-energy γ-rays from the direction of the Galactic plane superposed on conventional cosmic rays. If this hypothesis is true, the analytical procedure used here has potential to measure ultra-high-energy γ-ray sources by even small air shower arrays like ours

  18. Contribution of extragalactic infrared sources to CMB foreground anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Gawiser, E; Gawiser, Eric; Smoot, George F

    1996-01-01

    We estimate the level of confusion of CMB anisotropy measurements caused by extragalactic infrared sources. CMB anisotropy observations at high resolution and high frequencies are especially sensitive to this foreground. We have combined IRAS data on bright infrared galaxies with information about the Galaxy from the DIRBE and FIRAS instruments of COBE. Using the spectrum of the Milky Way as a template, we predict the microwave emission of the 5319 brightest infrared galaxes. We simulate skymaps over the relevant range of frequencies (30-900 GHz) and instrument resolutions (10'-10 degrees Full Width Half Max). Analysis of the temperature anisotropy of these skymaps shows a level of extragalactic infrared foreground that is nearly consistent with previous estimates based on galaxy-evolution models. A reasonable observationalwindow is still available for medium- and small-angular scale CMB anisotropy measurements.

  19. Review of cosmic background radiation spectrum measurements: limits on distortions, energy release, and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the three major cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measurement programs conducted and published since the last (XVII) IAU General Assembly. The results are consistent with a Planckian spectrum with temperature 2.72 +- 0.03 K spanning a wavelength range of 0.1 to 12 cm. Limits on possible distortions and implications are outlined. Ongoing and future measurements are discussed

  20. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  1. Searches for large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above energy of 1019 eV at the Pierre Auger observatory and the telescope array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  2. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, The Pierre; Aab, A; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Al, I; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Alvarez, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Alves, R; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de, R M; De, M; de, S J; de, J R T; De, I; de, J; de, V; del, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di, C; Di, A; Diaz, J C; Díaz, M L; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Dorosti, Q; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Facal, P; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Fuji, T; Gaior, R; García, B; Garcia, S T; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Gascon, A; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Gómez, M; Gómez, P F; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; González, N; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Islo, K; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Le, S; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Leigui, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Lopez, A; Louedec, K; Lozano, J; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Maccarone, M C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Martínez, O; Martraire, D; Masías, J J; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier, D; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Pacheco, N; Pakk, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; Rodrigues, W; Rodriguez, I; Rodriguez, G; Rodriguez, J; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Salesa, F; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiał, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Todero, C J; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torralba, G; Torres, D; Travnicek, P; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van, G; van, A M; van, S; van, A; Varela, E; Vargas, B; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Zimbres, M; Ziolkowski, M; Abbasi, R U; Abe, M; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, T; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Ogura, J; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Suzawa, T; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Takeishi, R; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wong, T; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2014-01-01

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above $10^{19}$ eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above $10^{19}$ eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  3. Making waves on CMB power spectrum and inflaton dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takahashi, Tomo

    2004-01-01

    We discuss cosmic microwave background anisotropies in models with an unconventional primordial power spectrum. In particular, we consider an initial power spectrum with some ``spiky'' corrections. Interestingly, such a primordial power spectrum generates ``wavy'' structure in the CMB angular power spectrum.

  4. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach. PMID:26287191

  5. Recent results from Yakutsk experiment: development of EAS, energy spectrum and primary particle mass composition in the energy region of 10^15-10^19 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Knurenko, S P; Pravdin, M I; Sabourov, A V; Sleptsov, I Ye

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data obtained at the Yakutsk array after the modernization in 1993 are analyzed. The characteristics of EAS longitudinal and radial development found from the charged particle flux and EAS Cherenkov light registered at the Yakutsk complex array are presented. The energy spectrum of EAS obtained from Cherenkov light and an estimate of the PCR mass composition are presented.

  6. Interplay between anisotropy and spatial dispersion in metamaterial waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Koshelev, Kirill L

    2016-01-01

    We analyze spectrum of waveguide modes of an arbitrary uniaxial anisotropic metamaterial slab with non-local electromagnetic response whose permittivity tensor could be described within Drude approximation. Spatial dispersion was introduced within the hydrodynamical model. Both anisotropy and spatial dispersion were considered as perturbations. This helps to distinguish their effect on the spectrum of the slab and to analyze lifting of the degeneracy of eigenmodes at plasma frequency in detail. Spatial dispersion is shown to result in break of the singularity in the den- sity of optical states in the hyperbolic regime and in suppression of negative dispersion induced by anisotropy. Mutual effect of spatial dispersion and anisotropy can bring light to a complete stop at certain frequencies.

  7. Universal breaking point asymptotic for energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter we study the form of the energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media. For quadratic and cubic nonlinearity we demonstrate that the deformation of an Riemann wave over time yields an exponential energy spectrum which turns into power law asymptotic with the slope being approximately -8/3 at the last stage of evolution before breaking. We argue, that this is the universal asymptotic behaviour of Riemann waves in any nonlinear non-dispersive medium at the point of breaking. The results reported in this Letter can be used in various non-dispersive media, e.g. magneto-hydro dynamics, physical oceanography, nonlinear acoustics.

  8. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator

  9. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  10. Anisotropy in OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, M. K.; Yokoyama, D.; Neyts, K.

    2015-09-01

    Small-molecule OLEDs, deposited by thermal evaporation, allow for precise control over layer thicknesses. This enables optimisation of the optical behaviour of the stack which ultimately determines the outcoupling efficiency. In terms of optical outcoupling there are limits to the efficiency by which the generated electromagnetic radiation can be extracted from the stack. These limitations are linked to the refractive indices of the individual layers. Values for maximum outcoupling efficiency are sometimes calculated under the implicit assumptions that the OLED stack is planar, that all layers are isotropic with a certain refractive index and that the emitters are not preferentially oriented. In reality it is known that these assumptions are not always valid, be it intentional or unintentional. In our work we transcend these limiting assumptions and look at different forms of anisotropy in OLEDs. Anisotropy in OLEDs comes in three distinct flavours; 1. Geometrical anisotropy, as for example in gratings, lenses or other internal or external scattering centres, 2. Anisotropic emitters, where the orientation significantly influences the direction in which radiation is emitted and 3. Anisotropic optical materials, where their anisotropic nature breaks the customary assumption of isotropic OLED materials. We investigate the effect of these anisotropic features on the outcoupling efficiency and ultimately, on the external quantum efficiency (EQE).

  11. Influence of a Transverse Electric Field on the Alternating Currents Rectification Effect in Superstructures with Non-additive Energy Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Konchenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated the effect of mutual rectification of alternating currents, induced by an electric field of two uniformly polarized electromagnetic waves with different frequencies in two-dimensional superlattice with non-additive energy spectrum under the influence of a constant transverse electric field. The possibility of control of constant component of electric current (amplification, change of sign, suppression by the transverse electric field is shown. The abilities of the practical use of the results are discussed.

  12. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of unresolved sources to the diffuse gamma-ray background could induce anisotropies in this emission on small angular scales. We analyze the angular power spectrum of the diffuse emission measured by the Fermi LAT at Galactic latitudes |b| > 30 deg in four energy bins spanning 1 to 50 GeV. At multipoles \\ell \\ge 155, corresponding to angular scales \\lesssim 2 deg, angular power above the photon noise level is detected at >99.99% CL in the 1-2 GeV, 2-5 GeV, and 5-10 GeV energy bins, and at >99% CL at 10-50 GeV. Within each energy bin the measured angular power takes approximately the same value at all multipoles \\ell \\ge 155, suggesting that it originates from the contribution of one or more unclustered source populations. The amplitude of the angular power normalized to the mean intensity in each energy bin is consistent with a constant value at all energies, C_P/^2 = 9.05 +/- 0.84 x 10^{-6} sr, while the energy dependence of C_P is consistent with the anisotropy arising from one or more sour...

  13. ORIGIN OF COBALT ANISOTROPY IN RARE EARTH-COBALT INTERMETALLICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ballou, Rafik; Lemaire, R.

    1988-01-01

    The strong cobalt anisotropies in rare earth-cobalt intermetallics are shown to arise from orbitally selective 3d band energy dispersion due to either chain like or layered like cobalt staking rather than from usual crystal field effect.

  14. Skyrmion Dynamics in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Topological solitons in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) nanostructures have a rich excitation spectrum that is directly linked to their topological properties, as described by their Skyrmion number. They have been predicted to exhibit intriguing dynamics well as ultra-fast switching. We provide here direct imaging of dynamics of PMA topological solitons in CoB/Pt nanostructures with picosecond time resolution, using Scanning Transmission soft X-ray Microscopy. Specifically, we observe breathing-like and translational dynamical behaviour. We thereby establish a link between the dynamics of PMA solitons and their underlying topology, while also providing a much wider scope for dynamical experiments in magnetic elements. (author)

  15. Structural anisotropy in amorphous Fe-Tb thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used conventional and anomalous dispersion x-ray scattering to study the near-neighbor atomic environments in sputter-deposited amorphous Fe-Tb thin films with a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The as-deposited films show a clear structural anisotropy, with more Fe-Tb near neighbor pairs in the out-of-plane direction. Upon annealing, the magnetic anisotropy drops significantly, and we see a corresponding reduction in the structural anisotropy. The number of Fe-Tb near-neighbors increases in the in-plane direction, but does not change in the out-of-plane direction. Therefore, the distribution of Fe-Tb near neighbors becomes more uniform upon annealing. We conclude that the observed reduction in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy is a result of this change in structure. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Polarization and dilepton anisotropy in pion-nucleon collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Speranza, Enrico; Friman, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic polarization and the related anisotropy of the dilepton angular distribution are studied for the reaction $\\pi N \\rightarrow Ne^+ e^-$. We employ consistent effective interactions for baryon resonances up to spin-5/2, where non-physical degrees of freedom are eliminated, to compute the anisotropy coefficients for isolated intermediate baryon resonances. It is shown that the spin and parity of the intermediate baryon resonance is reflected in the angular dependence of the anisotropy coefficient. We then compute the anisotropy coefficient including the $N(1520)$ and $N(1440)$ resonances, which are essential at the collision energy of the recent data obtained by the HADES collaboration on this reaction. We conclude that the anisotropy coefficient provides useful constraints for unravelling the resonance contributions to this process.

  17. Energy spectra of secondary particles in gamma-families and their sensitivity to the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, V.G.; Guseva, Z.M.; Kanevskaya, E.A.; Maximenko, V.M.; Morozov, A.E.; Puchkov, V.S. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii pr., 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshin, R.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    Spectra of secondary particles in gamma-families, detected at the Pamirs level in X-ray emulsion chambers, are analyzed. This analysis showed that secondary particle spectra change their slope at the particle energy equal to the summary particle energy at which we select gamma-families. Above this bend the secondary particle slope is sensitive to the PCR spectrum slope and composition. The slopes of secondary particle spectra in the Experiment PAMIR are close to the slopes in the variants of the MC0 model, in which the fraction of primary protons is not less than 25% after the knee.

  18. Absolute determination of inelastic mean-free paths and surface excitation parameters by absolute reflection electron energy loss spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.

    2005-11-01

    An analytical approach was proposed for simultaneously determining an inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and a surface excitation parameter (SEP) with absolute units by the analysis of an absolute experimental reflection electron energy loss spectrum. The IMFPs and SEPs in Ni were deduced for electrons of 300 to 3000 eV. The obtained IMFPs were in good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M equation. The Chen-type empirical formula was proposed for determining the SEP. The results confirmed the applicability of the present approach for determining the IMFP and SEP for medium-energy electrons.

  19. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants, rotational hysteresis energy and magnetic domain structure in UFe6Al6, UFe9AlSi2 and ScFe10Si2 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic torque, T, was applied to determine the anisotropy constants K1 and K2 of the UFe6Al6, UFe9AlSi2 and ScFe10Si2 compounds. The mechanism of magnetization reversal processes in these compounds was investigated on the basis of the analysis of the rotational hysteresis energy, Wr and rotational hysteresis integral, R, calculated from the magnetic torque curves. Applying the powder pattern method, magnetic domain structures were observed. Moreover, the fundamental parameters of the domain structure were determined. (orig.)

  20. Proton therapy monitoring by Compton imaging: influence of the large energy spectrum of the prompt-γ radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, Estelle; Sarrut, David; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichiţa

    2016-04-01

    In proton therapy, the prompt-γ (PG) radiation produced by the interactions between protons and matter is related to the range of the beam in the patient. Tomographic Compton imaging is currently studied to establish a PG image and verify the treatment. However the quality of the reconstructed images depends on a number of factors such as the volume attenuation, the spatial and energy resolutions of the detectors, incomplete absorptions of high energy photons and noise from other particles reaching the camera. The impact of all these factors was not assessed in details. In this paper we investigate the influence of the PG energy spectrum on the reconstructed images. To this aim, we describe the process from the Monte Carlo simulation of the proton irradiation, through the Compton imaging of the PG distribution, up to the image reconstruction with a statistical MLEM method. We identify specific PG energy windows that are more relevant to detect discrepancies with the treatment plan. We find that for the simulated Compton device, the incomplete absorption of the photons with energy above about 2 MeV prevents the observation of the PG distributions at specific energies. It also leads to blurred images and smooths the distal slope of the 1D PG profiles obtained as projections on the central beam axis. We show that a selection of the events produced by γ photons having deposited almost all their energy in the camera allows to largely improve the images, a result that emphasizes the importance of the choice of the detector. However, this initial-energy-based selection is not accessible in practice. We then propose a method to estimate the range of the PG profile both for specific deposited-energy windows and for the full spectrum emission. The method relies on two parameters. We use a learning approach for their estimation and we show that it allows to detect few millimeter shifts of the PG profiles.

  1. Analytical yield spectrum approach to electron energy degradation in earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical spatial yield spectrum approach has been applied to calculate the electron flux, volume excitation, and ionization rates for monoenergetic electrons incident on the earth's atmosphere. The results have been compared with the previous model calculations of Mantas and Walker (1976) and Banks et al. (1974)

  2. Implementation of spectrum analysis in mesoscale modeling for wind energy assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stathopoulos, C.; Barranger, N.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo;

    2012-01-01

    Spectral analysis of wind speed is a key parameter for the characterization of the physical processes generating the fields. Especially, the mesoscale power spectrum is an important measure of accuracy of wind forecasting and extreme wind estimation for modern wind farms, which are of the size of...

  3. Low-temperature magnetization anisotropy in ferromagnetic materials with quenched orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel`d, E.V.; Korolev, A.V. [Inst. of Metal Physics, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    A phenomenological theory of magnetic anisotropy and low-temperature magnetization anisotropy, which arise because of anisotropic quenching of the orbital angular momentum, is constructed. A relation is found between the parameters of the theory and the electronic spectrum of the magnetic material. It is shown that for magnetic materials whose magnetic anisotropy is of this origin the spin-orbit interaction energy and the spin and orbital contributions to the magnetization and susceptibility of the paraprocess can be determined form the magnetization curves in the {open_quotes}easy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}difficult{close_quotes} directions. The application of the theory to pure Co and to some intermetallic compounds of the type RCo{sub 5}, where R = Y, La, Ce, and Th, is examined. The values obtained for the spin-orbit coupling constant per cobalt atom are close to the values known for 3d-metal ions and the values obtained for the spin and orbital magnetic moments agree with the values obtained by neutron diffractometry for Co and YCo{sub 5}. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Low-temperature magnetization anisotropy in ferromagnetic materials with quenched orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological theory of magnetic anisotropy and low-temperature magnetization anisotropy, which arise because of anisotropic quenching of the orbital angular momentum, is constructed. A relation is found between the parameters of the theory and the electronic spectrum of the magnetic material. It is shown that for magnetic materials whose magnetic anisotropy is of this origin the spin-orbit interaction energy and the spin and orbital contributions to the magnetization and susceptibility of the paraprocess can be determined form the magnetization curves in the open-quotes easyclose quotes and open-quotes difficultclose quotes directions. The application of the theory to pure Co and to some intermetallic compounds of the type RCo5, where R = Y, La, Ce, and Th, is examined. The values obtained for the spin-orbit coupling constant per cobalt atom are close to the values known for 3d-metal ions and the values obtained for the spin and orbital magnetic moments agree with the values obtained by neutron diffractometry for Co and YCo5. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Effect of new cross-section evaluations on criticality and neutron energy spectrum of a typical material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new WIMSD libraries based on recent cross-section evaluations such as IAEA, ENDFB-VI, JENDL, and JEF have been made available by IAEA. These libraries were used for the computation of multiplication factor and energy spectrum for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Methodology was validated for benchmark problems made available by IAEA and comparison with reference results. The value of effective multiplication factors for all newly released libraries are 1.8-3.2% less than that of 1981 WIMSD library. The effect of various cross-section libraries on neutron energy spectrum was also studied. Differences of about -10% to 12.5% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared with that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. From the analysis, it was found that the main source of the difference is the cross-sections of hydrogen bound in water. When these cross-sections of hydrogen (bound in water) from new libraries were used along with all other data in 1981 WIMSD library, the keff obtained in this way has a difference of only 0.02-0.8% with that obtained from new libraries, while the flux spectrum agreed within 1% below 1 MeV with new libraries

  6. Modelling the Multi-band Afterglow of GRB 091127: Evidence of a Hard Electron Energy Spectrum with an Injection Break

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    The afterglow of GRBs is believed to originate from the synchrotron emission of shock-accelerated electrons produced by the interaction between the outflow and the external medium. The accelerated electrons are usually assumed to follow a power law energy distribution with an index of $p$. Observationally, although most GRB afterglows have a $p$ larger than 2, there are still a few GRBs suggestive of a hard ($p<2$) electron spectrum. GRB 091127, with well-sampled broad-band afterglow data, shows evidence of a hard electron spectrum and strong spectral evolution, with a spectral break moving from high to lower energies. The spectral break evolves very fast and cannot be explained by the cooling break in the standard afterglow model, unless evolving microphysical parameters are assumed. Besides, the multi-band afterglow light curves show an achromatic break at around 33 ks. Based on the model of a hard electron spectrum with an injection break, we interpret the observed spectral break as the synchrotron freq...

  7. Effect of new cross-section evaluations on criticality and neutron energy spectrum of a typical material test research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)]. E-mail: siraj1@hotpop.com; Ahmad, Nasir [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Aslam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2004-11-01

    Several new WIMSD libraries based on recent cross-section evaluations such as IAEA, ENDFB-VI, JENDL, and JEF have been made available by IAEA. These libraries were used for the computation of multiplication factor and energy spectrum for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Methodology was validated for benchmark problems made available by IAEA and comparison with reference results. The value of effective multiplication factors for all newly released libraries are 1.8-3.2% less than that of 1981 WIMSD library. The effect of various cross-section libraries on neutron energy spectrum was also studied. Differences of about -10% to 12.5% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared with that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. From the analysis, it was found that the main source of the difference is the cross-sections of hydrogen bound in water. When these cross-sections of hydrogen (bound in water) from new libraries were used along with all other data in 1981 WIMSD library, the k{sub eff} obtained in this way has a difference of only 0.02-0.8% with that obtained from new libraries, while the flux spectrum agreed within 1% below 1 MeV with new libraries.

  8. Effect of muon-nuclear inelastic scattering on high-energy atmospheric muon spectrum at large depth underwater

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Lokhtin, K S; Takahashi, N

    2007-01-01

    The energy spectra of hadron cascade showers produced by the cosmic ray muons travelling through water as well as the muon energy spectra underwater at the depth up to 4 km are calculated with two models of muon inelastic scattering on nuclei, the recent hybrid model (two-component, 2C) and the well-known generalized ector-meson-dominance model for the comparison. The 2C model involves photonuclear interactions at low and moderate virtualities as well as the hard scattering including the weak neutral current processes. For the muon scattering off nuclei substantial uclear effects, shadowing, nuclear binding and Fermi motion of nucleons are taken into account. It is shown that deep nderwater muon energy spectrum calculated with the 2C model are noticeably distorted at energies above 100 TeV as compared to that obtained with the GVMD model.

  9. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  10. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely...

  11. Optimal Random Access and Random Spectrum Sensing for an Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio with and without Primary Feedback Leveraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Shafie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a secondary user (SU with energy harvesting capability. We design access schemes for the SU which incorporate random spectrum sensing and random access, and which make use of the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ feedback. We study two problem-formulations. In the first problemformulation, we characterize the stability region of the proposed schemes. The sensing and access probabilities are obtained such that the secondary throughput is maximized under the constraints that both the primary and secondary queues are stable. Whereas in the second problem-formulation, the sensing and access probabilities are obtained such that the secondary throughput is maximized under the stability of the primary queue and that the primary queueing delay is kept lower than a specified value needed to guarantee a certain quality of service (QoS for the primary user (PU. We consider spectrum sensing errors and assume multipacket reception (MPR capabilities. Numerical results show the enhanced performance of our proposed systems.

  12. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  13. The magnetospheric contribution to the quiet-time low energy nucleon spectrum in the vicinity of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upturn in the low energy quiet-time interplanetary nucleon spectrum has previously been described as of galactic or solar origin. Recent observations have suggested that the magnetosphere may be an important source, at least at the lowest energies. Observations obtained with the JHU/APL experiment on Explorer 47 (Imp-7) during the March 9--12, 1973, period show that the magnetosphere is the dominant contributor to the quiet time interplanetary proton population in the range 0.29 or=3) ratio at approx. 1 MeV/nucleon is approx. 8. The ratio of anti-sunward to sunward intensities is approx. 2.6 and increases to approx. 8.55 in a frame moving with the solar wind, i.e., the maximum intensity is coming from the direction of the bow shock. The observed intensities are factors of 3 to 10 lower than those reported earlier by the Chicago group, suggesting that the interpretation of the low energy gradient measurement reported by those authors needs to be revised.It is speculated that the low energy (below about 20 MeV) upturn in the quiet-time interplanetary proton spectrum may be related to particle emissions from planetary magnetospheres, such as that of Jupiter

  14. Evaluation of neutron energy spectrum effects and RPV thru-wall attenuation based on molecular dynamics cascade simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Displacement cascade formation in iron has been investigated by the method of molecular dynamics (MD) for cascade energies up to 40 keV. The results of these simulations have been used in the specomp code to obtain effective, energy-dependent cross sections for two measures of primary damage production: (1) the number of surviving point defects expressed as a fraction of the those predicted by the standard secondary displacement model by Norgett et al., 1975 [M.J. Norgett, M.T. Robinson, and I.M. Torrens (1975)] and (2) the fraction of the surviving interstitials contained in clusters that formed during the cascade event. The primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra for iron obtained from the specter code have been used to weight these MD-based damage production cross sections in order to obtain spectrally-averaged values for several locations in commercial fission reactors and test reactors. An evaluation of these results indicates that neutron energy spectrum differences between the various environments do not lead to significant differences between the average primary damage formation parameters. In particular, spectrum-averaged defect production cross sections obtained for PWR and BWR neutron spectra were not significantly different. A representative application of the new defect production cross sections is provided by examining how they vary as a function of depth into the reactor pressure vessel wall. A slight difference was noted between the damage attenuation in a PWR vessel and a BWR vessel. This observation could be explained by a subtle difference in the energy dependence of the neutron spectra. Overall, the simulations indicate that spectrum-averaged defect production cross sections do not vary much among the various environments in light-water moderated fission reactors

  15. The complete conformal spectrum of a sl(2|1) invariant network model and logarithmic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the low temperature asymptotics and the finite-size spectrum of a class of Temperley–Lieb models. As reference system we use the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with anisotropy parameter Δ and twisted boundary conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the study of logarithmic corrections appearing in the case of Δ = 1/2 in the bulk susceptibility data and in the low-energy spectrum yielding the conformal dimensions. For the sl(2|1) invariant 3-state representation of the Temperley–Lieb algebra with Δ = 1/2 we give the complete set of scaling dimensions, which show huge degeneracies

  16. The Cosmic Ray p+He energy spectrum in the 3-3000 TeV energy range measured by ARGO-YBJ

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, S M

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower detector operated at the Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration since November 2007 to February 2013. The high altitude and the high segmentation and spacetime resolution offer the possibility to explore the cosmic ray energy spectrum in a very wide range, from a few TeV up to the PeV region. The high segmentation allows a detailed measurement of the lateral distribution, which can be used in order to discriminate showers produced by light and heavy elements. In this work we present the measurement of the cosmic ray light component spectrum in the energy range 3-3000 TeV. The analysis has been carried out by using a two-dimensional unfolding method based on the Bayes' theorem.

  17. The Cosmic Ray p+He energy spectrum in the 3-3000 TeV energy range measured by ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, S. M.; Montini, P.

    2016-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower detector operated at the Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration since November 2007 to February 2013. The high altitude and the high segmentation and spacetime resolution offer the possibility to explore the cosmic ray energy spectrum in a very wide range, from a few TeV up to the PeV region. The high segmentation allows a detailed measurement of the lateral distribution, which can be used in order to discriminate showers produced by light and heavy elements. In this work we present the measurement of the cosmic ray light component spectrum in the energy range 3-3000 TeV. The analysis has been carried out by using a two-dimensional unfolding method based on the Bayes' theorem.

  18. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2004-08-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  19. Small-angle anisotropies in the CMBR from active sources

    CERN Document Server

    Battye, R A

    1997-01-01

    We consider the effects of photon diffusion on the small-angle microwave background anisotropies due to active source models. We find that fluctuations created just before the time of last scattering allow anisotropy to be created on scales much smaller than allowed by standard Silk damping. Using simple models for string and texture structure functions as examples, we illustrate the differences in the angular power spectrum at scales of order a few arcminutes. In particular, we find that the Doppler peak heights are modified by 10-50% and the small-angle fall-off is power law rather than exponential.

  20. Review of the anisotropy working group at UHECR-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs has recently experienced a jump in statistics as well as improved instrumentation. This has allowed a better sensitivity in searching for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays. In this written version of the presentation given by the inter-collaborative “Anisotropy Working Group” at the International Symposium on Future Directions in UHECR physics at CERN in February 2012, we report on the current status for anisotropy searches in the arrival directions of UHECRs.

  1. Study of the π+ meson energy spectrum below 30 MeV in the decay K+→π++π0+π0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of an emulsion study of the low energy part of the π+ spectrum (1 MeV + mesons at rest. Contrary to the findings of Davison et al. this experiment shows no evidence for the existence of the sigma(π0π0) resonant state, there being no lack of events at the lowest energies. The spectrum is analysed in terms of a standard polynomial development of the decay matrix element. (Auth.)

  2. Exact third-order density perturbation and one-loop power spectrum in general dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seokcheon; Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Heogiro 85, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Biern, Sang Gyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-07

    Under the standard perturbation theory (SPT), we obtain the fully consistent third-order density fluctuation and kernels for the general dark energy models without using the Einstein–de Sitter (EdS) universe assumption for the first time. We also show that even though the temporal and spatial components of the SPT solutions cannot be separable, one can find the exact solutions to any order in general dark energy models. With these exact solutions, we obtain the less than % error correction of one-loop matter power spectrum compared to that obtained from the EdS assumption for k=0.1 hMpc{sup −1} mode at z=0(1,1.5). Thus, the EdS assumption works very well at this scale. However, if one considers the correction for P{sub 13}, the error is about 6 (9, 11)% for the same mode at z=0(1,1.5). One absorbs P{sub 13} into the linear power spectrum in the renormalized perturbation theory (RPT) and thus one should use the exact solution instead of the approximation one. The error on the resummed propagator N of RPT is about 14 (8, 6)% at z=0(1,1.5) for k=0.4 hMpc{sup −1}. For k=1 hMpc{sup −1}, the error correction of the total matter power spectrum is about 3.6 (4.6, 4.5)% at z=0(1,1.5). Upcoming observation is required to archive the sub-percent accuracy to provide the strong constraint on the dark energy and this consistent solution is prerequisite for the model comparison.

  3. Exact third-order density perturbation and one-loop power spectrum in general dark energy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokcheon Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the standard perturbation theory (SPT, we obtain the fully consistent third-order density fluctuation and kernels for the general dark energy models without using the Einstein–de Sitter (EdS universe assumption for the first time. We also show that even though the temporal and spatial components of the SPT solutions cannot be separable, one can find the exact solutions to any order in general dark energy models. With these exact solutions, we obtain the less than % error correction of one-loop matter power spectrum compared to that obtained from the EdS assumption for k=0.1 hMpc−1 mode at z=0(1,1.5. Thus, the EdS assumption works very well at this scale. However, if one considers the correction for P13, the error is about 6 (9, 11% for the same mode at z=0(1,1.5. One absorbs P13 into the linear power spectrum in the renormalized perturbation theory (RPT and thus one should use the exact solution instead of the approximation one. The error on the resummed propagator N of RPT is about 14 (8, 6% at z=0(1,1.5 for k=0.4 hMpc−1. For k=1 hMpc−1, the error correction of the total matter power spectrum is about 3.6 (4.6, 4.5% at z=0(1,1.5. Upcoming observation is required to archive the sub-percent accuracy to provide the strong constraint on the dark energy and this consistent solution is prerequisite for the model comparison.

  4. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons aboard an ER-2 high-altitude airplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron effective dose and dose equivalent rates and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cutoff. The measured cosmic-ray neutron spectra have almost no thermal neutrons, a large 'evaporation' peak near 1 MeV and a second broad peak near 100 MeV which contributes about 69% of the neutron effective dose. At high altitude, geomagnetic latitude has very little effect on the shape of the spectrum, but it is the dominant variable affecting neutron fluence rate, which was eight times higher at the northernmost measurement location than it was at the southernmost. The shape of the spectrum varied only slightly with altitude from 21 km down to 12 km (56-201 g cm-2 atmospheric depth), but was significantly different on the ground. In all cases, ambient dose equivalent was greater than effective dose for cosmic-ray neutrons

  5. Exact third-order density perturbation and one-loop power spectrum in general dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the standard perturbation theory (SPT), we obtain the fully consistent third-order density fluctuation and kernels for the general dark energy models without using the Einstein–de Sitter (EdS) universe assumption for the first time. We also show that even though the temporal and spatial components of the SPT solutions cannot be separable, one can find the exact solutions to any order in general dark energy models. With these exact solutions, we obtain the less than % error correction of one-loop matter power spectrum compared to that obtained from the EdS assumption for k=0.1 hMpc−1 mode at z=0(1,1.5). Thus, the EdS assumption works very well at this scale. However, if one considers the correction for P13, the error is about 6 (9, 11)% for the same mode at z=0(1,1.5). One absorbs P13 into the linear power spectrum in the renormalized perturbation theory (RPT) and thus one should use the exact solution instead of the approximation one. The error on the resummed propagator N of RPT is about 14 (8, 6)% at z=0(1,1.5) for k=0.4 hMpc−1. For k=1 hMpc−1, the error correction of the total matter power spectrum is about 3.6 (4.6, 4.5)% at z=0(1,1.5). Upcoming observation is required to archive the sub-percent accuracy to provide the strong constraint on the dark energy and this consistent solution is prerequisite for the model comparison

  6. Study on damage effects of low energy protons on ZnO/silicone white paint using infrared spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in optical properties and the damage mechanism of ZnO/silicone white paint caused by low energy protons were investigated in terms of ground-based simulation testing. The results show that the solar absorptance ratio increases with the increase of irradiation fluence of proton as well as the proton energy. Under proton exposure, the degradation in optical properties of ZnO/silicone white paint mainly occurs in the visible radiation region of the solar spectrum. The damage mechanism was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum. The amount of free oxygen increases under proton exposure. Free oxygen would oxidate the radicals in the silicone binder and form active hydroxide radical (-OH), which could accelerate the break of Si-O-Si bond. Meanwhile, the no-bonding lone-pair electron of oxygen atom in Si-O-Si bond forms coordinate with 3d empty orbit of neighboring silicon atom. Therefore, the energy of π* orbit decreases, the probability of optical absorption increases, the n-π* electronic transition enhances, and the absorption band broadens and shows red-shift. The above phenomenon will result in the degradation of optical properties of ZnO/silicone white paint under proton exposure. (authors)

  7. Time-dependent density functional study of the electronic potential energy curves and excitation spectrum of the oxygen molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jingang; Wang, Fan; Ziegler, Tom; Cox, Hazel

    2006-07-01

    Orbital energies, ionization potentials, molecular constants, potential energy curves, and the excitation spectrum of O2 are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The calculated negative highest occupied molecular orbital energy (-ɛHOMO) is compared with the energy difference ionization potential for five exchange correlation functionals consisting of the local density approximation (LDAxc), gradient corrected Becke exchange plus Perdew correlation (B88X+P86C), gradient regulated asymptotic correction (GRAC), statistical average of orbital potentials (SAOP), and van Leeuwen and Baerends asymptotically correct potential (LB94). The potential energy curves calculated using TDDFT with the TDA at internuclear distances from 1.0to1.8Å are divided into three groups according to the electron configurations. The 1πu41πg2 electron configuration gives rise to the XΣg-3, aΔg1, and bΣg +1 states; the 1πu31πg3 electron configuration gives rise to the cΣu -1, CΔu3, and AΣu +3 states; and the BΣu -3, AΔu1, and fΣu +1 states are determined by the mixing of two or more electron configurations. The excitation spectrum of the oxygen molecule, calculated with the aforementioned exchange correlation functionals, shows that the results are quite sensitive to the choice of functional. The LDAxc and the B88X+P86C functionals produce similar spectroscopic patterns with a single strongly absorbing band positioned at 19.82 and 19.72eV, respectively, while the asymptotically corrected exchange correlation functionals of the SAOP and the LB94 varieties yield similar excitation spectra where the computed strongly absorbing band is located at 16.09 and 16.42eV, respectively. However, all of the exchange correlation functionals yield only one strongly absorbing band (oscillator strength greater than 0.1) in the energy interval of 0-20eV, which is assigned to a XΣg -3 to Σu-3 transition. Furthermore, the oxygen

  8. Relativistic Density Functional Treatment of Magnetic Anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) reduces the spatial symmetry of ferromagnetic solids. That is, the physical properties of ferromagnetic materials are anisotropic, depending on the magnetization direction. In this thesis, by means of numerical calculations with full-relativistic density functional theory, we studied two kinds of physical properties: surface magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and anisotropic thermoelectric power due to Lifshitz transitions. After a short introduction to ...

  9. Rational electrostatic design of easy-axis magnetic anisotropy in a Zn(II) -Dy(III) -Zn(II) single-molecule magnet with a high energy barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Itziar; Ruiz, José; Seco, José Manuel; Evangelisti, Marco; Camón, Agustín; Ruiz, Eliseo; Aravena, Daniel; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-10-27

    Two novel trinuclear complexes [ZnCl(μ-L)Ln(μ-L)ClZn][ZnCl3 (CH3 OH)]⋅3 CH3 OH (Ln(III) =Dy (1) and Er (2)) have been prepared from the compartmental ligand N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-3-formyl-5-bromo-benzyl)ethylenediamine (H2 L). X-ray studies reveal that Ln(III) ions are coordinated by two [ZnCl(L)](-) units through the phenoxo and aldehyde groups, giving rise to a LnO8 coordination sphere with square-antiprism geometry and strong easy-axis anisotropy of the ground state. Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI calculations carried out on 1 confirm that the ground state is an almost pure MJ =±15/2 Kramers doublet with a marked axial anisotropy, the magnetic moment is roughly collinear with the shortest DyO distances. This orientation of the local magnetic moment of the Dy(III) ion in 1 is adopted to reduce the electronic repulsion between the oblate electron shape of the MJ =±15/2 Kramers doublet and the phenoxo-oxygen donor atoms involved in the shortest DyO bonds. CASSCF+RASSI calculations also show that the ground and first excited states of the Dy(III) ion are separated by 129 cm(-1) . As expected for this large energy gap, compound 1 exhibits, in a zero direct-current field, thermally activated slow relaxation of the magnetization with a large Ueff =140 K. The isostructural Zn-Er-Zn species does not present significant SMM behavior as expected for the prolate electron-density distribution of the Er(III) ion leading to an easy-plane anisotropy of the ground doublet state. PMID:25251453

  10. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-09-27

    IceTop is an instrument at the geographic South Pole designed to detect cosmic ray air showers, particle cascades in the atmosphere initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. It is the surface component of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Since its completion in December 2010, IceTop consists of 81 detector stations covering an area of one square kilometer on the ice surface above IceCube. Each IceTop station consists of two ice-filled tanks in which the Cherenkov light emitted by charged air shower particles is measured. In this dissertation, an analysis of data taken in 2007 with 26 IceTop stations operational at that time is presented. First, properties of air showers like core position, direction and shower size were reconstructed from the measured signals. The core position can be determined to an accuracy of up to 6m and a direction resolution of up to 0.3 is achieved. The shower size is a measure of the energy of the primary particle and a resolution of up to 10% is achieved at high energies. In the next step the relation between primary energy and shower size, as well as resolution and efficiency are determined from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers and the IceTop detector. Here, an assumption was made about the chemical composition of cosmic rays. The informations obtained in these simulations are then used to unfold the spectrum of measured shower sizes in order to obtain the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum. This is done independently for particles from three different zenith angle intervals. The result of the unfolding depends on the assumed primary composition. Due to the isotropy of cosmic rays, results obtained in different zenith angle intervals must agree. While with the chosen analysis technique a simultaneous determination of primary particle mass and energy is limited due to systematic uncertainties, it has already been shown that the requirement of isotropy can be used to constrain the range of possible assumptions on the chemical

  11. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IceTop is an instrument at the geographic South Pole designed to detect cosmic ray air showers, particle cascades in the atmosphere initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. It is the surface component of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Since its completion in December 2010, IceTop consists of 81 detector stations covering an area of one square kilometer on the ice surface above IceCube. Each IceTop station consists of two ice-filled tanks in which the Cherenkov light emitted by charged air shower particles is measured. In this dissertation, an analysis of data taken in 2007 with 26 IceTop stations operational at that time is presented. First, properties of air showers like core position, direction and shower size were reconstructed from the measured signals. The core position can be determined to an accuracy of up to 6m and a direction resolution of up to 0.3 is achieved. The shower size is a measure of the energy of the primary particle and a resolution of up to 10% is achieved at high energies. In the next step the relation between primary energy and shower size, as well as resolution and efficiency are determined from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers and the IceTop detector. Here, an assumption was made about the chemical composition of cosmic rays. The informations obtained in these simulations are then used to unfold the spectrum of measured shower sizes in order to obtain the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum. This is done independently for particles from three different zenith angle intervals. The result of the unfolding depends on the assumed primary composition. Due to the isotropy of cosmic rays, results obtained in different zenith angle intervals must agree. While with the chosen analysis technique a simultaneous determination of primary particle mass and energy is limited due to systematic uncertainties, it has already been shown that the requirement of isotropy can be used to constrain the range of possible assumptions on the chemical

  12. Energy spectrum measurement of protons below 100 keV in laser acceleration using CR-39 solid track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was proved by experiments that CR-39 solid track detector can't detect protons below 100 keV because of its critical angle in the paper. Hereby, the detection arrangement was improved. The proton energy spectrum below 100 keV was measured by CR-39 solid track detector and Thomson spectrometer in the experiment of laser interaction with 5 μm Al foil. Single particle simulation was used to process data from the magnetic spectrometer, which can avoid the error from fringe magnetic field in spectrometer and improve the precision. (authors)

  13. Wide-spectrum energy harvesting out of colored Lévy-like fluctuations, by monostable piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, J. Ignacio; Deza, Roberto R.; Wio, Horacio S.

    2012-11-01

    This work aims to optimize the overall performance of a model oscillator, as an energy harvester of Lévy-like mesoscopic fluctuations through piezoelectric conversion. As a further step in the description of a realistic harvesting device we consider a monostable Woods-Saxon oscillator, which can interpolate between square well and harmonic-like behaviors. We study the interplay between the potential shape and the noise's spectrum and statistics. The dependence of the power output on the parameters determining those features indicates the directions in which the former can be increased.

  14. On the f' spectrum of high-energy gamma-ray families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The f' spectra of high-energy gamma-ray families are constructed from the data obtained with the Mount Fuji emulsion chambers. The shape of the spectra is almost independent of the energy of the families and is apparently contradictory to the result of the Pamir collaboration, which shows a shrinkage of the spectra as energy increases. (author)

  15. Ab initio ground state phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulski, Hubert; Fernandez, Berta; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface by fitting a representative number of ab initio interaction energies to an analytic function. These energies are calculated at a grid of intermolecular geometries, using the CCSD(T) method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set...

  16. Determination of the energy spectrum of the neutrons in the central thimble of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the neutron spectrum measurements inside the core of the TRIGA Mark III reactor at 1 MW power in steady-state, with the bridge placed in the center of the swimming pool, using several metallic threshold foils. The activation detectors are inserted in the Central Thimble of the reactor core, all the foils are irradiated in the same position and irradiation conditions (one by one). The threshold detectors are made of different materials such as: Au197, Ni58, In115, Mg24, Al27, Fe58, Co59 and Cu63, they were selected to cover the full range the energies (10-10 to 20 MeV) of the neutron spectrum in the reactor core. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were measured by means of spectrometry gamma, using a high resolution counting system with a hyper pure Germanium crystal, in order to obtain the saturation activity per target nuclide. The saturation activity is one of the main input data together with the initial spectrum, for the computational code SANDBP (hungarian version of the code SAND-II), which through an iterative adjustment, gives the calculated spectrum. The different saturation activities are necessary for the unfolding method, used by the computational code SANDBP. This research work is very important, since the knowledge of the energetic and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the irradiation facilities, allows to characterize properly the irradiation facilities, just like, to estimate with a good precision various physics parameters of the reactor such as: neutron fluxes (thermal, intermediate and fast), neutronic dose, neutron activation analysis (NAA), spectral indices (cadmium ratio), buckling, fuel burnup, safety parameters (reactivity, temperature distribution, peak factors). In addition, the knowledge of the already mentioned parameters can give a best use of reactor, optimizing the irradiations requested by the users for their production process or research projects. (Author)

  17. Energy spectrum measurement and dose rate estimation of natural neutrons in Tibet region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 徐勇军; 刘森林; 汪传高

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural neutron spectra at nine sites in Tibet region were measured using a multi-sphere neutron spectrometer. The altitude-dependence of the spectra total fluence rate and ambient dose equivalent rate were analyzed. From the normalized natural neutron spectra at different altitudes, the spectrum fractions for neutrons of greater than 0.1 MeV do not differ obviously, while those of the thermal neutrons differ greatly from each other. The total fluence rate, effective dose rate and the ambient dose equivalent rate varied with the altitude according to an exponential law.

  18. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanping, E-mail: yx2132@cumc.columbia.edu; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n){sup 3}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the {sup 9}Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  19. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  20. Indications of Intermediate-Scale Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays with Energy Greater Than 57 EeV in the Northern Sky Measured with the Surface Detector of the Telescope Array Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, T; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Ogura, J; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Suzawa, T; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Takeishi, R; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wong, T; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2014-01-01

    We have searched for intermediate-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays with energies above 57~EeV in the northern sky using data collected over a 5 year period by the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment. We report on a cluster of events that we call the hotspot, found by oversampling using 20$\\degr$-radius circles. The hotspot has a statistical significance of 5.1$\\sigma$, and is centered at ${\\rm R.A.}=146\\fdg7$, ${\\rm Dec.}=43\\fdg2$. The position of the hotspot is about 19$\\degr$ off of the supergalactic plane. The probability of a cluster of events of 5.1$\\sigma$ significance, found using 20$\\degr$ radius oversampling, appearing by chance in an isotropic cosmic-ray sky is calculated to be 1.4$\\times$10$^{-4}$ (3.6$\\sigma$).

  1. INDICATIONS OF INTERMEDIATE-SCALE ANISOTROPY OF COSMIC RAYS WITH ENERGY GREATER THAN 57 EeV IN THE NORTHERN SKY MEASURED WITH THE SURFACE DETECTOR OF THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W. [High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Abe, M. [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama (Japan); Azuma, R. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Chae, M. J. [Department of Physics and Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seodaaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, B. G. [Department of Physics and The Research Institute of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, W. R. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Goto, T. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2014-08-01

    We have searched for intermediate-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in the northern sky using data collected over a 5 yr period by the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment. We report on a cluster of events that we call the hotspot, found by oversampling using 20° radius circles. The hotspot has a Li-Ma statistical significance of 5.1σ, and is centered at R.A. = 146.°7, decl. = 43.°2. The position of the hotspot is about 19° off of the supergalactic plane. The probability of a cluster of events of 5.1σ significance, appearing by chance in an isotropic cosmic-ray sky, is estimated to be 3.7 × 10{sup –4} (3.4σ)

  2. Anisotropy of weakly vibrated granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortel, Geert H; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally probe the anisotropy of weakly vibrated flowing granular media. Depending on the driving parameters-flow rate and vibration strength-this anisotropy varies significantly. We show how the anisotropy collapses when plotted as a function of the driving stresses, uncovering a direct link between stresses and anisotropy. Moreover, our data suggest that for small anisotropies, the shear stresses vanish. Anisotropy of the fabric of granular media thus plays a crucial role in determining the rheology of granular flows. PMID:26565148

  3. Anisotropy of Weakly Vibrated Granular Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Wortel, Geert; Van Hecke, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally probe the anisotropy of the fabric of weakly vibrated, flowing granular media. Depending on the driving parameters --- flow rate and vibration strength --- this anisotropy varies significantly. We show how the anisotropy collapses when plotted as function of the driving stresses, uncovering a direct link between stresses and anisotropy. Moreover, our data suggests that for small anisotropies, the shear stresses vanish. Anisotropy of the fabric of granular media thus plays a ...

  4. Effective field calculations of the energy spectrum of the PT-symmetric (-x4) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we show that the traditional effective field approach can be applied to the PT-symmetric wrong sign (-x4) quartic potential. The importance of this work lies in the possibility of its extension to the more important PT-symmetric quantum field theory while the other approaches which use complex contours are not willing to be applicable. We calculated the effective potential of the massless -x4 theory as well as the full spectrum of the theory. Although the calculations are carried out up to first order in the coupling, the predicted spectrum is very close to the exact one taken from other works. The most important result of this work is that the effective potential obtained, which is equivalent to the Gaussian effective potential, is bounded from below while the classical potential is bounded from above. This explains the stability of the vacuum of the theory. The obtained quasiparticle Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian but PT symmetric and we showed that the calculation of the metric operator can go perturbatively. In fact, the calculation of the metric operator can be done even for higher dimensions (quantum field theory) which, up until now, cannot be calculated in the other approaches either perturbatively or in a closed form due to the possible appearance of field radicals. Moreover, we argued that the effective theory is perturbative for the whole range of the coupling constant and the perturbation series is expected to converge rapidly (the effective coupling geff=(1)/(6)).

  5. Effective field calculations of the energy spectrum of the PT-symmetric (-x4) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we show that the traditional effective field approach can be applied to the PT-symmetric wrong sign (-x4) quartic potential. The importance of this work lies in the possibility of its extension to the more important PT-symmetric quantum field theory while the other approaches which use complex contours are not willing to be applicable. We calculated the effective potential of the massless -x4 theory as well as the full spectrum of the theory. Although the calculations are carried out up to first order in the coupling, the predicted spectrum is very close to the exact one taken from other works. The most important result of this work is that the effective potential obtained, which is equivalent to the Gaussian effective potential, is bounded from below while the classical potential is bounded from above. This explains the stability of the vacuum of the theory. The obtained quasiparticle Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian but PT symmetric and we showed that the calculation of the metric operator can go perturbatively. In fact, the calculation of the metric operator can be done even for higher dimensions (quantum field theory) which, up until now, cannot be calculated in the other approaches either perturbatively or in a closed form due to the possible appearance of field radicals. Moreover, we argued that the effective theory is perturbative for the whole range of the coupling constant and the perturbation series is expected to converge rapidly (the effective coupling geff=(1/6)).

  6. Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; van Kessel, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy reconstruction of extensive air showers measured with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is presented in detail. LORA is a particle detector array located in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate and independent energy measurement for the air showers measured through their radio signal with the LOFAR antennas. The energy reconstruction is performed using a parameterized relation between the measured shower size and the cosmic-ray energy obtained from air shower simulations. In order to illustrate the capabilities of LORA, the all-particle cosmic-ray energy spectrum has been reconstructed, assuming that cosmic rays are composed only of protons or iron nuclei in the energy range between ˜2 × 1016 and 2 × 1018 eV. The results are compatible with literature values and a changing mass composition in the transition region from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  7. The emission anisotropy of isolated K MO transitions in 40 MeV Ni+Ni collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission anisotropy of isolated MO transitions was measured for the first time in 40 MeV Ni+Ni collisions by detecting K MO x-rays, emitted at 90deg and 0deg with respect to the beam direction, in coincidence with characteristic Ni K x-rays. A tenfold increase in the anisotropy was observed for the selected transitions over that associated with the total spectrum. Recent calculations agree with this large anisotropy. (author)

  8. Volume dependence of the energy spectrum in massive quantum field theories. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-lying energy values associated to energy eigenstates describing two stable particles enclosed in a (space-like) box of size L are shown to be expandable in an asymptotic power series of 1/L. The coefficients in these expansions are related to the appropriate elastic scattering amplitude in a simple and apparently universal manner. At low energies, the scattering amplitude can thus be determined, if an accurate calculation of two-particle energy values is possible (by numerical simulation, for example). (orig.)

  9. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  10. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ammando, F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the gamma-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong gamma-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301$\\pm$36)$\\times$10$^{-8}$ ph/cm$^2$/s in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5$\\pm$0.2)$\\times$10$^{50}$ erg/s, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time-scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum ($\\Gamma$$_1$ $\\sim$ 1) below the break energy, at ...

  11. Measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino energy spectrum with IceCube in the 79- and 86-String configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, T.; Scheriau, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2016-04-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope with an instrumented volume of one cubic kilometer. A total of 5160 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) is deployed on 86 strings forming a three dimensional detector array. Although primarily designed for the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources, the detector can be used for spectral measurements of atmospheric neutrinos. These spectral measurements are hindered by a dominant background of atmospheric muons. State-of-the-art techniques from Machine Learning and Data Mining are required to select a high-purity sample of atmospheric neutrino candidates. The energy spectrum of muon neutrinos is obtained from energy-dependent input variables by utilizing regularized unfolding. The results obtained using IceCube in the 79- and 86-string configuration are presented in this paper.

  12. The influence of chemical and color quenching on the shape of energy spectrum for Beta particles of 90Sr- 90Y by using liquid scintillation cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chemical quenching on the pulse height spectrum and Emax of Strontium 90Sr were studied using the organic scintillation cocktail and observing change in florescent yield and spectral shape (energy spectrum) of beta particles of 90Sr isotope in determining a relationship between the magnitude of material that causes quenching and the position of energy spectrum and Emax, adding 3 M nitric acid (HNO3) as chemical quencher to the scintillation, and added aqueous soluble yellow food dye with different concentration as color quencher. The beta detection efficiency depends on energy, spectral shape and cocktail. Typically, beta particles with maximum energies (Emax > 0.250 MeV) are detected with > 90% counting efficiency in organic liquid scintillation, where 90Sr has maximum beta energy, Emax, of 0.546 MeV and half-life of 28.17 years. The results were compared with reference and literature values. (author)

  13. Energy Spectrum of a Positronium Negative Ion in a Parabolic Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2002-01-01

    The method of few-body physics is applied to calculating the energy levels of low-lying states ofa positro-nium negative ion in a parabolic quantum well. The results show that the energy levels of a positronium negativeion intwo-dimensional case are lower than those in three-dimensional case.

  14. Interferences in the photoelectron spectrum of H+2 molecules at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical study of ground state H+2 ionization by photons of a few hundreds of eV. Bound and continuum states are obtained by using B-spline basis functions. As predicted by Cohen and Fano [H.D. Cohen, U. Fano, Phys. Rev. 150 (1966) 30], the calculated photoelectron spectrum reveals the existence of interference effects that result from the coherent emission in the presence of the two nuclei. We show, however, that one of the basic assumption of the Cohen-Fano model, namely, the validity of the LCAO approximation to describe the initial ground state or the free wave description of the ejected electron, is not fulfilled, which leads to an 'anomalous' oscillatory behavior not pointed out in previous works

  15. Energy Spectrum of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiu-Rong; LIU Jin-Ming; JING Hui; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2005-01-01

    With the method of Green's function, we investigate the energy spectra of two-component ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. We find that there are two energy bands for each component. The critical condition of the superfluid-Mott insulator phase transition is determined by the energy band structure. We also find that the nearest neighboring and on-site interactions fail to change the structure of energy bands, but shift the energy bands only.According to the conditions of the phase transitions, three stable superfluid and Mott insulating phases can be found by adjusting the experiment parameters. We also discuss the possibility of observing these new phases and their transitions in further experiments.

  16. Effective surface anisotropy in polycrystalline ferromagnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Here we make a mixing of two models. A macroscopic and a microscopic model. • The principal idea in this paper is to write the free magnetic energy for a soft magnetic cylindrical nanowire and make the comparison with our previous models. • The model is tested to determine the effective constant in Ni nanowires. - Abstract: Here we express the effective surface anisotropy for soft ferromagnetic nanowires as the function of the micro-structural behaviors. Many papers about these systems determine the reversal modes for the magnetization to explain magnetic properties of the nanowires. Our previous works related morphological structure with magnetic properties. The principal idea in this paper is to write the free magnetic energy for a soft magnetic cylindrical nanowire and make the comparison with our previous models. In this way we include the macroscopic effective anisotropy due to the disordered atoms and ignoring other microstructure terms related in our previous works. From this idea and our last model to these systems, we made an association that permit to express the effective anisotropy in function of the principal morphological characteristics of nanowires. The model is tested to determine the numerical value of the mentioned constant in Ni nanowires obtained by electrodeposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes using the Transmission Electron Microscopy

  17. MULTIMODE quantum calculations of vibrational energies and IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster using accurate potential energy and dipole moment surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homayoon, Zahra, E-mail: zhomayo@emory.edu [Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    A new, full (nine)-dimensional potential energy surface and dipole moment surface to describe the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is reported. The PES is based on fitting of roughly 32 000 CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ electronic energies. The surface is a linear least-squares fit using a permutationally invariant basis with Morse-type variables. The PES is used in a Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) complexes. Using the calculated ZPE the dissociation energies of the clusters are reported. Vibrational configuration interaction calculations of NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) using the MULTIMODE program are performed. The fundamental, a number of overtone, and combination states of the clusters are reported. The IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is calculated using 4, 5, 7, and 8 modes VSCF/CI calculations. The anharmonic, coupled vibrational calculations, and IR spectrum show very good agreement with experiment. Mode coupling of the water “antisymmetric” stretching mode with the low-frequency intermolecular modes results in intensity borrowing.

  18. Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.

  19. Ion acceleration with a narrow energy spectrum by nanosecond laser-irradiation of solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C., E-mail: altana@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In laser-driven plasma, ion acceleration of aluminum with the production of a quasi-monoenergetic beam has occurred. A useful device to analyze the ions is the Thomson parabolas spectrometer, a well-known diagnostic that is able to obtain information on charge-to-mass ratio and energy distribution of the charged particles. At the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania, experimental measures were carried out; the features of LENS are: Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2 J laser energy, 1064 nm fundamental wavelengths, and 6 ns pulse duration.

  20. Ion acceleration with a narrow energy spectrum by nanosecond laser-irradiation of solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In laser-driven plasma, ion acceleration of aluminum with the production of a quasi-monoenergetic beam has occurred. A useful device to analyze the ions is the Thomson parabolas spectrometer, a well-known diagnostic that is able to obtain information on charge-to-mass ratio and energy distribution of the charged particles. At the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania, experimental measures were carried out; the features of LENS are: Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2 J laser energy, 1064 nm fundamental wavelengths, and 6 ns pulse duration

  1. Low-frequency ionospheric sounding with Narrow Bipolar Event lightning radio emissions: energy-reflectivity spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jacobson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze data on radio-reflection from the D-region of the lower ionosphere, retrieving the energy-reflection coefficient in the frequency range ~5–95 kHz. The data are the same as developed for a recent study of ionospheric-reflection height, and are based on recordings of powerful (multi-Gigawatt radio emissions from a type of narrow (~10 μs lightning discharge known as "Narrow Bipolar Events". The sequential appearance of first the groundwave signal, and then the ionospheric single-hop reflection signal, permits us to construct the energy-reflection ratio. We infer the energy reflection's statistical variation with solar zenith angle, angle-of-incidence, frequency, and propagation azimuth. There is also a marginally-significant response of the energy reflectivity to solar X-ray flux density. Finally, we review the relationship of our results to previous published reports.

  2. Effects of electron temperature anisotropy on proton mirror instability evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Narges; Raeder, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Proton mirror modes are large amplitude nonpropagating structures frequently observed in the magnetosheath. It has been suggested that electron temperature anisotropy can enhance the proton mirror instability growth rate while leaving the proton cyclotron instability largely unaffected, therefore causing the proton mirror instability to dominate the proton cyclotron instability in Earth's magnetosheath. Here, we use particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the electron temperature anisotropy effects on proton mirror instability evolution. Contrary to the hypothesis, electron temperature anisotropy leads to excitement of the electron whistler instability. Our results show that the electron whistler instability grows much faster than the proton mirror instability and quickly consumes the electron free energy, so that there is no electron temperature anisotropy left to significantly impact the evolution of the proton mirror instability.

  3. Quantum Geometry: Relativistic energy approach to cooperative electron-nucleary-transition spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Хецелиус

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced relativistic energy approach is presented and applied to calculating parameters of electron-nuclear 7-transition spectra of nucleus in the atom. The intensities of the spectral satellites are defined in the relativistic version of the energy approach (S-matrix formalism, and gauge-invariant quantum-electrodynamical perturbation theory with the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density-functional zeroth approximation.

  4. High-energy-ion depletion in the charge exchange spectrum of Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional, guiding center, Monte Carlo code is developed to study ion orbits in Alcator C. The highly peaked ripple of the magnetic field of Alcator is represented by an analytical expression for the vector potential. The analytical ripple field is compared to the resulting magnetic field generated by a current model of the toroidal plates; agreement is excellent. Ion-Ion scattering is simulated by a pitch angle and an energy scattering operator. The equations of motion are integrated with a variable time step, extrapolating integrator. The code produces collisionless banana and ripple trapped loss cones which agree well with present theory. Global energy distributions have been calculated and show a slight depletion above 8.5 keV. Particles which are ripple trapped and lost are at energies below where depletion is observed. It is found that ions pitch angle scatter less as energy is increased. The result is that, when viewed in velocity space, ions form probability lobes the shape of mouse ears which are fat near the thermal energy. Therefore, particles enter the loss cone at low energies near the bottom of the core. Recommendations for future work include improving the analytic model of the ripple field, testing the effect of del . B not equal to 0 on ion orbits, and improving the efficiency of the code by either using a spline fit for the magnetic fields or by creating a vectorized Monte Carlo code

  5. Fission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  6. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F2 model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F2 model

  7. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  8. HESS J1427-608: an unusual hard unbroken $\\gamma-$ray spectrum in a very wide energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Hong; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a GeV $\\gamma$-ray source which is likely associated with the unidentified very-high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray source HESS J1427-608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power-law with an index of $1.85\\pm0.17$ in the energy range of $3-500$ GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427-608 at a few hundred GeV. This source shows no significant extended morphology and time variation. The broadband GeV-TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427-608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss possible nature of HESS J1427-608 according to the multi-wavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multi-wavelength data from radio to ...

  9. Photodynamic effect of hematoporphyrin derivative as a function of optical spectrum and incident energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor cell killing effect of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and light was studied in culture to determine the dependence of this effect on treatment variables. Particular attention has been given to the spectral characteristics of the light and the absorption properties of hematoporphyrin. A human tumor cell line was treated using HPD and three broad bands of light ranging from the short- to the long-wavelength end of the visible spectrum. Cell killing was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. A transformed mouse embryo cell line was treated in a similar manner, and its reproductive efficiency was determined following treatment. Results of both studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the photocytotoxic action of HPD plus light is directly proportional to the number of light quanta absorbed by the HPD in each cell. For thin layers of cells, such as in situ carcinoma, it appears that short-wavelength radiation falling in the porphyrin Soret band around 400 nm may have from 12 to 30 times the killing power as does red light

  10. The ultraviolet spectrum and continuum energy distribution of the bright quasar H1821 + 643

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first UV observations of the bright QSO H1821 + 643 are reported. With V = 14.2 mag and z = 0.297, H1821 + 643 is the second brightest object in the sky at z above 0.1. The IUE data are combined with new optical spectroscopy, and existing IR and X-ray data, to reveal a strong optical/UV 'big bump', which continues past the Lyman limit in the rest frame of the QSO. A possible turnover at the high-frequency side of the UV continuum constrains fits of a thin accretion disk model to a large black hole mass and high accretion rate, but a small disk size. The shape of the UV continuum was found to be variable, with a hardening of the spectrum when the source was brighter. Because of its location, only 3 deg from the ecliptic pole, H1821 + 643 will be an important object for simultaneous UV and soft X-ray monitoring to test for a common origin of the UV bump and soft X-ray excess. 44 refs

  11. The ultraviolet spectrum and continuum energy distribution of the bright quasar H1821 + 643

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Michiel; Halpern, Jules P.; Shrader, Chris R.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1991-01-01

    The first UV observations of the bright QSO H1821 + 643 are reported. With V = 14.2 mag and z = 0.297, H1821 + 643 is the second brightest object in the sky at z above 0.1. The IUE data are combined with new optical spectroscopy, and existing IR and X-ray data, to reveal a strong optical/UV 'big bump', which continues past the Lyman limit in the rest frame of the QSO. A possible turnover at the high-frequency side of the UV continuum constrains fits of a thin accretion disk model to a large black hole mass and high accretion rate, but a small disk size. The shape of the UV continuum was found to be variable, with a hardening of the spectrum when the source was brighter. Because of its location, only 3 deg from the ecliptic pole, H1821 + 643 will be an important object for simultaneous UV and soft X-ray monitoring to test for a common origin of the UV bump and soft X-ray excess.

  12. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: Spectrum of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, K.D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Flors, L.; Housseini, A.M.; Phull, A. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Ali Ahmad, E. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiology, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Bozlar, U.; Norton, P.T. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Bonatti, H.J.R. [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  13. Numerical experiments on the detailed energy conversion and spectrum studies in a corona current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Mei, Zhixing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the energy conversion and spectra in a corona current sheet by 2.5-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. Numerical results show that many Petschek-like fine structures with slow-mode shocks mediated by plasmoid instabilities develop during the magnetic reconnection process. The termination shocks can also be formed above the primary magnetic island and at the head of secondary islands. These shocks play important roles in generating thermal energy in a corona current sheet. For a numerical simulation with initial conditions close to the solar corona environment, the ratio of the generated thermal energy to the total dissipated magnetic energy is around $1/5$ before secondary islands appear. After secondary islands appear, the generated thermal energy starts to increase sharply and this ratio can reach a value about $3/5$. In an environment with a relatively lower plasma density and plasma $\\beta$, the plasma can be heated to a much higher temperature. After secondary islands appear, t...

  14. Fracture toughness anisotropy in shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Brantut, Nicolas; Crawford, Brian R.

    2016-03-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas has focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales, but there remains a paucity of available experimental data on their mechanical and physical properties. Such shales are strongly anisotropic, so that their fracture propagation trajectories depend on the interaction between their anisotropic mechanical properties and the anisotropic in situ stress field in the shallow crust. Here we report fracture toughness measurements on Mancos shale determined in all three principal fracture orientations: Divider, Short Transverse, and Arrester, using a modified short-rod methodology. Experimental results for a range of other sedimentary and carbonate rocks are also reported for comparison purposes. Significant anisotropy is observed in shale fracture toughness measurements at ambient conditions, with values, as high as 0.72 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is normal to the bedding, and values as low as 0.21 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is parallel to the bedding. For cracks propagating nonparallel to bedding, we observe a tendency for deviation toward the bedding-parallel orientation. Applying a maximum energy release rate criterion, we determined the conditions under which such deviations are more or less likely to occur under more generalized mixed-mode loading conditions. We find for Mancos shale that the fracture should deviate toward the plane with lowest toughness regardless of the loading conditions.

  15. Non-elliptic wavevector anisotropy for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.

    2015-11-01

    A model of non-elliptic wavevector anisotropy is developed for the inertial-range spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and is presented in the two-dimensional wavevector domain spanning the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. The non-elliptic model is a variation of the elliptic model with different scalings along the parallel and the perpendicular components of the wavevectors to the mean magnetic field. The non-elliptic anisotropy model reproduces the smooth transition of the power-law spectra from an index of -2 in the parallel projection with respect to the mean magnetic field to an index of -5/3 in the perpendicular projection observed in solar wind turbulence, and is as competitive as the critical balance model to explain the measured frequency spectra in the solar wind. The parameters in the non-elliptic spectrum model are compared with the solar wind observations.

  16. Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial...... tension as a function of the angle between the tensile axis and the rolling direction. Textures were determined by neutron diffraction, and Taylor M-factors were calculated. The microstructures were studied by TEM. It was found that the flow stress varies significantly with orientation both at low and...... high strains. It is shown that for most experimental conditions, texture effects alone cannot explain the observed anisotropy, and microstructural anisotropy effects have to be taken into account. In those cases, a correlation between the microstructural anisotropy and the development of microbands is...

  17. Secondary anisotropies of the CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations provide a powerful probe of the dark ages of the universe through the imprint of the secondary anisotropies associated with the reionization of the universe and the growth of structure. We review the relation between the secondary anisotropies and the primary anisotropies that are directly generated by quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The physics of secondary fluctuations is described, with emphasis on the ionization history and the evolution of structure. We discuss the different signatures arising from the secondary effects in terms of their induced temperature fluctuations, polarization and statistics. The secondary anisotropies are being actively pursued at present, and we review the future and current observational status

  18. Braneworld cosmological models with anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a cosmological Randall-Sundrum braneworld with anisotropy, i.e., of Bianchi type, the modified Einstein equations on the brane include components of the five-dimensional Weyl tensor for which there are no evolution equations on the brane. If the bulk field equations are not solved, this Weyl term remains unknown, and many previous studies have simply prescribed it as ad hoc. We construct a family of Bianchi braneworlds with anisotropy by solving the five-dimensional field equations in the bulk. We analyze the cosmological dynamics on the brane, including the Weyl term, and shed light on the relation between anisotropy on the brane and the Weyl curvature in the bulk. In these models, it is not possible to achieve geometric anisotropy for a perfect fluid or scalar field - the junction conditions require anisotropic stress on the brane. But the solutions can isotropize and approach a Friedmann brane in an anti-de Sitter bulk

  19. Braneworld cosmological models with anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Antonio; Maartens, Roy; Matravers, David; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2003-11-01

    For a cosmological Randall-Sundrum braneworld with anisotropy, i.e., of Bianchi type, the modified Einstein equations on the brane include components of the five-dimensional Weyl tensor for which there are no evolution equations on the brane. If the bulk field equations are not solved, this Weyl term remains unknown, and many previous studies have simply prescribed it as ad hoc. We construct a family of Bianchi braneworlds with anisotropy by solving the five-dimensional field equations in the bulk. We analyze the cosmological dynamics on the brane, including the Weyl term, and shed light on the relation between anisotropy on the brane and the Weyl curvature in the bulk. In these models, it is not possible to achieve geometric anisotropy for a perfect fluid or scalar field—the junction conditions require anisotropic stress on the brane. But the solutions can isotropize and approach a Friedmann brane in an anti de Sitter bulk.

  20. Braneworld cosmological models with anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, A; Matravers, D; Sopuerta, C F; Campos, Antonio; Maartens, Roy; Matravers, David; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2003-01-01

    For a cosmological Randall-Sundrum braneworld with anisotropy, i.e., of Bianchi type, the modified Einstein equations on the brane include components of the five-dimensional Weyl tensor for which there are no evolution equations on the brane. If the bulk field equations are not solved, this Weyl term remains unknown, and many previous studies have simply prescribed it ad hoc. We construct a family of Bianchi braneworlds with anisotropy by solving the five-dimensional field equations in the bulk. We analyze the cosmological dynamics on the brane, including the Weyl term, and shed light on the relation between anisotropy on the brane and Weyl curvature in the bulk. In these models, it is not possible to achieve geometric anisotropy for a perfect fluid or scalar field -- the junction conditions require anisotropic stress on the brane. But the solutions can isotropize and approach a Friedmann brane in an anti-de Sitter bulk.