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Sample records for anisotropically alter three-dimensional

  1. Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example ...

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of anisotropic spatially reinforced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.

    1993-01-01

    The material-adaptive three-dimensional analysis of inhomogeneous structures based on the meso-volume concept and application of deficient spline functions for displacement approximations is proposed. The general methodology is demonstrated on the example of a brick-type mosaic parallelepiped arbitrarily composed of anisotropic meso-volumes. A partition of each meso-volume into sub-elements, application of deficient spline functions for a local approximation of displacements and, finally, the use of the variational principle allows one to obtain displacements, strains, and stresses at anypoint within the structural part. All of the necessary external and internal boundary conditions (including the conditions of continuity of transverse stresses at interfaces between adjacent meso-volumes) can be satisfied with requisite accuracy by increasing the density of the sub-element mesh. The application of the methodology to textile composite materials is described. Several numerical examples for woven and braided rectangular composite plates and stiffened panels under transverse bending are considered. Some typical effects of stress concentrations due to the material inhomogeneities are demonstrated.

  3. Modeling Cometary Coma with a Three Dimensional, Anisotropic Multiple Scattering Distributed Processing Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Chris B.

    1997-01-01

    Development of camera and instrument simulations for space exploration requires the development of scientifically accurate models of the objects to be studied. Several planned cometary missions have prompted the development of a three dimensional, multi-spectral, anisotropic multiple scattering model of cometary coma.

  4. Transverse mixing in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirpka, Olaf; Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo;

    2015-01-01

    flow and transport results obtained for a nonstationary anisotropic log-hydraulic conductivity field to an equivalent stationary field with identical mean, variance, and two-point correlation function disregarding the nonstationarity. The nonstationary anisotropic field is affected by mean secondary......Groundwater plumes originating from continuously emitting sources are typically controlled by transverse mixing between the plume and reactants in the ambient solution. In two-dimensional domains, heterogeneity causes only weak enhancement of transverse mixing in steady-state flows. In three......-dimensional domains, more complex flow patterns are possible because streamlines can twist. In particular, spatially varying orientation of anisotropy can cause steady-state groundwater whirls. We analyze steady-state solute transport in three-dimensional locally isotropic heterogeneous porous media with blockwise...

  5. Characterization of three-dimensional anisotropic heart valve tissue mechanical properties using inverse finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Barakat, Mohammed S; Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Azadani, Ali N

    2016-09-01

    Computational modeling has an important role in design and assessment of medical devices. In computational simulations, considering accurate constitutive models is of the utmost importance to capture mechanical response of soft tissue and biomedical materials under physiological loading conditions. Lack of comprehensive three-dimensional constitutive models for soft tissue limits the effectiveness of computational modeling in research and development of medical devices. The aim of this study was to use inverse finite element (FE) analysis to determine three-dimensional mechanical properties of bovine pericardial leaflets of a surgical bioprosthesis under dynamic loading condition. Using inverse parameter estimation, 3D anisotropic Fung model parameters were estimated for the leaflets. The FE simulations were validated using experimental in-vitro measurements, and the impact of different constitutive material models was investigated on leaflet stress distribution. The results of this study showed that the anisotropic Fung model accurately simulated the leaflet deformation and coaptation during valve opening and closing. During systole, the peak stress reached to 3.17MPa at the leaflet boundary while during diastole high stress regions were primarily observed in the commissures with the peak stress of 1.17MPa. In addition, the Rayleigh damping coefficient that was introduced to FE simulations to simulate viscous damping effects of surrounding fluid was determined. PMID:27173827

  6. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  7. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8

  8. Geometric tuning of thermal conductivity in three-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhiyong; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Dames, Chris; Chen, Yunfei

    2016-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the thermal transport properties of a three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic phononic crystal consisting of silicon nanowires and films. The calculation shows that the in-plane thermal conductivity is negatively correlated with the out-of-plane thermal conductivity upon making geometric changes, whether varying the nanowire diameter or the film thickness. This enables the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity to be tailored over a wide range, in some cases by more than a factor of 20. Similar trends in thermal conductivity are also observed from an independent phonon ray tracing simulation considering only diffuse boundary scattering effects, though the range of anisotropy ratios is smaller than that obtained in MD simulation. By analyzing the phonon dispersion relation with varied geometric parameters, it is found that increasing the nanowire diameter increases the out-of-plane acoustic phonon group velocities, but reduces the in-plane longitudinal and fast transverse acoustic phonon group velocities. The calculated phonon irradiation further verified the negative correlation between the in-plane and the out-of-plane thermal conductivity. The proposed 3D phononic crystal may find potential application in thermoelectrics, energy storage, catalysis and sensing applications owing to its widely tailorable thermal conductivity.

  9. Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering of three-dimensional image data from two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broser, Philip J; Schulte, R; Lang, S; Roth, A; Helmchen, Fritjof; Waters, J; Sakmann, Bert; Wittum, G

    2004-01-01

    Two-photon microscopy in combination with novel fluorescent labeling techniques enables imaging of three-dimensional neuronal morphologies in intact brain tissue. In principle it is now possible to automatically reconstruct the dendritic branching patterns of neurons from 3-D fluorescence image stacks. In practice however, the signal-to-noise ratio can be low, in particular in the case of thin dendrites or axons imaged relatively deep in the tissue. Here we present a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original dimensions of the structural elements. The key idea is to use structural information in the raw data-the local moments of inertia-to locally control the strength and direction of diffusion filtering. A cylindrical dendrite, for example, is effectively smoothed only parallel to its longitudinal axis, not perpendicular to it. This is demonstrated for artificial data as well as for in vivo two-photon microscopic data from pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. In both cases noise is averaged out along the dendrites, leading to bridging of apparent gaps, while dendritic diameters are not affected. The filter is a valuable general tool for smoothing cellular processes and is well suited for preparing data for subsequent image segmentation and neuron reconstruction. PMID:15574067

  10. Three-dimensional geometric simulations of random anisotropic growth during transformation phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Rasmus Brauner; Rios, P.R.; Vandermeer, Roy Allen;

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of anisotropic growth during transformation processes are investigated by geometric simulations of randomly oriented shape preserved ellipsoids in three dimensions and the applicability of idealized models are tested. Surprisingly, the results show that the models can p...

  11. Anisotropic three-dimensional peptide channels guide neurite outgrowth within a biodegradable hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musoke-Zawedde, Patricia [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Shoichet, Molly S [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the neurite guidance potential of concentration gradients of glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (GRGDS) oligopeptides immobilized within three-dimensional patterned cylindrical volumes created in a biodegradable nerve guidance matrix. This was achieved using ultraviolet (UV) laser micropatterning of a hyaluronan (HA) hydrogel matrix modified with S-2-nitrobenzyl cysteine. Upon exposure to focused laser light, the 2-nitrobenzyl group was cleaved, exposing thiol groups which reacted with maleimide-terminated GRGDS exclusively within these laser-defined volumes. We show that the UV laser micropatterning technique can be used to create GRGDS peptide concentration gradients within the oligopeptide channels and that these channels guide neurite outgrowth from primary neural cells.

  12. Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional spatially anisotropic Ising superantiferromagnet in the presence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Octavio D.R., E-mail: octaviors@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minosneto@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Viana, J. Roberto, E-mail: vianafisica@bol.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Padilha, Igor T., E-mail: igorfis@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Sousa, J. Ricardo de, E-mail: jsousa@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The phase transition of the three-dimensional spatially anisotropic Ising antiferromagnetic model in the presence of an uniform longitudinal magnetic field H is studied by using the traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for sizes L=16, 32 and 64. The model consists of ferromagnetic interactions J{sub z}=λ{sub 2}J{sub x} in the x(z) direction and antiferromagnetic interactions J{sub y}=λ{sub 1}J{sub x} in the y direction (Ising superantiferromagnetic). For the particular case λ{sub 1}=λ{sub 2}=1 we obtain the phase diagram in the T–H plane. Was observed first- and second-order transitions in the low and high temperature limits, respectively, with the presence of a tricritical point.

  13. In Situ Integration of Anisotropic SnO₂ Heterostructures inside Three-Dimensional Graphene Aerogel for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Guo, Guilue; Ma, Xing; Zhao, Yang; Ang, Chung Yen; Luo, Zhong; Nguyen, Kim Truc; Li, Pei-Zhou; Yan, Qingyu; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogel (GA) has emerged as an outstanding support for metal oxides to enhance the overall energy-storage performance of the resulting hybrid materials. In the current stage of the studies, metals/metal oxides inside GA are in uncrafted geometries. Introducing structure-controlled metal oxides into GA may further push electrochemical properties of metal oxide-GA hybrids. Using rutile SnO2 as an example, we demonstrated here a facile hydrothermal strategy combined with a preconditioning technique named vacuum-assisted impregnation for in situ construction of controlled anisotropic SnO2 heterostructures inside GA. The obtained hybrid material was fully characterized in detail, and its formation mechanism was investigated by monitoring the phase-transformation process. Rational integration of the two advanced structures, anisotropic SnO2 and 3D GA, synergistically led to enhanced lithium-storage properties (1176 mAh/g for the first cycle and 872 mAh/g for the 50th cycle at 100 mA/g) as compared with its two counterparts, namely, rough nanoparticles@3D GA and anisotropic SnO2@2D graphene sheets (618 and 751 mAh/g for the 50th cycle at 100 mA/g, respectively). It was also well-demonstrated that this hybrid material was capable of delivering high specific capacity at rapid charge/discharge cycles (1044 mAh/g at 100 mA/g, 847 mAh/g at 200 mA/g, 698 mAh/g at 500 mA/g, and 584 mAh/g at 1000 mA/g). The in situ integration strategy along with vacuum-assisted impregnation technique presented here shows great potential as a versatile tool for accessing a variety of sophisticated smart structures in the form of anisotropic metals/metal oxides within 3D GA toward useful applications.

  14. A Whole-Mantle Three Dimensional Radially Anisotropic S Velocity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, M. P.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic model of the whole mantle obtained using a large three component surface and body waveform dataset and an iterative inversion for structure and source parameters based on Nonlinear Asymptotic Coupling Theory (NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995). The model is parameterized by isotropic VS up to spherical harmonic degree 24 and ξ (ξ = VSH2 / VSV2), a measurement of radial anisotropy in shear velocity, up to degree 16. While the isotropic portion of the model is consistent with previous shear velocity tomographic models, the anisotropic portion suggests relationships between flow and anisotropy in a vairety of depth ranges. In the uppermost mantle, we confirm observations of regions with VSH}>V{SV starting at ˜80 km under oceanic regions and ˜250 km under old continental lithosphere, suggesting horizontal flow beneath the lithosphere (Gung et al., 2003). We also observe a VSV}>V{SH signature at ˜200-300 km depth beneath major ridge systems with amplitude significantly correlated with spreading rate for fast-spreading segments. In the transition zone (400-700 km depth), regions of subducted slab material are associated with VSV}>V{SH. We also confirm the observation of strong radially symmetric VSH}>V{SV in the lowermost 300 km (Panning and Romanowicz, 2004). The 3D deviations from this degree 0 signature are associated with the transition to the large-scale low-velocity superplumes under the central Pacific and Africa, suggesting that VSH}>V{SV is generated in the predominant horizontal flow of a mechanical boundary layer, with a change in signature related to transition to upwelling at the superplumes. We also solve for source perturbations in an interative procedure. Source perturbations are generally small compared to published Harvard CMT solutions, but significantly improve the fit to the data. The sources in the circum-Pacific subduction zones show small but clearly systematic shifts in location due to an improved structural

  15. A three-dimensional radially anisotropic model of shear velocity in the whole mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    We present a 3-D radially anisotropic S velocity model of the whole mantle (SAW642AN), obtained using a large three component surface and body waveform data set and an iterative inversion for structure and source parameters based on Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory (NACT). The model is parametrized in level 4 spherical splines, which have a spacing of ~ 8°. The model shows a link between mantle flow and anisotropy in a variety of depth ranges. In the uppermost mantle, we confirm observations of regions with VSH > VSV starting at ~80 km under oceanic regions and ~200 km under stable continental lithosphere, suggesting horizontal flow beneath the lithosphere. We also observe a VSV > VSH signature at ~150-300 km depth beneath major ridge systems with amplitude correlated with spreading rate for fast-spreading segments. In the transition zone (400-700 km depth), regions of subducted slab material are associated with VSV > VSH, while the ridge signal decreases. While the mid-mantle has lower amplitude anisotropy ( VSV in the lowermost 300 km, which appears to be a robust conclusion, despite an error in our previous paper which has been corrected here. The 3-D deviations from this signature are associated with the large-scale low-velocity superplumes under the central Pacific and Africa, suggesting that VSH > VSV is generated in the predominant horizontal flow of a mechanical boundary layer, with a change in signature related to transition to upwelling at the superplumes.

  16. The Voigt effects in the anisotropic photonic band gaps of three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals doped by the uniaxial material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) composed of anisotropic dielectric (the uniaxial material) spheres immersed in homogeneous magnetized plasma background with simple-cubic lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered. The equations for calculating the anisotropic PBGs in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and two flatband regions can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of anisotropic PBGs for the three-dimensional MPPCs are studied in detail and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in simple-cubic lattices and the complete PBGs can be found compared to the conventional three-dimensional MPPCs doped by the isotropic material. The bandwidths of PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the magnetized plasma into three-dimensional PCs containing the uniaxial material. It is also shown that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency. The locations of flatband regions cannot be tuned by any parameters except for the plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency. Introducing the uniaxial material in three-dimensional magnetized plasma-dielectric photonic crystals can enlarge the PBGs and also provide a way to obtain the complete PBGs as the three-dimensional MPPCs with high symmetry.

  17. Taming the degeneration of Bessel beams at an anisotropic-isotropic interface: Toward three-dimensional control of confined vortical waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Despite their self-reconstruction properties in heterogeneous media, Bessel beams are known to degenerate when they are refracted from an isotropic to an anisotropic medium. In this paper, we study the converse situation wherein an anisotropic Bessel beam is refracted into an isotropic medium. It is shown that these anisotropic Bessel beams also degenerate, leading to confined vortical waves that may serve as localized particle trap for acoustical tweezers. The linear nature of this degeneration allows the three-dimensional control of this trap position by wavefront correction. Theory is confronted to experiments performed in the field of acoustics. A swirling surface acoustic wave is synthesized at the surface of a piezoelectric crystal by a microelectromechanical integrated system and radiated inside a miniature liquid vessel. The wavefront correction is operated with inverse filter technique. This work opens perspectives for contactless on-chip manipulation devices. PMID:26764844

  18. A double VLEED spin detector for high-resolution three dimensional spin vectorial analysis of anisotropic Rashba spin splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Taichi, E-mail: okudat@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Miyamoto, Koji [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Kimura, Akio [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Namatame, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Newly developed double spin-detectors system utilizing high-efficient very low energy electron diffraction type spin detector for three dimensional spin vectorial analysis is presented. The high efficiency of the spin detector and the state of the art hemispherical electron analyzer enables us to measure all the spin vector components in high energy- and angular-resolution. The detection of orthogonal three spin components (P{sub x}, P{sub y} and P{sub z}) are important to observe real spin structure of the Rashba systems or topological insulators that are deviating from the ideal in-plane tangential helical spin structure. In addition three dimensional spin analysis is important for the determination of the degree of spin polarization of such systems since the spin quantization axis of the systems is not obvious unlike the ferromagnetic materials.

  19. A double VLEED spin detector for high-resolution three dimensional spin vectorial analysis of anisotropic Rashba spin splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly developed double spin-detectors system utilizing high-efficient very low energy electron diffraction type spin detector for three dimensional spin vectorial analysis is presented. The high efficiency of the spin detector and the state of the art hemispherical electron analyzer enables us to measure all the spin vector components in high energy- and angular-resolution. The detection of orthogonal three spin components (Px, Py and Pz) are important to observe real spin structure of the Rashba systems or topological insulators that are deviating from the ideal in-plane tangential helical spin structure. In addition three dimensional spin analysis is important for the determination of the degree of spin polarization of such systems since the spin quantization axis of the systems is not obvious unlike the ferromagnetic materials

  20. Three-dimensional radial anisotropic structure of the North American upper mantle from inversion of surface waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Federica; Gung, Yuancheng; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Seismic anisotropy provides insight into palaeo and recent deformation processes and, therefore, mantle dynamics. In a first step towards a model for the North American upper mantle with anisotropy characterized by a symmetry axis of arbitrary orientation, aimed at filling the gap between global tomography and SKS splitting studies, we inverted long period waveform data simultaneously for perturbations in the isotropic S-velocity structure and the anisotropic parameter , in the framework of normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT). The resulting 2-D broad-band sensitivity kernels allow us to exploit the information contained in long period seismograms for fundamental and higher mode surface waves at the same time. To ensure high quality of the retrieved regional upper-mantle structure, accurate crustal corrections are essential. Here, we follow an approach which goes beyond the linear perturbation approximation and split the correction into a linear and non-linear part. The inverted data set consists of more than 40000 high quality three component fundamental and overtone surface waveforms, recorded at broad-band seismic stations in North America from teleseismic events and provides a fairly homogeneous path and azimuthal coverage. The isotropic part of our tomographic model shares the large-scale features of previous regional studies for North America. We confirm the pronounced difference in the isotropic velocity structure between the western active tectonic region and the central/eastern stable shield, as well as the presence of subducted material (Juan de Fuca and Farallon Plate) at transition zone depths. The new regional 3-D radial anisotropic model indicates the presence of two distinct anisotropic layers beneath the cratonic part of the North American continent: a deep asthenospheric layer, consistent with present day mantle flow, and a shallower lithospheric layer, possibly a record of ancient tectonic events.

  1. Three dimensional model evaluation of physical alterations of the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary: Impact on salt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Detong; Wan, Yongshan; Qiu, Chelsea

    2016-05-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic modeling provides quantitative understanding of how physical alterations of an estuary may alter the waterbody hydrodynamics and the rate of mixing with the ocean. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model (CH3D) was used to compare simulated salinities between the existing condition and five historical cases representing varying physical alterations of the Caloosahatchee Estuary involving (1) removal of the headwater structure (S-79); (2) removal of the downstream causeway to Sanibel Island; (3) backfilling an oyster bar near the estuary month; (4) refilling the navigation channel; and (5) the pre-development bathymetric condition. The results suggested that some alterations including the Sanibel Causeway, backfilling the oyster bar and the S-79 structure may have some local effects but did not change estuarine salinity structure significantly. Refilling the navigation channel had a more profound effect, resulting in a dry season salinity reduction of about 5 when compared with the existing condition. The reduced salt transport was more pronounced with the pre-development bathymetry because the estuary as a whole was much shallower than today. The significant system-wide increase in salt transport caused by the historic dredging of the navigation channel in the Caloosahatchee Estuary has significant implications in the development of attainable environmental flow targets for protecting the estuarine ecosystem.

  2. Measurement of Three-Dimensional Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities for Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics Using Lock-In Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takuya; Nagano, Hosei

    2015-11-01

    A new measurement technique to measure the in-plane thermal diffusivity, the distribution of in-plane anisotropy, and the out-of-plane thermal diffusivity has been developed to evaluate the thermal conductivity of anisotropic materials such as carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs). The measurements were conducted by using a laser-spot-periodic-heating method. The temperature of the sample is detected by using lock-in thermography. Thermography can analyze the phase difference between the periodic heat input and the temperature response of the sample. Two kinds of samples, unidirectional (UD) and cross-ply (CP) pitch-based CFRPs, were fabricated and tested in an atmospheric condition. All carbon fibers of the UD sample run in one direction [90°]. The carbon fibers of the CP sample run in two directions [0°/90°]. It is found that, by using lock-in thermography, it is able to visualize the thermal anisotropy and calculate the angular dependence of the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the CFRPs. The out-of-plane thermal diffusivity of CFRPs was also measured by analyzing the frequency dependence of the phase difference.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of abnormal ultrastructural alteration in mitochondria of hippocampus of APP/PSEN1 transgenic mouse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ki Ju Choi; Mi Jeong Kim; A Reum Je; Sangmi Jun; Chulhyun Lee; Eunji Lee; Mijung Jo; Yang Hoon Huh; Hee-Seok Kweon

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The deterioration of subcellular organelles, including the mitochondria, is another major ultrastructural characteristic of AD pathogenesis, in addition to amyloid plaque deposition. However, the three-dimensional (3-D) study of mitochondrial structural alteration in AD remains poorly understood. Therefore, ultrastructural analysis, 3-D electron tomography, and immunogold electron microscopy were performed in the present study to clarify the abnormal structural alterations in mitochondria caused by the progression of AD in APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice, expressing human amyloid precursor protein, as a model for AD. Amyloid (A) plaques accumulated and dystrophic neurites (DN) developed in the hippocampus of transgenic AD mouse brains. We also identified the loss of peroxiredoxin 3, an endogenous cytoprotective antioxidant enzyme and the accumulation of A in the hippocampal mitochondria of transgenic mice, which differs from those in age-matched wild-type mice. The mitochondria in A plaque-detected regions were severely disrupted, and the patterns of ultrastructural abnormalities were classified into three groups: disappearance of cristae, swelling of cristae, and bulging of the outer membrane. These results demonstrated that morpho-functional alterations of mitochondria and AD progression are closely associated and may be beneficial in investigating the function of mitochondria in AD pathogenesis.

  4. Biomimetic three-dimensional anisotropic geometries by uniaxial stretch of poly(ε-caprolactone) films for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, alignment, and myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zu-yong; Teo, Erin Yiling; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Zhang, Qin-yuan; Lim, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Hong, Ming-hui; Thian, Eng-san; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Teoh, Swee-hin

    2013-07-01

    Anisotropic geometries are critical for eliciting cell alignment to dictate tissue microarchitectures and biological functions. Current fabrication techniques are complex and utilize toxic solvents, hampering their applications for translational research. Here, we present a novel simple, solvent-free, and reproducible method via uniaxial stretching for incorporating anisotropic topographies on bioresorbable films with ambitions to realize stem cell alignment control. Uniaxial stretching of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films resulted in a three-dimensional micro-ridge/groove topography (inter-ridge-distance: ~6 μm; ridge-length: ~90 μm; ridge-depth: 200-900 nm) with uniform distribution and controllable orientation by the direction of stretch on the whole film surface. When stretch temperature (Ts) and draw ratio (DR) were increased, the inter-ridge-distance was reduced and ridge-length increased. Through modification of hydrolysis, increased surface hydrophilicity was achieved, while maintaining the morphology of PCL ridge/grooves. Upon seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on uniaxial-stretched PCL (UX-PCL) films, aligned hMSC organization was obtained. Compared to unstretched films, hMSCs on UX-PCL had larger increase in cellular alignment (>85%) and elongation, without indication of cytotoxicity or reduction in cellular proliferation. This aligned hMSC organization was homogenous and stably maintained with controlled orientation along the ridges on the whole UX-PCL surface for over 2 weeks. Moreover, the hMSCs on UX-PCL had a higher level of myogenic genes' expression than that on the unstretched films. We conclude that uniaxial stretching has potential in patterning film topography with anisotropic structures. The UX-PCL in conjunction with hMSCs could be used as "basic units" to create tissue constructs with microscale control of cellular alignment and elongation for tissue engineering applications.

  5. Three-dimensional disorganization of the cancer genome occurs coincident with long-range genetic and epigenetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlay, Phillippa C; Achinger-Kawecka, Joanna; Lun, Aaron T L; Buske, Fabian A; Sabir, Kenneth; Gould, Cathryn M; Zotenko, Elena; Bert, Saul A; Giles, Katherine A; Bauer, Denis C; Smyth, Gordon K; Stirzaker, Clare; O'Donoghue, Sean I; Clark, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional chromatin state underpins the structural and functional basis of the genome by bringing regulatory elements and genes into close spatial proximity to ensure proper, cell-type-specific gene expression profiles. Here, we performed Hi-C chromosome conformation capture sequencing to investigate how three-dimensional chromatin organization is disrupted in the context of copy-number variation, long-range epigenetic remodeling, and atypical gene expression programs in prostate cancer. We find that cancer cells retain the ability to segment their genomes into megabase-sized topologically associated domains (TADs); however, these domains are generally smaller due to establishment of additional domain boundaries. Interestingly, a large proportion of the new cancer-specific domain boundaries occur at regions that display copy-number variation. Notably, a common deletion on 17p13.1 in prostate cancer spanning the TP53 tumor suppressor locus results in bifurcation of a single TAD into two distinct smaller TADs. Change in domain structure is also accompanied by novel cancer-specific chromatin interactions within the TADs that are enriched at regulatory elements such as enhancers, promoters, and insulators, and associated with alterations in gene expression. We also show that differential chromatin interactions across regulatory regions occur within long-range epigenetically activated or silenced regions of concordant gene activation or repression in prostate cancer. Finally, we present a novel visualization tool that enables integrated exploration of Hi-C interaction data, the transcriptome, and epigenome. This study provides new insights into the relationship between long-range epigenetic and genomic dysregulation and changes in higher-order chromatin interactions in cancer. PMID:27053337

  6. Three-dimensionally modulated anisotropic structure for diffractive optical elements created by one-step three-beam polarization holographic photoalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A diffractive optical element with a three-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) alignment structure for advanced control of polarized beams was fabricated by a highly efficient one-step photoalignment method. This study is of great significance because different two-dimensional continuous and complex alignment patterns can be produced on two alignment films by simultaneously irradiating an empty glass cell composed of two unaligned photocrosslinkable polymer LC films with three-beam polarized interference beam. The polarization azimuth, ellipticity, and rotation direction of the diffracted beams from the resultant LC grating widely varied depending on the two-dimensional diffracted position and the polarization states of the incident beams. These polarization diffraction properties are well explained by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.

  7. Investigation on the magneto-optical Voigt effects in surface plasmon modes and anisotropic photonic band gap in the three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals as the mixed polarized modes considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Ding, Guo-Wen

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the magneto-optical Voigt effects in surface plasmon modes and anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) of the three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) with face-centered-cubic lattices are theoretically investigated based on the modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, which are the homogeneous Te (tellurium) spheres immersed in the homogeneous magnetized plasma background, as the mixed polarized modes are considered. The more general condition is considered, and the anisotropic PBGs are not only for the extraordinary and ordinary modes but also for mixed polarized modes. The equations for computing such anisotropic PBGs are theoretically deduced. Theoretical simulations show that the anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be observed in the dispersive curve. Compared to the similar 3D MPPCs containing the isotropic dielectric or uniaxial material spheres, the larger PBGs can be obtained as the extraordinary axis of the inserted uniaxial material is along the Г-H symmetry line although the region of flatbands is also different. However, the relative bandwidths of PBGs for such two cases are almost the same. The interesting properties of surface plasmon modes can also be found, which are that the upper edge of flatbands region cannot be tuned by the filling factor but can almost linearly increase on increasing the plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field), respectively. The effects of the filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency on the anisotropic PBGs are investigated in detail, respectively. Theoretical calculations also show that such PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above.

  8. Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Leung

    Full Text Available T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58 ± 0.07 µm/s and 2.01 ± 0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility.

  9. Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Rould, Mark A; Konradt, Christoph; Hunter, Christopher A; Ward, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58 ± 0.07 µm/s and 2.01 ± 0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility. PMID:24489670

  10. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bryan; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint and total volume. Our simulations demonstrate that the performance of 3D photovoltaic structures scales linearly with height, leading to volumetric energy conversion, and provides power fairly evenly throughout the day. Furthermore, we show that optimal 3D shapes are not simple box-like shapes, and that design attributes such as reflectivity can be optimized in new ways using three-dimensionality.

  11. The Evaluation for Alterations of DOM Components from Upstream to Downstream Flow of Rivers in Toyama (Japan Using Three-Dimensional Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kuramitz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved organic matter (DOM is one of the important factors for controlling water quality. The behavior and constitutions of DOM is related to the risk of human health because it is able to directly or indirectly affect the behavior, speciation and toxicity of various environmental pollutants. However, it is not easy to know the contents of DOM components without using various complicated and time consuming analytical methods because DOM is a complex mixture and usually exists at low concentration. Here, we describe the fluorescence properties of DOM components in water samples collected from four rivers in Toyama, Japan by means of the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the alterations of DOM components in each of the river during the flow from upstream to downstream, the patterns of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI at six peaks which are originated from fluorophores including humic-like and protein-like components were investigated. The changes in the patterns of RFI values at each of the peak and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC for each river water sample were discussed in connection with the differences of land use managements and basic water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, turbidity, Fe3+, T-N, NO3-N, T-P, PO4-P, chlorophyll a, DOC and N/P ratio. The DOC concentrations in the water samples collected from these rivers were relatively low (0.63–1.16 mg/L. Two main peaks which have a strong RFI value expressed a positive correlation with the DOC concentration (r = 0.557, 0.535. However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287. The alterations of DOM components during the flow of a river from upstream to downstream were investigated from the changes in the patterns of RFI values for six fluorescent peaks. It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T

  12. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  13. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  14. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  15. Three-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Thomas [University Hospital Essen (Germany). West German Heart Center; Franke, Andreas [Klinikum Region Hannover - Klinikum Siloah, Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology, Angiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Monaghan, Mark J. (eds.) [King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Presents tips and tricks for beginners and experts Provides educational material for 3D training courses Features comprehensively illustrated cases Includes an accompanying DVD with video clips of all sample cases Three-dimensional echocardiography is the most recent fundamental advancement in echocardiography. Since real-time 3D echocardiography became commercially available in 2002, it has rapidly been accepted in echo labs worldwide. This book covers all clinically relevant aspects of this fascinating new technology, including a comprehensive explanation of its basic principles, practical aspects of clinical application, and detailed descriptions of specific uses in the broad spectrum of clinically important heart disease. The book was written by a group of well-recognized international experts in the field, who have not only been involved in the scientific and clinical evolution of 3D echocardiography since its inception but are also intensively involved in expert training courses. As a result, the clear focus of this book is on the practical application of 3D echocardiography in daily clinical routine with tips and tricks for both beginners and experts, accompanied by more than 150 case examples comprehensively illustrated in more than 800 images and more than 500 videos provided on a DVD. In addition to an in-depth review of the most recent literature on real-time 3D echocardiography, this book represents an invaluable reference work for beginners and expert users of 3D echocardiography. - Tips and tricks for beginners and experts - Educational material for 3D training courses - Comprehensively illustrated cases - DVD with video clips of all sample cases.

  16. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of this research is to achieve compact supercapacitors with high capacitance, large power density, and long cycle life for using as micro power sources to drive low power devices and sensors. The main shortcoming of supercapacitors as a power source is that its energy density typically is about 1/10 of that of batteries. To achieve compact supercapacitors of large energy density, supercapacitors must be developed with high capacitance and power density which are mainly depended on the effective surface area of the electrodes of the supercapacitors. Many studies have been done to increase the effective surface area by modifying the electrode materials, however, much less investigations are focus on machining the electrodes. In my thesis work, micro- and nano-technologies are applied as technology approaches for machining the electrodes with three dimensional (3D) microstructures. More specific, Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process flow, which integrates the key process such as LIGA-like (German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which mean Lithography, Electroplating and Molding) technology or DRIE (deep reactive ion etching), has been developed to enable innovative designs of 3D MEMS supercapacitors which own the electrodes of significantly increased geometric area. Two types of 3D MEMS supercapcitors, based on LIGA-like and DRIE technology respectively, were designed and successfully created. The LIGA-like based 3D MEMS supercapacitor is with an interdigital 3D structure, and consists of silicon substrate, two electroplated nickel current collectors, two PPy (poly pyrrole) electrodes, and solid state electrolyte. The fabrication process flow developed includes the flowing key processes, SU-8 lithography, nickel electroplating, PPy polymerization and solid state electrolyte coating. Electrochemical tests showed that the single electrode of the supercapacitor has the specific capacitance of 0.058 F cm-2

  17. Three Dimensional Charged Black Hole Inspired by Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We find a new charged black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole as the source of matter and a gaussian distribution of electric charge. We deduce the thermodynamical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a charged BTZ solution.

  18. Three dimensional rigorous model for optical scattering problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.

    2006-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional model based on the finite element method for solving the time-harmonic Maxwell equation in optics. It applies to isotropic or anisotropic dielectrics and metals, and to many configurations such as an isolated scatterer in a multilayer, bi-gratings and crystals. We shal

  19. Three-dimensional vector recording in polarization sensitive liquid crystal composites by using axisymmetrically polarized beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Tien, Tran Minh; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional anisotropic structures were fabricated by a recording axisymmetrically polarized beam in azobenzene (azo)-dye doped liquid crystal polymer composites. Polarization and wavefront modulation properties of fabricated anisotropic structures are investigated by experimentally and theoretically analyzing the diffraction properties. Photo-induced anisotropic structures would be utilized to generate singular light waves, such as optical and polarization vortices.

  20. Three-dimensional Noncommutative Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Banados, M.; Chandia, O.; Grandi, N.; Schaposnik, F. A.; G. A. Silva

    2001-01-01

    We formulate noncommutative three-dimensional (3d) gravity by making use of its connection with 3d Chern-Simons theory. In the Euclidean sector, we consider the particular example of topology $T^2 \\times R$ and show that the 3d black hole solves the noncommutative equations. We then consider the black hole on a constant U(1) background and show that the black hole charges (mass and angular momentum) are modified by the presence of this background.

  1. Three-dimensional obstetric ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tache, Veronique; Tarsa, Maryam; Romine, Lorene; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound has gained a significant popularity in obstetrical practice in recent years. The advantage of this modality in some cases is in question, however. This article provides a basic review of volume acquisition, mechanical positioning, and display modalities. Multiple uses of this technique in obstetrical care including first trimester applications and its utility in clarification of fetal anatomy such as brain, face, heart, and skeleton is discussed. PMID:18450140

  2. Three-dimensional coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John

    2005-04-01

    Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.

  3. The Inherently Three-Dimensional Nature of Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Gregory G

    2013-01-01

    It is often asserted or implicitly assumed, without justification, that the results of two-dimensional investigations of plasma turbulence are applicable to the three-dimensional plasma environments of interest. A projection method is applied to derive two scalar equations that govern the nonlinear evolution of the Alfvenic and pseudo-Alfvenic components of ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma turbulence. The mathematical form of these equations makes clear the inherently three-dimensional nature of plasma turbulence, enabling an analysis of the nonlinear properties of two-dimensional limits often used to study plasma turbulence. In the anisotropic limit k_perp >>k_parallel that naturally arises in magnetized plasma systems, the perpendicular 2D limit retains the dominant nonlinearities that are mediated only by the Alfvenic fluctuations but lacks the wave physics associated with the linear term that is necessary to capture the anisotropic cascade of turbulent energy. In the in-plane 2D limit...

  4. Three-dimensional vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model-based three-dimensional (3-D) object recognition system for an autonomous robot. 3-D information is reconstructed by means of passive trinocular stereo vision. 3-D physical edges are then extracted and linked to obtain scene description features. The representations of 3-D objects are built by using an extended solid model. Shape matching is performed by matching prominent features with those of stored models. The results of partial shape matching are used to determine the orientation and the location of the object in 3-D space. Experimental results using a real object show that the system is effective. (author)

  5. Selective three-dimensional hydrophilization of microstructured polymer surfaces through confined photocatalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammosova, Lena; Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: tapani.pakkanen@uef.fi

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Microstructured polymer surfaces with selective 3-D anisotropy were created. • Selective UV treatment was performed to alter surface wettability. • Removable meshes resembling a photomask were applied during UV treatment. • Micropatterning by viscous polymer on solid surface was performed. - Abstract: While the conventional photomask technique gives only two-dimensional anisotropies, in this study we fabricated microstructured polymer surfaces with a selective three-dimensional anisotropy. With the applied removable mesh, we were able to confine the contacting area between the surface and photoinitiator and provide three-dimensional wettability anisotropies. Different types of meshes were used depending on the desired micropatterns shape, size and substrate material. The results revealed the three-dimensional anisotropic micropits pattern with depth profiles, which would be applicable for the confinement and patterning of cells and biomolecules. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for creating selectively activated polymer surface as a substrate for further atomic layer deposition. Moreover, we demonstrate a low cost and fast mass productive method for patterning a viscous polymer liquid in a micro-sized scale.

  6. Three-dimensional stiffness of the carpal arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The carpal arch of the wrist is formed by irregularly shaped carpal bones interconnected by numerous ligaments, resulting in complex structural mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the three-dimensional stiffness characteristics of the carpal arch using displacement perturbations. It was hypothesized that the carpal arch would exhibit an anisotropic stiffness behavior with principal directions that are oblique to the conventional anatomical axes. Eight (n=8) cadavers were used in this study. For each specimen, the hamate was fixed to a custom stationary apparatus. An instrumented robot arm applied three-dimensional displacement perturbations to the ridge of trapezium and corresponding reaction forces were collected. The displacement-force data were used to determine a three-dimensional stiffness matrix using least squares fitting. Eigendecomposition of the stiffness matrix was used to identify the magnitudes and directions of the principal stiffness components. The carpal arch structure exhibited anisotropic stiffness behaviors with a maximum principal stiffness of 16.4±4.6N/mm that was significantly larger than the other principal components of 3.1±0.9 and 2.6±0.5N/mm (pcarpal tunnel which is accounted for by the stiff transverse ligaments that tightly bind distal carpal arch. The minimal principal stiffness is attributed to the less constraining articulation between the trapezium and scaphoid. This study provides advanced characterization of the wrist׳s three-dimensional structural stiffness for improved insight into wrist biomechanics, stability, and function.

  7. Universal Three Dimensional Optical Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Logan G; Wise, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Modern integrated circuits are essentially two-dimensional (2D). Partial three-dimensional (3D) integration and 3D-transistor-level integrated circuits have long been anticipated as routes to improve the performance, cost and size of electronic computing systems. Even as electronics approach fundamental limits however, stubborn challenges in 3D circuits, and innovations in planar technology have delayed the dimensional transition. Optical computing offers potential for new computing approaches, substantially greater performance and would complement technologies in optical interconnects and data storage. Nevertheless, despite some progress, few proposed optical transistors possess essential features required for integration into real computing systems. Here we demonstrate a logic gate based on universal features of nonlinear wave propagation: spatiotemporal instability and collapse. It meets the scaling criteria and enables a 3D, reconfigurable, globally-hyperconnected architecture that may achieve an exponent...

  8. Three-dimensional homogeneous generalized Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calvaruso, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We study three-dimensional generalized Ricci solitons, both in Riemannian and Lorentzian settings. We shall determine their homogeneous models, classifying left-invariant generalized Ricci solitons on three-dimensional Lie groups.

  9. Three dimensional modeling of CR propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Gaggero, Daniele; Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo; Grasso, Dario

    2013-01-01

    We present here a major upgrade of DRAGON, a numerical package that computes the propagation of a wide set of CR species from both astrophysical and exotic origin in the Galaxy in a wide energy range from tens of MeV to tens of TeV. DRAGON takes into account all relevant processes in particular diffusion, convection, reacceleration, fragmentation and energy losses. For the first time, we present a full 3D version of DRAGON with anisotropic position-dependent diffusion. In this version, the propagation is calculated within a 3D cartesian grid and the user is able to implement realistic and structured three dimensional source, gas and regular magnetic field distributions. Moreover, it is possible to specify an arbitrary function of position and rigidity for the diffusion coefficients in the parallel and perpendicular direction to the regular magnetic field of the Galaxy. The code opens many new possibilities in the study of CR physics. In particular, we can study for the first time the impact of the spiral arm ...

  10. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  11. True three-dimensional camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2013-01-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.

  12. Three-Dimensional Structure of Solar Wind Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H K; Schekochihin, A A; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; Bale, S D

    2011-01-01

    We have measured, for the first time, the three-dimensional structure of inertial range plasma turbulence in the fast solar wind with respect to a local, physically motivated coordinate system. We found that the incompressible Alfvenic fluctuations are three-dimensionally anisotropic, with the sense of this anisotropy changing from large to small scales. At the largest scales, the magnetic field correlations are longest in the local fluctuation direction, consistent with Alfven waves. At the smallest scales, they are longest along the local mean field direction and shortest in the direction perpendicular to the local mean field and the local field fluctuation. The compressive fluctuations are highly elongated along the local mean magnetic field direction, although axially symmetric perpendicular to it. Their large anisotropy may explain why they are not heavily damped.

  13. Three-dimensional stiffness of the carpal arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The carpal arch of the wrist is formed by irregularly shaped carpal bones interconnected by numerous ligaments, resulting in complex structural mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the three-dimensional stiffness characteristics of the carpal arch using displacement perturbations. It was hypothesized that the carpal arch would exhibit an anisotropic stiffness behavior with principal directions that are oblique to the conventional anatomical axes. Eight (n=8) cadavers were used in this study. For each specimen, the hamate was fixed to a custom stationary apparatus. An instrumented robot arm applied three-dimensional displacement perturbations to the ridge of trapezium and corresponding reaction forces were collected. The displacement-force data were used to determine a three-dimensional stiffness matrix using least squares fitting. Eigendecomposition of the stiffness matrix was used to identify the magnitudes and directions of the principal stiffness components. The carpal arch structure exhibited anisotropic stiffness behaviors with a maximum principal stiffness of 16.4±4.6N/mm that was significantly larger than the other principal components of 3.1±0.9 and 2.6±0.5N/mm (p<0.001). The principal direction of the maximum stiffness was pronated within the cross section of the carpal tunnel which is accounted for by the stiff transverse ligaments that tightly bind distal carpal arch. The minimal principal stiffness is attributed to the less constraining articulation between the trapezium and scaphoid. This study provides advanced characterization of the wrist׳s three-dimensional structural stiffness for improved insight into wrist biomechanics, stability, and function. PMID:26617368

  14. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  15. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  16. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualize...

  17. Three-Dimensional Statistics of Radio Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    McKinnon, Mark M.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of radio polarization may be regarded as a three-dimensional statistical problem because the large photon densities at radio wavelengths allow the simultaneous detection of the three Stokes parameters which completely describe the radiation's polarization. The statistical nature of the problem arises from the fluctuating instrumental noise, and possibly from fluctuations in the radiation's polarization. A statistical model is used to derive the general, three-dimensional stati...

  18. Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, P.; Archer, A. J.; Knobloch, E.; Rucklidge, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation.

  19. Three-Dimensional Statistics of Radio Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McKinnon, M M

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of radio polarization may be regarded as a three-dimensional statistical problem because the large photon densities at radio wavelengths allow the simultaneous detection of the three Stokes parameters which completely describe the radiation's polarization. The statistical nature of the problem arises from the fluctuating instrumental noise, and possibly from fluctuations in the radiation's polarization. A statistical model is used to derive the general, three-dimensional statistics that govern radio polarization measurements. The statistics are derived for specific cases of source-intrinsic polarization, with an emphasis on the orthogonal polarization modes in pulsar radio emission. The statistics are similar to those commonly found in other fields of the physical, biological, and Earth sciences. Given the highly variable linear and circular polarization of pulsar radio emission, an understanding of the three-dimensional statistics may be an essential prequisite to a thorough interpretation of...

  20. Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, P; Archer, A J; Knobloch, E; Rucklidge, A M

    2016-08-12

    We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation. PMID:27563973

  1. Three dimensional dynamics of ferromagnetic swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erglis, K.; Livanovics, R. [Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Ri-bar ga LV-1002 (Latvia); Cebers, A., E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.l [Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Ri-bar ga LV-1002 (Latvia)

    2011-05-15

    It is shown that a flexible ferromagnetic filament self-propels perpendicularly to the AC magnetic field during a limited period of time due to the instability of the planar motion with respect to three dimensional perturbations. The transition from the oscillating U-like shapes to the oscillating S-like shapes is characterized by the calculated Wr number. - Research Highlights: A ferromagnetic filament self-propels perpendicularly to the AC field. During the self-propulsion cycle the filament moves both forward and backward. The self-propulsion stops due to the three dimensional instability. The mechanism of the self-propulsion is similar to that used by some microorganisms.

  2. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1989-01-01

    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  3. A three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code for insertion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, O; Elleaume, P; Chavanne, J

    1998-05-01

    RADIA is a three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code optimized for the design of undulators and wigglers. It solves boundary magnetostatics problems with magnetized and current-carrying volumes using the boundary integral approach. The magnetized volumes can be arbitrary polyhedrons with non-linear (iron) or linear anisotropic (permanent magnet) characteristics. The current-carrying elements can be straight or curved blocks with rectangular cross sections. Boundary conditions are simulated by the technique of mirroring. Analytical formulae used for the computation of the field produced by a magnetized volume of a polyhedron shape are detailed. The RADIA code is written in object-oriented C++ and interfaced to Mathematica [Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc.]. The code outperforms currently available finite-element packages with respect to the CPU time of the solver and accuracy of the field integral estimations. An application of the code to the case of a wedge-pole undulator is presented.

  4. Three-dimensional stochastic seepage field for embankment engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jun WANG; Wo-hua ZHANG; Chang-yu WU; Da-chun REN

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the complexity of get-engineering seepage problems influenced by different random factors, three-dimensional simulation and analysis of the stochastic seepage field plays an important role in engineering applications. A three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous steady random seepage model was developed on the basis of the finite element method. A statistical analysis of the distribution characteristics of soil parameters sampled from the main embankment of the Yangtze River in the Southern Jingzhou zone of China was conducted. The Kolomogorov-Smimov test verified the statistical hypothesis that the permeability coefficient tensor has a Gaussian distribution. With the help of numerical analysis of the stochastic seepage field using the developed model, various statistical and random characteristics of the stochastic seepage field of the main embankment of the Yangtze River in the Southern Jingzhou zone of China were investigated. The model was also examined with statistical testing. Through the introduction of random variation of the upstream and downstream water levels into the model, the effects of the boundary randomness due to variation of the downstream and upstream water levels on the variation of simulated results presented with a vector series of the random seepage field were analyzed. Furthermore, the combined influence of the variation of the soil permeability coefficient and such seepage resistance measures as the cut-off wall and relief ditch on the hydraulic head distribution was analyzed and compared with the results obtained by determinate analysis. Meanwhile, sensitivities of the hydraulic gradient and downstream exit height to the variation of boundary water level were studied. The validity of the simulated results was verified by stochastic testing and measured data. The developed model provides more detail and a full stochastic algorithm to characterize and analyze three-dimensional stochastic seepage field problems.

  5. Three-dimensional collinearly propagating solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is modified in order to describe three-dimensional solitons propagating collinearly with a constant velocity. One- and two-soliton solutions are obtained and analysed. When the frequencies of the respective solitons approach, then the effect of the repulsion of the solitons is observed. These solitons are proposed to model photons. (paper)

  6. Three Dimensional Display Of Meteorological Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Stanley L.

    1988-01-01

    Even a cursory reading of any daily newspaper shows that we are in the midst of a dramatic revolution in computer graphics. Virtually every day some new piece of hardware or software is announced, adding to the tools available to the working scientist. Three dimensional graphics form a significant part of this revolution having become virtually commonplace in advertising and on television.

  7. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment of a c...

  8. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs

  9. Three-dimensional positioning with optofluidic microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Marie, Rodolphe; Jensen, Eric;

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on-chip based optical detection with three-dimensional spatial resolution by integration of an optofluidic microscope (OFM) in a microfluidic pinched flow fractionation (PFF) separation device. This setup also enables on-chip particle image velocimetry (PIV). The position in th...

  10. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  11. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  12. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  13. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  14. Artifacts in three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faletra, Francesco Fulvio; Ramamurthi, Alamelu; Dequarti, Maria Cristina; Leo, Laura Anna; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pandian, Natesa

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is subject to the same types of artifacts encountered on two-dimensional TEE. However, when displayed in a 3D format, some of the artifacts appear more "realistic," whereas others are unique to image acquisition and postprocessing. Three-dimensional TEE is increasingly used in the setting of percutaneous catheter-based interventions and ablation procedures, and 3D artifacts caused by the metallic components of catheters and devices are particularly frequent. Knowledge of these artifacts is of paramount relevance to avoid misinterpretation of 3D images. Although artifacts and pitfalls on two-dimensional echocardiography are well described and classified, a systematic description of artifacts in 3D transesophageal echocardiographic images and how they affect 3D imaging is still absent. The aim of this review is to describe the most relevant artifacts on 3D TEE, with particular emphasis on those occurring during percutaneous interventions for structural heart disease and ablation procedures.

  15. Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Kebin; Strikwerda, Andrew; Zhang, Xin;

    2013-01-01

    We present optically tunable magnetic three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials at terahertz (THz) frequencies which exhibit a tuning range of ~30% of the resonance frequency. This is accomplished by fabricating 3D array structures consisting of double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs) on silicon on sapph......We present optically tunable magnetic three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials at terahertz (THz) frequencies which exhibit a tuning range of ~30% of the resonance frequency. This is accomplished by fabricating 3D array structures consisting of double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs) on silicon...... as verified through electromagnetic simulations and parameter retrieval. Our approach extends dynamic metamaterial tuning to magnetic control, and may find applications in switching and modulation, polarization control, or tunable perfect absorbers....

  16. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  17. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells. This work introduces a new type of 3D PV device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. These arrays are paired with the thin film heterojunction, CdTe/CdS, to form a complete 3D carbon nanotube PV device (3DCNTPV). Marriage of a complicated 3D structure with production methods traditionally used for planar CdTe solar cell is challenging. This work examines the problems associated with processing these types of cells and systematically alters production methods of the semiconductor layers and electrodes to increase the short circuit current (Isc), eliminate parasitic shunts, and increase the open circuit voltage (Voc). The main benefit of 3D solar cell is the ability to utilize multiple photon interactions with the solar cell surface. The three dimensionality allows photons to interact multiple times with the photoactive material, which increases the absorption and the overall power output over what is possible with a two dimensional (2D) morphology. To quantify the increased power output arising from these multiple photon interactions, a new absorption efficiency term, eta3D, is introduced. The theoretical basis behind this new term and how it relates to the absorption efficiency of a planar cell, eta 2D, is derived. A unique model for the average number of multiple photon impingements, Gamma, is proposed based on three categories of 3D morphology: an infinite trench, an enclosed box, and an array of towers. The derivation of eta3D and Gamma for these 3D PV devices gives a complete picture of the enhanced power output over 2D cells based on CNT array height, pitch, radius, and shape. This theory is validated by monte carlo simulations and experiment. This new type of 3D PV devices has been shown to work experimentally. The first 3DCNTPV cells created posses Isc values of 0.085 to 17.872mA/cm2 and Voc values

  18. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    AlAli, Ahmad B.; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Method...

  19. Localization on three-dimensional manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the localization of three dimensional N=2 supersymmetric theories on compact manifolds, including the squashed sphere, S^3_b, the lens space, S^3_b/Z_p, and S^2 x S^1. We describe how to write supersymmetric actions on these spaces, and then compute the partition functions and other supersymmetric observables by employing the localization argument. We briefly survey some applications of these computations.

  20. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  1. Teaching and Assessing Three-Dimensional M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Booth, Deborah; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, Jane; Richardson, David

    2002-05-01

    Structural concepts such as the exact arrangement of a protein in three dimensions are crucial to almost every aspect of biology and chemistry, yet most of us have not been educated in three-dimensional literacy and all of us need a great deal of help in order to perceive and to communicate structural information successfully. It is in the undergraduate biochemistry course where students learn most concepts of molecular structure pertinent to living systems. We are addressing the issue of three-dimensional structural literacy by having undergraduate students construct kinemages, which are plain text scripts derived from Protein Data Bank coordinate files that can be viewed with the program MAGE. These annotated, interactive, three-dimensional illustrations are designed to develop a molecular story and allow exploration in the world of that story. In the process, students become familiar with the structure-based scientific literature and the Protein Data Bank. Our assessment to date has shown that students perceive kinemage authorship to be more helpful in understanding protein structure than simply viewing prepared kinemages. In addition, students perceived kinemage authorship as being beneficial to their career and a significant motivation to learn biochemistry.

  2. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Muralidhar

    2014-01-01

    Careful and continuous measurements of flow, heat and mass transfer are required in quite a few contexts. Using appropriate light sources, it is possible to map velocity, temperature, and species concentration over a cross-section and as a function of time. Image formation in optical measurements may rely on scattering of radiation from particles. Alternatively, if the region of interest is transparent, refractive index would be a field variable and beam bending effects can be used to extract information about temperature and concentration of solutes dissolved in liquids. Time-lapsed images of light intensity can be used to determine fluid velocity. Though used originally for flow visualization, optical imaging has now emerged as a powerful tool for quantitative measurements. Optical methods that utilize the dependence of refractive index on concentration and temperature can be configured in many different ways. Three available routes considered are interferometry, schlieren imaging, and shadowgraph. Images recorded in these configurations can be analysed to yield time sequences of three-dimensional distributions of the transported variables. Optical methods are non-intrusive, inertia-free and can image cross-sections of the experimental apparatus. The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of measurements by extracting unsteady three-dimensional data in applications related to transport phenomena.

  3. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  4. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  5. CIPER: a two- and three-dimensional perturbation code based on diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CIPER code calculates a reactivity on the basis of the first order or exact perturbation theory by using an output from a two or three-dimensional diffusion calculation. The code accepts the neutron flux and adjoint flux computed by the CITATION code. The anisotropic effect of leakage can be obtained from the adoption of the anisotropic diffusion coefficients. This code is programmed with the use of arrays with adjustable dimensions for main variables. This article includes an explanation of calculation formula and input-output formats of the CIPER code. The Sample I/O list and Fortran list are given in the appendix. (auth.)

  6. Three dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: exact solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Panahiyan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results with dilaton gravity, on one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity with gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.

  7. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  8. Three-dimensional lock and key colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano; Pine, David J; Weck, Marcus

    2014-05-14

    Colloids with well-defined multicavities are synthesized through the hydrolytic removal of silica cluster templates from organo-silica hybrid patchy particles. The geometry of the cavities stems from the originally assembled cluster templates, displaying well-defined three-dimensional symmetries, ranging from spherical, linear, triangular, tetrahedral, trigonal dipyramidal, octahedral, to pentagonal dipyramidal. The concave surface of the cavities is smooth, and the cavity shallowness and size can be varied. These particles with multicavities can act as "lock" particles with multiple "key holes". Up to n "key" particles can self-assemble into the lock particles via depletion interaction, resulting in multivalent, site-specific, reversible, and flexible bonding. PMID:24785203

  9. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLOMBO, CHIARA; TAMBORINI, GLORIA; PEPI, MAURO; ALIMENTO, MARINA; FIORENTINI, CESARE

    2007-01-01

    This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic) and quantitative advantages of this technique. PMID:21977273

  10. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  11. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul;

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.4...... cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  12. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  13. Modeling Liquid-Crystal Devices with the Three-Dimensional Full-Vector Beam Propagation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya

    2006-01-01

    Simulation of light propagation within nematic liquid-crystal (LC) devices is considered, of which the director is aligned normal to the z axis. A three-dimensional full-vector finite-difference beam propagation method for an anisotropic medium is presented and an alternating direction implicit scheme is adopted. Simulations of light propagation in a bulk polarization converter, a waveguide with a LC covering layer, and an integrated polarization splitter and optical switch are presented. Com...

  14. CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kachynski, A V; Prasad, P N; Smalyukh, I I

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.

  15. A statistical model of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model of three-dimensionally anisotropic, intermittent, strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, incorporating both critical balance and dynamic alignment. Our model is based on log-Poisson statistics for Elsasser-field increments {\\em along} the magnetic field. We predict the scalings of Elsasser-field conditional two-point structure functions with point separations in all three directions in a coordinate system locally aligned with the direction of the magnetic field an...

  16. Three-dimensional flow in Kupffer's Vesicle

    CERN Document Server

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Smith, David J; Lopes, Susana S

    2016-01-01

    Whilst many vertebrates appear externally left-right symmetric, the arrangement of internal organs is asymmetric. In zebrafish, the breaking of left-right symmetry is organised by Kupffer's Vesicle (KV): an approximately spherical, fluid-filled structure that begins to form in the embryo 10 hours post fertilisation. A crucial component of zebrafish symmetry breaking is the establishment of a cilia-driven fluid flow within KV. However, it is still unclear (a) how dorsal, ventral and equatorial cilia contribute to the global vortical flow, and (b) if this flow breaks left-right symmetry through mechanical transduction or morphogen transport. Fully answering these questions requires knowledge of the three-dimensional flow patterns within KV, which have not been quantified in previous work. In this study, we calculate and analyse the three-dimensional flow in KV. We consider flow from both individual and groups of cilia, and (a) find anticlockwise flow can arise purely from excess of cilia on the dorsal roof over...

  17. Two component-three dimensional catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.

  18. Modelling of Three-Dimensional Nanographene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, Christos; Kelires, Pantelis C

    2016-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations and tight-binding calculations shed light on the properties of three-dimensional nanographene, a material composed of interlinked, covalently-bonded nanoplatelet graphene units. By constructing realistic model networks of nanographene, we study its structure, mechanical stability, and optoelectronic properties. We find that the material is nanoporous with high specific surface area, in agreement with experimental reports. Its structure is characterized by randomly oriented and curved nanoplatelet units which retain a high degree of graphene order. The material exhibits good mechanical stability with a formation energy of only ∼0.3 eV/atom compared to two-dimensional graphene. It has high electrical conductivity and optical absorption, with values approaching those of graphene. PMID:26983431

  19. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  20. Three dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirali Girish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional echocardiography (3DE is a new, rapidly evolving modality for cardiac imaging. Important technological advances have heralded an era where practical 3DE scanning is becoming a mainstream modality. We review the modes of 3DE that can be used. The literature has been reviewed for articles that examine the applicability of 3DE to congenital heart defects to visualize anatomy in a spectrum of defects ranging from atrioventricular septal defects to mitral valve abnormalities and Ebstein′s anomaly. The use of 3DE color flow to obtain echocardiographic angiograms is illustrated. The state of the science in quantitating right and left ventricular volumetrics is reviewed. Examples of novel applications including 3DE transesophageal echocardiography and image-guided interventions are provided. We also list the limitations of the technique, and discuss potential future developments in the field.

  1. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  2. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiorentini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic and quantitative advantages of this technique. (Heart International 2007; 3: 35-41

  3. Entanglement entropy in three dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi and covariant Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi proposals relate entanglement entropy in CFTs with holographic duals to the areas of minimal or extremal surfaces in the bulk geometry. We show how, in three dimensional pure gravity, the relevant regulated geodesic lengths can be obtained by writing a spacetime as a quotients of AdS3, with the problem reduced to a simple purely algebraic calculation. We explain how this works in both Lorentzian and Euclidean formalisms, before illustrating its use to obtain novel results in a number of examples, including rotating BTZ, the RP2 geon, and several wormhole geometries. This includes spatial and temporal dependence of single-interval entanglement entropy, despite these symmetries being broken only behind an event horizon. We also discuss considerations allowing HRT to be derived from analytic continuation of Euclidean computations in certain contexts, and a related class of complexified extremal surfaces.

  4. Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Kim

    Full Text Available Cells in three-dimensional (3D environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix.

  5. Steady inviscid three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Chang, S.-C.

    1985-01-01

    The present analysis combines some of the theoretical concepts suggested by Hawthorne (1955) with a numerical integration procedure suggested by Martin (1978). The resulting algorithm is for inviscid subsonic flows. Thus, it is restricted to high Reynolds number flows. Chang and Adamczyk (1983) have provided a detailed derivation of the present algorithm along with a discussion of its stability bounds. The present paper represents a summary of this work. The integration of the continuity equation is considered along with an evaluation of the entropy, total temperature, and vorticity field. Attention is given to the shear-flow algorithm construction, and an application to a shear flow in a turning channel. A description of numerical results is also provided. The discussed algorithm represents a new procedure for solving inviscid subsonic three-dimensional rotational flows.

  6. Three-dimensional pancreas organogenesis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin-Botton, A

    2016-09-01

    A rediscovery of three-dimensional culture has led to the development of organ biogenesis, homeostasis and disease models applicable to human tissues. The so-called organoids that have recently flourished serve as valuable models bridging between cell lines or primary cells grown on the bottom of culture plates and experiments performed in vivo. Though not recapitulating all aspects of organ physiology, the miniature organs generated in a dish are useful models emerging for the pancreas, starting from embryonic progenitors, adult cells, tumour cells and stem cells. This review focusses on the currently available systems and their relevance to the study of the pancreas, of β-cells and of several pancreatic diseases including diabetes. We discuss the expected future developments for studying human pancreas development and function, for developing diabetes models and for producing therapeutic cells. PMID:27615129

  7. Scaffolding for Three-Dimensional Embryonic Vasculogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Aday, Sezin; Ferreira, Lino S.

    Biomaterial scaffolds have great potential to support efficient vascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Vascular cell fate-specific biochemical and biophysical cues have been identified and incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to efficiently direct embryonic vasculogenesis. The resulting vascular-like tissue can be used for regenerative medicine applications, further elucidation of biophysical and biochemical cues governing vasculogenesis, and drug discovery. In this chapter, we give an overview on the following: (1) developmental cues for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into vascular cells, (2) 3D vascular differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs), (3) preparation of 3D scaffolds for the vascular differentiation of hESCs, and (4) the most significant studies combining scaffolding and hESCs for development of vascular-like tissue.

  8. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  9. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using an analytical method, the paper treats the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of an incompressible, perfectly conducting plasma with an embedded magnetic field in the presence of a gravitational field. We derive a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation for the magnetic potential or stream function. According to the basic equation obtained by us, we analyse a simple example of solutions with the realistic physical property. This set of solutions represents a magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model for the solar prominence. The results show that the z-component of the inertia force is everywhere upward, adding to upward the Lorentz force and pressure gradient in supporting the plasma weight in a magnetic well. (author)

  10. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  11. Lattice Three-Dimensional Skyrmions Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Charalampidis, E G; Kevrekidis, P G

    2014-01-01

    In the continuum a skyrmion is a topological nontrivial map between Riemannian manifolds, and a stationary point of a particular energy functional. This paper describes lattice analogues of the aforementioned skyrmions, namely a natural way of using the topological properties of the three-dimensional continuum Skyrme model to achieve topological stability on the lattice. In particular, using fixed point iterations, numerically exact lattice skyrmions are constructed; and their stability under small perturbations is verified by means of linear stability analysis. While stable branches of such solutions are identified, it is also shown that they possess a particularly delicate bifurcation structure, especially so in the vicinity of the continuum limit. The corresponding bifurcation diagram is elucidated and a prescription for selecting the branch asymptoting to the well-known continuum limit is given. Finally, the robustness of the solutions by virtue of direct numerical simulations is corroborated.

  12. Three Dimensional CAPP Technology of Projectile Based on MBD

    OpenAIRE

    Hongzhi Zhao; Yingai Piao; Xiaoyong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at the research goal of three-dimensional digital process design of projectile, which adopts three-dimensional computer-aided process design technology based on MBD and uses MBD to conduct parametric modeling of projectile that can reduce the input of projectile’s process information and data conversion and produce reasonable, feasible and three-dimensional projectile manufacturing process to realize paperless three-dimensional process design of projectile. The application of ...

  13. Non-Fickian three-dimensional moisture absorption in polymeric composites: Development and validation of hindered diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Landon

    The importance of environmental damage consideration in the design of polymeric composite structures is discussed, with emphasis on the relationship between absorbed moisture content and material property degradation. A brief overview of existing predictive models of moisture diffusion and their limitations is presented. The three-dimensional anisotropic Fickian diffusion model is expanded to include the effects of the interaction of diffusing molecules with the chemical and physical structure of polymeric composites. The numerical solution of this novel hindered diffusion model is obtained for a three-dimensional, anisotropic domain by using a forward-time centered-space finite difference technique. The numerical solution method is verified by comparing the results to known analytical solutions of a one-dimensional, "Langmuir-type" diffusion model and for the limiting case of the three-dimensional Fickian model. The proposed three-dimensional anisotropic hindered diffusion model (3D HDM) and its one-dimensional isotropic version are successfully applied to three experimental moisture absorption data sets reconstructed from existing literature. An analytical solution based on a judicious approximation to the 3D HDM is developed in an effort to increase the utility of the model in the recovery of polymeric composite diffusion properties from experimental data. The effectiveness of the recovery of absorption properties is assessed using artificially generated "synthetic" experimental data. The anisotropic diffusivities, equilibrium moisture content (Minfinity), and molecular binding (gamma) and unbinding (beta) probabilities that govern three-dimensional hindered diffusion are recovered using least-squares regression. Using both Fickian and non-Fickian synthetic moisture absorption data, diffusivities and equilibrium moisture content are recovered with less than 1% error. Values of gamma and beta are recovered with less than 3% error in the non-Fickian diffusion case

  14. Dilution and reactive mixing in three-dimensional helical flows in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Ye, Yu; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Dilution under steady-state flow and transport conditions in porous media occurs primarily by lateral mass exchange at the fringe of solute plumes. This process controls the fate and transport of scalars in groundwater and in chemical reactors and it is fundamental for the understanding of many reactive processes. Three-dimensional flow fields can be characterized by a complex topological structure, which may greatly influence dilution and dilution enhancement of dissolved plumes, which is quantified by the exponential of the Shannon entropy [1]. In previous works, we identified the necessary conditions to obtain helical flow fields in non-stationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media [2, 3]. To prove our theoretical findings, we perform steady-state bench-scale experiments with a conservative tracer and we provide a model-based investigation of the results [4]. The relevance of transverse mixing enhancement for the case of reactive solute transport is computed numerically using, as metrics of mixing, the length of a reactive plume undergoing an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction and its critical dilution index. [1] Cirpka O.A., Chiogna G., Rolle M. and A. Bellin (2015). Transverse mixing in three-dimensional non-stationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015331. [2] Chiogna G., Cirpka O.A., Rolle M. and A. Bellin (2015). Helical flow streamlines in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, DOI:10.1002/2014WR015330. [3] Chiogna G., Rolle M., Bellin A. and O.A. Cirpka (2014). Helicity and flow topology in three dimensional porous media. Advances in Water Resources, 73, 134-143, DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.06.017. [4] Ye Y., Chiogna G., Cirpka O.A., Grathwohl P., and M. Rolle (2015). Experimental evidence of helical flow in porous media. Phys. Rev. Lett., 115, 194502, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.194502

  15. Analytical three-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks for verification of nuclear engineering codes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the requirement of accountability and quality control in the scientific world, a demand for high-quality analytical benchmark calculations has arisen in the neutron transport community. The intent of these benchmarks is to provide a numerical standard to which production neutron transport codes may be compared in order to verify proper operation. The overall investigation as modified in the second year renewal application includes the following three primary tasks. Task 1 on two dimensional neutron transport is divided into (a) single medium searchlight problem (SLP) and (b) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 2 on three-dimensional neutron transport covers (a) point source in arbitrary geometry, (b) single medium SLP, and (c) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 3 on code verification, includes deterministic and probabilistic codes. The primary aim of the proposed investigation was to provide a suite of comprehensive two- and three-dimensional analytical benchmarks for neutron transport theory applications. This objective has been achieved. The suite of benchmarks in infinite media and the three-dimensional SLP are a relatively comprehensive set of one-group benchmarks for isotropically scattering media. Because of time and resource limitations, the extensions of the benchmarks to include multi-group and anisotropic scattering are not included here. Presently, however, enormous advances in the solution for the planar Green's function in an anisotropically scattering medium have been made and will eventually be implemented in the two- and three-dimensional solutions considered under this grant. Of particular note in this work are the numerical results for the three-dimensional SLP, which have never before been presented. The results presented were made possible only because of the tremendous advances in computing power that have occurred during the past decade

  16. Analytical three-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks for verification of nuclear engineering codes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Kornreich, D.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Because of the requirement of accountability and quality control in the scientific world, a demand for high-quality analytical benchmark calculations has arisen in the neutron transport community. The intent of these benchmarks is to provide a numerical standard to which production neutron transport codes may be compared in order to verify proper operation. The overall investigation as modified in the second year renewal application includes the following three primary tasks. Task 1 on two dimensional neutron transport is divided into (a) single medium searchlight problem (SLP) and (b) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 2 on three-dimensional neutron transport covers (a) point source in arbitrary geometry, (b) single medium SLP, and (c) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 3 on code verification, includes deterministic and probabilistic codes. The primary aim of the proposed investigation was to provide a suite of comprehensive two- and three-dimensional analytical benchmarks for neutron transport theory applications. This objective has been achieved. The suite of benchmarks in infinite media and the three-dimensional SLP are a relatively comprehensive set of one-group benchmarks for isotropically scattering media. Because of time and resource limitations, the extensions of the benchmarks to include multi-group and anisotropic scattering are not included here. Presently, however, enormous advances in the solution for the planar Green`s function in an anisotropically scattering medium have been made and will eventually be implemented in the two- and three-dimensional solutions considered under this grant. Of particular note in this work are the numerical results for the three-dimensional SLP, which have never before been presented. The results presented were made possible only because of the tremendous advances in computing power that have occurred during the past decade.

  17. IRIS: A Generic Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Ibgui, L; Lanz, T; Stehlé, C

    2012-01-01

    We present IRIS, a new generic three-dimensional (3D) spectral radiative transfer code that generates synthetic spectra, or images. It can be used as a diagnostic tool for comparison with astrophysical observations or laboratory astrophysics experiments. We have developed a 3D short-characteristic solver that works with a 3D nonuniform Cartesian grid. We have implemented a piecewise cubic, locally monotonic, interpolation technique that dramatically reduces the numerical diffusion effect. The code takes into account the velocity gradient effect resulting in gradual Doppler shifts of photon frequencies and subsequent alterations of spectral line profiles. It can also handle periodic boundary conditions. This first version of the code assumes Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and no scattering. The opacities and source functions are specified by the user. In the near future, the capabilities of IRIS will be extended to allow for non-LTE and scattering modeling. IRIS has been validated through a number of te...

  18. Three-dimensional visualization of intracranial vessels and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR three-dimensional-Fourier-transform, gradient-echo sequences are available that allow the acquisition of high-quality data sets, suitable for three- dimensional image processing. Most recently, flow- compensated measurement sequences are used to achieve a three-dimensional perspective of the vascular anatomy. Spatial relationships between vessels and adjacent structures can be revealed by three-dimensional displays, showing both vessels and tissue surfaces (brain, tumor) in a three- dimensional manner. The image-processing techniques are based on the ray-tracing principle. The method can be used for the optimization of neurosurgical planning in the sellar region

  19. Three Dimensional CAPP Technology of Projectile Based on MBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Zhao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the research goal of three-dimensional digital process design of projectile, which adopts three-dimensional computer-aided process design technology based on MBD and uses MBD to conduct parametric modeling of projectile that can reduce the input of projectile’s process information and data conversion and produce reasonable, feasible and three-dimensional projectile manufacturing process to realize paperless three-dimensional process design of projectile. The application of three-dimensional computer-assisted process design technology of projectile based on model definition can shorten the design cycle of projectile, thus improving rapid manufacturing capacity of product and reducing cost.

  20. THEORETICAL STUDY OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL MANIFOLD METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Shao-ming; ZHANG Xiang-wei; L(U) Wen-ge; JIANG Dong-ru

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional numerical manifold method(NMM) is studied on the basis of two-dimensional numerical manifold method. The three-dimensional cover displacement function is studied. The mechanical analysis and Hammer integral method of three-dimensional numerical manifold method are put forward. The stiffness matrix of three-dimensional manifold element is derived and the dissection rules are given. The theoretical system and the numerical realizing method of three-dimensional numerical manifold method are systematically studied. As an example, the cantilever with load on the end is calculated, and the results show that the precision and efficiency are agreeable.

  1. Three-dimensional urban GIS for Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Dharmajyoti; Faust, Nickolas L.; Estrada, Diana; Linares, Jairo

    1997-07-01

    Georgia Tech has developed a prototype system for the demonstration of the concepts of a virtual 3D geographic information system (GIS) in an urban environment. The virtual GIS integrates the technologies of GIS, remote sensing, and visualization to provide an interactive tool for the exploration of spatial data. A high density urban environment with terrain elevation, imagery, GIS layers, and three dimensional natural and manmade features is a stressing test for the integration potential of such a virtual 3D GIS. In preparation for the 1996 Olympic Games, Georgia Tech developed two highly detailed 3D databases over parts of Atlanta. A 2.5 meter database was used to depict the downtown Atlanta area with much higher resolution imagery being used for photo- texture of individual Atlanta buildings. Less than 1 meter imagery data was used to show a very accurate map of Georgia Tech, the 1996 Olympic Village. Georgia Tech developed visualization software was integrated via message passing with a traditional GIS package so that all commonly used GIS query and analysis functions could be applied within the 3D environment. This project demonstrates the versatility and productivity that can be accomplished by operating GIS functions within a virtual GIS and multi-media framework.

  2. Chaotic Mixing in Three Dimensional Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, Daniel R; Borgne, Tanguy Le

    2016-01-01

    Under steady flow conditions, the topological complexity inherent to all random 3D porous media imparts complicated flow and transport dynamics. It has been established that this complexity generates persistent chaotic advection via a three-dimensional (3D) fluid mechanical analogue of the baker's map which rapidly accelerates scalar mixing in the presence of molecular di?usion. Hence pore-scale fluid mixing is governed by the interplay between chaotic advection, molecular di?usion and the broad (power-law) distribution of fluid particle travel times which arise from the non-slip condition at pore walls. To understand and quantify mixing in 3D porous media, we consider these processes in a model 3D open porous network and develop a novel stretching continuous time random walk (CTRW) which provides analytic estimates of pore-scale mixing which compare well with direct numerical simulations. We ?nd that chaotic advection inherent to 3D porous media imparts scalar mixing which scales exponentially with longitudi...

  3. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an advanced method of noninvasive infrared imaging of tissues in depth. Heretofore, commercial OCT systems for 3D imaging have been designed principally for external ophthalmological examination. As explained below, such systems have been based on a one-dimensional OCT principle, and in the operation of such a system, 3D imaging is accomplished partly by means of a combination of electronic scanning along the optical (Z) axis and mechanical scanning along the two axes (X and Y) orthogonal to the optical axis. In 3D OCT, 3D imaging involves a form of electronic scanning (without mechanical scanning) along all three axes. Consequently, the need for mechanical adjustment is minimal and the mechanism used to position the OCT probe can be correspondingly more compact. A 3D OCT system also includes a probe of improved design and utilizes advanced signal- processing techniques. Improvements in performance over prior OCT systems include finer resolution, greater speed, and greater depth of field.

  4. Three-dimensionally Perforated Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were produced by compression molding using a special mold followed by sintering. The porous calcium phosphate ceramics have three-dimensional and penetrated open pores380-400μm in diameter spaced at intervals of 200μm. The layers of the linear penetration pores alternately lay perpendicular to pore direction. The porosity was 59%-65% . The Ca/P molar ratios of the porous calcium phosphate ceramics range from 1.5 to 1.85. A binder containing methyl cellulose was most effective for preparing the powder compact among vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, stearic acid, methyl cellulose and their mixtures. Stainless steel, polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies for the penetrated open pores. When polystyrene, nylon and bamboo were used as the long columnar male dies, the dies were burned out during the sintering process. Using stainless steel as the male dies with the removal of the dies before heat treatment resulted in a higher level of densification of the calcium phosphate ceramic.

  5. Property of three-dimensional silica composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Jia; Zhimeng Guo

    2007-01-01

    Silica fibers-reinforced,fused silica composites were fabricated with repeated vacuum-assisted liquid-phase infiltration.The mechanical properties,thermal properties,and ablative properties of the samples were evaluated.The effect of the silica fiber content and treatment temperature on the flexural strength of the three-dimensional SiO2 (3-D SiO2) composites also was investigated.The SiO2composites show good mechanical properties and excellent ablative performance.The flexural strength increases with an increase in silica fiber content,and decreases with an increase in treatment temperature.When the volume fraction of the silica fiber is 50vo1% and the treatment temperature is 700 ℃,the flexural strength of the composites reaches a maximum value of 78 MPa.By adding cyclohexanone surfactant,the infiltration property can be largely improved,resulting in the density of SiO2 composites increasing up to 1.65g/cm3.The fracture surfaces of the flexural specimens observed using SEM,show that the pseudoplasticity and the toughening mechanisms of the composites are caused by absorption of a lot of energy by interface debonding and fiber pulling out.

  6. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel [Pochon Cha University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  7. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  8. PLOT3D- DRAWING THREE DIMENSIONAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is a package of programs to draw three-dimensional surfaces of the form z = f(x,y). The function f and the boundary values for x and y are the input to PLOT3D. The surface thus defined may be drawn after arbitrary rotations. However, it is designed to draw only functions in rectangular coordinates expressed explicitly in the above form. It cannot, for example, draw a sphere. Output is by off-line incremental plotter or online microfilm recorder. This package, unlike other packages, will plot any function of the form z = f(x,y) and portrays continuous and bounded functions of two independent variables. With curve fitting; however, it can draw experimental data and pictures which cannot be expressed in the above form. The method used is division into a uniform rectangular grid of the given x and y ranges. The values of the supplied function at the grid points (x, y) are calculated and stored; this defines the surface. The surface is portrayed by connecting successive (y,z) points with straight-line segments for each x value on the grid and, in turn, connecting successive (x,z) points for each fixed y value on the grid. These lines are then projected by parallel projection onto the fixed yz-plane for plotting. This program has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 with on-line CDC microfilm recorder.

  9. Why Observable Space Is Solely Three Dimensional

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinowitz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Quantum (and classical) binding energy considerations in n-dimensional space indicate that atoms (and planets) can only exist in three-dimensional space. This is why observable space is solely 3-dimensional. Both a novel Virial theorem analysis, and detailed classical and quantum energy calculations for 3-space circular and elliptical orbits indicate that they have no orbital binding energy in greater than 3-space. The same energy equation also excludes the possibility of atom-like bodies in strictly 1 and 2-dimensions. A prediction is made that in the search for deviations from r^-2 of the gravitational force at sub-millimeter distances such a deviation must occur at < ~ 10^-10 m (or < ~10^-12 m considering muoniom), since atoms would disintegrate if the curled up dimensions of string theory were larger than this. Callender asserts that the often-repeated claim in previous work that stable orbits are possible in only three dimensions is not even remotely established. The binding energy analysis herein ...

  10. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate

  11. Three-dimensional modeling of solidification shrinkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raessi, M.; Mostaghimi, J. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: mraessi@mie.utoronto.ca

    2003-07-01

    The three-dimensional model of droplet impact and solidification developed by M. Pasandideh-Fard et al. has been modified to include the solidification shrinkage and the associated fluid flow induced due to density difference of solid and liquid phases. A fixed-grid control volume discretization of the momentum and energy equations, combined with a volume-tracking algorithm to track the free surface has been used. The governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum and energy are derived by assuming different yet constant solid and liquid densities. The analytical solution of the Stefan problem has been used to validate the model. The model was also applied to a planar (one-dimensional) solidification of finite extent of pure tin in which the final height of completely solidified tin is known analytically. The numerical and analytical solutions were in good agreement in these two validating problems. Finally the model was used to simulate solidification shrinkage of molten tin in a cubical container. The effects of solidification shrinkage were predicted well in the free surface. (author)

  12. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate.

  13. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.

  14. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surface to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled by Coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The ICAS fills the need for high speed automated organic analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry sensors, and also by radionuclide sensors which combines alpha, beta, and gamma counting.

  15. Three-dimensional Printing in the Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengerter, Brian C; Emre, Gulus; Park, Jea Young; Geibel, John

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal transplantation remains a life-saving option for patients with severe intestinal failure. With the advent of advanced tissue engineering techniques, great strides have been made toward manufacturing replacement tissues and organs, including the intestine, which aim to avoid transplant-related complications. The current paradigm is to seed a biocompatible support material (scaffold) with a desired cell population to generate viable replacement tissue. Although this technique has now been extended by the three-dimensional (3D) printing of geometrically complex scaffolds, the overall approach is hindered by relatively slow turnover and negative effects of residual scaffold material, which affects final clinical outcome. Methods recently developed for scaffold-free 3D bioprinting may overcome such obstacles and should allow for rapid manufacture and deployment of "bioprinted organs." Much work remains before 3D bioprinted tissues can enter clinical use. In this brief review we examine the present state and future perspectives of this nascent technology before full clinical implementation. PMID:27189913

  16. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang [Dept. of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  17. CYLSEC: A three dimensional shield evaluation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing point kernel gamma codes are either limited to simple geometry configurations or require rather cumbersome input. These codes also require the user to specify the mesh size used in integrating the kernel. This results in computational inefficiencies since it is difficult to establish criteria for choosing mesh size and because it is generally not possible to assure convergence without solving the problem more than once. The interactive program CYLSEC was recently developed to improve this situation. CYLSEC can be used to evaluate bulk or local shielding for radioactive components, to treat streaming problems and to calculate a variety of gamma ray response functions. It will accept three dimensional geometries that can be described in terms of orthogonal slabs, right cylinders and/or right parallelepipeds. While the problem geometry is specified in rectangular coordinates, the integration of the kernel is performed in spherical coordinates. This allows explicit integration over the radial variable, thus reducing the problem to a double integral. The integral mesh size varies and is internally determined such that a specified convergence criterion is met. CYLSEC is also designed to recognize and take advantage of any problem symmetry in order to maximize efficiency. Program input is through interactive routines that are self checking and permit the user to make corrections. A gamma ray data library is provided, however, alternate data may be specified if desired. Comparisons between CYLSEC and other point kernel codes (QAD, GRACE) show excellent agreement in results and demonstrate that CYLSEC requires significantly less CPU time. Comparisons with the discrete ordinates code ANISN also show good agreement. An additional attraction to CYLSEC is that it is suitable for conversion to mini or personal computers

  18. Measurements using three-dimensional product imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sioma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a method of creating a three-dimensional cast model using vision systems and how that model can be used in thequality assessment process carried out directly on the assembly line. The technology of active vision, consisting in illumination of theobject with a laser beam, was used to create the model. Appropriate configuration of camera position geometry and laser light allows thecollection of height profiles and construction of a 3D model of the product on their basis. The article discusses problems connected with the resolution of the vision system, resolution of the laser beam analysis, and resolution connected with the application of the successive height profiles on sample cast planes. On the basis of the model, measurements allowing assessment of dimension parameters and surface defects of a given cast are presented. On the basis of tests and analyses of such a threedimensional cast model, a range of checks which are possible to conduct using 3D vision systems is indicated.Testing casts using that technology allows rapid assessment of selected parameters. Construction of the product’s model and dimensional assessment take a few seconds, which significantly reduces the duration of checks in the technological process. Depending on the product, a few checks may be carried out simultaneously on the product’s model.The possibility of controlling all outgoing products, and creating and modifying the product parameter control program, makes the solutionhighly flexible, which is confirmed by pilot industrial implementations. The technology will be developed in terms of detection andidentification of surface defects. It is important due to the possibility of using such information for the purposes of selecting technologicalprocess parameters and observing the effect of changes in selected parameters on the cast parameter controlled in a vision system.

  19. Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)

  20. GOTCHA experience report: three-dimensional SAR imaging with complete circular apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertin, Emre; Austin, Christian D.; Sharma, Samir; Moses, Randolph L.; Potter, Lee C.

    2007-04-01

    We study circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) systems collecting radar backscatter measurements over a complete circular aperture of 360 degrees. This study is motivated by the GOTCHA CSAR data collection experiment conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Circular SAR provides wide-angle information about the anisotropic reflectivity of the scattering centers in the scene, and also provides three dimensional information about the location of the scattering centers due to a non planar collection geometry. Three dimensional imaging results with single pass circular SAR data reveals that the 3D resolution of the system is poor due to the limited persistence of the reflectors in the scene. We present results on polarimetric processing of CSAR data and illustrate reasoning of three dimensional shape from multi-view layover using prior information about target scattering mechanisms. Next, we discuss processing of multipass (CSAR) data and present volumetric imaging results with IFSAR and three dimensional backprojection techniques on the GOTCHA data set. We observe that the volumetric imaging with GOTCHA data is degraded by aliasing and high sidelobes due to nonlinear flightpaths and sparse and unequal sampling in elevation. We conclude with a model based technique that resolves target features and enhances the volumetric imagery by extrapolating the phase history data using the estimated model.

  1. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  2. Composite three-dimensional woven scaffolds with interpenetrating network hydrogels to create functional synthetic articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, I-Chien; Moutos, Franklin T; Estes, Bradley T; Zhao, Xuanhe; Guilak, Farshid

    2013-12-17

    The development of synthetic biomaterials that possess mechanical properties that mimic those of native tissues remains an important challenge to the field of materials. In particular, articular cartilage is a complex nonlinear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic material that exhibits a very low coefficient of friction, allowing it to withstand millions of cycles of joint loading over decades of wear. Here we show that a three-dimensionally woven fiber scaffold that is infiltrated with an interpenetrating network hydrogel can provide a functional biomaterial that provides the load-bearing and tribological properties of native cartilage. An interpenetrating dual-network "tough-gel" consisting of alginate and polyacrylamide was infused into a porous three-dimensionally woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber scaffold, providing a versatile fiber-reinforced composite structure as a potential acellular or cell-based replacement for cartilage repair. PMID:24578679

  3. Three-dimensional vortex structures in a rotating dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Kumar, Ramavarmaraja; Sriraman, Thangarasu; Fabrelli, Henrique; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Gammal, Arnaldo

    2016-08-01

    We study three-dimensional vortex lattice structures in purely dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). By using the mean-field approximation, we obtain a stability diagram for the vortex states in purely dipolar BECs as a function of harmonic trap aspect ratio (λ) and dipole–dipole interaction strength (D) under rotation. Rotating the condensate within the unstable region leads to collapse while in the stable region furnishes stable vortex lattices of dipolar BECs. We analyse stable vortex lattice structures by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Gross–Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. Further, the stability of vortex states is examined by evolution in real-time. We also investigate the distribution of vortices in a fully anisotropic trap by increasing eccentricity of the external trapping potential. We observe the breaking up of the condensate in two parts with an equal number of vortices on each when the trap is sufficiently weak, and the rotation frequency is high.

  4. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation II: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Makito; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (10^6-10^7 solar masses) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation supp...

  5. A new procedure for dynamic adaption of three-dimensional unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger

    1993-01-01

    A new procedure is presented for the simultaneous coarsening and refinement of three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. This algorithm allows for localized grid adaption that is used to capture aerodynamic flow features such as vortices and shock waves in helicopter flowfield simulations. The mesh-adaption algorithm is implemented in the C programming language and uses a data structure consisting of a series of dynamically-allocated linked lists. These lists allow the mesh connectivity to be rapidly reconstructed when individual mesh points are added and/or deleted. The algorithm allows the mesh to change in an anisotropic manner in order to efficiently resolve directional flow features. The procedure has been successfully implemented on a single processor of a Cray Y-MP computer. Two sample cases are presented involving three-dimensional transonic flow. Computed results show good agreement with conventional structured-grid solutions for the Euler equations.

  6. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  7. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Hippocampal Anatomy in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Soares, Jair C.; Klunder, Andrea D.; Nicoletti, Mark; Dierschki, Nicole; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Bhrambilla, Paolo; Sassi, Roberto B.; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the use of three-dimensional mapping methods in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder to find out if localized alterations in hippocampal structure are exhibited. It also explores the developmental differences where the patient with bipolar disorder showed increasing hippocampal size with increasing age.

  8. Virtual Audio - Three-Dimensional Audio in Virtual Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive audio has a variety ofpotential uses in human-machine interfaces. After lagging seriously behind the visual components, the importance of sound is now becoming increas-ingly accepted. This paper mainly discusses background and techniques to implement three-dimensional audio in computer interfaces. A case study of a system for three-dimensional audio, implemented by the author, is described in great detail. The audio system was moreover integra...

  9. Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Li, Enrong; Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2015-06-01

    A structured image reconstruction method has been proposed to obtain high quality images in three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar. By considering the spatial structure relationship between recovered images of scene slices at different longitudinal distances, orthogonality constraint has been incorporated to reconstruct the three-dimensional scenes in remote sensing. Numerical simulations have been performed to demonstrate that scene slices with various sparse ratios can be recovered more accurately by applying orthogonality constraint, and the enhancement is significant especially for ghost imaging with less measurements. A simulated three-dimensional city scene has been successfully reconstructed by using structured image reconstruction in three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar. PMID:26072814

  10. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  11. Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Weaver, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia...... is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix...

  12. Current-induced three-dimensional domain wall propagation in cylindrical NiFe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. W.; Purnama, I.; Lim, G. J.; Gan, W. L.; Murapaka, C.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the magnetization configurations in single NiFe cylindrical nanowires grown by template-assisted electrodeposition. Angular anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements reveal that a three-dimensional helical domain wall is formed naturally upon relaxation from a saturated state. Micromagnetic simulations support the helical domain wall properties and its reversal process, which involves a splitting of the clockwise and anticlockwise vortices. When a pulsed current is applied to the nanowire, the helical domain wall propagation is observed with a minimum current density needed to overcome its intrinsic pinning.

  13. Hybridization and anisotropy in the exchange interaction in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, D.; Sandler, N.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2016-03-01

    We study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Using retarded Green's functions in real space, we obtain and analyze asymptotic expressions for the interaction, with magnetic impurities at different distances and relative angle with respect to high symmetry directions on the lattice. We show that the Fermi velocity anisotropy in these materials produces a strong renormalization of the magnitude of the interaction, as well as a correction to the frequency of oscillation in real space. Hybridization of the impurities to different conduction electron orbitals are shown to result in interesting anisotropic spin-spin interactions which can generate spiral spin structures in doped samples.

  14. Three-dimensional plume simulation of multi-channel thruster configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell model of the plume emitted by a four-channel Hall-effect thruster configuration for a preliminary design study has been developed. Results show the presence of a potential well in the central region close to the exit plane of the configuration. Together with the typical characteristics of the single channel ion energy spectrum, a double peak structure in the low energy range is present in the four-channel configuration. It is due to the geometrical effects (four-channel source) and to the anisotropic nature of ion–atom scattering. (paper)

  15. River Maintenance Management System Using Three-Dimensional UAV Data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Kawai, Y.

    2016-10-01

    River administration facilities such as levees and river walls play a major role in preventing flooding due to heavy rain. The forms of such facilities must be constantly monitored for alteration due to rain and running water, and limited human resources and budgets make it necessary to efficiently maintain river administration facilities. During maintenance, inspection results are commonly recorded on paper documents. Continuous inspection and repair using information systems are an on-going challenge. This study proposes a maintenance management system for river facilities that uses three-dimensional data to solve these problems and make operation and maintenance more efficient. The system uses three-dimensional data to visualize river facility deformation and its process, and it has functions that visualize information about river management at any point in the three-dimensional data. The threedimensional data is generated by photogrammetry using a camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

  16. Pathogen propagation in cultured three-dimensional tissue mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for propagating a pathogen in a three-dimensional tissue mass cultured at microgravity conditions in a culture vessel containing culture media and a culture matrix is provided. The three-dimensional tissue mass is inoculated with a pathogen and pathogen replication in the cells of the tissue mass achieved.

  17. Single shot three-dimensional imaging of dilute atomic clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Sakmann, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    Light field microscopy methods together with three dimensional (3D) deconvolution can be used to obtain single shot 3D images of atomic clouds. We demonstrate the method using a test setup which extracts three dimensional images from a fluorescent $^{87}$Rb atomic vapor.

  18. Collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lushnikov, P.M.; Saffman, M.

    2000-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation.......We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation....

  19. Statistical Entropy of Three-Dimensional Spherical Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; SU Ru-Keng; FENG Shi-Xiang

    2000-01-01

    By means of conformal field theory, we have related the degrees of freedom of microstates to the entropy of three dimensional charged black hole as well as the entanglement entropy of three-dimensional De Sitter spacetime.We have shown that the degrees of freedom of the conformal theory responsible for the entropy represent states on the horizon and localized in physical spacetime.

  20. Semifolded Localized Structures in Three-Dimensional Soliton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Long; CHEN Li-Qun

    2004-01-01

    By means ora Painlevé-Backlund transformation and a multi-linear variable separation approach, abundant localized coherent excitations of the three-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system with variable coefficients are derived. There are possible phase shifts for the interactions of the three-dimensional novel localized structures discussed in this paper.

  1. Phase-field study of crystal growth in three-dimensional capillaries: Effects of crystalline anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debierre, Jean-Marc; Guérin, Rahma; Kassner, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Phase-field simulations are performed to explore the thermal solidification of a pure melt in three-dimensional capillaries. Motivated by our previous work for isotropic or slightly anisotropic materials, we focus here on the more general case of anisotropic materials. Different channel cross sections are compared (square, hexagonal, circular) to reveal the influence of geometry and the effects of a competition between the crystal and the channel symmetries. In particular, a compass effect toward growth directions favored by the surface energy is identified. At given undercooling and anisotropy, the simulations generally show the coexistence of several growth modes. The relative stability of these growth modes is tested by submitting them to a strong spatiotemporal noise for a short time, which reveals a subtle hierarchy between them. Similarities and differences with experimental growth modes in confined geometry are discussed qualitatively.

  2. Experimental observation of ultrasound fast and slow waves through three-dimensional printed trabecular bone phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mézière, F; Juskova, P; Woittequand, J; Muller, M; Bossy, E; Boistel, Renaud; Malaquin, L; Derode, A

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, ultrasound measurements of 1:1 scale three-dimensional (3D) printed trabecular bone phantoms are reported. The micro-structure of a trabecular horse bone sample was obtained via synchrotron x-ray microtomography, converted to a 3D binary data set, and successfully 3D-printed at scale 1:1. Ultrasound through-transmission experiments were also performed through a highly anisotropic version of this structure, obtained by elongating the digitized structure prior to 3D printing. As in real anisotropic trabecular bone, both the fast and slow waves were observed. This illustrates the potential of stereolithography and the relevance of such bone phantoms for the study of ultrasound propagation in bone. PMID:26936578

  3. Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)

  4. Nonlinear geometric scaling of coercivity in a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, I. S.; Mistonov, A. A.; Dubitskiy, I. S.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization hysteresis loops of a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice based on the nickel inverse opal-like structure (IOLS) have been studied at room temperature. The samples are produced by filling nickel into the voids of artificial opal-like films. The spin ice behavior is induced by tetrahedral elements within the IOLS, which have the same arrangement of magnetic moments as a spin ice. The thickness of the films vary from a two-dimensional, i.e., single-layered, antidot array to a three-dimensional, i.e., multilayered, structure. The coercive force, the saturation, and the irreversibility field have been measured in dependence of the thickness of the IOLS for in-plane and out-of-plane applied fields. The irreversibility and saturation fields change abruptly from the antidot array to the three-dimensional IOLS and remain constant upon further increase of the number of layers n . The coercive force Hc seems to increase logarithmically with increasing n as Hc=Hc 0+α ln(n +1 ) . The logarithmic law implies the avalanchelike remagnetization of anisotropic structural elements connecting tetrahedral and cubic nodes in the IOLS. We conclude that the "ice rule" is the base of mechanism regulating this process.

  5. The bottleneck effect in three-dimensional turbulence simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dobler, W; Yousef, T A; Brandenburg, A; Dobler, Wolfgang; Haugen, Nils Erland L.; Yousef, Tarek A.; Brandenburg, Axel

    2003-01-01

    At numerical resolutions around $512^3$ and above, three-dimensional energy spectra from turbulence simulations begin to show noticeably shallower spectra than $k^{-5/3}$ near the Kolmogorov dissipation wavenumber (`bottleneck effect'). This effect is shown to be significantly weaker in one-dimensional spectra like those obtained in wind tunnel turbulence. The difference can be understood in terms of the transformation between one-dimensional and three-dimensional energy spectra under the assumption that the turbulent velocity field is isotropic. Transversal and longitudinal energy spectra are similar and can both accurately be computed from the full three-dimensional spectra.

  6. Robust three dimensional surface contouring method with digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Cao-jin; ZHAI Hong-chen; WANG Xiao-lei; WU Lan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a digital holography system with short-coherence light source is used to record a series of holograms of a micro-object. The three dimensional reconstruction is completed by the least-square-polynomial-fitting with a series of two dimensional intensity images which are obtained through holographic reconstruction. This three dimensional reconstruction method can be used to carry out three-dimensional reconstruction of a micro-object with strong laser speckle noise,which can not be obtained from the conventional method.

  7. Protein conformation in solution by three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢远; 许金钩; 陈国珍

    1996-01-01

    The conformations of bovine serum albumin (USA) and egg albumin (EA) in solution and their conformation changes under different conditions were studied by using three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry (TDFS) such as three-dimensional fluorescence (TDF) spectra and three-dimensional fluorescence polarization (TDFP) spectra with tryptophan residues in protein molecules as an intrinsic fluorescent probe. The results show that the microenvironment of tryptophan residues of protein molecules in various solutions can be directly indicated and TDFS is an effective tool for studying protein conformation in solution. Meantime, some valuable results were obtained.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID MODEL FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid model for three-dimensional Geographical Information Systems which is an integration of surface- and volume-based models. The Triangulat ed Irregular Network (TIN) and octree models are integrated in this hybrid model. The TIN model works as a surface-based model which mainly serves for surface presentation and visualization. On the other hand, the octree encoding supports volumetric analysis. The designed data structure brings a major advantage in the three-dimensional selective retrieval. This technique increases the efficiency of three-dimensional data operation.

  9. Fusion of three-dimensional X-ray angiography and three-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, Volker [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Philips Medical Systems, Bothell, WA (United States); Mansour, Moussa; Reddy, Vivek; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Ruskin, Jeremy [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, Boston, MA (United States); Qureshi, Answer [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Echocardiography, Boston, MA (United States); Manzke, Robert; Sokka, Sham [Philips Research North America, Clinical Sites Research, Briacliff Manor, NY (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiovascular intervention guidance requires knowledge of heart function relative to its blood supply or venous drainage. Functional and vascular anatomic data are usually generated on different imaging systems, so fusion of the data is necessary to simultaneously visualize the results for intervention planning and guidance. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of fusing volumetric ultrasound (U/S) data with three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging data for visualization of cardiac morphology, function and coronary venous drainage. Temporally resolved U/S volume data was registered with the 3D reconstruction of vascular structures derived from X-ray modeling and reconstruction. U/S image registration was obtained by optical tracking fiducial markers with simultaneous X-ray imaging. The proposed technique was applied to phantom data for accuracy assessment of the registration process and to biventricular pacemaker implantation as clinical example. Fusion of U/S data with 3D X-ray reconstruction data produced an RMS registration error below 2 mm. Preliminary clinical feasibility of U/S-derived data synchronously with X-ray derived 3D coronary venography was established. This technique can be applied for fusion of functional U/S data with 3D anatomic X-ray data of the coronary veins during a biventricular pacemaker implantation procedures. (orig.)

  10. Three-Dimensional Measurement and Reconstruction of Fabric Drape Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yi; YIN Hong-yuan; LIU Xuan-mu

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of measuring the three-dimensional drape shape of fabrics with structural light. First, we apply parallel annular structural light to form light and shade alternating contour stripes on the surface of fabrics. We then collect the images of contour stripes using Charge Coupled Device (CCD). Subsequently, we process the images to identify the contour stripes and edges of fabrics, and obtain the fabric contour lines of curved surfaces. Finally, we apply three-dimensional curved surface modeling method based on a network of polar coordinates, and reconstruct the three-dimensional drape shape of fabrics. Experiments show that our method is effective in testing and reconstructing three-dimensional drape shape of fabrics.

  11. Improving Students' Sense of Three-Dimensional Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Neville J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities to be used with fifth and sixth graders to improve students' spatial sense with respect to three-dimensional shapes. Includes the use of cubes, triangular prisms, tetrahedrons, and square pyramids. (MKR)

  12. Three-dimensional reconstructions of solid surfaces using conventional microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Tomáš; Martišek, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional digital replicas of solid surfaces are subject of interest of different branches of science and technology. The present paper in its introductory parts brings an overview of the various microscopic reconstructive techniques based on optical sectioning. The main attention is devoted to conventional reconstruction methods and especially to that one employing the Fourier transform. The three-dimensional replicas of this special reconstructive frequency method are compared graphically and numerically with the three-dimensional replicas of the confocal method. Based on the comparative study it has been concluded that the quality of the conventional replicas of surfaces possessing textures of intermediate height irregularities is acceptable and almost comparable with the quality of confocal replicas. This study is relevant both for identifying a convenient technique that provides good qualities of three-dimensional replicas and for selecting the hardware whose price is affordable even for small research groups studying rougher surface textures. PMID:26381761

  13. Magnetic structure of two- and three-dimensional supramolecular compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Schmalle, H.W.; Pellaux, R. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Fischer, P.; Fauth, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Supramolecular chiral networks of oxalato-bridged transition metals show either two- or three-dimensional structural features. The magnetic structures of such compounds have been investigated by means of elastic neutron powder diffraction. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  14. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  15. Study on three-dimensional freehand stroke creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixian Xuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The automotive frames that can be created consciously with three-dimensional freehand strokes are quite important and useful in the early stage of automotive styling. However, all the strokes are drawn on the screen in two-dimensional. This study focuses on the creation of three-dimensional freehand strokes by applying the interpolation algorithm in two orthogonal planes, the projection algorithm and the resultant matrix algorithm. The fitting algorithms of strokes have been developed as the bridges between the traditional two-dimensional sketching and three-dimensional digital modeling. The stylists could use the digital tablet and pen to sketch the frames or outlines of a vehicle in three-dimensional space and then those could be used for establishing the automotive surfaces in any engineering software.

  16. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  18. Three-dimensional network of Drosophila brain hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Saiga, Rino; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The first step to understanding brain function is to determine the brain's network structure. We report a three-dimensional analysis of the brain network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by synchrotron-radiation tomographic microscopy. A skeletonized wire model of the left half of the brain network was built by tracing the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray absorption coefficients. The obtained models of neuronal processes were classified into groups on the basis of their three-d...

  19. Alignment-free three-dimensional optical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Jinwei; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional optical metamaterials based on multilayers typically rely on critical vertical alignment to achieve the desired functionality. Here the conditions under which three-dimensional metamaterials with different functionalities may be realized without constraints on alignment are analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. This study demonstrates that the release of alignment constraints for multilayered metamaterials is allowed, while their anomalous interaction with light is preserved.

  20. On-Chip Isotropic Microchannels for Cooling Three Dimensional Microprocessors

    OpenAIRE

    Renaghan, Liam Eamon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports the fabrication of three dimensionally independent on-chip microchannels using a CMOS-compatible single mask deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process for cooling 3D ICs. Three dimensionally independent microchannels are fabricated by utilizing the RIE lag effect. This allows complex microchannel configurations to be fabricated using a single mask and single silicon etch step. Furthermore, the microchannels are sealed in one step by low temperature oxide deposition. The mic...

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  2. Uniform Deterministic Discrete Method for Three Dimensional Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    For radiative direct exchange areas in three dimensional system,the Uniform Deterministic Discrete Method(UDDM) was adopted.The spherical surface dividing method for sending area element and the regular icosahedron for sending volume element can meet with the direct exchange area computation of any kind of zone pairs.The numerical examples of direct exchange area in three dimensional system with nonhomogeneous attenuation coefficients indicated that the UDDM can give very high numercal accuracy.

  3. Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    Batat, Wafaa; Onda, Kensuke

    2011-01-01

    We classify Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are sol-solitons. In particular, we prove that, contrary to the Riemannian case, Lorentzian Ricci solitons need not to be algebraic Ricci solitons. We classify Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are solvsolitons. In particular, we obtain new solitons on $G_{2}$, $G_{5}$, and $G_{6}$, and we pr...

  4. Three-dimensional decomposition method of global atmospheric circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By adopting the idea of three-dimensional Walker, Hadley and Rossby stream functions, the global atmospheric circulation can be considered as the sum of three stream functions from a global per- spective. Therefore, a mathematical model of three-dimensional decomposition of global atmospheric circulation is proposed and the existence and uniqueness of the model are proved. Besides, the model includes a numerical method leading to no truncation error in the discrete three-dimensional grid points. Results also show that the three-dimensional stream functions exist and are unique for a given velocity field. The mathematical model shows the generalized form of three-dimensional stream func- tions equal to the velocity field in representing the features of atmospheric motion. Besides, the vertical velocity calculated through the model can represent the main characteristics of the vertical motion. In sum, the three-dimensional decomposition of atmospheric circulation is convenient for the further in- vestigation of the features of global atmospheric motions.

  5. A mathematical model for three dimensional detonation as pure gas-dynamic discontinuity

    OpenAIRE

    Escanciano, Jorge Yanez; Class, Andreas G.

    2012-01-01

    A model for three dimensional detonation is proposed based on the approximation that the detonation thickness is small compared to the characteristic scales of the fluid motion. In this framework detonations are treated as a modified hydrodynamic discontinuity. The altered Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions take into account the internal structure of the detonation including the chemical reaction. The position of the discontinuity surface and the corresponding jump conditions are derived from f...

  6. Three Dimensional Virtual Environments as a Tool for Development of Personal Learning Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Aggeliki Nikolaou; Costas Tsolakidis

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have altered how, where, when, and what information is created, presented and diffused in working and social environments as well as how learners interact with that information. Virtual worlds constitute an emerging realm for collaborative play, learning and work. This paper describes how virtual worlds provide a mechanism to facilitate the creation and development of Personal Learning Networks. This qualitative investigation focuses on the role of three-dimensional vir...

  7. Biodynamic profiling of three-dimensional tissue growth techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Merrill, Dan; Turek, John; Nolte, David

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional tissue culture presents a more biologically relevant environment in which to perform drug development than conventional two-dimensional cell culture. However, obtaining high-content information from inside three dimensional tissue has presented an obstacle to rapid adoption of 3D tissue culture for pharmaceutical applications. Biodynamic imaging is a high-content three-dimensional optical imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry and digital holography that uses intracellular dynamics as high-content image contrast. In this paper, we use biodynamic imaging to compare pharmaceutical responses to Taxol of three-dimensional multicellular spheroids grown by three different growth techniques: rotating bioreactor, hanging-drop and plate-grown spheroids. The three growth techniques have systematic variations among tissue cohesiveness and intracellular activity and consequently display different pharmacodynamics under identical drug dose conditions. The in vitro tissue cultures are also compared to ex vivo living biopsies. These results demonstrate that three-dimensional tissue cultures are not equivalent, and that drug-response studies must take into account the growth method.

  8. A moving observer in a three-dimensional world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, Andrew

    2016-06-19

    For many tasks such as retrieving a previously viewed object, an observer must form a representation of the world at one location and use it at another. A world-based three-dimensional reconstruction of the scene built up from visual information would fulfil this requirement, something computer vision now achieves with great speed and accuracy. However, I argue that it is neither easy nor necessary for the brain to do this. I discuss biologically plausible alternatives, including the possibility of avoiding three-dimensional coordinate frames such as ego-centric and world-based representations. For example, the distance, slant and local shape of surfaces dictate the propensity of visual features to move in the image with respect to one another as the observer's perspective changes (through movement or binocular viewing). Such propensities can be stored without the need for three-dimensional reference frames. The problem of representing a stable scene in the face of continual head and eye movements is an appropriate starting place for understanding the goal of three-dimensional vision, more so, I argue, than the case of a static binocular observer.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269608

  9. Robot vision based on three-dimensional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order that robots recognize objects, the models of the objects are required. If there is not any constraint about an object scene, it is desirable that robot vision has the three-dimensional models of the things composing the scene. Since the preparation of three-dimensional models takes much time, here, the utilization of the geometrical models made by CAD is proposed. Besides, when the description of a scene and three-dimensional models are compared, to attempt the comparison with all attitudes of respective models is not efficient, therefore, stratum-wise comparison was proposed. As concrete examples, when input information is only in the direction of a part of surfaces such as lustrous bodies, when information can be obtained in all the directions of the surfaces of a body visible by a photometric stereo, and when complete three dimensional information is obtained by a distance-measuring instrument, the techniques of object recognition are described. In all cases, by carrying out the stratum-wise comparison based on three-dimensional models, the efficient and generalized object recognition was able to be achieved. (Kako, I.)

  10. Time of Closest Approach in Three-Dimensional Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    In air traffic management, the aircraft separation requirement is defined by a minimum horizontal distance and a minimum vertical distance that the aircraft have to maintain. Since this requirement defines a cylinder around each aircraft rather than a sphere, the three-dimensional Euclidean distance does not provide an appropriate basis for the definition of time of closest approach. For instance, conflicting aircraft are not necessarily in loss of separation at the time of closest three-dimensional Euclidean distance. This paper proposes a definition of time of closest approach that characterizes conflicts in a three-dimensional airspace. The proposed time is defined as the time that minimizes a distance metric called cylindrical norm. An algorithm that computes the time of closest approach between two aircraft is provided and the formal verification of its main properties is reported.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance spot welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Perret, William;

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws from the fundamentals of electro-thermo-mechanical coupling to the main aspects of finite element implementation and three-dimensional modelling of resistance welding. A new simulation environment is proposed in order to perform three-dimensional simulations and optimization...... of resistance welding together with the simulations of conventional and special-purpose quasi-static mechanical tests. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance welding consider the electrical, thermal, mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the material as well as the operating conditions...... of the welding machines. Simulations of the mechanical tests take into account material softening due to the accumulation of ductile damage and cover conventional tests, such as tensile–shear tests, cross-tension test and peel tests, as well as the possibility of special-purpose tests designed by the users...

  12. Coupled particle dispersion by three-dimensional vortex structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troutt, T.R.; Chung, J.N.; Crowe, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The primary objective of this research program is to obtain understanding concerning the role of three-dimensional vortex structures in the dispersion of particles and droplets in free shear flows. This research program builds on previous studies which focused on the nature of particle dispersion in large scale quasi two-dimensional vortex structures. This investigation employs time dependent experimental and numerical techniques to provide information concerning the particulate dispersion produced by three dimensional vortex structures in free shear layers. The free shear flows investigated include modified plane mixing layers, and modified plane wakes. The modifications to these flows involve slight perturbations to the initiation boundary conditions such that three-dimensional vortex structures are rapidly generated by the experimental and numerical flow fields. Recent results support the importance of these vortex structures in the particle dispersion process.

  13. Three-dimensional network of Drosophila brain hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The first step to understanding brain function is to determine the brain's network structure. We report a three-dimensional analysis of the brain network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by synchrotron-radiation tomographic microscopy. A skeletonized wire model of the left half of the brain network was built by tracing the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray absorption coefficients. The obtained models of neuronal processes were classified into groups on the basis of their three-dimensional structures. These classified groups correspond to neuronal tracts that send long-range projections or repeated structures of the optic lobe. The skeletonized model is also composed of neuronal processes that could not be classified into the groups. The distribution of these unclassified structures correlates with the distribution of contacts between neuronal processes. This suggests that neurons that cannot be classified into typical structures should play important roles in brain functions. The quantitative de...

  14. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  15. Three-dimensional Coherent Structures of Electrokinetic Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhin, E A; Shelistov, V S

    2014-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional elektrokinetic instability near a charge selective surface (electric membrane, electrode, or system of micro-/nanochannels) is carried out and analyzed. A special finite-difference method was used for the space discretization along with a semi-implicit $3\\frac{1}{3}$-step Runge-Kutta scheme for the integration in time. The calculations employed parallel computing. Three characteristic patterns, which correspond to the overlimiting currents, are observed: (a) two-dimensional electroconvective rolls, (b) three-dimensional regular hexagonal structures, and (c) three-dimensional structures of spatiotemporal chaos, which are a combination of unsteady hexagons, quadrangles and triangles. The transition from (b) to (c) is accompanied by the generation of interacting two-dimensional solitary pulses.

  16. Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, Stefano, E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it; Sciortino, Silvio [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Via B. Rossi, 1-3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, Marco [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Corsi, Chiara [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cindro, Vladimir [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kanxheri, Keida; Servoli, Leonello [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Morozzi, Arianna [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Passeri, Daniele [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Schmidt, Christian J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-05-11

    The three-dimensional concept in particle detection is based on the fabrication of columnar electrodes perpendicular to the surface of a solid state radiation sensor. It permits to improve the radiation resistance characteristics of a material by lowering the necessary bias voltage and shortening the charge carrier path inside the material. If applied to a long-recognized exceptionally radiation-hard material like diamond, this concept promises to pave the way to the realization of detectors of unprecedented performances. We fabricated conventional and three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors, and tested them before and after neutron damage up to 1.2 ×10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}, 1 MeV-equivalent neutron fluence. We found that the signal collected by the three-dimensional detectors is up to three times higher than that of the conventional planar ones, at the highest neutron damage ever experimented.

  17. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional boattail afterbody flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiwert, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    The thin shear layer approximations of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow over axisymmetric boattail bodies at moderate angles of attack. The plume is modeled by a solid body configuration identical to those used in experimental tests. An implicit algorithm of second-order accuracy is used to solve the equations on the ILLIAC IV computer. The turbulence is expressed by an algebraic model applicable to three-dimensional flow fields with moderate separation. The computed results compare favorably with three different sets of experimental data reported by Reubush, Shrewsbury, and Benek, respectively

  18. Three-dimensional microtomographic imaging of human brain cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutania, Ryuta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Ohyama, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an x-ray microtomographic technique for imaging the three-dimensional structure of the human cerebral cortex. Neurons in the brain constitute a neural circuit as a three-dimensional network. The brain tissue is composed of light elements that give little contrast in a hard x-ray transmission image. The contrast was enhanced by staining neural cells with metal compounds. The obtained structure revealed the microarchitecture of the gray and white matter regions of the frontal cortex, which is responsible for the higher brain functions.

  19. Boundary Integral Solutions to Three-Dimensional Unconfined Darcy's Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Gerard P.; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Liggett, James A.

    1980-08-01

    The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is used to solve three-dimensional potential flow problems in porous media. The problems considered here are time dependent and have a nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface. The entire boundary, including the moving free surface, discretized into linear finite elements for the purpose of evaluating the boundary integrals. The technique allows transient, three-dimensional problems to be solved with reasonable computational costs. Numerical examples include recharge through rectangular and circular areas and seepage flow from a surface pond. The examples are used to illustrate the method and show the nonlinear effects.

  20. Three-dimensional echocardiography of the mitral valve: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffessanti, Francesco; Mirea, Oana; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional echocardiography has markedly improved our understanding of normal and pathologic mitral valve (MV) mechanics. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) data on the mitral valve could have a clinical impact on diagnosis, patient referral, surgical strategies, annuloplasty ring design and evaluation of the immediate and long-term surgical outcome. This review covers the contribution of 3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of MV disease, its role in selecting and monitoring surgical procedures, and in the assessment of surgical outcomes. Moreover, advantages of this technique versus the standard 2D modality, as well as future applications of advanced analysis techniques, will be reviewed. PMID:23686753

  1. Gas-Kinetic BGK Scheme for Three Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huazhong

    2010-01-01

    The gas-kinetic theory based flux splitting method has been successfully proposed for solving one- and two-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics by Xu et al.[J. Comput. Phys., 1999; 2000], respectively. This paper extends the kinetic method to solve three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations, where an adaptive parameter η is used to control the numerical dissipation in the flux splitting method.Several numerical examples are given to demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high numerical accuracy and resolve strong discontinuous waves in three dimensional ideal MHD problems.

  2. Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.

  3. Three dimensional super-resolution in metamaterial slab lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa, F; Freire, M; Baena, J D

    2005-01-01

    This letter presents a theoretical and experimental study on the viability of obtaining three dimensional super-resolution (i.e. resolution overcoming the diffraction limit for all directions in space) by means of metamaterial slab lenses. Although the source field cannot be actually reproduced at the back side of the lens with super-resolution in all space directions, the matching capabilities of metamaterial slabs does make it possible the detection of images with three-dimensional super-resolution. This imaging takes place because of the coupling between the evanescent space harmonic components of the field generated at both the source and the detector.

  4. Symmetries and defects in three-dimensional topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions and defects of any codimension are natural parts of any quantum field theory. Surface defects in three-dimensional topological field theories of Turaev-Reshetikhin type have applications to two-dimensional conformal field theories, in solid state physics and in quantum computing. We explain an obstruction to the existence of surface defects that takes values in a Witt group. We then turn to surface defects in Dijkgraaf-Witten theories and their construction in terms of relative bundles; this allows one to exhibit Brauer-Picard groups as symmetry groups of three-dimensional topological field theories.

  5. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  6. Scattering and conductance quantization in three-dimensional metal nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The transmission through three-dimensional nanocontacts is calculated in the presence of localized scattering centers and boundary scattering using a coupled-channel recursion method. Simple confining potentials are used to investigate how robust the observation of quantized conductance is with r......The transmission through three-dimensional nanocontacts is calculated in the presence of localized scattering centers and boundary scattering using a coupled-channel recursion method. Simple confining potentials are used to investigate how robust the observation of quantized conductance...... to the contacts remains intact. Non-integer steps can therefore also be a signature of quantized conductance....

  7. Three-dimensional Gd-DTPA MR angiography of cerebral blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subtraction angiography based on three-dimensional fast MR imaging techniques using rephasing and dephasing gradient pulses is widely used. Similar angiograms can be obtained with three-dimensional gradient techniques before and after the administration of Gd-DTPA followed by imaging subtraction. As Gd-DTPA does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it does not alter brain images. Measurements were carried out in 14 patients with a 1.0-T whole-body imager (Siemens, Magnetom). Gd-DTPA angiography was superior to rephased-dephased angiography because of the higher signal intensity, lower noise due to short echo times, and high contrast for moving spins caused by Gd-DTPA

  8. Rationalisation and Validation of an Acrylamide-Free Procedure in Three-Dimensional Histological Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional visualization of intact tissues is now being achieved by turning tissues transparent. CLARITY is a unique tissue clearing technique, which features the use of detergents to remove lipids from fixed tissues to achieve optical transparency. To preserve tissue integrity, an acrylamide-based hydrogel has been proposed to embed the tissue. In this study, we examined the rationale behind the use of acrylamide in CLARITY, and presented evidence to suggest that the omission of acrylamide-hydrogel embedding in CLARITY does not alter the preservation of tissue morphology and molecular information in fixed tissues. We therefore propose a novel and simplified workflow for formaldehyde-fixed tissue clearing, which will facilitate the laboratory implementation of this technique. Furthermore, we have investigated the basic tissue clearing process in detail and have highlighted some areas for targeted improvement of technologies essential for the emerging subject of three-dimensional histology.

  9. Topological solitons and dislocations in two- and three-dimensional anisotropic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A.V.; Zolotaryuk, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    lattice is calculated. In finding the soliton profiles and energy distributions on the lattice, we apply the minimization scheme that has proven to be an effective numerical method for seeking solitary wave solutions in complex systems. The collision dynamics of the point defects are also investigated....

  10. Anisotropic Three-Dimensional Focused Transport of Solar Energetic Particles in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Klecker, B.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the combined effects of solar energetic particle propagation, parallel and perpendicular to the large-scale magnetic field in the solar wind. Numerical methods employing stochastic differential equations are used incorporating pitch-angle diffusion, focusing, and pitch-angle-dependent diffusion perpendicular to the magnetic field. We compute spatial distributions of ~100 keV electrons and 4 MeV protons in the inner heliosphere, assuming impulsive injection near the Sun over a limited range of solar longitude and latitude. In addition, spatial distributions and intensity-time profiles for various combinations of the parallel and perpendicular mean free path, with different assumptions for the dependence of λbottom on the radial distance and pitch angle, are investigated. We find that realistic results can be obtained when we assume that the perpendicular mean free path scales in the inner heliosphere with the gyroradius of the particles. Step-like decreases of particle intensities as frequently observed in impulsive events at 1 AU can be reproduced for a ratio of λbottom/λpar a few times 10-5.

  11. Modeling liquid-crystal devices with the three-dimensional full-vector beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya

    2006-08-01

    Simulation of light propagation within nematic liquid-crystal (LC) devices is considered, of which the director is aligned normal to the z axis. A three-dimensional full-vector finite-difference beam propagation method for an anisotropic medium is presented and an alternating direction implicit scheme is adopted. Simulations of light propagation in a bulk polarization converter, a waveguide with a LC covering layer, and an integrated polarization splitter and optical switch are presented. Comparison with an existing simulation method is carried out for beam behavior within the bulk polarization converter. The effect of strong surface anchoring of a LC cell on the beam behaviors within the integrated switch is also demonstrated.

  12. Two-dimensional behavior of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow with a strong guiding field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-11-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the presence of a guiding magnetic field are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. The basis of the investigation consists of nine runs forced at the small scales. The results demonstrate that for a large enough uniform magnetic field the large scale flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) (non-MHD) fluid exhibiting an inverse cascade of energy in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the small scales behave like a three-dimensional (3D) MHD fluid cascading the energy forwards. The amplitude of the inverse cascade is sensitive to the magnetic field amplitude, the domain size, the forcing mechanism, and the forcing scale. All these dependences are demonstrated by the varying parameters of the simulations. Furthermore, in the case that the system is forced anisotropically in the small parallel scales an inverse cascade in the parallel direction is observed that is feeding the 2D modes k(//)=0.

  13. A statistical model of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mallet, A

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model of three-dimensionally anisotropic, intermittent, strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, incorporating both critical balance and dynamic alignment. Our model is based on log-Poisson statistics for Elsasser-field increments {\\em along} the magnetic field. We predict the scalings of Elsasser-field conditional two-point structure functions with point separations in all three directions in a coordinate system locally aligned with the direction of the magnetic field and of the fluctuating fields and obtain good agreement with numerical simulations. We also derive a scaling of the parallel coherence scale of the fluctuations, $l_\\parallel \\propto \\lambda^{1/2}$, where $\\lambda$ is the perpendicular scale. This is indeed observed for the bulk of the fluctuations in numerical simulations.

  14. Three-dimensional structural analysis of the plate-fin heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, T.; Sou, T.

    1984-06-01

    The Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchanger is a complex structure consisting of a core, headers and nozzles. The core is built of many layers of flat parting sheets and corrugated fins, and is sealed by side bars. Stress patterns in this type of heat exchanger have so far not been accurately analyzed, due to the complexity of the structure. A three dimensional structural analysis of such a core-header-nozzle structure subject to internal pressure is performed herein, using the finite element method, in order to investigate the mechanical characteristics of the structure. In the analysis, the corrugated fin is modeled by an equivalent anisotropic continuum element, to save on the computational cost. The adequacy of the analysis is then verified by performing a strain measurement test on the actual plate-fin heat exchanger. On the basis of the analytical results, it becomes clear that some critical parts need special attention when designing such structures.

  15. Three-dimensional chiral microstructures fabricated by structured optical vortices in isotropic material

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Jincheng; Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Yang, Liang; Lao, Zhaoxin; Xu, Bing; Li, Jiawen; Wu, Dong; Chu, Jiaru

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortices, as a kind of structured beam with helical phase wavefronts and doughnut shape intensity distribution, have been used for fabricating chiral structures in metal and spiral patterns in anisotropic polarization-dependent azobenzene polymer. However, in isotropic polymer, the fabricated microstructures are typically confined to non-chiral cylindrical geometry due to two-dimensional doughnut intensity profile of optical vortices. Here we develop a powerful strategy for realizing chiral microstructures in isotropic material by coaxial interference of a vortex beam and a plane wave, which produces three-dimensional (3D) spiral optical fields. This coaxial interference beams are creatively produced by designing the contrivable holograms consisting of azimuthal phase and equiphase loaded on liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. Then, in isotropic polymer, 3D chiral microstructures are achieved under illumination of the coaxial interference femtosecond laser beams with their chirality controlled by ...

  16. Three-dimensional radiometric aperture synthesis microscopy for security screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick

    2014-10-01

    The three dimensional (3D) aperture synthesis imaging technique investigated here is a generalisation of the classic twodimensional radio astronomy technique with refinements for the near-field so it can be applied a personnel security screening portal. This technique can be viewed as a novel form of diffraction emission tomography and extends previous 3D aperture synthesis imaging research using matrix inversion techniques [1]. Simulations using three-dimensional Fourier transforms to create three-dimensional images from simulated three-dimensional visibility functions illustrate the Abbe microscopy resolution should be achievable in three dimensions simultaneously in a single sensor. The field-of-view is demonstrated to be limited by Fresnel scale effects and a means to over coming this by processing sub-sets of local visibility functions with different phase centres throughout the imaging volume is presented. The applications of this technique to a full 3D imaging security screening portal is explored and a route to extending simulation software for market driven imaging scenarios is discussed.

  17. BIFURCATION OF PERIODIC ORBITS OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XUANLIANG; HAN MAOAN

    2005-01-01

    Consider a three-dimensional system having an invariant surface. By using bifurcation techniques and analyzing the solutions of bifurcation equations, the authors study the spacial bifurcation phenomena of a k multiple closed orbit in the invariant surface.The sufficient conditions of the existence of many closed orbits bifurcate from the k multiple closed orbit are obtained.

  18. Highly monodisperse bismuth nanoparticles and their three-dimensional superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Maksym; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Hesser, Günter; Talapin, Dmitri V; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    A simple and reproducible synthesis of highly monodisperse and ligand-protected bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) is reported. The size of the single-crystalline and spherically shaped NPs is controlled between 11 and 22 nm mainly by the reaction temperature. The high uniformity of the NPs allows their self-assembly into long-range-ordered two- and three-dimensional superstructures.

  19. Approaching the Sequential and Three-Dimensional Organization of Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGenomes are one of the major foundations of life due to their role in information storage, process regulation and evolution. To achieve a deeper unterstanding of the human genome the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic prope

  20. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal structur

  1. Three-dimensional space as a medium of quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscaletti, Davide; Sorli, Amrit S.

    2012-01-01

    Most physicists today still conceptualize time as a part of the physical space in which material objects move, although time has never been observed and measured as a part of the space. The concept of time here presented is that time measured with clocks is merely the numerical order of material change, i.e. motion in a three-dimensional space. In special relativity the Minkowskian four-dimensional space-time can be replaced with a three-dimensional space where time does not represent a fourth coordinate of space but must be considered merely as a mathematical quantity measuring the numerical order of material changes. By quantum entanglement the three-dimensional space is a medium of a direct information transfer between quantum particles. Numerical order of non-local correlations between subatomic particles in EPR-type experiments and other immediate quantum processes is zero in the sense that the three-dimensional space acts as an immediate information medium between them

  2. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    markdownabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Mu

  3. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Multi-

  4. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Mul

  5. A Three-Dimensional Haptic Matrix Test of Nonverbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph C.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Benedetto, Joanne M.; Holtz, Ann M.; Nassif, Carrie L.; Weber, Anh D.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional haptic matrices were pilot-tested as a nonvisual measure of cognitive ability. The results indicated that they correlated with convergent measures, with emphasis on spatial processing and that the participants who described items "visually" completed them more quickly and accurately and tended to have become visually impaired…

  6. THE THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELS AND THEIR IDENTIFICATION MINING SUBSIDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUGe; SHENGuanghan; JIXiaoming; WANGQuanke

    1995-01-01

    The theory and method for selecting the three dimensional prediction models of mining subsidence are studied in this paper. Namely, based on system identification and statistics theory, an optimum mining subsidence prediction model can be selected. The method proved by a typical case has a good prospect for determining the physical model of rock mass for mining subsidence prediction.

  7. Three-dimensional simulations of free-electron laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code has been developed to simulate three-dimensional free-electron laser physics. A mathematical formulation of the FEL equations is presented, and the numerical solution of the problem is described. Sample results from the computer code are discussed. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the otosclerotic focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2010-01-01

    The location and three-dimensional (3D) shapes of the otosclerotic foci suggest a general centripetal distribution of otosclerotic bone remodeling around the inner ear space, whereas the normal bone remodeling is distributed centrifugally. The existence of an inverse spatial relation between norm...

  9. Three-Dimensional Extension of a Digital Library Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Long

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overall methodology and case study for the innovation and extension of a digital library, especially the service system. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the three-dimensional structure theory of the information service industry, this paper combines a comprehensive analysis with the practical experiences…

  10. Three-dimensional organization of electrical turbulence in the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panfilov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional organization of electrical turbulence that is induced via the phenomenon of spiral breakup is studied in a computer model of the heart, which includes realistic ventricular geometries and cardiac anisotropy. We find filaments of rotors during the turbulence and study their number a

  11. A Novel Three-Dimensional Tool for Teaching Human Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maureen E.; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Bergethon, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of neuroanatomy can be challenging for medical students. This knowledge is essential in order for students to correlate cross-sectional neuroanatomy and whole brain specimens within neuroscience curricula and to interpret clinical and radiological information as clinicians or researchers. This study implemented…

  12. Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Batat, Wafaa

    2011-01-01

    We classify Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are sol-solitons. In particular, we prove that, contrary to the Riemannian case, Lorentzian Ricci solitons need not to be algebraic Ricci solitons.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on th

  14. Holographic positive energy theorems in three-dimensional gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Barnich, Glenn; Oblak, Blagoje

    2014-01-01

    The covariant phase space of three-dimensional asymptotically flat and anti-de Sitter gravity is controlled by well-understood coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Detailed knowledge on the behavior of the energy functional on these orbits can be used to discuss positive energy theorems.

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of condylar hyperplasia with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Y; Ohashi, Y; Uchiyama, N; Terada, K; Hanada, K; Sasaki, F

    1991-02-01

    Three-dimensional surface reconstruction imaging from CT scans was used to study the deformity of the mandible in six patients with mandibular asymmetry. High-resolution axial CT scans of the mandible were obtained using Somatom-DR3 (Siemens). COSMOZONE-2SA (Nikon) with PC-9801VX21 (NEC) was used to reconstruct the three-dimensional images. The six patients were divided into two groups. One group was classified as unilateral hybrid forms and the other group was classified hemimandibular elongation on the diagnostic criteria of Obwegeser and Makek (1986). In the three-dimensional surface reconstruction, exact location and the degree of the deformity in the region from the ascending ramus to the condylar head and the lingual aspect from the ascending ramus to the mandibular body were accurately represented. In addition, the three-dimensional images could be easily rotated arbitrarily, precise evaluation could be done at every part of the mandible. On diagnosis, the mandibular morphology classified into the unilateral hybrid forms was presumed to vary from case to case even in the same classification. PMID:2037691

  16. Polyimide Aerogels with Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for creating a three dimensional cross-linked polyimide structure includes dissolving a diamine, a dianhydride, and a triamine in a solvent, imidizing a polyamic acid gel by heating the gel, extracting the gel in a second solvent, supercritically drying the gel, and removing the solvent to create a polyimide aerogel.

  17. Generators of quasiperiodic oscillations with three-dimensional phase space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.P.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Considering a family of three-dimensional oscillators originating in the field of radio-engineering, the paper describes three different mechanisms of torus formation. Particular emphasis is paid to a process in which a saddle-node bifurcation eliminates a stable cycle and leaves the system to fi...

  18. Automated analysis of three-dimensional stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y.E. Leung (Esther); M. van Stralen (Marijn); M.G. Danilouchkine (Mikhail); G. van Burken (Gerard); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); N. de Jong (Nico); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton); J.G. Bosch (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReal-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging has been proposed as an alternative for two-dimensional stress echocardiography for assessing myocardial dysfunction and underlying coronary artery disease. Analysis of 3D stress echocardiography is no simple task and requires considera

  19. Signal analysis of three-dimensional nystagmus for otoneurological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhola, Martti; Aalto, Heikki; Jutila, Topi; Hirvonen, Timo P

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional signal analysis can be applied to eye movements called nystagmus in order to study otoneurological patients suffering from vertigo and other balance problems. We developed an analysis and modeling algorithm for three-dimensional nystagmus measured by a video-oculography system. We were also interested in verifying an otoneurological hands-on convention called Ewald's first law in a strict physiological sense in vestibular patients. We recorded nystagmus from 42 patients all suffering from vertigo or dizziness. The underlying pathology was unilateral in 39 patients, bilateral in one patient, and central in two patients. Video-oculography was used to record three-dimensional nystagmus to separately produce horizontal, vertical, and torsional signals for each eye. On the basis of signal analysis techniques and straightforward vector calculus, we were able to recognize slow phases of nystagmus to compute their angular velocities to estimate from which part of the inner ear the disorder originated. We found that for all 42 patients the plane of one of the two horizontal semicircular canals was the closest. We were able to quantitatively estimate the influence of different semicircular canals, and, despite the pathology, horizontal canals seemed to be predominant in driving the nystagmus. The signal analysis and modeling algorithm developed is effective in studying otoneurological problems registered with nystagmus and opens new insights in three-dimensional nystagmography. Our results strongly support Ewald's first law. PMID:21107695

  20. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  1. Flux penetrations into two- and three-dimensional nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamegai, T., E-mail: tamegai@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Y.; Tada, S.; Ibuka, J.; Mine, A.; Pyon, S. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Mawatari, Y.; Nagasawa, S.; Hidaka, M.; Maezawa, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Flux penetrations into two- and three-dimensional nanostructured superconductors are observed by magneto-optical imaging. • In two-dimensional superconducting networks with square holes on square lattice, anomalous diagonal penetrations are observed. • In three-dimensional superconducting shifted strip arrays, various forms of vortex avalanches are observed. - Abstract: We have fabricated two- and three-dimensional nanostructured superconductors, and observed vortex penetrations by magneto-optical imaging. In the case of two-dimensional superconducting networks with square holes on a square lattice, anomalous diagonal penetrations are widely observed. Two kinds of diagonal vortex penetrations at high and low temperatures have been interpreted as originating from the repulsive interaction of vortices and sharp fan-shaped vortex penetration from the corners of the square holes, respectively. In the case of three-dimensional stack of superconducting strip arrays with double and triple layers, vortex avalanches have been observed in a wide temperature and dimension ranges due to enhanced demagnetization effect. While spotlike avalanches are observed when the overlap of strips is small, anomalous linear avalanches traversing many strips in different layers are observed when the overlap is large. In triple-layer strip arrays, in addition to the spotlike and linear avalanches, vortex penetrations along the line of strips are also observed. Origins of the anomalous diagonal penetration and vortex avalanches are discussed.

  2. Three-Dimensional Printing Using a Photoinitiated Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskin, Joseph; Ragusa, Matthew; Gelsthorpe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Printers capable of producing three-dimensional objects are becoming more common. Most of these printers are impractical for use in the chemistry classroom because of the expense incurred in fabricating a print head that must be controlled in three dimensions. We propose a simpler solution to this problem that allows the emerging technology of…

  3. Optimal eavesdropping in cryptography with three-dimensional quantum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, D; Macchiavello, C

    2002-03-25

    We study optimal eavesdropping in quantum cryptography with three-dimensional systems, and show that this scheme is more secure against symmetric attacks than protocols using two-dimensional states. We generalize the according eavesdropping transformation to arbitrary dimensions, and discuss the connection with optimal quantum cloning.

  4. Three-dimensional maturation reaction norms for North Sea plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, R.E.; Heino, M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Kraak, S.B.M.; Dieckmann, U.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs) with up to three explanatory dimensions were estimated for female North Sea plaice. The three-dimensional PMRNs reported here (1) are the first ones to be obtained for any organism, (2) reveal the differential capacity of alternative life-history state

  5. Three-dimensional simulations of viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional Langrangian integral method is used to simulate the elastic end-plate instability that occurs in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is demonstrated that the upper convected Maxwell model describes the essential features of the instabi...

  6. Generation of a Desired Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed three-dimensional electromagnetic field based on generalized phase contrast imaging. Such a method and apparatus may be utilized in advanced optical micro and nano-manipulation, such as by provision of a multiple...

  7. Thermodynamics of a Simple Three-Dimensional DNA Hairpin Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Kellan; Boggess, Erin; Mask, Walker; Saucedo, Tony; Hansen, JJ; Appelgate, Ian; Jurgensen, Taylor; Santos, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the equation of state for a simple three-dimensional DNA hairpin model using a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm was run at constant temperature and fixed separation between the terminal ends of the strand. From the equation of state, we compute the compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, and specific heat along with adiabatic path.

  8. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  9. Magnetic properties of Hubbard-sigma model with three-dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been broadly accepted that the magnetism may play an important role in the high-Tc superconductivity in the lamellar CuO2 materials. In this paper, based on a Hubbard-inspired CP1 or S2 nonlinear σ model, we give a quantitative study of some magnetic properties in and around the Neel ordered state of three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets such as La2CuO4 with and without small hole doping. Our model is a (3+1) dimensional effective field theory describing the low energy spin dynamics of a three-dimensional Hubbard model with a very weak interlayer coupling. The effect of hole dynamics is taken into account in the leading approximation by substituting the CP1 coupling and the spin-wave velocity with 'effective' ones determined by the concentration and the one-loop correction of hole fermions. Stationary-phase equations for the one-loop effective potential of S2 model are analyzed. Based on them, various magnetic properties of the system, such as the behavior of Neel temperature, spin correlation length, staggered magnetization, specific heat and susceptibility as functions of anisotropic parameter, temperature, etc. are investigated in detail. The results show that our anisotropic field theory model with certain values of parameters gives a good description of the magnetic properties in both the ordered and the disordered phases indicated by experiments on La2CuO4. The part of the above results is supported by the renormalization-group analysis. In the doped case it is observed that the existence of holes destroys the long-range order and their hopping effect is large. (author)

  10. A three-dimensional meso-macroscopic model for Li-Ion intercalation batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu, S.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Nanda, J.; Turner, J. A.; Pannala, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a three-dimensional computational formulation for electrode-electrolyte-electrode system of Li-Ion batteries. The physical consistency between electrical, thermal and chemical equations is enforced at each time increment by driving the residual of the resulting coupled system of nonlinear equations to zero. The formulation utilizes a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulations used in other fields and recently extended to modeling of supercapacitors [1]. Unlike existing battery modeling methods which use segregated solution of conservation equations and idealized geometries, our unified approach can model arbitrary battery and electrode configurations. The consistency of multi-physics solution also allows for consideration of a wide array of initial conditions and load cases. The formulation accounts for spatio-temporal variations of material and state properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. The governing differential equations are discretized using the finite element method and solved using a nonlinearly consistent approach that provides robust stability and convergence. The new formulation was validated for standard Li-ion cells and compared against experiments. Its scope and ability to capture spatio-temporal variations of potential and lithium distribution is demonstrated on a prototypical three-dimensional electrode problem.

  11. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation II: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makito; Umemura, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (106-7 M⊙) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation suppresses the formation of hydrogen molecules in the shadowed regions and the regions are compressed by UV heated ambient gas. The properties of resultant star clusters match those of GCs. On the other hand, in weak UV radiation fields, dark matter-dominated star clusters with low stellar density form due to the self-shielding effect as well as the positive feedback by ionizing photons. Thus, we conclude that the "supersonic infall" under a strong UV background is a potential mechanism to form GCs.

  12. Fronts of Stress Wave in Anisotropic Piezoelectric Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 刘凯欣; 高凌天

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic of wave fronts in anisotropic piezoelectric media is analysed by adopting the generalized characteristic theory. Analytical expressions for wave velocities and wave fronts are formulated. Apart from the ordinary characteristics, a new phenomenon, energy velocity funnel, is formed on the wave fronts of quasitransverse waves in anisotropic piezoelectric materials. A three-dimensional representation of wave fronts in anisotropic piezoelectric materials is given for a better understanding of the new phenomena.

  13. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  14. Three-dimensional in vitro cancer spheroid models for Photodynamic Therapy: Strengths and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional, in vitro spheroid cultures offer considerable utility for the development and testing of anticancer photodynamic therapy regimens. More complex than monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid systems replicate many of the important cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that modulate treatment response in vivo. Simple enough to be grown by the thousands and small enough to be optically interrogated, spheroid cultures lend themselves to high-content and high-throughput imaging approaches. These advantages have enabled studies investigating photosensitizer uptake, spatiotemporal patterns of therapeutic response, alterations in oxygen diffusion and consumption during therapy, and the exploration of mechanisms that underlie therapeutic synergy. The use of quantitative imaging methods, in particular, has accelerated the pace of three-dimensional in vitro photodynamic therapy studies, enabling the rapid compilation of multiple treatment response parameters in a single experiment. Improvements in model cultures, the creation of new molecular probes of cell state and function, and innovations in imaging toolkits will be important for the advancement of spheroid culture systems for future photodynamic therapy studies.

  15. Dispersion engineering of metasurfaces for dual-frequency quasi-three-dimensional cloaking of microwave radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Werner, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the design methodology and experimental investigation of compact and lightweight dispersive coatings, comprised by multiple layers of anisotropic metasurfaces, which are capable of cloaking radiators at multiple frequencies are presented. To determine the required surface electromagnetic properties for each layer, an analytical model is developed for predicting the scattering from a cylinder surrounded by multiple layers of anisotropic metasurfaces subject to plane-wave illumination at a general oblique incidence angle. Particularly, two different metasurface coating solutions with different dispersive properties are designed to provide more than 10 dB scattering width suppression at two pre-selected frequencies within a field-of-view (FOV) of ± 20° off normal incidence. Both coating designs implemented using metasurfaces are fabricated and measured, experimentally demonstrating the simultaneous suppression of mutual coupling and quasi-three-dimensional radiation blockage at the two pre-selected frequency ranges. At the same time, the functionality of the coated monopole is still well-maintained. The performance comparison further sheds light on how the optimal performance can be obtained by properly exploiting the dispersion of each metasurface layer of the coating. In addition, the cloaking effect is retained even when the distance between the radiators is significantly reduced. The concept and general design methodology presented here can be extended for applications that would benefit from cloaking multi-spectral terahertz as well as optical antennas.

  16. Dispersion engineering of metasurfaces for dual-frequency quasi-three-dimensional cloaking of microwave radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Werner, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the design methodology and experimental investigation of compact and lightweight dispersive coatings, comprised by multiple layers of anisotropic metasurfaces, which are capable of cloaking radiators at multiple frequencies are presented. To determine the required surface electromagnetic properties for each layer, an analytical model is developed for predicting the scattering from a cylinder surrounded by multiple layers of anisotropic metasurfaces subject to plane-wave illumination at a general oblique incidence angle. Particularly, two different metasurface coating solutions with different dispersive properties are designed to provide more than 10 dB scattering width suppression at two pre-selected frequencies within a field-of-view (FOV) of ± 20° off normal incidence. Both coating designs implemented using metasurfaces are fabricated and measured, experimentally demonstrating the simultaneous suppression of mutual coupling and quasi-three-dimensional radiation blockage at the two pre-selected frequency ranges. At the same time, the functionality of the coated monopole is still well-maintained. The performance comparison further sheds light on how the optimal performance can be obtained by properly exploiting the dispersion of each metasurface layer of the coating. In addition, the cloaking effect is retained even when the distance between the radiators is significantly reduced. The concept and general design methodology presented here can be extended for applications that would benefit from cloaking multi-spectral terahertz as well as optical antennas. PMID:27137576

  17. Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingling; Chen, Xianzhong; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Shumei; Bai, Benfeng; Tan, Qiaofeng; Jin, Guofan; Cheah, Kok-Wai; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Li, Jensen; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Benefitting from the flexibility in engineering their optical response, metamaterials have been used to achieve control over the propagation of light to an unprecedented level, leading to highly unconventional and versatile optical functionalities compared with their natural counterparts. Recently, the emerging field of metasurfaces, which consist of a monolayer of photonic artificial atoms, has offered attractive functionalities for shaping wave fronts of light by introducing an abrupt interfacial phase discontinuity. Here we realize three-dimensional holography by using metasurfaces made of subwavelength metallic nanorods with spatially varying orientations. The phase discontinuity takes place when the helicity of incident circularly polarized light is reversed. As the phase can be continuously controlled in each subwavelength unit cell by the rod orientation, metasurfaces represent a new route towards high-resolution on-axis three-dimensional holograms with a wide field of view. In addition, the undesired effect of multiple diffraction orders usually accompanying holography is eliminated.

  18. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging radar operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in radar solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter imaging radar may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional images are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target images. Such an imaging radar has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.

  19. Identification of Jiangxi wines by three-dimensional fluorescence fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yiqun; Pan, Fengqin; Shen, Mingyue

    2012-10-01

    A new assay of identifying wines was developed based on fingerprints of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, and 30 samples from different manufacturers were analyzed. The techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to differentiate and evaluate the character parameters of wines' three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. At the same time, the back-propagation network (BPN) was applied to predict the attribution of unknown samples. The results of PCA and HCA showed that there was definite different information among the wine samples from different manufacturers. It was promising that the method could be applied to distinguish wine samples produced by different manufacturers. The proposed method could provide the criterion for the quality control of wines.

  20. Atomic force microscope study of three-dimensional nanostructure sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Gondran, Carolyn F H [Advanced Technology Development Facility, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Michelson, Diane K [International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States)

    2007-08-22

    Next generation planar and non-planar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) structures are three-dimensional nanostructures with multi-layer stacks that can contain films thinner than ten atomic layers. The high resolution of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is typically chosen for studying properties of these stacks such as film thickness, interface and interfacial roughness. However, TEM sample preparation is time-consuming and destructive, and TEM analysis is expensive and can provide problematic results for surface and interface roughness. Therefore, in this paper, we present the use of direct measurements of sidewall surface structures by conventional atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an alternative or complementary method for studying multi-layer film stacks and as the preferred method for studying FinFET sidewall surface roughness. In addition to these semiconductor device applications, this AFM sidewall measurement technique could be used for other three-dimensional nanostructures.

  1. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay

    2002-01-01

    Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density ...... of normal Reynolds stresses. The effects of U0 and Jm on S and Tu (at fixed position between 6th and 7th electrode) are reasonably correlated by the electrohydrodynamic modulus NEHD = (Jm/bi)ly/(½rU02), where bi denotes the ion mobility and ly the electrode-plate distance.......Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density Jm...

  2. Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dicotyledon leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Yves M.; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Verstraete, Michel M.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1996-11-01

    The propagation of light in a typical dicotyledon leaf is investigated with a new Monte Carlo ray-tracing model. The three-dimensional internal cellular structure of the various leaf tissues, including the epidermis, the palisade parenchyma, and the spongy mesophyll, is explicitly described. Cells of different tissues are assigned appropriate morphologies and contain realistic amounts of water and chlorophyll. Each cell constituent is characterized by an index of refraction and an absorption coefficient. The objective of this study is to investigate how the internal three-dimensional structure of the tissues and the optical properties of cell constituents control the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Model results compare favorably with laboratory observations. The influence of the roughness of the epidermis on the reflection and absorption of light is investigated, and simulation results confirm that convex cells in the epidermis focus light on the palisade parenchyma and increase the absorption of radiation.

  3. Three dimensional calculation of flux of low energy atmospheric neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Bludman, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation of low energy flux of atmospheric neutrinos are presented and compared with earlier one-dimensional calculations 1,2 valid at higher neutrino energies. These low energy neutrinos are the atmospheric background in searching for neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Primary cosmic rays produce the neutrino flux peaking at near E sub=40 MeV and neutrino intensity peaking near E sub v=100 MeV. Because such neutrinos typically deviate by 20 approximately 30 from the primary cosmic ray direction, three-dimensional effects are important for the search of atmospheric neutrinos. Nevertheless, the background of these atmospheric neutrinos is negligible for the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos.

  4. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于湘伟; 陈运泰; 王培德

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude ML=1.7~6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  5. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Erythrocyte in the Capillary

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Lin, Wentao; Wei, Yuan; Zhong, Xing; Newman, Tony; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of erythrocyte deformability is used as an important means for early diagnosis of blood diseases and blood rheology. Yet no effective method is available in terms of three-dimensional reconstruction of erythrocytes in a capillary. In this study, ultrathin serial sections of skeletal muscle tissue are obtained from the ultramicrotome, the tomographic images of an erythrocyte in a capillary are captured by the transmission electron microscope, and then a method to position and restore is devised to demonstrate the physiological relationship between two adjacent tomographic images of an erythrocyte. Both the modeling and the physical verification reveal that this method is effective, which means that it can be used to make three-dimensional reconstruction of an erythrocyte in a capillary. An example of reconstructed deformation of erythrocyte based on the serial ultrathin sections is shown at the end of this paper.

  6. Magnetic field intensification by three-dimensional explosion process

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, H; Yokoyama, T

    2012-01-01

    We investigate an intensification mechanism for the magnetic field near the base of the solar convection zone that does not rely on differential rotation. Such mechanism in addition to differential rotation has been suggested by studies of flux emergence, which typically require field strength in excess of those provided by differential rotation alone. We study here a process in which potential energy of the superadiabatically stratified convection zone is converted into magnetic energy. This mechanism, know as explosion of magnetic flux tubes, has been previously studied in the thin flux tube approximation as well as two-dimensional MHD simulations, we expand the investigation to three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our main result is that enough intensification can be achieved in a three-dimensional magnetic flux sheet as long as the spatial scale of the imposed perturbation normal to the magnetic field is sufficiently large. When this spatial scale is small, the flux sheet tends to rise toward the surface, r...

  7. Relaxation techniques for three-dimensional transonic flow about wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, F. R.; Steger, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A relaxation procedure has been developed to treat the three-dimensional, transonic small perturbation equations about finite lifting wings. A combination of two schemes is employed. For flow forward of the wing trailing edge the equations are written in terms of a velocity potential in order to minimize computer algebra and storage. For the remaining flow field the equations are written in terms of the velocity components in order to simplify the enforcement of the Kutta condition. Difference equations and relaxation procedures are described for both schemes. The computational method automatically captures the imbedded shock wave in the three-dimensional flow field. Computed results are given and compared to experiment and other inviscid methods.

  8. Three-dimensional optical encryption based on ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Tuo; Wang, Yali; Qiao, Liang; Yang, Xiubo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    We propose a novel optical encryption system for three-dimension imaging combined with three-dimension Ptychography. Employing the proposed cryptosystem, a 3D object can be encrypted and decrypted successfully. Compared with the conventional three-dimensional cryptosystem, not only encrypting the pure amplitude 3D object is available, but also the encryption of complex amplitude 3D object is achievable. Considering that the probes overlapping with each other is the crucial factor in ptychography, their complex-amplitude functions can serve as a kind of secret keys that lead to the enlarged key space and the enhanced system security. Varies of simulation results demonstrate that the feasibility and robust of the cryptosystem. Furthermore, the proposed system could also be used for other potential applications, such as three-dimensional information hiding and multiple images encryption.

  9. Collective modes in three-dimensional magnonic vortex crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänze, Max; Adolff, Christian F.; Schulte, Benedikt; Möller, Jan; Weigand, Markus; Meier, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Collective modes in three-dimensional crystals of stacked permalloy disks with magnetic vortices are investigated by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The size of the arrangements is increased step by step to identify the different contributions to the interaction between the vortices. These contributions are the key requirement to understand complex dynamics of three dimensional vortex crystals. Both vertical and horizontal coupling determine the collective modes. In-plane dipoles strongly influence the interaction between the disks in the stacks and lead to polarity-dependent resonance frequencies. Weaker contributions discern arrangements with different polarities and circularities that result from the lateral coupling of the stacks and the interaction of the core regions inside a stack. All three contributions are identified in the experiments and are explained in a rigid particle model.

  10. Horizontal-vertical coupling for three dimensional laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve three dimensional crystal beam, laser cooling forces are required not only in the longitudinal direction, but also in the transverse directions. With the resonance coupling method, transverse temperature is transmitted into longitudinal direction, and we have already demonstrated the horizontal laser cooling experimentally. In the present paper, we will describe an approach to extend this result to three dimensional cooling. The vertical cooling requires that the horizontal oscillation couples with the vertical oscillation. For achieving horizontal-vertical coupling, the solenoid in electron beam cooling apparatus is utilized with an experiment (νx =2.07, νy=1.07). For various solenoidal magnetic fields from 0 to 100 Gauss, horizontal and vertical betatron tunes are measured by beam transfer function. For a certain region of the solenoidal magnetic field, these tunes are mixed up each other. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional hybrid networks based on aspartic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupama Ghosh; R A Sanguramath

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional achiral coordination polymers of the general formula M2(D, L-NHCH (COO)CH2COO)2.C4H4N2 where M = Ni and Co and pyrazine acts as the linker molecule have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions starting with [M(L-NHCH(COO)CH2COO).3H2O] possessing a helical chain structure. A three-dimensional hybrid compound of the formula Pb2.5[N{CH(COO)CH2COO}22H2O] has also been prepared hydrothermally starting with aspartic acid and Pb(NO3)2. In this lead compound, where a secondary amine formed by the dimerisation of aspartic acid acts as the ligand, there is two-dimensional inorganic connectivity and one-dimensional organic connectivity.

  12. Three-Dimensional All-Dielectric Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey; Ni, Xiang; Smirnova, Daria; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of two-dimensional topological photonic systems has transformed our views on electromagnetic propagation and scattering of classical waves, and a quest for similar states in three dimensions, known to exist in condensed matter systems, has been put forward. Here we demonstrate that symmetry protected three-dimensional topological states can be engineered in an all-dielectric platform with the electromagnetic duality between electric and magnetic fields ensured by the structure design. Magneto-electric coupling playing the role of a synthetic gauge field leads to a topological transition to an insulating regime with a complete three-dimensional photonic bandgap. An emergence of surface states with conical Dirac dispersion and spin-locking is unimpeded. Robust propagation of surface states along two-dimensional domain walls defined by the reversal of magneto-electric coupling is confirmed numerically by first principle studies. It is shown that the proposed system represents a table-top platform f...

  13. Three-Dimensional Dynamical Instabilities in Galactic Ionization Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, D J; Whalen, Daniel J.; Norman, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Ionization front instabilities have long been of interest for their suspected role in a variety of phenomena in the galaxy, from the formation of bright rims and 'elephant trunks' in nebulae to triggered star formation in molecular clouds. Numerical treatments of these instabilities have historically been limited in both dimensionality and input physics, leaving important questions about their true evolution unanswered. We present the first three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations of both R-type and D-type ionization front instabilities in galactic environments (i.e., solar metallicity gas). Consistent with linear stability analyses of planar D-type fronts, our models exhibit many short-wavelength perturbations growing at early times that later evolve into fewer large-wavelength structures. The simulations demonstrate that both self-consistent radiative transfer and three-dimensional flow introduce significant morphological differences to unstable modes when compared to earlier two-dimensional ...

  14. Electroencephalographic (EEG) control of three-dimensional movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Sarnacki, William A.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2010-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can use brain signals from the scalp (EEG), the cortical surface (ECoG), or within the cortex to restore movement control to people who are paralyzed. Like muscle-based skills, BCIs' use requires activity-dependent adaptations in the brain that maintain stable relationships between the person's intent and the signals that convey it. This study shows that humans can learn over a series of training sessions to use EEG for three-dimensional control. The responsible EEG features are focused topographically on the scalp and spectrally in specific frequency bands. People acquire simultaneous control of three independent signals (one for each dimension) and reach targets in a virtual three-dimensional space. Such BCI control in humans has not been reported previously. The results suggest that with further development noninvasive EEG-based BCIs might control the complex movements of robotic arms or neuroprostheses.

  15. Slightly Two or Three Dimensional Self-Similar Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sari, Re'em; Yalinewich, Almog; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Self similarity allows for analytic or semi-analytic solutions to many hydrodynamics problems. Most of these solutions are one dimensional. Using linear perturbation theory, expanded around such a one-dimensional solution, we find self-similar hydrodynamic solutions that are two- or three-dimensional. Since the deviation from a one-dimensional solution is small, we call these slightly two-dimensional and slightly three-dimensional self-similar solutions, respectively. As an example, we treat strong spherical explosions of the second type. A strong explosion propagates into an ideal gas with negligible temperature and density profile of the form rho(r,theta,phi)=r^{-omega}[1+sigma*F(theta,phi)], where omega>3 and sigma << 1. Analytical solutions are obtained by expanding the arbitrary function F(theta,phi) in spherical harmonics. We compare our results with two dimensional numerical simulations, and find good agreement.

  16. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  17. Space-times admitting a three-dimensional conformal group

    CERN Document Server

    Carot, J; Sintes, A M

    1996-01-01

    Perfect fluid space-times admitting a three-dimensional Lie group of conformal motions containing a two-dimensional Abelian Lie subgroup of isometries are studied. Demanding that the conformal Killing vector be proper (i.e., not homothetic nor Killing), all such space-times are classified according to the structure of their corresponding three-dimensional conformal Lie group and the nature of their corresponding orbits (that are assumed to be non-null). Each metric is then explicitly displayed in coordinates adapted to the symmetry vectors. Attention is then restricted to the diagonal case, and exact perfect fluid solutions are obtained in both the cases in which the fluid four-velocity is tangential or orthogonal to the conformal orbits, as well as in the more general "tilting" case.

  18. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chatter is influenced by vibrations in three directions when milling cutters with ball end, bull nose, or inclined cutting edges are used. A three dimensional chatter stability is modeled analytically in this article. The dynamic milling system is formulated as a function of cutter geometry, the frequency response of the machine tool structure at the cutting zone in three Cartesian directions, cutter engagement conditions and material property. The dynamic milling system with nonlinearities and periodic delayed differential equations is reduced to a three dimensional linear stability problem by approximations based on the physics of milling. The chatter stability lobes are predicted in the frequency domain using the proposed analytical solution, and verified experimentally in milling a Titanium alloy with a face milling cutter having circular inserts.

  19. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Guide-Field Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The dissipation mechanism of guide field magnetic reconnection remains a subject of intense scientific interest. On one hand, one set of recent studies have shown that particle inertia-based processes, which include thermal and bulk inertial effects, provide the reconnection electric field in the diffusion region. On the other hand, a second set of studies emphasizes the role of wave-particle interactions in providing anomalous resistivity in the diffusion region. In this presentation, we analyze three-dimensional PIC simulations of guide-field magnetic reconnection. Specific emphasis will be on the question whether thermal-inertia processes, mediated by the electron pressure tensor, remain a viable dissipation mechanism in fully three-dimensional systems.

  20. Three-dimensional mapping of single-atom magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A J; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-03-11

    Magnetic anisotropy plays a key role in the magnetic stability and spin-related quantum phenomena of surface adatoms. It manifests as angular variations of the atom's magnetic properties. We measure the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on a copper nitride surface with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Using a three-axis vector magnet we rotate the magnetic field and map out the resulting variations of the spin excitations. We quantitatively determine the three-dimensional distribution of the magnetic anisotropy of single Fe atoms by fitting the spin excitation spectra with a spin Hamiltonian. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fully mapping the vector magnetic properties of individual spins and characterizing complex three-dimensional magnetic systems.

  1. Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-sumiyoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp [Division of Pure and Applied Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8510 (Japan); Endo, Yasuki [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2015-01-14

    A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.

  2. Resistive drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Wakatani model describing resistive drift waves is investigated analytically and numerically in a three-dimensional periodic geometry. After an initial growth of the energy the drift waves couple nonlinearly to convective cells, which eventually dominate the system completely. An app...... approach to include more physical boundary conditions to the system is presented. This changes the results of the simulations significantly. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics.......The Hasegawa-Wakatani model describing resistive drift waves is investigated analytically and numerically in a three-dimensional periodic geometry. After an initial growth of the energy the drift waves couple nonlinearly to convective cells, which eventually dominate the system completely. An...

  3. Three Dimensional Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in Positron Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloka, Scott

    The acquisition of positron tomographic data in three dimensions is an improvement over the two dimensional acquisition of data because the greater the number of measurements taken of a stochastic process, the more accurately determined the desired parameter may be. This research pursues the goal of three dimensional image reconstruction in Positron Tomography using an iterative approach. This thesis has followed a systematic approach to the exploration of a system for three dimensional iterative reconstruction. System design parameters were discussed such as the advantages and disadvantages of iterative vs analytic methods, the implementation of two, three dimensional iterative algorithms, the selection of a ray passing method, and the choice of an analytic method for comparison to the iterative methods. Several qualitative and quantitative tests were used/developed and performed to analyse and compare the results. Three dimensional reconstruction in Positron Tomography using two iterative techniques (ART and ML-EM) was demonstrated. The ML-EM algorithm was adapted to satisfy the objective of equalizing the estimates with the measurements via division of the sampling density. A new multi-objective function methodology was developed for two dimensions and its extension to three dimensions discussed. A smoothly-varying Gaussian phantom was created for comparing artifacts from different ray passing methods. The analysis of voxel trends over many iterations was used. The use of the output from a two dimensional filtered backprojection algorithm as the seed for three dimensional algorithms to accelerate the reconstruction the was explored. The importance of the selection of a good ray ordering in ART and its effects on the total squared error were explored. For the phantoms studied in this thesis, the ML -EM algorithm tended to perform better under most conditions. This algorithm is slower than ART to achieve both a low total squared error and good contrast, but the

  4. Three-Dimensional Waves in Tilt Thermal Boundary Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jian-Jun; YUAN Xiang-Jiang

    2009-01-01

    We numerically and theoretically study the stabilities of tilt thermal boundary layers immersed in stratified air. An interesting phenomenon is revealed: the stationary longitudinal-roll mode becomes unstable to some oscillating state even when the Grashof number is smaller than its corresponding critical value. By stability analysis, this phenomenon is explained in terms of a new three-dimensional wave mode. The effect of the tilt angle on the stability of the boundary flows is investigated. Since the new three-dimensional wave is found to be the most unstable mode when the title angle is between 30° and 64°, it is expected to play an important role in the transition to turbulence.

  5. The three-dimensional origin of the classifying algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Schweigert, Christoph; Stigner, Carl

    2009-01-01

    It is known that reflection coefficients for bulk fields of a rational conformal field theory in the presence of an elementary boundary condition can be obtained as representation matrices of irreducible representations of the classifying algebra, a semisimple commutative associative complex algebra. We show how this algebra arises naturally from the three-dimensional geometry of factorization of correlators of bulk fields on the disk. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for the str...

  6. A new three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.; Hawke, I.; Montero, P. J.; Rezzolla, L.

    We present a new three-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamics code, the Whisky code. This code incorporates the expertise developed over the past years in the numerical solution of Einstein equations and of the hydrodynamics equations in a curved spacetime, and is the result of a collaboration of several European Institutes. We here discuss the ability of the code to carry out long-term accurate evolutions of the linear and nonlinear dynamics of isolated relativistic stars.

  7. A new three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code

    CERN Document Server

    Baiotti, Luca; Montero, Pedro J; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamics code, the Whisky code. This code incorporates the expertise developed over the past years in the numerical solution of Einstein equations and of the hydrodynamics equations in a curved spacetime, and is the result of a collaboration of several European Institutes. We here discuss the ability of the code to carry out long-term accurate evolutions of the linear and nonlinear dynamics of isolated relativistic stars.

  8. Three-Dimensional Multilayered Fibrous Constructs for Wound Healing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Tiago C.; Castleberry, Steven; Rego, Ana M. B.; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Hammond, Paula T.

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun materials are promising scaffolds due to their light-weight, high surface-area and low-cost fabrication, however, such scaffolds are commonly obtained as ultrathin two-dimensional non-woven meshes, lacking on topographical specificity and surface side-dependent properties. Herein, it is reported the production of three-dimensional fibrous materials with an asymmetrical inner structure and engineered surfaces. The manufactured constructs evidence fibrous-based microsized conical pr...

  9. Three-dimensional topology optimized electrically-small conformal antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) conductor-based conformal electrically small antenna is obtained using a topology optimization method. The optimization method distributes a certain amount of conductive material to a designated design domain such that the material layout defines an electrically small...... radiator fed by a coaxial cable over a ground plane. Preliminary investigations show that topology optimization method produced a conformal ESA design that has a radiation efficiency of approximately 80% at 300 MHz....

  10. Index for Three Dimensional Superconformal Field Theories and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review aspects of superconformal indices in three dimension. Three dimensional superconformal indices can be exactly computed by using localization method including monopole contribution, and can be applied to provide evidence for mirror duality, AdS4/CFT3 correspondence and global symmetry enhancement of strongly coupled gauge theories. After reviewing, we discuss the possibility of global symmetry enhancement in a finite rank of gauge group.

  11. Matching Three-Dimensional Objects Using a Relational Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Linda G.; Moriarty, John D.; Haralick, Robert M.; Mulgaonkar, Prasanna G.

    1980-01-01

    A relational model for describing three-dimensional objects has been designed and implemented as part of a database system. The models which provide rough descriptions to be used at the top level of a hierarchy for describing objects, were designed for initial matching attempts on an unknown object. The descriptions are in terms of the set of simple parts of the objects. Simple parts can be sticks (long, thin parts), plates (flat, wide parts) , and blobs (parts that have three significant dim...

  12. The Three-Dimensional Spectrum Analysis of HDTV Luminance Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The international standard for High Definition Television (HDTV) in MPEG- 2 has been established for a few years. Some industrialized modern countries are positively developing HDTV products. However, there are few profound analyses of the HDTV luminance signal' s three-dimensional (3- D) spectrum. The authors make a detailed study of them and sum up the features of the (3-D) HDTV luminance signal' s spectrums and their mathe matical expressions. Based on them, the authors draw their spectral figures.

  13. A Three-dimensional Model of Poroviscous Aquifer Deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, D. Isaac

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for quantification of aquifer deformation due to ground-water withdrawal and, with some modifications, is potentially applicable to petroleum reservoirs. A porous medium saturated with water is conceptually treated in the model as a nonlinearly viscous fluid continuum. The model employs a new three-dimensional extension, made in this thesis, of Helm's poroviscosity as a constitutive law governing the stress-strain relation of material deformation and Gerse...

  14. Oscillatory crossover from two dimensional to three dimensional topological insulators

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chao-Xing; Zhang, Haijun; Yan, Binghai; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Frauenheim, Thomas; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the crossover regime from three dimensional topological insulators $Bi_2Te_3$ and $Bi_2Se_3$ to two dimensional topological insulators with quantum spin Hall effect when the layer thickness is reduced. Using both analytical models and first-principles calculations, we find that the crossover occurs in an oscillatory fashion as a function of the layer thickness, alternating between topologically trivial and non-trivial two dimensional behavior.

  15. Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912

  16. Three dimensional lattice gravity as supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We argue that a certain twisted supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions with gauge group SU(2) possesses a set of topological observables whose expectation values can be computed in a related Chern Simons theory. This Chern Simons theory has been proposed as a definition of three dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity. Since the YM theory admits a discretization which preserves the values of topological observables we conjecture that it can be used as a non-perturbative definition...

  17. Absence of bilinear condensate in three-dimensional QED

    CERN Document Server

    Karthik, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    There are plausibility arguments that QED in three dimensions has a critical number of flavors of massless two-component fermions, below which scale invariance is broken by the presence of bilinear condensate. We present numerical evidences from our lattice simulations using dynamical overlap as well as Wilson-Dirac fermions for the absence of bilinear condensate for any even number of flavors of two-component fermions. Instead, we find evidences for the scale-invariant nature of three-dimensional QED.

  18. Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Wenlin; Zhao, Chengqiang; Yu, Hong; Chen, Mingliang; Xu, Wendong; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote imaging attracts increasing attentions in capturing a target’s characteristics. Although great progress for 3D remote imaging has been made with methods such as scanning imaging lidar and pulsed floodlight-illumination imaging lidar, either the detection range or application mode are limited by present methods. Ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC), enables the reconstruction of a two-dimensional N-pixel image from much fewer than N measurements. By GISC t...

  19. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Deep-Water Breaking Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brucker, Kyle A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Adams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The formulation of a canonical deep-water breaking wave problem is introduced, and the results of a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations for deep-water breaking waves are presented. In this paper fully nonlinear progressive waves are generated by applying a normal stress to the free surface. Precise control of the forcing allows for a systematic study of four types of deep-water breaking waves, characterized herein as weak plunging, plunging, strong plunging, and very strong plunging.

  20. Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis of the Bovine Humerus

    OpenAIRE

    Bouza-Rodríguez, José Benito; Miramontes-Sequeiros, Luz Calia

    2014-01-01

    There are few reports on the biomechanical analysis of the animal humerus. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the bovine humerus was created, and loaded with the physiological forces acting when the cow is falling or jumping (weight and impact forces). Subsequently the corresponding stress and strain distribution in the humerus for different inclined positions of bone was determined.The highest stress concentration occurred in the distal humeral diaphysis, both when on...

  1. Multifunctional three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks for smart materials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jessica C.; Xie, Chong; Dai, Xiaochuan; Jin, Lihua; Wei ZHOU; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive integration of three-dimensional (3D) electronic circuitry within host materials could enable the development of materials systems that are self- monitoring and allow for communication with external environments. Here, we report a general strategy for preparing ordered 3D interconnected and addressable macroporous nanoelectronic networks from ordered two-dimensional (2D) nanowire nanoelectronic “precursors”, which are fabricated by conventional lithography. The...

  2. Continuum limit of amorphous elastic bodies (III): Three dimensional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Léonforte, F.; Boissière, R.; Tanguy, Arnaud; Wittmer, J.P.; Barrat, J. -L.

    2005-01-01

    Extending recent numerical studies on two dimensional amorphous bodies, we characterize the approach of elastic continuum limit in three dimensional (weakly polydisperse) Lennard-Jones systems. While performing a systematic finite-size analysis (for two different quench protocols) we investigate the non-affine displacement field under external strain, the linear response to an external delta force and the low-frequency harmonic eigenmodes and their density distribution. Qualitatively similar ...

  3. Three dimensional momentum distributions of recoil-ions and photoelectrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, J.; Schmitt, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Moshammer, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.; Unverzagt, M.; Vogt, T. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1996-10-01

    A novel high-resolution technique, the Multi-Electron-Recoil-Ion Momentum Spectroscopy, allows to determine in coincidence the three dimensional momentum vectors of the ion and up to three electrons created in any photo ionization event. At a solid angle of 4 {pi} the energy-resolutions for ions and electrons are {+-}2{mu} eV and {+-}10 meV, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Time-Domain Simulation of Three Dimensional Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dennis M; Mossman, Sean; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of quantum wires. This is a true three-dimensional method based on a direct implementation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It makes no approximations to the Schrödinger equation other than the finite-difference approximation of the space and time derivatives. The accuracy of our method is tested by comparing it to analytical results in a cylindrical wire. PMID:27124603

  5. Interlaminar Stress Recovery for Three-Dimensional Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Fagiano, C.; Abdalla, M.M.; Kassapoglou, C.; Gürdal, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An accurate evaluation of interlaminar stresses in multilayer composite laminates is crucial for the correct prediction of the onset of delamination. In general, three dimensional finite element models are required for acceptable accuracy, especially near free edges and stress concentrations. Interlaminar stresses are continuous both across and along layer interfaces. Nonetheless, the continuity of interlaminar stresses is difficult to enforce in C0 interpolated elements. ...

  6. Three-Dimensional Turbomachine-Blade-Row Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, A. J.; Wood, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer program (MERNEW3D) developed that prepares bulk of input data set required for Denton three-dimensional inviscid turbomachine-blade-row analysis code. Denton input generated from minimum of geometry and flow-variable information by using cubic spline curve fits for interpolation and extrapolation. Curve-fitting procedures taken from previously developed and widely used NASA computer program (MERIDL), which performs meridional streamsurface analysis.

  7. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus.

    OpenAIRE

    Knoch, Tobias; Münkel, Christian; Waldeck, Waldemar; Langowski, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal structure, except during cell division. Only recently has it become apparent that chromosomes occupy distinct 'territories' also in interphase. Two models for the detailed folding of the 30 nm chromatin fi...

  8. Confinement induced by fermion damping in three-dimensional QED

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jing; Li, Wei; Liu, Guo-Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional non-compact QED is known to exhibit weak confinement when fermions acquire a finite mass via the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. In this paper, we study the effect of fermion damping caused by elastic scattering on the classical potential between fermions. By calculating the vacuum polarization function that incorporates the fermion damping effect, we show that fermion damping can induce a weak confinement even when the fermions are massless and the chiral symmetry is not broken.

  9. Confinement induced by fermion damping in three-dimensional QED

    OpenAIRE

    Jing WANG; Wang, Jing-Rong; Li, Wei; Liu, Guo-Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional non-compact QED is known to exhibit weak confinement when fermions acquire a finite mass via the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. In this paper, we study the effect of fermion damping caused by elastic scattering on the classical potential between fermions. By calculating the vacuum polarization function that incorporates the fermion damping effect, we show that fermion damping can induce a weak confinement even when the fermions are massless and the chir...

  10. Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics for studying floral shape variation

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Niet, T; Zollikofer, C P E; Ponce de León, M S; Johnson, S D; H. P. Linder

    2010-01-01

    Variation in floral shape is of major interest to evolutionary and pollination biologists, plant systematists and developmental geneticists. Quantifying this variation has been difficult due to the three-dimensional (3D) complexity of angiosperm flowers. By combining 3D geometric representations of flowers obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning with geometric morphometric methods, well established in zoology and anthropology, floral shape variation can be analyzed quantitatively, allo...

  11. Three-dimensional nonparaxial beams in parabolic rotational coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongmei; Gao, Yuanmei; Zhao, Juanying; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a class of three-dimensional nonparaxial optical beams found in a parabolic rotational coordinate system. These beams, representing exact solutions of the nonparaxial Helmholtz equation, have inherent parabolic symmetries. Assisted with a computer-generated holography, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of different modes of these beams. The observed transverse beam patterns along the propagation direction agree well with those from our theoretical predication.

  12. Three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals with optical bandgaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilantonakis, Nikos; Terzaki, Konstantina; Sakellari, Ioanna; Purlys, Vytautas; Gray, David; Soukoulis, Costas M; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria

    2012-02-21

    The fabrication of fully three-dimensional photonic crystals with a bandgap at optical wavelengths is demonstrated by way of direct femtosecond laser writing of an organic-inorganic hybrid material with metal-binding moieties, and selective silver coating using electroless plating. The crystals have 600-nm intralayer periodicity and sub-100 nm features, and they exhibit well-defined diffraction patterns. PMID:22278944

  13. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles German

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography provides a useful tool in the diagnosis of many congenital heart diseases, including atrial septal defects, and aids in further delineating treatment options. Although two-dimensional echocardiography has been the standard of care in this regard, technological advancements have made three-dimensional echocardiography possible, and the images obtained in this new imaging modality are able to accurately portray the morphology, location, dimensions, and dynamic changes of defects and many other heart structures during the cardiac cycle.

  14. Three-dimensional conceptual model for service-oriented simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-guang WANG; Wei-ping WANG; Justyna ZANDER; Yi-fan ZHU

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel three-dimensional conceptual model for an emerging service-oriented simulation paradigm. The model can be used as a guideline or an analytic means to find the potential and possible future directions of the current simulation frameworks, In particular, the model inspects the crossover between the disciplines of modeling and simulation,service-orientation, and software/systems engineering. Finally, two specific simulation frameworks are studied as examples.

  15. A Three-Dimensional Angular Scattering Response Including Path Powers

    OpenAIRE

    Mammasis, Kostantinos; Santi, Paolo; Goulianos, Angelos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the angular power spectrum exhibited under a three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian scatter distribution at fixed observation points in space is investigated. Typically, these correspond to the mobile and base units respectively. Unlike other spatial channel models, the derived model accounts for the distance to each scatterer from the observation point and transforms distances into power values under the assumption of free-space propagation. The proposed 3-D spatial channel model fol...

  16. Probing Three-dimensional Collective Cancer Invasion with DIGME

    OpenAIRE

    Alobaidi, Amani A.; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular migration and pattern formation play important roles in developmental biology, cancer metastasis and wound healing. To understand the collective cell dynamics in three dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM), we have developed a simple and mechanical-based strategy, Diskoid In Geometrically Micropatterned ECM (DIGME). DIGME allows easy engineering of the shape of 3-D tissue organoid, the mesoscale ECM heterogeneity, and the fiber alignment of collagen-based ECM all at the same ti...

  17. A Novel Three-Dimensional Tool for Teaching Human Neuroanatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Estevez, Maureen E.; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Bergethon, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of neuroanatomy can be challenging for medical students. This knowledge is essential in order for students to correlate cross-sectional neuroanatomy and whole brain specimens within neuroscience curricula and to interpret clinical and radiological information as clinicians or researchers. This study implemented and evaluated a new tool for teaching 3-D neuroanatomy to first-year medical students at Boston University School of Medicine. Students were rando...

  18. A Three Dimensional Simulation Method of the Gantry Crane

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingsong; Hang Su; Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Until now, many companies have developed lots of the port machinery remote monitoring systems. However, these monitoring systems usual display the operating status of the port machinery by the schematic diagram, Legend and data. The presentation of information is unable to describe the status of the large number of port machinery. In order to solve the problem, a three-dimensional simulation method of the gantry crane based on the WPF is proposed. This paper studies WPF technology and 3D mode...

  19. Three dimensional structure and morphology of pelagic fish schools

    OpenAIRE

    Paramo, J.; Gerlotto, François; Oyarzun, C.

    2010-01-01

    In fish resource assessment, it is very important to know about the behaviour and form of fish schools. This paper describes the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and internal structure of pelagic schools observed using vertical-scanning multibeam sonar. The acoustic data were collected in waters off Venezuela, Senegal, and Mexico. The data were used to derive metrics of school location, density, shape and internal structure from a total of 668 schools: 257 from Mexico, 343 from Venezuela and...

  20. MRFD Method for Scattering From Three Dimensional Dielectric Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Yagli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional multiresolution frequency domain (MRFD method is established to compute bistatic radar cross sections of arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects. The proposed formulation is successfully verified by computing the bistatic radar cross sections of a dielectric sphere and a dielectric cube. Comparing the results to those obtained from the finite difference frequency domain (FDFD method simulations and analytic calculations, we demonstrated the computational time and memory advantages of MRFD method.

  1. IF signals simulation of three-dimensional radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Xuegang; Zhu Zhaoda

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the principles of frequency-phase scanning 3-D (three-dimensional) radar and the scattering mechanism of 3-D radar, the target and clutter IF (intermediate frequency) signals model of frequencyphase scanning 3-D radar is presented. The IF signals model of different channels of 3-D radar is presented in one simple formula in which complex waveform effects are considered. The simulation results obtained during tests are also provided in the end.

  2. THE SYSTEM SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Xiang Jingcheng; Wang Xuegang

    2004-01-01

    To provide a test platform for Electronic Warfare (EW) system, it is needed to simulate the radar received Intermediate Frequency (IF) signals and radar system functions.This letter gives a description of a radar system simulation software developed for frequencyphase scanning three-dimensional (3-D) radar. Experimental results prove that the software could be used for system evaluation and for training purposes as an attractive alternative to real EW system.

  3. Unsteady three-dimensional simulation of VTOL upwash fountain turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Robert E.; Nixon, David

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a planar turbulent wall jet and a planar VTOL upwash fountain were performed. These are three dimensional simulations which resolve large scale unsteady motions in the flows. The wall jet simulation shows good agreement with experimental data and is presented to verify the simulation methodology. Simulation of the upwash fountain predicts elevated shear stress and a half velocity width spreading rate of 33% which agrees well with experiment. Turbulence mechanisms which contribute to the enhanced spreading rate are examined.

  4. APPLICATIONS OF FRACTIONAL EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 闫振亚; 张鸿庆

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of fractional calculus and fractional differential forms was firstly given. The fractional exterior transition to curvilinear coordinate at the origin were discussed and the two coordinate transformations for the fractional differentials for three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates to spherical and cylindrical coordinates are obtained, respectively. In particular, for v = m = 1 , the usual exterior transformations, between the spherical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, as well as the cylindrical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, are found respectively, from fractional exterior transformation.

  5. Environmental, Transient, Three-Dimensional, Hydrothermal, Mass Transport Code - FLESCOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glass, Kevin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eyler, L. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Okumura, Masahiko [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of the project was to modify and apply the transient, three-dimensional FLESCOT code to be able to effectively simulate cesium behavior in Fukushima lakes/dam reservoirs, river mouths, and coastal areas. The ultimate objective of the FLESCOT simulation is to predict future changes of cesium accumulation in Fukushima area reservoirs and costal water. These evaluation results will assist ongoing and future environmental remediation activities and policies in a systematic and comprehensive manner.

  6. Three dimensional flow computations in a turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Ghantous, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The compressible three dimensional inviscid flow in the scroll and vaneless nozzle of radial inflow turbines is analyzed. A FORTRAN computer program for the numerical solution of this complex flow field using the finite element method is presented. The program input consists of the mass flow rate and stagnation conditions at the scroll inlet and of the finite element discretization parameters and nodal coordinates. The output includes the pressure, Mach number and velocity magnitude and direction at all the nodal points.

  7. Three-dimensional printable radio frequency identification antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Naushahi, Shayan

    2015-01-01

    In this master’s thesis, radio frequency identification (RFID) systems and three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is studied to determine the possibility of printing electrically small 3D antennas for RFID tags. Computer simulations are carried out to design 3D antennas that are printable with 3D printing processes. Three tag antennas with different geometries are proposed, and they are designed to match to the input impedance of an RFID chip at the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) frequencies....

  8. System and Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a binocular device (44) and a system (40) including a binocular device (44) configured for displaying one or more labels for an input device (2), such as a keyboard or a control panel, comprising a plurality of parts (4, 6) configured for activation and registration...... by depression. The binocular device (44) is configured for displaying a label of an activation part (4) as a three-dimensional label at the activation part (4)....

  9. Four-Dimensional Entropy from Three-Dimensional Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S

    2015-08-14

    At the horizon of a black hole, the action of (3+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity acquires a boundary term that is formally identical to an action for three-dimensional gravity. I show how to use this correspondence to obtain the entropy of the (3+1)-dimensional black hole from well-understood conformal field theory computations of the entropy in (2+1)-dimensional de Sitter space. PMID:26317707

  10. On a three-dimensional implementation of the baker's transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    A three-dimensional, steady flow configuration intended to mimic the baker's map is studied by means of numerical simulation. The Poincaré sections computed from a finite element solution of the velocity field show that the behavior is dominated by chaotic advection. The value obtained for the Lyapunov exponent is very close to the theoretical value of ln2 predicted by the baker's map.

  11. Powder blasting for three-dimensional microstructuring of glass

    OpenAIRE

    Belloy, E.; Sayah, A.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report on powder blasting as a promising technology for the three-dimensional structuring of brittle materials. We investigate the basic parameters of this process, which is based on the erosion of a masked substrate by a high-velocity eroding powder beam, using glass substrates. We study the effect of various parameters on the etching rate, like the powder velocity and the mask feature size, which induces geometrical effects to the erosion process. We introduce oblique powder blasting and...

  12. Three dimensional behaviour of a circular excavation in Nantes, France

    OpenAIRE

    MARTEN, S; Bourgeois, E

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of a co-operation between the LCPC and Solétanche-Bachy, the behaviour of a cicular retaining wall the the site" Ilot 7" in Nantes has been studied. The geometry of the excavation and of the retaining structure is symmetric and the ground conditions show horizontal soil layers. However, the measurements carried out during construction indicate that the deformations of the circular wall are not symmetric at all. Therefore, a three-dimensional finite element calculation (using ...

  13. Entropy of three-dimensional BTZ black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Changjun; SHEN; Yougen

    2004-01-01

    The entropies of scalar field and neutrino field are calculated in the back ground of three-dimensional BTZ black hole.Considering statistical physics,we propose not to consider the superraradiant modes for bosons(Fermion fields do not displaysup perradiance).In fact,the nonsuperradiant modes do contribute exactly the area entropy for both bosons and fermions.The result shows that the neutrino field entropy is 3/2 times the scalar one.

  14. Three-dimensional discrete ordinates reactor assembly calculations on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.

  15. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional gas detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the characteristics of the three-dimensional detonation in an argon-diluted mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. The three-dimensional Euler equations with a simple chemical reaction model are used as the governing equations for the detonation problem. The spatial derivatives are evaluated using the WENO scheme, and the temporal derivative is calculated using the TVD Runge-Kutta method. It is verified that the detonation front is composed of incident shocks and Mach stems, joined at the lines of triple points by transverse waves. And the clear cellular structure is displayed by using a three-dimensional numerical visualization. The process of generating unburned gas pockets is shown by the spatial isosurface profiles of the reaction progress parameter in the exothermic period, and it is explained that the triple lines play a role of 'shutter'. Furthermore, the rectangles, enclosed by the triple lines, vary with the movement of the triple lines. Consequently, the evolution between the diagonal detonation and the rectangular detonation is realized

  16. Can Three-Dimensional Instabilities Enable Fast Reconnection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymont, Alexander N.

    1997-05-01

    Most studies of magnetic reconnection have assumed a two-dimensional geometry. Gas swept into the current sheet halts the collapse to the near-singularity required to effectively dissipate magnetic energy. The gas is squeezed out of the current sheet along the separatrices at the local sound speed (McClymont and Craig, 1996, Ap. J. 466, 487). Although this allows collapse to proceed (at a slower pace) it is not yet clear whether all the gas can be removed, particularly in a closed system. Therefore it is of interest to examine how relaxing invariance along the third dimension might allow escape of gas from the current sheet and reconnection to proceed at an explosive rate. Uchida and Sakurai (1977, Solar Phys. 51, 413) have examined the possibility of reconnection rate enhancement by the three-dimensional interchange instability. Some three-dimensional analyses (e.g. Craig and Fabling, 1995, Ap. J. 462, 969) have assumed analytic forms of solution which preclude many outcomes. Another three dimensional simulation (Strauss, 1993, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 325) assumes a strong magnetic field along the current sheet. We discuss ideal instabilities and other phenomena which might allow gas to escape more effectively from the current sheet, and enhance the reconnection rate.

  17. Interaction of two three-dimensional explosion bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiong-liang; ZHANG A-man; LIU Yu-chen

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of two underwater explosion bubbles was mathematically analyzed in this paper. Based on the assumption of potential flow, high-order curved elements were used to discretize the boundary integral equation and solve it. Assuming that gas inside the bubble follows the isentropic rule,the Euler-Lagrange method was used to trace the evolution of the bubble, and when calculating the singular integral, the singularity of the double-layer singular integral was eliminated by reconstructing a principal-value integral of double-layer potential so that a more precise result could be obtained. Elastic mesh technique (EMT) was also used when tracing the evolution of the bubble interface, and numerical smoothing wasn't needed. A comparison of calculations using this three-dimensional model with results of the Reyleigh-Plesset bubble model shows that the three-dimensional model and calculation method in this paper is practical. This three-dimensional model was applied to simulate the interaction of two bubbles under the action of gravity, and the dynamic characteristics of two bubbles near the surface was also analyzed. Bubbles influenced by surface effects and gravity present severe non-linearity. This paper provides a reference for research into the dynamics of multi-bubbles.

  18. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  19. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  20. Surface image of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung Il; Jeon, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ok Hwa; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon(Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate surface configuration of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT. Three dimensional surface images reconstructed from CT scans(1 mm thick) of 24 surgically confirmed herniated discs in 23 patients were reviewed. Disc surface was classified into peripheral and central zones in contact with consecutive peripheral ring and central endplate. Surface irregularity was categorized into two types(local and general). The incidence, size, and extent of local irregularity were observed. General irregularity incidence and severity ranges in 4 grades, and peripheral width were evaluated. The findings were correlated with discography. Local irregularity compatible with anulus tear in discography was shown in all. It was large(13/24) and mainly peripheral tract extending to disc margin in protrusion(3/5) and sequestration(5/7), and cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin in extrusion(9/12). General irregularity was predominantly grade 3(15/22) and was shown in all except in 2 protrusions. Peripheral width was 0.56 of central radius. Extrusion in herniated disc shows characteristic cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin whereas sequestration or protrusion displays tract extending from peripheral zone to disc margin. Thus, three dimensional surface imaging may aid the diagnosis, follow-up, prediction, and treatment of herniated disc.

  1. Three-dimensional dynamic MR hysterosalpingography: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional dynamic MR hysterosalpingography (3D MR HSG) for visualization of the cavum uteri and demonstration of bilateral fallopian tube patency as an alternative to conventional hysterosalpingography. Five infertile female patients underwent 3D dynamic MR HSG prior to conventional hysterosalpingography. The MR protocol consisted of axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), axial/coronal T2-weighted fast SE (FSE), and 3D MR angiography sequences before, during, and after injection of a diluted gadolinium solution into the cavum uteri via a balloon catheter. Positioning of the catheter was feasible in all patients. In one patient the catheter slipped out during MRI and in one patient the catheter was placed far in the cavum uteri. In three patients catheter position was optimal at the level of the cervical canal. Evaluation of pelvic anatomy, myometrium, and ovaries was possible in all patients on the basis of T1-weighted SE and T2-weighted FSE. Three-dimensional visualization of the dilated cavum uteri was possible in four patients. In these four patients 3D MR HSG also proved bilateral fallopian tube patency which was confirmed in each patient by conventional hysterosalpingography. Three-dimensional MR HSG is feasible and further research should be done to determine if this technique can evolve into an alternative technique to conventional hysterosalpingography with the advantages of no radiation and additional visualization of the uterus wall and ovaries. (orig.)

  2. Three dimensional modelling of ICRF launchers for fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Hanson, G. R.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; England, A. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wilgen, J. B.; Rogers, J. H.; Wilson, J. R.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.

    1996-02-01

    The three dimensional (3-D) nature of antennas for fusion applications in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) requires accurate modelling to design and analyse new antennas. In this article, analysis and design tools for radiofrequency (RF) antennas are successfully benchmarked with experiment, and the 3-D physics of the launched waves is explored. The systematic analysis combines measured density profiles from a reflectometer system, transmission line circuit modelling, detailed 3-D magnetostatics modelling and a new 3-D electromagnetic antenna model including plasma. This analysis gives very good agreement with measured loading data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Bay-M antenna, thus demonstrating the validity of the analysis for the design of new RF antennas. The 3-D modelling is contrasted with 2-D models, and significant deficiencies are found in the latter. The 2-D models are in error by as much as a factor of 2 in real and reactive loading, even after they are corrected for the most obvious 3-D effects. Three dimensional effects play the most significant role at low parallel wavenumbers, where the launched power spectrum can be quite different from the predictions of 2-D models. Three dimensional effects should not be ignored for many RF designs, especially those intended for fast wave current drive

  3. Surface image of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate surface configuration of herniated disc on three-dimensional CT. Three dimensional surface images reconstructed from CT scans(1 mm thick) of 24 surgically confirmed herniated discs in 23 patients were reviewed. Disc surface was classified into peripheral and central zones in contact with consecutive peripheral ring and central endplate. Surface irregularity was categorized into two types(local and general). The incidence, size, and extent of local irregularity were observed. General irregularity incidence and severity ranges in 4 grades, and peripheral width were evaluated. The findings were correlated with discography. Local irregularity compatible with anulus tear in discography was shown in all. It was large(13/24) and mainly peripheral tract extending to disc margin in protrusion(3/5) and sequestration(5/7), and cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin in extrusion(9/12). General irregularity was predominantly grade 3(15/22) and was shown in all except in 2 protrusions. Peripheral width was 0.56 of central radius. Extrusion in herniated disc shows characteristic cleft encompassing central zone to disc margin whereas sequestration or protrusion displays tract extending from peripheral zone to disc margin. Thus, three dimensional surface imaging may aid the diagnosis, follow-up, prediction, and treatment of herniated disc

  4. Three-dimensional magnetic recording using ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kanao, Taro; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2016-07-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for data storage, future magnetic recording devices will need to be made three-dimensional by implementing multilayer recording. In this article, we present methods of detecting and manipulating the magnetization direction of a specific layer selectively in a vertically stacked multilayer magnetic system, which enable layer-selective read and write operations in three-dimensional magnetic recording devices. The principle behind the methods is ferromagnetic resonance excitation in a microwave magnetic field. By designing each magnetic recording layer to have a different ferromagnetic resonance frequency, magnetization excitation can be induced individually in each layer by tuning the frequency of an applied microwave magnetic field, and this selective magnetization excitation can be utilized for the layer-selective operations. Regarding media for three-dimensional recording, when layers of a perpendicular magnetic material are vertically stacked, dipolar interaction between multiple recording layers arises and is expected to cause problems, such as degradation of thermal stability and switching field distribution. To solve these problems, we propose the use of an antiferromagnetically coupled structure consisting of hard and soft magnetic layers. Because the stray fields from these two layers cancel each other, antiferromagnetically coupled media can reduce the dipolar interaction.

  5. A Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation Scheme for the Regional Ocean Modeling System: Implementation and Basic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Chao, Yi; McWilliams, James C.; Ide, Kayo

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme for the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), named ROMS3DVAR, has been described in the work of Li et al. (2008). In this paper, ROMS3DVAR is applied to the central California coastal region, an area characterized by inhomogeneity and anisotropy, as well as by dynamically unbalanced flows. A method for estimating the model error variances from limited observations is presented, and the construction of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic error correlations based on the Kronecker product is demonstrated. A set of single observation experiments illustrates the inhomogeneous and anisotropic error correlations and weak dynamic constraints used. Results are presented from the assimilation of data gathered during the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) experiment during August 2003. The results show that ROMS3DVAR is capable of reproducing complex flows associated with upwelling and relaxation, as well as the rapid transitions between them. Some difficulties encountered during the experiment are also discussed.

  6. Numerical Predictions of Effective Thermal Conductivities for Three-dimensional Four-directional Braided Composites Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Hu; Chen, Li; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model with an off-diagonal collision matrix was adopted to predict the effective thermal conductivities of the anisotropic heterogeneous materials whose components are also anisotropic. The half lattice division scheme was adopted to deal with the internal boundaries to guarantee the heat flux continuity at the interfaces. Accuracy of the model was confirmed by comparisons with benchmark results and existing simulation data. The present method was then adopted to numerically predict the transverse and longitudinal effective thermal conductivities of three-dimensional (3D) four-directional braided composites. Some corresponding experiments based on the Hot Disk method were conducted to measure their transverse and longitudinal effective thermal conductivities. The predicted data fit the experiment data well. Influences of fiber volume fractions and interior braiding angles on the effective thermal conductivities of 3D four-directional braided composit...

  7. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Reychler, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Liu, Y.; Xu, T.M. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Orthodontics, Beijing (China); Duprez, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field. (orig.)

  8. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of nearshore circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Detong

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional nearshore circulation model was developed by coupling CH3D, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and REF/DIF, a nearsbore wave transformation model. The model solves the three-dimensional wave-averaged equations of motion. Wave-induced effects on circulation were introduced in the form of radiation stresses, wave-induced mass transport, wave-induced enhancement of bottom friction and wave-induced turbulent mixing. Effects of breaking waves were considered following Svendsen (1984a and 1984b) and Stive and Wind (1986). The model was successfully tested against the analytical solution of longshore currents by Longuet and Higgins (1970). The model successfully simulated the undertow as observed in a laboratory experiment by Stive and Wind (1982). In addition, the model was applied to a physical model by Mory and Hamm (1997) and successfully reproduced the eddy behind a detached breakwater as well as the longshore current on the open beach and the contiguous eddy in the open area of the wave tank. While the qualitative agreement between model results and experimental observations was very good, the quantitative agreement needs to be further improved. Albeit difficult to explain every discrepancy between the model re- suits and observations, in general, sources of errors are attributed to the lack of understanding and comprehensive description of following processes: (1) the horizontal and vertical distribution of radiation stress, especially for breaking waves; (2) the detailed structure of turbulence;(3)Wave-current interaction (not included at this moment) ; and (4)the wave- current boundary layer and the resulting bottom shear stress.

  9. Three-dimensional, subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this applied research and devolpment project is to develop a system known as 3-D SISAR. This sytem consists of a gound penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at US DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps can assist the development of remdiation strategies and characterization of the digface during remediation. The system should also be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon-based contaminant migration after remediation. 5 figs

  10. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Knoch, Tobias; Wachsmuth, Malte; Waldeck, Waldemar; Langowski, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Multi-Loop-Subcompartment (MLS) model, in which ~100 kbp loops form rosettes, connected by a linker, and the Random-Walk/Giant-Loop (RW/GL) topology, in which 1-5 Mbp loops are attached to a flexible bac...

  11. Three-dimensional wake potential in a streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Salahuddin; M K Islam; A K Banerjee; M Salimullah; S K Ghosh

    2003-09-01

    The oscillatory wake potential for a slowly moving or static test dust particulate in a finite temperature, collisionless and unmagnetized dusty plasma with a continuous flow of ions and dust particles has been studied. The collective resonant interaction of the moving test particle with the low-frequency and low-phase-velocity dust-acoustic mode is the origin of the periodic attractive force between the like polarity particulates along and perpendicular to the streaming ions and dust grains resulting into dust-Coulomb crystal formation. This wake potential can explain the three-dimensional dust-Coulomb crystal formation in the laboratory conditions.

  12. Multiple scattering of light in three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Alexandra; Wiersma, Diederik S; Wegener, Martin; von Freymann, Georg

    2009-02-01

    Recent experiments on three-dimensional icosahedral dielectric photonic quasicrystals have shown several unexpected features: transmitted femtosecond pulses developed a trailing "diffusive" exponential tail and the sum of (zeroth-order) transmittance and reflectance was well below unity. These experimental findings have previously been ascribed to sample imperfections. Here, we analyze these findings by using 3D periodic approximants of the ideal photonic quasicrystals. We show that the experimental observations can be explained in terms of multiple scattering of light within these structures, i.e., in terms of intrinsic rather than purely extrinsic quasicrystal properties.

  13. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Frequency-Chirped FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.; Ding, Y.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    Frequency-chirped free-electron lasers (FELs) are useful to generate a large photon bandwidth or a shorter x-ray pulse duration. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional analysis of a high-gain FEL driven by the energy-chirped electron beam. We show that the FEL eigenmode equation is the same for a frequency-chirped FEL as for an undulator-tapered FEL. We study the transverse effects of such FELs including mode properties and transverse coherence.

  14. A Novel Woodpile Three-Dimensional Terahertz Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huan; YAO Jian-Quan; ZHENG Fang-Hua; XU De-Gang; WANG Peng

    2007-01-01

    A novel woodpile lattice structure is proposed. Based on plane wave expansion (PWE) method, the complete photonic band gaps (PBGs) of the novel woodpile three-dimensional (3D) terahertz (THz) photonic crystal (PC) with a decreasing symmetry relative to a face-centred-tetragonal (fct) symmetry are optimized by varying some structural parameters and the highest band gap ratio can reach 27.61%. Compared to the traditional woodpile lattice, the novel woodpile lattice has a wider range of the Riling ratios to gain high quality PBGs, which provides greater convenience for the manufacturing process. The novel woodpile 3D PC will be very promising for materials of THz functional components.

  15. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...... the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect...

  16. On three-dimensional trace anomaly from holographic local RG

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Ken; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Odd-dimensional quantum field theories (QFTs) can have nonzero trace anomalies if external fields are introduced and some ingredients needed to make Lorentz scalars with appropriate mass dimensions (or weights) are supplied. We have studied a three-dimensional QFT and explicitly computed the trace of the stress tensor using the holographic local renormalization group (RG). We have checked some properties of vector beta functions and the Wess-Zumino consistency condition, however, found the anomalies vanish on fixed points. We clarify what is responsible for the vanishing trace anomalies.

  17. Three-dimensional array foci of generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2015-01-01

    We present a new kind of photon sieves on the basis of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. The required numbers and locations of axial foci can be designed by generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS). Furthermore, the three-dimensional array foci can be controllable and adjustable by the optical path difference scaling factor (OPDSF) when the amplitude modulation is replaced with the phase modulation. Multi-focal technologies can be applied to nano-imaging, THZ, laser communications, direct laser writing, optical tweezers or atom trapping, etc.

  18. Multispectral image compression using three-dimensional transform zeroblock coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaji Wu(吴家骥); Chengke Wu(吴成柯)

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multispectral image data compression algorithm (KLT/WT-3DEZB). The proposed coding strategy consists of three main steps. Firstly, a wavelet transform (WT) is applied to reduce the spatial redundancies. Then, a Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) is used to reduce the redundancies in the spectral domain. Finally, a modified SPECK algorithm-three-dimensional embedded zeroblock (3DEZB) algorithm is proposed and used to encode the transformed coefficients. Numerical experiments show that the reconstructed images using the proposed algorithm exhibite a better quality and a higher compression ratio than those obtained by traditional KLT/WT-3DSPIHT, 3DSPIHT, and 3DSPECK algorithms.

  19. Three-dimensional global fluid simulations of cylindrical magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Windisch, T.; Grulke, O.

    2008-01-01

    . Thus, it is possible to assess the reproductive and predictive capabilities of plasma simulations in unprecedented detail. Here, three-dimensional global fluid simulations of a cylindrical magnetized plasma are presented. This plasma is characterized by the existence of spatially localized sources and...... sinks. The traditional scale separation paradigm is not applied in the simulation model to account for the important evolution of the background profiles due to the dynamics of turbulent fluctuations. Furthermore, the fluid modeling of sheath boundary conditions, which determine the plasma conditions...

  20. Three-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays: Static magnetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a simple three-dimensional Josephson-junction array model: a cube with twelve junctions, one on each edge. The low-field magnetic response of the system is studied numerically for arbitrary directions of the applied field. In this model the magnetic energy of the circulating currents is taken into account by introducing an effective mutual inductance matrix. The lower threshold field for flux penetration is determined in a closed analytic form for field directions perpendicular to one cube side. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Electrified magnetic catalysis in three-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.

    2016-09-01

    The gap equations for the surface quasiparticle propagators in a slab of three-dimensional topological insulator in external electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the slab surfaces are analyzed and solved. A different type of magnetic catalysis is revealed with the dynamical generation of both Haldane and Dirac gaps. Its characteristic feature manifests itself in the crucial role that the electric field plays in dynamical symmetry breaking and the generation of a Dirac gap in the slab. It is argued that, for a sufficiently large external electric field, the ground state of the system is a phase with a homogeneous surface charge density.

  2. Live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Selvin; Khairnar, Prakash; Nanda, Navin C

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of matrix array transducer, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography has come to frequent clinical use. It has significantly enhanced the communication between the operators and cardiac imagers in the operating room as well as in the cardiac interventional labs. This article reviews the history, technological aspects, and the protocol for acquisition and processing of the data sets. It also discusses its advantages in various clinical scenarios, both in diagnostic and therapeutic situations. It highlights its limitations in the current form and prospects of future development. PMID:23186294

  3. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  4. CATIA Core Tools Computer Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Michel

    2012-01-01

    CATIA Core Tools: Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application explains how to use the essential features of this cutting-edge solution for product design and innovation. The book begins with the basics, such as launching the software, configuring the settings, and managing files. Next, you'll learn about sketching, modeling, drafting, and visualization tools and techniques. Easy-to-follow instructions along with detailed illustrations and screenshots help you get started using several CATIA workbenches right away. Reverse engineering--a valuable product development skill--is also covered in this practical resource.

  5. Three-dimensional visual illusion of graphic painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静

    2012-01-01

    Visual illusion is the visual design of a special category.It is a set of technology and art in one of a unique form of artistic expression.Visual illusion can give people a taste of the spirit, with strong cultural con- tent and artistic appeal.So by this way of painting, it has a clever and unique perspective. Aspect If the plane can be realistic paintings to life, then the three-dimensional, two-dimensional space can be called even more powerful by aspects.

  6. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  7. Three-Dimensional Patterning Using Ultraviolet Nanoimprint Lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Alkaisi, Maan M; Mohamed, Khairudin

    2010-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional patterning is demonstrated using UV cured nanoimprint lithography (UVNIL). The 3-D mold profiles were created on the ma-N2403 negative tone photoresist using the Raith-150 EBL tool with variable dose controlled exposure. A variable e-beam dose was used to obtain a resist contrast curve to determine the gradient of various 3-D structures. For a 600 nm layer thickness of ma-N2403 resist, the e-beam critical energy was set at 6.25 keV. To suppress charging effects on ins...

  8. Three Dimensional Digital Image Processing using Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schmeelk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to three dimensional image edge detection and its relationship to partial derivatives, convolutions and wavelets. We are especially addressing the notion of edge detection because it has far reaching applications in all areas of research to include medical research. A patient can be diagnosed as having an aneurysm by studying an angiogram. An angiogram is the visual view of the blood vessels whereby the edges are highlighted through the implementation of edge detectors. This process is completed through convolution, wavelets and matrix techniques. Some illustrations included will be vertical, horizontal, Sobel and wavelet edge detectors.

  9. Black holes in three-dimensional dilaton gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sá, P M; Lemos, J P S; Sa, Paulo M; Kleber, Antares; Lemos, Jose P S

    1995-01-01

    Three dimensional black holes in a generalized dilaton gravity action theory are analysed. The theory is specified by two fields, the dilaton and the graviton, and two parameters, the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke parameter. It contains seven different cases, of which one distinguishes as special cases, string theory, general relativity and a theory equivalent to four dimensional general relativity with one Killing vector. We study the causal structure and geodesic motion of null and timelike particles in the black hole geometries and find the ADM masses of the different solutions.

  10. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J S; Sharp, J; Tong, J R; Midgley, P A

    2006-07-21

    Dislocations and their interactions govern the properties of many materials, ranging from work hardening in metals to device pathology in semiconductor laser diodes. However, conventional electron micrographs are simply two-dimensional projections of three-dimensional (3D) structures, and even stereo microscopy cannot reveal the true 3D complexity of defect structures. Here, we describe an electron tomographic method that yields 3D reconstructions of dislocation networks with a spatial resolution three orders of magnitude better than previous work. We illustrate the method's success with a study of dislocations in a GaN epilayer, where dislocation densities of 1010 per square centimeter are common.

  11. Modified Three-Dimensional Multicarrier Optical Prime Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model for novel three-dimensional multicarrier optical codes in terms of wavelength/time/space based on the prime sequence algorithm. The proposed model has been extensively simulated on MATLAB for prime numbers (P to analyze the performance of code in terms of autocorrelation and cross-correlation. The simulated outcome resembles the mathematical model and gives better results over other methods available in the literature as far as autocorrelation and cross-correlation are concerned. The proposed 3D optical codes are more efficient in terms of cardinality, improved security, and providing quality of services.

  12. Observation of three dimensional optical rogue waves through obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonetti, Marco, E-mail: marco.leonetti@roma1.infn.it [Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Regina Elena, 291 00161 Roma (RM) (Italy); Conti, Claudio [ISC-CNR and Department of Physics, University Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-06-22

    We observe three-dimensional rogue waves in the speckle distribution of a spatially modulated optical beam. Light is transmitted beyond a partially reflecting obstacle generating optical rogue waves at a controlled position in the shadow of the barrier. When the barrier transmits only 0.07% of the input laser power, we observe the mostly localized event. These results demonstrate that an optimum amount of spatial non-homogeneity maximizes the probability of a gigantic event while the technique we exploit enables to control light behind a fully reflective wall.

  13. Seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrova, Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the propagation of seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium. The medium is modeled by a spatial lattice of masses connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. We study Lamb's problem under a surface point vertical load. The cases of both step and pulse load are considered. The displacements and velocities are calculated for surface masses. The influence of the viscosity of the dampers on the attenuation of perturbations is studied. We compare our numerical results for the block medium with known analytical solutions for the elastic medium.

  14. ORMEC: a three-dimensional MHD spectral inverse equilibrium code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Moments Equilibrium Code (ORMEC) is an efficient computer code that has been developed to calculate three-dimensional MHD equilibria using the inverse spectral method. The fixed boundary formulation, which is based on a variational principle for the spectral coefficients (moments) of the cylindrical coordinates R and Z, is described and compared with the finite difference code BETA developed by Bauer, Betancourt, and Garabedian. Calculations for the Heliotron, Wendelstein VIIA, and Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) configurations are performed to establish the accuracy and mesh convergence properties for the spectral method. 16 refs., 13 figs

  15. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  16. Three-dimensional ``Mercedes-Benz'' model for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cristiano L.; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

  17. Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cristiano L; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility. PMID:19673572

  18. Three-dimensional shape optimization using the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1994-06-01

    A practical design sensitivity calculation technique of displacements and stresses for three-dimensional bodies based on the direct differentiation method of discrete boundary integral equations is formulated in detail. Then the sensitivity calculation technique is applied to determine optimum shapes of minimum weight subjected to stress constraints, where an approximated subproblem is constructed repeatedly and solved sequentially by the mathematical programming method. The shape optimization technique suggested here is applied to determine optimum shapes of a cavity in a cube and a connecting rod.

  19. Three-dimensional shape optimization using boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Koetsu; Sakamoto, Jiro; Kitano, Masami

    1993-04-01

    A practical design sensitivity calculation technique of displacements and stresses for three-dimensional bodies based on the direct differentiation method of discrete boundary integral equations is formulated in detail. Then, the sensitivity calculation technique is applied to determine optimum shapes of minimum weight subjected to stress constraints, where an approximated subproblem is constructed repeatedly and solved sequentially by the mathematical programming method. The shape optimization technique suggested here is applied to determine optimum shapes of a cavity shape in a cube and a connecting rod.

  20. Three Dimensional Transformations in the Film Subtitle Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志海

    2015-01-01

    Film plays an indispensable part in cultural exchange. However, current scholars’studies on the film subtitle transla⁃tion are less than literary translation. There exists no systematic strategy and theory guiding it, and there still exists some problems. This paper introduces eco-translatology to film subtitle translation. Eco-translatology proposes that translation is an alternative cy⁃cle of translators’adaptation and selection activities in translational eco-environment. The translation method focuses on three-dimensional transformation, namely linguistic, cultural and communicative dimensions.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Three Dimensional Flexible Multibody Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic problems of three dimensional flexible multibody systems are investigated. The elastic deformation fields of flexible space beams are decomposed into axial deformation and bending deformation, and described by each exact vibration modes in the body coordinate systems. The constrainted nonlinear dynamic equations are derived by using Lagrange multiplier method. A numerical procedure for solving the resulting differential algebraic equations is presented based on Newmark direct integration method combined with the modified Newton-Raphson iterative method. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Combinatorial topology of three-dimensional self-affine tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bandt, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We develop tools to study the topology and geometry of self-affine fractals in dimension three and higher. We use the self-affine structure and obtain rather detailed information about the connectedness of interior and boundary sets, and on the dimensions and intersections of boundary sets. As an application, we describe in algebraic terms the polyhedral structure of the six fractal three-dimensional twindragons. Only two of them can be homeomorphic to a ball but even these have faces which are not homeomorphic to a disk.

  3. Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works

  4. Three dimensional simulations of the parallel velocity shear instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have performed fully nonlinear three-dimensional fluid simulations of the electrostatic parallel velocity shear instability as applied to a tokamak edge plasma. In the present study a source terms in the parallel momentum equation drives the sheared parallel flow. Studied are the effects of magnetic shear on the turbulence of the mode and the associated fluctuation levels. The inclusion of the nonlinear polarization drift in the perpendicular dynamics is found to significantly affect the final nonlinear state. Dependence of the anomalous momentum transport on the magnetic shear and the gyroradius parameter, associated with the polarization drift, are presented

  5. Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berra-Montiel, J

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  6. Three-dimensional measurement of a tightly focused laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a tightly focused light field is measured with a double knife-edge scanning method. The measurement method is based on the use of a high-quality double knife-edge fabricated from a right-angled silicon fragment mounted on a photodetector. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional structures of tightly focused spots is carried out with both uniform and partially obstructed linearly polarized incident light beams. The optical field distribution is found to deviate substantially from the input beam profile in the tightly focused region, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  7. Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2008-01-01

    We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... are mapped onto the atoms and back onto light. We show that the interaction of the light with the atoms may be separated into a mean effect of the ensemble and a deviation from the mean. The mean effect of the interaction effectively give rise to an index of refraction of the gas. We formally change...

  8. Ordinary polarization singularities in three-dimensional optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2012-06-15

    In generic three-dimensional optical fields the canonical point polarization singularities are points of circular polarization, C points on C lines, and points of linear polarization, L points on L lines. These special points are surrounded by a sea of ordinary points. In planes oriented normal to the principle axes of the polarization ellipse at the point, every ordinary point is also a singularity, here an ordinary polarization singularity, or O point. Interactions between O points, between O points and C points, and between O points and L points are described that highlight the fact that a consistent description of optical fields containing C and L lines must include O points.

  9. Three dimensional imaging of the nucleon --- TMD (theory and phenomenology)

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zuo-tang

    2015-01-01

    This is intend to provide an overview of the theoretical and phenomenological parts of the TMD (Transverse Momentum Dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions) studies. By comparing with the theoretical framework that we have for the inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and the one-dimensional imaging of the nucleon, I try to outline what we need to do in order to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for semi-inclusive reactions and the three dimensional imaging of the nucleon. After that, I try to give an overview of what we have already achieved and make an outlook for the future.

  10. Viscous real gas flowfields about three dimensional configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Davy, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Laminar, real gas hypersonic flowfields over a three dimensional configuration are computed using an unsteady, factored implicit scheme. Local chemical and thermodynamic properties are evaluated by an equilibrium composition method. Transport properties are obtained from individual species properties and application of a mixture rule. Numerical solutions are presented for an ideal gas and equilibrium air for free-stream Mach numbers of 13 and 15 and at various angles of attack. The effect of real gas is to decrease the shock-layer thickness resulting from decreased shock-layer temperatures and corresponding increased density. The combined effects of viscosity and real gas are to increase the subsonic layer near the wall.

  11. Real gas flow fields about three dimensional configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Lombard, C. K.; Davy, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Real gas, inviscid supersonic flow fields over a three-dimensional configuration are determined using a factored implicit algorithm. Air in chemical equilibrium is considered and its local thermodynamic properties are computed by an equilibrium composition method. Numerical solutions are presented for both real and ideal gases at three different Mach numbers and at two different altitudes. Selected results are illustrated by contour plots and are also tabulated for future reference. Results obtained compare well with existing tabulated numerical solutions and hence validate the solution technique.

  12. Three dimensional free convection couette flow with transpiration cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Free convection flow between two vertical parallel plates with transverse sinusoidal injection of the fluid at the stationary plate and its corresponding removal by constant suction through the plate in uniform motion has been analyzed. Due to this type of injection velocity, the flow becomes three-dimensional. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer were obtained. The important characteristics of the problem, namely the skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are discussed in detail with the help of graphs.

  13. Vanadium speciation by XANES spectroscopy: a three-dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Lay, Peter A

    2014-09-15

    A library of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic data for V(V), V(IV) and V(III) complexes with a broad range of biologically relevant ligand has been used to demonstrate that three-dimensional plots of key XANES parameters (pre-edge and edge energies; pre-edge and white line intensities) can be used for the prediction of V oxidation states and coordination numbers in biological or environmental matrices. The reliability of the technique has been demonstrated by re-analysis of the published XANES data for a V(V)-dependent bromoperoxidase. PMID:25088743

  14. AN EXAMPLE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROGRESSIVE SLOPE FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家臣; 骆中洲

    1995-01-01

    In fact, the failure of any slope takes place progressively, but the progressive failure mechanism has not been emphasized sufficently in the present stability analysis of slopes. This paper provides an example of the progressive slope failure which took place at Pingzhuang west surface coal mine and was numbered the 26th slide. The three-dimensional reliability model for progressive slope failure is used to study the failure process of the 26th slide. The outcomes indicate that the progressive failure is indeed the failure mechanism of the slide.

  15. Three-dimensional integrated CAE system applying computer graphic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional CAE system for nuclear power plant design is presented. This system utilizes high-speed computer graphic techniques for the plant design review, and an integrated engineering database for handling the large amount of nuclear power plant engineering data in a unified data format. Applying this system makes it possible to construct a nuclear power plant using only computer data from the basic design phase to the manufacturing phase, and it increases the productivity and reliability of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Three-Dimensional Printing of Drug-Eluting Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Water, Jorrit Jeroen; Bohr, Adam; Bøtker, Johan Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of three-dimensional (3D) printing as a manufacturing method for products intended for personalized treatments by exploring the production of novel polylactide-based feedstock materials for 3D printing purposes. Nitrofurantoin (NF......) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully mixed and extruded with up to 30% drug load with and without addition of 5% HA in polylactide strands, which were subsequently 3D-printed into model disc geometries (10 × 2 mm). X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that NF maintained its anhydrate solid form during...

  17. Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Escalante, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev-Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev-Jackiw and Dirac's formalism are briefly discussed.

  18. The genus of curves on the three dimensional quadric

    CERN Document Server

    De Cataldo, M A A

    1996-01-01

    By means of an {\\it ad hoc} modification of the so-called ``Castelnuovo-Harris analysis" we derive an upper bound for the genus of integral curves on the three dimensional nonsingular quadric which lie on an integral surface of degree $2k$, as a function of $k$ and the degree $d$ of the curve. In order to obtain this we revisit the Uniform Position Principle to make its use computation-free. The curves which achieve this bound can be conveniently characterized.

  19. The Electron in Three-Dimensional Momentum Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, L.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the electron as a system composed of an electron and a photon and derive the leading-twist transverse-momentum-dependent distribution functions for both the electron and photon in the dressed electron, thereby offering a three-dimensional description of the dressed electron in momentum space. To obtain the distribution functions, we apply both the formalism of light-front wave function overlap representation and the diagrammatic approach; we discuss the comparison of our results between light-cone gauge and Feynman gauge, discussing the role of the Wilson lines to obtain gauge-independent results. We provide examples of plots of the computed distributions.

  20. Electron conductive three-dimensional polymer of cuboidal C60

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Kubo, Akira; Inumaru, Kei; Komaguchi, Kenji; Kini, N. S.; Inoue, Toru; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of three-dimensional (3D) C60 polymer were prepared by the topotactic conversion of two-dimensional (2D) C60 polymer single crystals at a pressure of 15 GPa at 600°C. The x-ray single crystal study revealed that the 3D C60 polymer crystallized in a body centered orthorhombic space group Immm, and spherical C60 monomer units were substantially deformed to rectangular parallelepiped (cuboidal) shapes, each unit being bonded to eight cuboidal C60 neighbors via [3+3] cycloaddition...

  1. Velocity distribution and pressure loss at three-dimensional roughnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the pressure drop and the velocity distribution at three-dimensional roughnesses in a rectangular channel of variable channel width were performed with air. The friction factors of the extreme roughness (p/h = 2.5, g/e = 1) were found to be the highest which were measured up to now. The velocity distribution showed great differences to that observed at other roughnesses. The 'law of the wall' is not adequate to describe the velocity profile over these roughnesses, the velocity profiles are much flatter. (orig.)

  2. Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Graham D; Thayil, Anisha; Withford, Michael J; Booth, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Third harmonic generation microscopy has been used to analyze the morphology of photonic structures created using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Three dimensional waveguide arrays and waveguide-Bragg gratings written in fused-silica and doped phosphate glass were investigated. A sensorless adaptive optical system was used to correct the optical aberrations occurring in the sample and microscope system, which had a lateral resolution of less than 500 nm. This non-destructive testing method creates volume reconstructions of photonic devices and reveals details invisible to other linear microscopy and index profilometry techniques.

  3. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional combustion flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A finite-rate method is used to simulate the three-dimensional combustion process in a plasma generator with CH4 as the fuel. The simulation was run with RNG k-ε model to simulate turbulence, with eddy-dissipation-concept (EDC) model to simulate the combustion and with discrete ordinates model to simulate radiation. The numerical results show that the flow field characteristics and the parameter distributions are under the condition of rich fuels, and these results provide valuable information when optimizing the plasma generator design and organizing its flow fields.

  4. Damaging effects of gliadin on three-dimensional cell culture model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ersilia Dolfini; Maria Letizia Falini; Maria Teresa Bardella; Luca Elli; Leda Roncoroni; Barbara Costa; Maria Pia Colleoni; Vito Lorusso; Simona Ramponi; Paola Braidotti; Stefano Ferrero

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of gliadin on the oxidative environment in the"in vivo-like" model of a three-dimensional cell culture system.METHODS: LoVo cell line (intestinal adenocarcinoma)multicellular spheroids were treated with digested gliadin (with albumin used as a control). Spheroid volumes, cell viability and morphology, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release, content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of GSH-related enzymes were examined. The data were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test (P<0.05).was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Gliadin reduced cell viability (from 20% to 60%)and led to morphological alterations characterized by apoptotic findings and cytoskeletal injuries. LDH activity increased. The content of GSH reduced (-20% vs controls),and activity of GSH-related enzymes was significantly inhibited.CONCLUSION: Gliadin treatment induces an imbalance in the antioxidative mechanism of cells cultured by the three-dimensional technique. This alteration may explain the cell damage directly caused by gliadin and the subsequent morphological abnormalities.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Sense Three Dimensional Type I Collagen through Discoidin Domain Receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, A W; Stegemann, J P; Plopper, G E

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix provides structural and organizational cues for tissue development and defines and maintains cellular phenotype during cell fate determination. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells use this matrix to tightly regulate the balance between their differentiation potential and self-renewal in the native niche. When understood, the mechanisms that govern cell-matrix crosstalk during differentiation will allow for efficient engineering of natural and synthetic matrices to specifically direct and maintain stem cell phenotype. This work identifies the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen activated receptor tyrosine kinase, as a potential link through which stem cells sense and respond to the 3D organization of their extracellular matrix microenvironment. DDR1 is dependent upon both the structure and proteolytic state of its collagen ligand and is specifically expressed and localized in three dimensional type I collagen culture. Inhibition of DDR1 expression results in decreased osteogenic potential, increased cell spreading, stress fiber formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, loss of DDR1 activity alters the cell-mediated organization of the naïve type I collagen matrix. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for DDR1 in the stem cell response to and interaction with three dimensional type I collagen. Dynamic changes in cell shape in 3D culture and the tuning of the local ECM microstructure, directs crosstalk between DDR1 and two dimensional mechanisms of osteogenesis that can alter their traditional roles.

  6. Simulating three-dimensional nonthermal high-energy photon emission in colliding-wind binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O., E-mail: klaus.reitberger@uibk.ac.at [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Massive stars in binary systems have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy γ rays. The emission is principally thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and accelerate relativistic particles which subsequently emit γ rays. On the basis of a three-dimensional distribution function of high-energy particles in the wind collision region—as obtained by a numerical hydrodynamics and particle transport model—we present the computation of the three-dimensional nonthermal photon emission for a given line of sight. Anisotropic inverse Compton emission is modeled using the target radiation field of both stars. Photons from relativistic bremsstrahlung and neutral pion decay are computed on the basis of local wind plasma densities. We also consider photon-photon opacity effects due to the dense radiation fields of the stars. Results are shown for different stellar separations of a given binary system comprising of a B star and a Wolf-Rayet star. The influence of orbital orientation with respect to the line of sight is also studied by using different orbital viewing angles. For the chosen electron-proton injection ratio of 10{sup –2}, we present the ensuing photon emission in terms of two-dimensional projections maps, spectral energy distributions, and integrated photon flux values in various energy bands. Here, we find a transition from hadron-dominated to lepton-dominated high-energy emission with increasing stellar separations. In addition, we confirm findings from previous analytic modeling that the spectral energy distribution varies significantly with orbital orientation.

  7. Development of three-dimensional printing system for magnetic elastomer with control of magnetic anisotropy in the structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumori, Fujio; Kawanishi, Hidenori; Kudo, Kentaro; Osada, Toshiko; Miura, Hideshi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on a new system of three-dimensional (3D) printing for a magnetic elastomer that contains magnetic particles. Not only can we fabricate a three-dimensional structure, but we can also control the magnetically anisotropic property of each position in the structure using the present technique. Our new system employed photocurable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the base material so that a method similar to a conventional 3D printing process with photolithography can be used. A magnetic powder was mixed with photocurable PDMS, and particle chain clusters were obtained by applying a magnetic field during the curing process. These chain clusters provide an anisotropic property in each part of the printed structure. We show some results of preliminary experiments and 3D printed samples in this paper. If the fabricated structure was placed under an applied magnetic field, each chain cluster will cause the rotational moment to be along the magnetic flux line, which can deform a soft matrix body. This deformation can be used as a magnetic actuator for the structure. Variable deformable structures could be developed using the present method.

  8. A Morphing framework to couple non-local and local anisotropic continua

    KAUST Repository

    Azdoud, Yan

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we develop a method to couple anisotropic local continua with anisotropic non-local continua with central long-range forces. First, we describe anisotropic non-local models based on spherical harmonic descriptions. We then derive compatible classic continuum models. Finally, we apply the morphing method to these anisotropic non-local models and present three-dimensional numerical examples to validate the efficiency of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compaction of DNA on nanoscale three-dimensional templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Anatoly A; Chen, Ning

    2006-07-19

    There exist several important in vivo examples, where a DNA chain is compacted on interacting with nanoscale objects such as proteins, thereby forming complexes with a well defined molecular architecture. One of the well known manifestations of such a natural organization of a semi-flexible DNA chain on nanoscale objects is hierarchical DNA molecule assembly into a chromosome, which is mediated by cationic histone proteins at the first stages of compaction. The biological importance of this and other natural nanostructural organizations of the DNA molecule has inspired many theoretical and numerical studies to gain physical insight into this problem. On the other hand, the experimental model systems containing DNA and nanoobjects, which are important to extend our knowledge beyond natural systems, were almost unavailable until the last decade. Accelerating progress in nanoscale chemistry and materials science has brought about various nanoscale three-dimensional structures such as dendrimers, nanoparticles, and nanotubes, and thus has provided a basis for the next important step in creating novel DNA-containing nanostructures, modelling of natural DNA compaction, and verification of accumulated theoretical predictions on the interaction between DNA and nanoscale templates. This review is written to highlight this early stage of nano-inspired progress and it is focused on physico-chemical and biophysical experimental investigations as well as theoretical and numerical studies dedicated to the compaction of DNA on nanoscale three-dimensional templates. PMID:21690831

  10. A biorthogonality relationship for three-dimensional couple stress problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO JianHui; LI QiuSheng; LIU GuangDong

    2009-01-01

    The duality solution for elasticity and the biorthogonality relationship have been well researched. Now the couple stress theory becomes a new research spot but there is few research for the biorthogonality relationship for couple stress theory comparing to classical elasticity. A new state vector is presented for three dimensional couple stress problems of prismatic structures. A new biorthogonality relation-ship of couple stress is discovered. The dual partial differential equations of couple stress problem are derived by the new state vector. By two important identical equations the new biorthogonality rela-tionship is proved based on the method of separation of variables. The symplectic orthogonality rela-tionship to three dimensional couple stress theory may be decomposed into two independently and symmetrically orthogonality relationships. The new biorthogonality relationship includes the symplectic orthogonality relationship. The biorthogonality relationship of couple stress may also be degenerated into the theory of elasticity. The new state vector and biorthogonality relationship provide theoretic foundation for the research on the schemes of separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion of couple stress theory.

  11. A biorthogonality relationship for three-dimensional couple stress problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The duality solution for elasticity and the biorthogonality relationship have been well researched. Now the couple stress theory becomes a new research spot but there is few research for the biorthogonality relationship for couple stress theory comparing to classical elasticity. A new state vector is presented for three dimensional couple stress problems of prismatic structures. A new biorthogonality relation- ship of couple stress is discovered. The dual partial differential equations of couple stress problem are derived by the new state vector. By two important identical equations the new biorthogonality rela- tionship is proved based on the method of separation of variables. The symplectic orthogonality rela- tionship to three dimensional couple stress theory may be decomposed into two independently and symmetrically orthogonality relationships. The new biorthogonality relationship includes the symplec- tic orthogonality relationship. The biorthogonality relationship of couple stress may also be degener- ated into the theory of elasticity. The new state vector and biorthogonality relationship provide theo- retic foundation for the research on the schemes of separation of variables and eigenfunction expan- sion of couple stress theory.

  12. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10-3 S cm-1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  13. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  14. Three-dimensional modeler for animated images display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mv3d software allows the modeling and display of three dimensional objects in interpretative mode with animation possibility in real time. This system is intended for a graphical extension of a FORTH interpreter (implemented by CEA/IRDI/D.LETI/DEIN) in order to control a specific hardware (3.D card designed and implemented by DEIN) allowing the generation of three dimensional objects. The object description is carried out with a specific graphical language integrated in the FORTH interpreter. Objects are modeled using elementary solids called basic forms (cube, cone, cylinder...) assembled with classical geometric transformations (rotation, translation and scaling). These basic forms are approximated by plane polygonal facets further divided in triangles. Coordinates of the summits of triangles constitute the geometrical data. These are sent to the 3.D. card for processing and display. Performed processing are: geometrical transformations on display, hidden surface elimination, shading and clipping. The mv3d software is not an entire modeler but a simple, modular and extensible tool, to which other specific functions may be easily added such as: robots motion, collisions... (author)

  15. BWR stability analysis with three-dimensional transient code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, neutron flux oscillations of two different modes were observed in several foreign BWR plants. One is core wide oscillation mode which is characterized by a phenomenon that neutron flux oscillates in-phase over a whole core. At La Salle 2 plant (U.S.A.), the amplitude of core wide neutron flux oscillation grew considerably large to result in a reactor scram, which aroused great concern about BWR stability. The other is regional oscillation mode which is characterized by the phenomenon, as typically observed at Caorso plant (Italy), that neutron flux of a half core oscillates out-of-phase to that of the other half core. These neutron flux oscillation phenomena were caused by nuclear-thermal hydraulic coupled instability and requires an evaluation study on oscillation detectability and effect on fuel integrity. Particularly, the regional oscillation mode requires three-dimensional analysis since it may bring about locally large amplitude power oscillation. For this reason, analysis was done with the three-dimensional transient code TOSDYN-2 to study reactor condition which causes the regional oscillation and also to evaluate fuel thermal margin under the neutron flux oscillations of these two instability modes. (author)

  16. A Three-Dimensional Map of Milky-Way Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Gregory M; Finkbeiner, Douglas P; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas; Burgett, William; Draper, Peter W; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional map of interstellar dust reddening, covering three-quarters of the sky out to a distance of several kiloparsecs, based on Pan-STARRS 1 and 2MASS photometry. The map reveals a wealth of detailed structure, from filaments to large cloud complexes. The map has a hybrid angular resolution, with most of the map at an angular resolution of 3.4' to 13.7', and a maximum distance resolution of ~25%. The three-dimensional distribution of dust is determined in a fully probabilistic framework, yielding the uncertainty in the reddening distribution along each line of sight, as well as stellar distances, reddenings and classifications for 800 million stars detected by Pan-STARRS 1. We demonstrate the consistency of our reddening estimates with those of two-dimensional emission-based maps of dust reddening. In particular, we find agreement with the Planck 353 GHz optical depth-based reddening map to within 0.05 mag in E(B-V) to a depth of 0.5 mag, and explore systematics at reddenings less tha...

  17. Three-dimensional saltating processes of multiple sediment particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiao-Wen WANG; Hong-Yuan LEE; Po-Ning LEE

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interacting mechanism between the saltating particles near a channel bed.A three-dimensional real-time flow visualization technique was developed to measure the interparticle collision behaviors during the saltating process.Based on the experimental data,the distribution of the collision points was found to be symmetric.This confirms the assumption that the projections of the collision points onto the reasonable plane are uniformly distributed.A three-dimensional saltating model was also developed.This model produced satisfactory results.The model is able to simulate the continuous saltating trajectories of several particles.The simulated dimensionless saltating height,longitudinal and vertical saltation velocity components were found to increase as the dimensionless particle diameter and the dimensionless flow transport capacity parameter increase,while the simulated lateral saltation velocity component varies inversely with the dimensionless flow transport capacity parameter.A regression equation for the bed load transport rate was also obtained.

  18. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  19. Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.

  20. Three Dimensional Culture of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Batchelder

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinomas arise from the nephron but are heterogeneous in disease biology, clinical behavior, prognosis, and response to systemic therapy. Development of patient-specific in vitro models that efficiently and faithfully reproduce the in vivo phenotype may provide a means to develop personalized therapies for this diverse carcinoma. Studies to maintain and model tumor phenotypes in vitro were conducted with emerging three-dimensional culture techniques and natural scaffolding materials. Human renal cell carcinomas were individually characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR to establish the characteristics of each tumor. Isolated cells were cultured on renal extracellular matrix and compared to a novel polysaccharide scaffold to assess cell-scaffold interactions, development of organoids, and maintenance of gene expression signatures over time in culture. Renal cell carcinomas cultured on renal extracellular matrix repopulated tubules or vessel lumens in renal pyramids and medullary rays, but cells were not observed in glomeruli or outer cortical regions of the scaffold. In the polysaccharide scaffold, renal cell carcinomas formed aggregates that were loosely attached to the scaffold or free-floating within the matrix. Molecular analysis of cell-scaffold constructs including immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR demonstrated that individual tumor phenotypes could be sustained for up to 21 days in culture on both scaffolds, and in comparison to outcomes in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The use of three-dimensional scaffolds to engineer a personalized in vitro renal cell carcinoma model provides opportunities to advance understanding of this disease.

  1. Three-dimensional angular domain optical projection tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eldon; Vasefi, Fartash; Roumeliotis, Michael; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2011-03-01

    Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) has been previously demonstrated to generate projection images of attenuating targets embedded within a turbid medium. The imaging system employs a silicon micro-tunnel array positioned between the sample and the detection system to reject scattered photons that have deviated from the initial propagation direction and to select for ballistic and quasi-ballistic photons that have retained their forward trajectory. Two dimensional tomographic images can be reconstructed from ADI projections collected at a multitude of angles. The objective of this work was to extend the system to three dimensions by collecting several tomographic images and stacking the reconstructed slices to generate a three dimensional volume representative of the imaging target. A diode laser (808nm, CW) with a beam expander was used to illuminate the sample cuvette. An Angular Filter Array (AFA) of 80 μm × 80 μm square-shaped tunnels 2 cm in length was used to select for image forming quasi-ballistic photons. Images were detected with a linear CCD. Our approach was to use a SCARA robot to rotate and translate the sample to collect sufficient projections to reconstruct a three dimensional volume. A custom designed 3D target consisting of 4 truncated cones was imaged and reconstructed with filtered backprojection and iterative methods. A 0.5 mm graphite rod was used to collect the forward model, while a truncated pseudoinverse was used to approximate the backward model for the iterative algorithm.

  2. Transect-based Three-Dimensional Road Modeling and Visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingquan; TANG Luliang; ZUO Xiaoqing; LI Hanwu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the study on road elements and the existing three-dimensional road data models, this paper puts forward the transect-based road modeling, resolves the modeling of the simplest road with two road transects, and fulfils the visualization of the road. OpenGL is applied as the tool of visualization. The map texture technology, LOD algorithm and dynamic multi-differentiating texture technology are of benefit to the construction of 3D road GIS, and improve the speed of roaming and effective visualization. This paper also disusses the combination of 2D digitall road map and 3D road scene, and the dynamic response between them. Finally, on the basis of the research on the transect-based road model, this paper develops the three-dimensional road geographic information system called virtual road ( VRoad ), which not only supplies road designers with a set of tool which can turn the designed 2D road data into 3D road and the high road assistant function area in computer, but also supplies the road management with a set of tool which can realize the road real time and interactive roaming, high-efficiency management.

  3. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  4. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10−3 S cm−1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  5. Piezoelectric characteristics of three-dimensional solid object of poly(l-lactide) fabricated by three-dimensional printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Syota; Kamimura, Yuki; Tsukamoto, Nobuyuki; Imoto, Kenji; Sugitani, Hideki; Kondo, Takashi; Imada, Yuya; Nakiri, Takuo; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2015-10-01

    Through three-dimensional (3D) printing, we attempted to fabricate 3D solid objects with piezoelectricity. By optimizing the conditions of 3D printing, we realized the fabrication of a piezoelectric object by 3D printing. In fact, we could produce a poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) object similar to a smart phone case fabricated by 3D printing, the molded body of which has button sensors at the desired sites by exploiting the piezoelectric properties of PLLA. Finally, we confirmed that the PLLA object behaved as a fully functional sensor.

  6. Three-dimensional control of the helical axis of a chiral nematic liquid crystal by light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yannian; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Wang, Ling; Bunning, Timothy J.; Li, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals—otherwise referred to as cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs)—are self-organized helical superstructures that find practical application in, for example, thermography, reflective displays, tuneable colour filters and mirrorless lasing. Dynamic, remote and three-dimensional control over the helical axis of CLCs is desirable, but challenging. For example, the orientation of the helical axis relative to the substrate can be changed from perpendicular to parallel by applying an alternating-current electric field, by changing the anchoring conditions of the substrate, or by altering the topography of the substrate’s surface; separately, in-plane rotation of the helical axis parallel to the substrate can be driven by a direct-current field. Here we report three-dimensional manipulation of the helical axis of a CLC, together with inversion of its handedness, achieved solely with a light stimulus. We use this technique to carry out light-activated, wide-area, reversible two-dimensional beam steering—previously accomplished using complex integrated systems and optical phased arrays. During the three-dimensional manipulation by light, the helical axis undergoes, in sequence, a reversible transition from perpendicular to parallel, followed by in-plane rotation on the substrate surface. Such reversible manipulation depends on experimental parameters such as cell thickness, surface anchoring condition, and pitch length. Because there is no thermal relaxation, the system can be driven either forwards or backwards from any light-activated intermediate state. We also describe reversible photocontrol between a two-dimensional diffraction state, a one-dimensional diffraction state and a diffraction ‘off’ state in a bilayer cell.

  7. Optimization of three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) for three-dimensional momentum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher S., E-mail: christopher.williams@afit.ed [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Burggraf, Larry W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Adamson, Paul E. [Stockpile Research, Development and Engineering Division, Office of Defense Programs, National Nuclear Security Administration, 1000 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Petrosky, James C. [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2011-02-11

    A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was characterized. 3DPASS permits determination of three-dimensional electron-positron (e{sup -}e{sup +}) momentum distributions by simultaneously measuring angles and energies for coincident two-gamma annihilation photons. 3DPASS collects a single dataset of correlated energies and positions for two coincident annihilation photons from a pair of solid-state double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs). Subpixel-interpolated positions are determined by transient charge analysis. 3DPASS performs simultaneous two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincidence Doppler-broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) measurements, which are typically collected independently. The 2D ACAR response of 3DPASS was measured for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC, with and without compensation for subpixel detection efficiency. Variation of efficiency across the width of DSSD charge collection electrodes was dominated by the event selection criteria required by the subpixel interpolation method. The DBAR resolution was optimized by adjusting the energy range of CDBAR events included in the Doppler-broadening (DB) lineshape. 2D ACAR and DBAR spectra from 3DPASS were compared to previously published results for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC. Detailed analysis of the ACAR spectra and the DB lineshapes highlighted momentum features not previously reported.

  8. Optimization of three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) for three-dimensional momentum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Adamson, Paul E.; Petrosky, James C.

    2011-02-01

    A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was characterized. 3DPASS permits determination of three-dimensional electron-positron ( e-- e+) momentum distributions by simultaneously measuring angles and energies for coincident two-gamma annihilation photons. 3DPASS collects a single dataset of correlated energies and positions for two coincident annihilation photons from a pair of solid-state double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs). Subpixel-interpolated positions are determined by transient charge analysis. 3DPASS performs simultaneous two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincidence Doppler-broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) measurements, which are typically collected independently. The 2D ACAR response of 3DPASS was measured for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC, with and without compensation for subpixel detection efficiency. Variation of efficiency across the width of DSSD charge collection electrodes was dominated by the event selection criteria required by the subpixel interpolation method. The DBAR resolution was optimized by adjusting the energy range of CDBAR events included in the Doppler-broadening (DB) lineshape. 2D ACAR and DBAR spectra from 3DPASS were compared to previously published results for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC. Detailed analysis of the ACAR spectra and the DB lineshapes highlighted momentum features not previously reported.

  9. New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.

  10. Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J.; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies.

  11. Inner mechanics of three-dimensional black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Stéphane

    2012-07-20

    We investigate properties of the inner horizons of certain black holes in higher-derivative three-dimensional gravity theories. We focus on Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli and spacelike warped anti-de Sitter black holes, as well as on asymptotically warped de Sitter solutions exhibiting both a cosmological and a black hole horizon. We verify that a first law is satisfied at the inner horizon, in agreement with the proposal of Castro and Rodriguez [arXiv:1204.1284]. We then show that, in topologically massive gravity, the product of the areas of the inner and outer horizons fails to be independent on the mass, and we trace this to the diffeomorphism anomaly of the theory.

  12. Optimized Fourier representations for three-dimensional magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of an optimal parametric angle theta describing a closed magnetic flux surface is considered with regard to accelerating the convergence rate of the Fourier series for the Cartesian coordinates x(theta,phi) identical with R - R0 and y(theta,phi) identical with Z - Z0. Geometric criteria are developed based on the Hamiltonian invariants of Keplerian orbits. These criteria relate the rate of curve traversal (tangential speed) to the curvature (normal acceleration) so as to provide increased angular resolution in regions of largest curvature. They are, however, limited to either convex or starlike domains and do not provide rapid convergence for complex domains with alternating convex and concave regions. A generally applicable constraint criterion, based directly on minimizing the width of the x and y Fourier spectra, is also derived. A variational principle is given for implementing these constraints numerically. Application to the representation of three-dimensional magnetic flux surfaces is discussed

  13. Three Dimensional Modeling of Shaft with Process Structures on CATIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Sheng-lai; WANG Xiao-yu; JIANG Xu; WU You; MENG Xiang-bao

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional models of shaft were completed on CATIA Part Design module with the Chinese national standard (GB) process structures such as chamfers, threads and tool withdrawal grooves, center holes, flat/woodruff/gib head taper keyseats, grinding undercuts, straight-sidedsplines, circlip slots and collars. The modeling steps are arranged in dialog menu interface by VB 6.0, the shaft creator, that permits users input geometric feature based parameters explicitly, and the standardized processdata are reorganized in Excel files that can be invoked correspondingly in the modeling procedure. It is aimed that this process may supply a simple way for shaft rapid modeling and comprehensive discipline for engineering students in their professional design activities.

  14. Quantum Secure Direct Communication by Using Three-Dimensional Hyperentanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施锦; 龚彦晓; 徐平; 祝世宁; 詹佑邦

    2011-01-01

    We propose two schemes for realizing quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) by using a set of ordered two-photon three-dimensional hyperentangled states entangled in two degrees of freedom (DOFs) as quantum information channels. In the first scheme, the photons from Bob to Alice are transmitted only once. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs single-photon two-DOF Bell bases measurements on her photons. This scheme has better security than former QSDC protocols. In the second scheme, Bob transmits photons to Alice twice. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs two-photon Bell bases measurements on each DOF. The scheme has more information capacity than former Q,SDC protocols.

  15. Three-dimensional display improves observer speed and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) display equipment, we compared the speed and accuracy of experienced radiologists identifying in sliced uppercase letters from CT scans with 2D and pseudo-3D display. CT scans of six capital letters were obtained and printed as a 2D display or as a synthesized pseudo-3D display (Pixar). Six observes performed a timed identification task. Radiologists read the 3D display an average of 16 times faster than the 2D, and the average error rate of 2/6 (± 0.6/6) for 2D interpretations was totally eliminated. This degree of improvement in speed and accuracy suggests that the expense of 3D display may be cost-effective in a defined clinical setting

  16. Three-dimensional tertiary structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Sussman, J. L.; Suddath, F. L.; Quigley, G. J.; Mcpherson, A.; Wang, A. H. J.; Seeman, N. C.; Rich, A.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an analysis and interpretation of a 3-A electron density map of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. Some earlier detailed assignments of nucleotide residues to electron density peaks are found to be in error, even though the overall tracing of the backbone conformation of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA was generally correct. A new, more comprehensive interpretation is made which makes it possible to define the tertiary interactions in the molecule. The new interpretation makes it possible to visualize a number of tertiary interactions which not only explain the structural role of most of the bases which are constant in transfer RNAs, but also makes it possible to understand in a direct and simple fashion the chemical modification data on transfer RNA. In addition, this pattern of tertiary interactions provides a basis for understanding the general three-dimensional folding of all transfer RNA molecules.

  17. Reconstructing the three-dimensional local dark matter velocity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kavanagh, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Directionally sensitive dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments present the only way to observe the full three-dimensional velocity distribution of the Milky Way halo local to Earth. In this work we compare methods for extracting information about the local DM velocity distribution from a set of recoil directions and energies in a range of hypothetical directional and non-directional experiments. We compare a model independent empirical parameterisation of the velocity distribution based on an angular discretisation with a model dependent approach which assumes knowledge of the functional form of the distribution. The methods are tested under three distinct halo models which cover a range of possible phase space structures for the local velocity distribution: a smooth Maxwellian halo, a tidal stream and a debris flow. In each case we use simulated directional data to attempt to reconstruct the shape and parameters describing each model as well as the DM particle properties. We find that the empirical pa...

  18. Three-dimensional representation of vessels using pixel classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has the ability to visualize blood flow noninvasively and without the use of contrast agents. The authors present a method based on pixel classification to distinguish between vessels and stationary tissue. Three-dimensional imaging methods are used. The user labels a small set of images containing both vessels and stationary tissue. These labeled images are used to train a numerical classifier. Each voxel is characterized by a feature vector containing information about voxel intensity, and relationships to neighboring voxels. Unlabeled images are transformed into probability images by multiplying the corresponding feature vector of each voxel by the calculated classification matrix. The probability images are used to decide whether a voxel belongs to stationary tissue or to vessels. The decision-making process results in a binary image that is used as a mask to extract a pure vessel image. This technique offers many possibilities for vessel display

  19. On a novel matrix method for three-dimensional photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-destructive method for the photoelastic determination of three-dimensional stress distributions, based on the Mueller and Jones calculi, is developed. The differential equations satisfied by the Stokes and Jones vectors, when a polarized light beam passes through a photoelastic model, presenting rotation of the secondary principal stress directions, are established in matrix form. The Peano-Baker method is used for the solution of these differential equations in a matrix series form, establishing the elements of the Mueller and Jones matrices of the photoelastic model. These matrices are experimentally determined by using different wavelengths in conjunction with Jones' 'equivalence theorem'. The Neumann equations are immediately deduced from the above-mentioned differential equations. (orig.)

  20. On Using Taylor's Hypothesis for Three-Dimensional Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged ('real') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  1. Three-dimensional flow measurements in a tesla turbine rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Schosser, Constantin; Hain, Rainer; Kaehler, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Tesla turbines are fluid mechanical devices converting flow energy into rotation energy by two physical effects: friction and adhesion. The advantages of the tesla turbine are its simple and robust design, as well as its scalability, which makes it suitable for custom power supply solutions, and renewable energy applications. To this day, there is a lack of experimental data to validate theoretical studies, and CFD simulations of these turbines. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of the flow through a tesla turbine rotor gap, with a gap height of only 0.5 mm, by means of three-dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3D-PTV). For laminar flows, the experimental results match the theory very well, since the measured flow profiles show the predicted second order parabolic shape in radial direction and a fourth order behavior in circumferential direction. In addition to these laminar measurements, turbulent flows at higher mass flow rates were investigated.

  2. Coherent Lagrangian vortices in three-dimensional unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevski, Daniel; Haller, George

    2014-05-01

    Detecting barriers to, and facilitators of, transport is a fundamental problem in studying the behavior of Lagrangian trajectories in a fluid. A recent extension of two-dimensional results provides transport barriers in 3D flows as locally most attracting, repelling or shearing surfaces. This provides an objective definition of a Lagrangian vortex boundary as an outermost member of a family of most shearing cylindrical material surfaces. The detection of such a 3D vortex boundary yields an accurate estimate on the volume the vortex transports. We compute 3D Lagrangian vortices in kinematic models, and also use a global circulation model to extract sharp boundaries for coherent three-dimensional Agulhas rings in the South Atlantic.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction for high-speed volume measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Lane, Robert M.; Chang, Guang-Hwa

    2001-02-01

    Volume measurement is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Value or price is often determined by the size of product. In seafood industry, for example, oyster meat is separated into four grades before being packaged. Large size grade means higher selling price than small size. More consistent packaging size is also an indication of high quality. Product size can be measured optically with machine vision technology for on-line inspection and grading systems. Most optical grading techniques use a two-dimensional area projection or the weight of the product to estimate the actual product volume. These methods are subject to measurement inaccuracy because of the missing thickness information. An algorithm combines laser triangulation technique with two-dimensional measurement to reconstruct a three-dimensional surface for volume measurement is introduced in this paper. The result of this technique shows a significant accuracy improvement from the area-projection method

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the intra-cluster medium

    CERN Document Server

    Puchwein, E; Puchwein, Ewald; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We propose and test a new method based on Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to reconstruct three-dimensional gas density and temperature distributions in galaxy clusters from combined X-ray and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations. Clusters are assumed to be axially symmetric and arbitrarily inclined with respect to the line-of-sight. No equilibrium assumption other than local thermal equilibrium is needed. We test the algorithm with synthetic observations of analytically modeled and numerically simulated galaxy clusters and discuss the quality of the density and temperature reconstructions in idealised situations and in presence of observational noise, deviations from axial symmetry and cluster substructure. We find that analytic and numerical gas density and temperature distributions can be accurately reconstructed in three dimensions, even if observational noise is present. We also discuss methods for determining the inclination angle from data and show that it can be constrained using X-ray temperature map...

  5. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  6. 3N Scattering in a Three-Dimensional Operator Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch; Golak, J; Skibinski, R; Witala, H

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed formulation for a direct treatment of the equations for two- and three-nucleon bound states as set of coupled equations of scalar functions depending only on vector momenta is extended to three-nucleon scattering. Starting from the spin-momentum dependence occurring as scalar products in two- and three-nucleon forces together with other scalar functions, we present the Faddeev multiple scattering series in which order by order the spin-degrees can be treated analytically leading to 3D integrations over scalar functions depending on momentum vectors only. Such formulation is especially important in view of awaiting extension of 3N Faddeev calculations to projectile energies above the pion production threshold and applications of chiral perturbation theory 3N forces, which are to be most efficiently treated directly in such three-dimensional formulation without having to expand these forces into a partial wave basis.

  7. Three-dimensional extinction mapping using Gaussian random fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sale, S E

    2014-01-01

    We present a scheme for using stellar catalogues to map the three-dimensional distributions of extinction and dust within our Galaxy. Extinction is modelled as a Gaussian random field, whose covariance function is set by a simple physical model of the ISM that assumes a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. As extinction is modelled as a random field, the spatial resolution of the resulting maps is set naturally by the data available; there is no need to impose any spatial binning. We verify the validity of our scheme by testing it on simulated extinction fields and show that its precision is significantly improved over previous dust-mapping efforts. The approach we describe here can make use of any photometric, spectroscopic or astrometric data; it is not limited to any particular survey. Consequently, it can be applied to a wide range of data from both existing and future surveys.

  8. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of biological cells with picosecond ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danworaphong, Sorasak; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsumoto, Yuki; Matsuda, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshiro; Watanabe, Hiromu; Nagayama, Masafumi; Gohara, Kazutoshi; Otsuka, Paul H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2015-04-01

    We use picosecond ultrasonics to image animal cells in vitro—a bovine aortic endothelial cell and a mouse adipose cell—fixed to Ti-coated sapphire. Tightly focused ultrashort laser pulses generate and detect GHz acoustic pulses, allowing three-dimensional imaging (x, y, and t) of the ultrasonic propagation in the cells with ˜1 μm lateral and ˜150 nm depth resolutions. Time-frequency representations of the continuous-wavelet-transform amplitude of the optical reflectivity variations inside and outside the cells show GHz Brillouin oscillations, allowing the average sound velocities of the cells and their ultrasonic attenuation to be obtained as well as the average bulk moduli.

  10. Three-dimensional MR imaging of skull-base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates skull base lesions and to evaluate the diagnostic value of three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging performed with 3D reconstruction of the head. MR imaging was performed at 1.0 T and a 1.5 T, M before and after application of Gd-DTPA. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 19 patients with skull base lesions were examined with standard 2D MR imaging and 3D fast low-angle shot imaging. A 3D reconstruction mode, based on the ray-tracing model, enabled us to construct arbitrarily complex extraction schemes. All 3D-reconstructions were compared with the surgical findings. The diagnoses included 10 benign skull base lesions and nine malignant lesions of the anterior and middle skull base. Gd-DTPA proved helpful in 82% of the cases

  11. A resolution measure for three-dimensional microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jerry; Ram, Sripad; Abraham, Anish V; Ward, E Sally; Ober, Raimund J

    2009-05-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) resolution measure for the conventional optical microscope is introduced which overcomes the drawbacks of the classical 3D (axial) resolution limit. Formulated within the context of a parameter estimation problem and based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound, this 3D resolution measure indicates the accuracy with which a given distance between two objects in 3D space can be determined from the acquired image. It predicts that, given enough photons from the objects of interest, arbitrarily small distances of separation can be estimated with prespecified accuracy. Using simulated images of point source pairs, we show that the maximum likelihood estimator is capable of attaining the accuracy predicted by the resolution measure. We also demonstrate how different factors, such as extraneous noise sources and the spatial orientation of the imaged object pair, can affect the accuracy with which a given distance of separation can be determined.

  12. Three-dimensional geospatial information service based on cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xi; Yue, Peng; Jiang, Liangcun; Wang, Linnan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies can support high-performance geospatial services in various domains, such as smart city and agriculture. Apache Hadoop, an open-source software framework, can be used to build a cloud environment on commodity clusters for storage and large-scale processing of data sets. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web 3-D Service (W3DS) is a portrayal service for three-dimensional (3-D) geospatial data. Its performance could be improved by cloud computing technologies. This paper investigates how OGC W3DS could be developed in a cloud computing environment. It adopts the Apache Hadoop as the framework to provide a cloud implementation. The design and implementation of the 3-D geospatial information cloud service is presented. The performance evaluation is performed over data retrieval tests running in a cloud platform built by Hadoop clusters. The evaluation results provide a valuable reference on providing high-performance 3-D geospatial information cloud services.

  13. Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Duan, Xidong; Xu, Yuxi; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-08-23

    Integration of graphene with polymers to construct three-dimensional porous graphene/polymer composites (3DGPCs) has attracted considerable attention in the past few years for both fundamental studies and diverse technological applications. With the broad diversity in molecular structures of graphene and polymers via rich chemical routes, a number of 3DGPCs have been developed with unique structural, electrical, and mechanical properties, chemical tenability, and attractive functions, which greatly expands the research horizon of graphene-based composites. In particular, the properties and functions of the 3DGPCs can be readily tuned by precisely controlling the hierarchical porosity in the 3D graphene architecture as well as the intricate synergistic interactions between graphene and polymers. In this paper, we review the recent progress in 3DGPCs, including their synthetic strategies and potential applications in environmental protection, energy storage, sensors, and conducting composites. Lastly, we will conclude with a brief perspective on the challenges and future opportunities.

  14. GPU-ACCELERATED FEM SOLVER FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jin; Gong Li; Shi Xiaowei; Le Xu

    2011-01-01

    A new Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) parallelization strategy is proposed to accelerate sparse finite element computation for three dimensional electromagnetic analysis.The parallelization strategy is employed based on a new compression format called sliced ELL Four (sliced ELL-F).The sliced ELL-F format-based parallelization strategy is designed for hastening many addition,dot product,and Sparse Matrix Vector Product (SMVP) operations in the Conjugate Gradient Norm (CGN) calculation of finite element equations.The new implementation of SMVP on GPUs is evaluated.The proposed strategy executed on a GPU can efficiently solve sparse finite element equations,especially when the equations are huge sparse (size of most rows in a coefficient matrix is less than 8).Numerical results show the sliced ELL-F format-based parallelization strategy can reach significant speedups compared to Compressed Sparse Row (CSR) format.

  15. Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with unquenched flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Tarrio, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We construct analytically the gravity duals of three-dimensional, super Yang-Mills-type theories with $\\mathcal N=1$ supersymmetry coupled to $N_f$ quark flavors. The backreaction of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of $N_f$ D6-branes on the background of $N$ D2-branes. The D6-branes are smeared over the compact part of the geometry, which must be a six-dimensional nearly K\\"ahler manifold in order to preserve supersymmetry. For massless quarks, the solutions flow in the IR to an $AdS_4$ fixed point dual to a Chern-Simons-matter theory. For light quarks the theories exhibit quasi-conformal dynamics (walking) at energy scales $m_q \\ll E \\ll \\lambda N_f / N$, with $\\lambda = g_{\\text{YM}}^2 N$ the 't Hooft coupling.

  16. Three Dimensional Modeling of Hot Jupiter Atmospheric Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, Emily

    2009-01-01

    We present a three dimensional hot Jupiter model, extending from 200 bar to 1 mbar, using the Intermediate General Circulation Model from the University of Reading. Our horizontal spectral resolution is T31 (equivalent to a grid of 48x96), with 33 logarithmically spaced vertical levels. A simplified (Newtonian) scheme is employed for the radiative forcing. We adopt a physical set up nearly identical to the model of HD 209458b by Cooper & Showman (2005,2006) to facilitate a direct model inter-comparison. Our results are broadly consistent with theirs but significant differences also emerge. The atmospheric flow is characterized by a super-rotating equatorial jet, transonic wind speeds, and eastward advection of heat away from the dayside. We identify a dynamically-induced temperature inversion (``stratosphere'') on the planetary dayside and find that temperatures at the planetary limb differ systematically from local radiative equilibrium values, a potential source of bias for transit spectroscopic interpr...

  17. Solving for three-dimensional central potentials using matrix mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jugdutt, B A

    2012-01-01

    Matrix mechanics is an important component of an undergraduate education in quantum mechanics. Unfortunately it is generally taught only in the abstract, with real implementations relegated to more advanced degrees, and usually in the context of many-body physics. In this paper we present several examples of the use of matrix mechanics to solve for a number of three dimensional problems involving central forces. These include examples with which the student is familiar, such as the Coulomb interaction -- in this case we obtain excellent agreement with exact analytical methods, -- along with other interesting `non-solvable' examples, such as the Yukawa potential. Much less mathematical expertise is required for these methods, while some minimal familiarity with the usage of numerical diagonalization software is necessary.

  18. Three-dimensional image reconstruction in capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Alexandros Karargyris

    2012-01-01

    To date,limited research has been carried out in developing methods and materials that offer three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the digestive tract.In the field of capsule endoscopy (CE),hardware approaches have been developed that provide real time both 3-D information and texture using an infrared projector and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera.The major drawbacks of this system are its size,power consumption and packaging issues.A software approach to approximate a 3-D representation of digestive tract surface utilising current CE technology has been proposed.The algorithm utilizes the Shape from Shading technique and seem to provide promising results for polypoid structures and angioectasias.Further clinical evaluation is currently under way.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography

  20. Mapping three-dimensional temperature in microfluidic chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) temperature mapping method with high spatial resolution and acquisition rate is of vital importance in evaluating thermal processes in micro-environment. We have synthesized a new temperature-sensitive functional material (Rhodamine B functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane). By performing optical sectioning of this material, we established an advanced method for visualizing the micro-scale 3D thermal distribution inside microfluidic chip with down to 10 ms temporal resolution and 2 ~ 6 °C temperature resolution depending the capture parameters. This method is successfully applied to monitor the local temperature variation throughout micro-droplet heat transfer process and further reveal exothermic nanoliter droplet reactions to be unique and milder than bench-top experiment.

  1. Hyperspectral image compression using three-dimensional significance tree splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Rihong Zhu; Jianxin Li; Yong He

    2007-01-01

    @@ A three-dimensional (3D) wavelet coder based on 3D significance tree splitting is proposed for hyperspectral image compression. 3D discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to explore the spatial and spectral correlations. Then the 3D significance tree structure is constructed in 3D wavelet domain, and wavelet coefficients are encoded via 3D significance tree splitting. This proposed algorithm does not need to use ordered lists, moreover it has less complexity and requires lower fixed memory than 3D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and 3D set partitioned embedded block (SPECK) algorithm. The numerical experiments on AVIRIS images show that the proposed algorithm outperforms 3D SPECK, and has a minor loss of performance compared with 3D SPIHT. This algorithm is suitable for simple hardware implementation and can be applied to progressive transmission.

  2. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  3. A three dimensional embedded beam element for reinforced geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Machhour; Shahrour, Isam

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the formulation and verification of a 3D embedded beam element, which is intended for numerical modelling of three dimensional problems concerned by reinforced geomaterials. This element permits analysis of reinforced geomaterial structures with simplified meshes, that do not need to account for reinforcement orientation. The paper is composed of four sections. Section 1 discusses the need for the development of a particular beam element for soil reinforcement, which can be easily used in practical applications. Section 2 describes the mathematical formulation of this element, while Section 3 deals with its verification on various examples. Section 4 illustrates an application of this element by analysing the behaviour of a group of micropiles containing inclined elements and subjected to lateral loading. Copyright

  4. The Lagrangian Deformation Structure of Three-Dimensional Steady Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, Daniel R; Borgne, Tanguy Le; de Barros, Felipe P J

    2016-01-01

    Fluid deformation and strain history are central to wide range of fluid mechanical phenomena ranging from fluid mixing and particle transport to stress development in complex fluids and the formation of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs). To understand and model these processes it is necessary to quantify Lagrangian deformation in terms of Eulerian flow properties, currently an open problem. To elucidate this link we develop a Protean (streamline) coordinate transform for steady three-dimensional (3D) flows which renders both the velocity gradient and deformation gradient upper triangular. This frame not only simplifies computation of fluid deformation metrics such as fi?nite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) and elucidates the deformation structure of the flow, but moreover explicitly recovers kinematic and topological constraints upon deformation such as those related to helicity density and the Poincar\\'{e}-Bendixson theorem. We apply this transform to several classes of steady 3D flow, including helical ...

  5. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: ryuta@tokai-u.jp [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  6. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues. PMID:27410076

  7. Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    simulation accuracy (i.e. decrease deviations from experimental values): injection speed profile, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, three-dimensional mesh parameters, and material rheological characterization. Quality factors investigated for the quantitative comparisons were: short shot...... length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must be......Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the...

  8. Strain effects in freestanding three-dimensional nitride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povolotskyi, Michael; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Di Carlo, Aldo [MINAS Lab., Department of Electronic Engeneering, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    Nitride based heterostructures of nanometer size have been studied. A theoretical model is presented that allows to study strain in lattice mismatched three-dimensional freestanding heterostructures. The model has been applied to an AlGaN/GaN quantum well structure. We computed a strain pattern that is found to be highly nonhomogeneous. Effect of strain on the band structure has been studied considering piezoelectric field and deformation potential. We calculated energy and oscillator strength of the fundamental optical transition in different regions of the structure in order to estimate the intrinsic broadening of a spectral line. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Savran, Mona M; Konge, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is widely used, and results in accelerated patient recovery time and hospital stay were compared with laparotomy. However, laparoscopic surgery is more challenging compared with open surgery, in part because surgeons must operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space...... were cohort size and characteristics, skill trained or operation performed, instrument used, outcome measures, and conclusions. Two independent authors performed the search and data extraction. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty articles were screened for eligibility, and 31 RCTs were included...... in the review. Three trials were carried out in a clinical setting, and 28 trials used a simulated setting. Time was used as an outcome measure in all of the trials, and number of errors was used in 19 out of 31 trials. Twenty-two out of 31 trials (71 %) showed a reduction in performance time, and 12 out of 19...

  10. Investigation on nanocomposite magnets by three-dimensional atom probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhanyong; ZHOU Bangxin; NI Jiansen; XU Hui

    2006-01-01

    With the fast development in nano materials, to obtain the detailed microstructure information, microscopes with much higher resolution than the conventional ones are required. A three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP), an instrument with nearatomic resolutions of about 0.06 and 0.2 nm in depth and transverse direction, respectively, has been employed to map out the elemental distribution of some conductive materials within a nano-scale volume.This instrument is fit to analyze the elemental distribution in nano materials and nano precipitation in common materials. 3DAP is applied to investigate the microstructure of Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets. B, Fe-enriched, Zr-enriched and Nd,Fe-enriched clusters have been found, which cannot be identified by any other instrument.

  11. Three-dimensional orbit and physical parameters of HD 6840

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HD 6840 is a double-lined visual binary with an orbital period of ∼7.5 years. By fitting the speckle interferometric measurements made by the 6 m BTA telescope and 3.5 m WIYN telescope, Balega et al. gave a preliminary astrometric orbital solution of the system in 2006. Recently, Griffin derived a precise spectroscopic orbital solution from radial velocities observed with OPH and Cambridge Coravel. However, due to the low precision of the determined orbital inclination, the derived component masses are not satisfying. By adding the newly collected astrometric data in the Fourth Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars, we give a three-dimensional orbit solution with high precision and derive the preliminary physical parameters of HD 6840 via a simultaneous fit including both astrometric and radial velocity measurements. (paper)

  12. Three-dimensional chemical mapping with a confocal XRF setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühl, Lars; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Schaumann, Ina; Vogt, Carla; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2013-04-01

    A new approach for the nondestructive reconstruction of stratified systems with constant elemental composition but with varying chemical compounds has been developed. The procedure is based on depth scans with a confocal X-ray fluorescence setup at certain energies near absorption edges. These so-called marker energies, where XAFS signals of the involved chemical compounds differ significantly, can also be used to uncover the chemical composition and its topology. A prominent field of application is homogeneous material that is degraded due to chemical reactions like oxidation or reduction. A procedure for the semiquantitative reconstruction of stratified material by means of depth scans at marker energies is elaborated and validated and a three-dimensional mapping is presented. PMID:23445459

  13. Three dimensional vortices and interfaces in Hele-Shaw cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of nonviscous flow, based on the Biot-Savart equations is used to examine the existence of singularities in three dimensional, incompressible, hydrodynamic equations. The results suggest a fairly simple physical mechanism, which could lead to the formation of singularities in the nonviscous case: two vortex tubes with opposite circulations pair up and stretch each other, until the radii of the vortex cores become extremely small, causing a divergence of the vorticity. The cases of a perfect and a slightly viscous fluid are considered. The results are unclear as to whether the vorticity of a slightly viscous fluid can become infinite or not, and whether singularities exist. The dynamics of hydrodynamic interfaces are also investigated. The propagation of bubbles in a slightly viscous fluid, in a Hele-Shaw cell are described

  14. Hamiltonian thermodynamics of three-dimensional dilatonic black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo A S

    2008-01-01

    The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories with a cosmological constant can be recast in a Brans-Dicke type action, with its free $\\omega$ parameter. These theories have static spherically symmetric black holes. Those with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity ($\\omega\\to\\infty$), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory ($\\omega=0$), and a theory representing a class of theories ($\\omega=-3$). The Hamiltonian formalism is setup in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti-de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unc...

  15. A New Three-Dimensional Track Fit with Multiple Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Schöning, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long range correlations can be ignored, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significant better performance than a single helix fit. The tri...

  16. Three-Dimensional Ocean Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu; LIU Yingjian; GUO Zhongwen

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen a growing interest in ocean sensor networks because of their wide applications in marine research,oceanography,ocean monitoring,offshore exploration,and defense or homeland security.Ocean sensor networks are generally formed with various ocean sensors,autonomous underwater vehicles,surface stations,and research vessels.To make ocean sensor network applications viable,efficient communication among all devices and components is crucial.Due to the unique characteristics of underwater acoustic channels and the complex deployment environment in three dimensional (3D) ocean spaces,new efficient and reliable communication and networking protocols are needed in design of ocean sensor networks.In this paper,we aim to provide an overview of the most recent advances in network design principles for 3D ocean sensor networks,with focuses on deployment,localization,topology design,and position-based routing in 3D ocean spaces.

  17. Three-dimensional ocean sensor networks: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Yingjian; Guo, Zhongwen

    2012-12-01

    The past decade has seen a growing interest in ocean sensor networks because of their wide applications in marine research, oceanography, ocean monitoring, offshore exploration, and defense or homeland security. Ocean sensor networks are generally formed with various ocean sensors, autonomous underwater vehicles, surface stations, and research vessels. To make ocean sensor network applications viable, efficient communication among all devices and components is crucial. Due to the unique characteristics of underwater acoustic channels and the complex deployment environment in three dimensional (3D) ocean spaces, new efficient and reliable communication and networking protocols are needed in design of ocean sensor networks. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the most recent advances in network design principles for 3D ocean sensor networks, with focuses on deployment, localization, topology design, and position-based routing in 3D ocean spaces.

  18. A naturally grown three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianxiang; Lu, Dazhi; Yu, Haohai, E-mail: haohaiyu@sdu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaijin, E-mail: huaijinzhang@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, Jiyang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zhangyong@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion via three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase matching (QPM) process is experimentally realized based on a Ba{sub 0.77}Ca{sub 0.23}TiO{sub 3} (BCT) crystal. The ferroelectric domains in BCT crystal are observed, and the results reveal that the antiparallel domains distribute in three dimensions and can provide 3D reciprocal lattice vectors for QPM processes. Broadband petal-like second-harmonic patterns are achieved, which are well consistent with the theoretical quasi-cubic model of 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Our work not only promotes the development of QPM technique but also builds a platform for 3D nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  19. Optimal tetrahedral mesh generation for three-dimensional point set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀; 吴边; 关右江; 葛振州

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tnangulation is a basic topic in computer graphics. It is considered very difficult to obtain the global optimal 3D triangulatlon, such as the triangulation which satisfies the max-min solid angle criterion A new method called genetic tetrahedral mesh generation algorithm (GTMGA for short) is presented. GT-MGA is based on the principle of genetic algorithm and aims at the global optimal triangulation. With a multi-objective fitness function, GTMGA is able to perform optimizations for different requirements. New crossover operator and mutation operator, polyhedron crossover and polyhedron mutation, are used in GTMGA. It is shown by the experimental results that GTMGA works better than both the 3D Delaunay triangulation and the algorithm based on local transformations.

  20. Three-dimensional flushing times of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrinasab, Masoud; Kämpf, Jochen

    2004-12-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is employed in a fully prognostic mode to derive flushing times of the Persian Gulf-an evaporation-driven inverse estuary that is governed by import of surface water from the adjacent ocean and export of saline bottom gulf water through the Strait of Hormuz. During spring and summer, a cyclonic overturning circulation establishes along the full length of the Gulf. During autumn and winter, this circulation breaks up into mesoscale eddies, laterally stirring most of the Gulf's surface waters. As a result of this, 95% flushing times of surface waters are shortest (1-3 yr, increasing with distance from the Strait) along the Iranian coast, but are much longer (>5 yr) along the coasts of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Owing to density stratification introduced by the surface inflow of ocean water, flushing times of bottom waters are ~6 yr in most parts of the Gulf.

  1. Clustering-based robust three-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel; Burton, David R; Lalor, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Relatively recent techniques that produce phase volumes have motivated the study of three-dimensional (3D) unwrapping algorithms that inherently incorporate the third dimension into the process. We propose a novel 3D unwrapping algorithm that can be considered to be a generalization of the minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. The technique combines characteristics of some of the most robust existing methods: it uses a quality map to guide the unwrapping process, a region growing mechanism to progressively unwrap the signal, and also cut surfaces to avoid error propagation. The approach has been evaluated in the context of noncontact measurement of dynamic objects, suggesting a better performance than MST-based approaches. PMID:20357860

  2. Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenya; Konotop, V V; Akhmediev, N

    2010-09-01

    Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1) -dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1) -dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1) -dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1) -dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  3. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture: A Breakthrough in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Antoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell culture is an important tool for biological research. Two-dimensional cell culture has been used for some time now, but growing cells in flat layers on plastic surfaces does not accurately model the in vivo state. As compared to the two-dimensional case, the three-dimensional (3D cell culture allows biological cells to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions thanks to an artificial environment. Cells grown in a 3D model have proven to be more physiologically relevant and showed improvements in several studies of biological mechanisms like: cell number monitoring, viability, morphology, proliferation, differentiation, response to stimuli, migration and invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, angiogenesis stimulation and immune system evasion, drug metabolism, gene expression and protein synthesis, general cell function and in vivo relevance. 3D culture models succeed thanks to technological advances, including materials science, cell biology and bioreactor design.

  4. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  5. Periodic boundary conditions for three dimensional dislocation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H., Diaz de la Rubia, T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The boundary conditions in three dimensional Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations have always been a matter of concern. Two types of boundary conditions, quasi-free-surface and reflection boundaries are currently being used by groups in Grenoble, France and Pullman, Washington. In this paper, we present a mathematical transformation that enables simulations of dislocation evolution processes in single crystals using periodic boundary conditions (PBCs). The idea is graphically demonstrated with transformation matrices given for BCC crystal systems. Extension to other crystal structures is also discussed. Comparing to the existing boundary conditions, the new approach (1) balances the dislocation flux in and out of a computational cell; and (2) does not require artificial termination of dislocations in the bulk. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Three-dimensional THz lumped-circuit resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Yanko; Desfond, Pascal; Belacel, Cherif; Becerra, Loïc; Sirtori, Carlo

    2015-06-29

    Our work describes a novel three dimensional meta-material resonator design for optoelectronic applications in the THz spectral range. In our resonant circuits, the capacitors are formed by double-metal regions cladding a dielectric core. Unlike conventional planar metamaterials, the electric field is perpendicular to the surface and totally confined in the dielectric core. Furthermore, the magnetic field, confined in the inductive part, is parallel to the electric field, ruling out coupling through propagation effects. Our geometry thus combines the benefit of double-metal structures that provide parallel plate capacitors, while maintaining the ability of meta-material resonators to adjust independently the capacitive and inductive parts. Furthermore, in our geometry, a constant bias can be applied across the dielectric, making these resonators very suitable for applications such as ultra-low dark current THz quantum detectors and amplifiers based on quantum cascade gain medium. PMID:26191695

  7. Three-dimensional MHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Narayan, Ramesh; Abramowicz, Marek A.

    2003-01-01

    We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of rotating radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In the simulations, we continuously inject magnetized matter into the computational domain near the outer boundary, and we run the calculations long enough for the resulting accretion flow to reach a quasi-steady state. We have studied two limiting cases for the geometry of the injected magnetic field: pure toroidal field and pure poloidal field. In the case of toroidal field injection, the accreting matter forms a nearly axisymmetric, geometrically-thick, turbulent accretion disk. The disk resembles in many respects the convection-dominated accretion flows found in previous numerical and analytical investigations of viscous hydrodynamic flows. Models with poloidal field injection evolve through two distinct phases. In an initial transient phase, the flow forms a relatively flattened, quasi-Keplerian disk with a hot corona and a bipolar outflow. However, when the flow later achieves steady state,...

  8. Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Spherical Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2003-01-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively inefficient spherical accretion onto a black hole. The simulations are initialized with a Bondi flow, and with a weak, dynamically unimportant, large-scale magnetic field. The magnetic field is amplified as the gas flows in. When the magnetic pressure approaches equipartition with the gas pressure, the field begins to reconnect and the gas is heated up. The heated gas is buoyant and moves outward, causing line stretching of the frozen-in magnetic field. This leads to further reconnection, and more heating and buoyancy-induced motions, so that the flow makes a transition to a state of self-sustained convection. The radial structure of the flow changes dramatically from its initial Bondi profile, and the mass accretion rate onto the black hole decreases significantly. Motivated by the numerical results, we develop a simplified analytical model of a radiatively inefficient spherical flow in which convective transport of energy ...

  9. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, W L

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent work on three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a "full and complete" 3D photonic band gap. We review five main aspects: 1) spontaneous emission inhibition, 2) spatial localization of light within a tiny nanoscale volume (aka "a nanobox for light"), 3) the introduction of a gain medium leading to thresholdless lasers, 4) breaking of the weak-coupling approximation of cavity QED, both in the frequency and in the time-domain, 5) decoherence, in particular the shielding of vacuum fluctuations by a 3D photonic bandgap. In addition, we list and evaluate all known photonic crystal structures with a demonstrated 3D band gap.

  10. Three-dimensional laser cooling at the Doppler limit

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Rockson; Bouton, Quentin; Fang, Yami; Klafka, Tobias; Audo, Kevin; Aspect, Alain; Westbrook, Christoph I; Clément, David

    2014-01-01

    Many predictions of the theory of Doppler cooling of 2-level atoms, notably the celebrated minimum achievable temperature $T_D=\\hbar \\Gamma/2 k_B$, have never been verified in a three-dimensional geometry. Here, we show that, despite their degenerate level structure, we can use Helium-4 atoms to achieve a situation in which these predictions can be verified. We make measurements of atomic temperatures, magneto-optical trap sizes, and the sensitivity of optical molasses to a power imbalance in the laser beams, finding excellent agreement with the Doppler theory. We show that the special properties of Helium, particularly its small mass and narrow transition linewidth, prevent effective sub-Doppler cooling with red-detuned optical molasses.

  11. Three-dimensional pharmacophore screening for fentanyl derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Zhiguo Sun; Wenxiang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Fentanyl is a highly selective μ-opioid receptor agonist with high analgesic activity. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were built from a set of 50 fentanyl derivatives. These were employed to elucidate ligand-receptor interactions using information derived only from the ligand structure to identify new potential lead compounds. The present studies demonstrated that three hydrophobic regions, one positive ionizable region and two hydrogen bond acceptor region sites located on the molecule seem to be essential for analgesic activity. The results of the comparative molecular field analysis model suggested that both steric and electrostatic interactions play important roles. The contributions from steric and electrostatic fields for the model were 0.621 and 0.379, respectively. The pharmacophore model provides crucial information about how well the common features of a subject molecule overlap with the hypothesis model, which is very valuable for designing and optimizing new active structures.

  12. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce treatment costs and technique-sensitivity of the placement of restorative material. The Hypothesis: Here, the hypothesis that a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach could be an alternative to traditional approaches to treatment of decayed teeth is proposed. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The actual implementation of the 3-D-printed tooth filling technique in the practice of restorative dentistry was discussed in this manuscript.

  13. Three dimensional CAD model of the Ignitor machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, S.; Zanaboni, P.; Macco, A.; Sioli, V.; Risso, E.

    1998-11-01

    defind The final, global product of all the structural and thermomechanical design activities is a complete three dimensional CAD (AutoCAD and Intergraph Design Review) model of the IGNITOR machine. With this powerful tool, any interface, modification, or upgrading of the machine design is managed as an integrated part of the general effort aimed at the construction of the Ignitor facility. ind The activities that are underway, to complete the design of the core of the experiment and that will be described, concern the following: ind - the cryogenic cooling system, ind - the radial press, the center post, the mechanical supports (legs) of the entire machine, ind - the inner mechanical supports of major components such as the plasma chamber and the outer poloidal field coils.

  14. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Hogan, J. T.; Harris, J. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. S.; Batchelor, D. B.; Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B.

    1996-02-01

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented.

  15. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Wang, C.Y.; Hogan, J.T.; Harris, J.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ryan, P.M.; Stallings, D.S.; Batchelor, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071, (United States); Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B. [Association Euratom-CEA, Department de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)

    1996-02-01

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Three-dimensional THz lumped-circuit resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Yanko; Desfond, Pascal; Belacel, Cherif; Becerra, Loïc; Sirtori, Carlo

    2015-06-29

    Our work describes a novel three dimensional meta-material resonator design for optoelectronic applications in the THz spectral range. In our resonant circuits, the capacitors are formed by double-metal regions cladding a dielectric core. Unlike conventional planar metamaterials, the electric field is perpendicular to the surface and totally confined in the dielectric core. Furthermore, the magnetic field, confined in the inductive part, is parallel to the electric field, ruling out coupling through propagation effects. Our geometry thus combines the benefit of double-metal structures that provide parallel plate capacitors, while maintaining the ability of meta-material resonators to adjust independently the capacitive and inductive parts. Furthermore, in our geometry, a constant bias can be applied across the dielectric, making these resonators very suitable for applications such as ultra-low dark current THz quantum detectors and amplifiers based on quantum cascade gain medium.

  17. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyou; Wang, Lin; Wang, Shuqi; Han, Yulong; Wu, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiancheng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2012-12-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed.

  18. Controlling Random Lasing with Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Nanorod Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoxian; Meng, Xiangeng; Choi, Seung Ho; Knitter, Sebastian; Kim, Young L; Cao, Hui; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2016-04-13

    Plasmonics has brought revolutionary advances to laser science by enabling deeply subwavelength nanolasers through surface plasmon amplification. However, the impact of plasmonics on other promising laser systems has so far remained elusive. Here, we present a class of random lasers enabled by three-dimensional plasmonic nanorod metamaterials. While dense metallic nanostructures are usually detrimental to laser performance due to absorption losses, here the lasing threshold keeps decreasing as the volume fraction of metal is increased up to ∼0.07. This is ∼460 times higher than the optimal volume fraction reported thus far. The laser supports spatially confined lasing modes and allows for efficient modulation of spectral profiles by simply tuning the polarization of the pump light. Full-field speckle-free imaging at micron-scales has been achieved by using plasmonic random lasers as the illumination sources. Our findings show that plasmonic metamaterials hold potential to enable intriguing coherent optical sources.

  19. Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene/Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Duan, Xidong; Xu, Yuxi; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-08-23

    Integration of graphene with polymers to construct three-dimensional porous graphene/polymer composites (3DGPCs) has attracted considerable attention in the past few years for both fundamental studies and diverse technological applications. With the broad diversity in molecular structures of graphene and polymers via rich chemical routes, a number of 3DGPCs have been developed with unique structural, electrical, and mechanical properties, chemical tenability, and attractive functions, which greatly expands the research horizon of graphene-based composites. In particular, the properties and functions of the 3DGPCs can be readily tuned by precisely controlling the hierarchical porosity in the 3D graphene architecture as well as the intricate synergistic interactions between graphene and polymers. In this paper, we review the recent progress in 3DGPCs, including their synthetic strategies and potential applications in environmental protection, energy storage, sensors, and conducting composites. Lastly, we will conclude with a brief perspective on the challenges and future opportunities. PMID:27403991

  20. Prediction of three-dimensional transmembrane helical protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Patrick

    Membrane proteins are critical to living cells and their dysfunction can lead to serious diseases. High-resolution structures of these proteins would provide very valuable information for designing eficient therapies but membrane protein crystallization is a major bottleneck. As an important alternative approach, methods for predicting membrane protein structures have been developed in recent years. This chapter focuses on the problem of modeling the structure of transmembrane helical proteins, and describes recent advancements, current limitations, and future challenges facing de novo modeling, modeling with experimental constraints, and high-resolution comparative modeling of these proteins. Abbreviations: MP, membrane protein; SP, water-soluble protein; RMSD, root-mean square deviation; Cα RMSD, root-mean square deviation over Cα atoms; TM, transmembrane; TMH, transmembrane helix; GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor; 3D, three dimensional; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.