Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals
Chen, Zeguo
2017-11-02
We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.
Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals
Chen, Zeguo; Zhao, Jiajun; Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying
2017-01-01
We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.
Cui, Tie Jun; Wu, Rui Yuan; Wu, Wei; Shi, Chuan Bo; Li, Yun Bo
2017-10-01
We propose fast and accurate designs to large-scale and low-profile transmission-type anisotropic coding metasurfaces with multiple functions in the millimeter-wave frequencies based on the antenna-array method. The numerical simulation of an anisotropic coding metasurface with the size of 30λ × 30λ by the proposed method takes only 20 min, which however cannot be realized by commercial software due to huge memory usage in personal computers. To inspect the performance of coding metasurfaces in the millimeter-wave band, the working frequency is chosen as 60 GHz. Based on the convolution operations and holographic theory, the proposed multifunctional anisotropic coding metasurface exhibits different effects excited by y-polarized and x-polarized incidences. This study extends the frequency range of coding metasurfaces, filling the gap between microwave and terahertz bands, and implying promising applications in millimeter-wave communication and imaging.
Anisotropic optical feedback of single frequency intra-cavity He–Ne laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu-Fei, Zhou; Shu-Lian, Zhang; Yi-Dong, Tan; Wei-Xin, Liu; Bin, Zhang
2009-01-01
This paper presents the anisotropic optical feedback of a single frequency intra-cavity He–Ne laser. A novel phenomenon was discovered that the laser output an elliptical polarized frequency instead of the initial linear polarized one. Two intensities with a phase difference were detected, both of which were modulated in the form of cosine wave and a fringe shift corresponds to a λ/2 movement of the feedback mirror. The phase difference can be continuously modulated by the wave plate in the external cavity. Frequency stabilization was used to stabilize the laser frequency so as to enlarge the measuring range and improve the measurement precision. This anisotropic optical feedback system offers a potential displacement measurement technology with the function of subdivision of λ/2 and in-time direction judgment. The three-mirror Fabry–Perot cavity model is used to present the experimental results. Given the lack of need of lasing adjustment, this full intra-cavity laser can significantly improve the simplicity and stability of the optical feedback system. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)
Temperature-Responsive Anisotropic Slippery Surface for Smart Control of the Droplet Motion.
Wang, By Lili; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei
2018-02-28
Development of stimulus-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces is important because of the high demand for such materials in the field of liquid directional-driven systems. However, current studies in the field of slippery surfaces are mainly conducted to prepare isotropic slippery surfaces. Although we have developed electric-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces that enable smart control of the droplet motion, there remain challenges for designing temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces to control the liquid droplet motion on the surface and in the tube. In this work, temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces have been prepared by using paraffin, a thermo-responsive phase-transition material, as a lubricating fluid and directional porous polystyrene (PS) films as the substrate. The smart regulation of the droplet motion of several liquids on this surface was accomplished by tuning the substrate temperature. The uniqueness of this surface lies in the use of an anisotropic structure and temperature-responsive lubricating fluids to achieve temperature-driven smart control of the anisotropic motion of the droplets. Furthermore, this surface was used to design temperature-driven anisotropic microreactors and to manipulate liquid transfer in tubes. This work advances the understanding of the principles underlying anisotropic slippery surfaces and provides a promising material for applications in the biochip and microreactor system.
Dynamical anisotropic response of black phosphorus under magnetic field
Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chenglong; Lai, Jiawei; Ge, Shaofeng; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Jia, Shuang; Chang, Kai; Sun, Dong
2018-04-01
Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising material candidate for next generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to its high mobility, tunable band gap and highly anisotropic properties. In this work, polarization resolved ultrafast mid-infrared transient reflection spectroscopy measurements are performed to study the dynamical anisotropic optical properties of BP under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The relaxation dynamics of photoexcited carrier is found to be insensitive to the applied magnetic field due to the broadening of the Landau levels and large effective mass of carriers. While the anisotropic optical response of BP decreases with increasing magnetic field, its enhancement due to the excitation of hot carriers is similar to that without magnetic field. These experimental results can be well interpreted by the magneto-optical conductivity of the Landau levels of BP thin film, based on an effective k · p Hamiltonian and linear response theory. These findings suggest attractive possibilities of multi-dimensional control of anisotropic response (AR) of BP with light, electric and magnetic field, which further introduces BP to the fantastic magnetic field sensitive applications.
Bing, Xue; Yicai, Ji
2018-06-01
In order to understand directly and analyze accurately the detected magnetotelluric (MT) data on anisotropic infinite faults, two-dimensional partial differential equations of MT fields are used to establish a model of anisotropic infinite faults using the Fourier transform method. A multi-fault model is developed to expand the one-fault model. The transverse electric mode and transverse magnetic mode analytic solutions are derived using two-infinite-fault models. The infinite integral terms of the quasi-analytic solutions are discussed. The dual-fault model is computed using the finite element method to verify the correctness of the solutions. The MT responses of isotropic and anisotropic media are calculated to analyze the response functions by different anisotropic conductivity structures. The thickness and conductivity of the media, influencing MT responses, are discussed. The analytic principles are also given. The analysis results are significant to how MT responses are perceived and to the data interpretation of the complex anisotropic infinite faults.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jooncheol; Kim, Minsoo; Herrault, Florian; Kim, Jung-Kwun; Allen, Mark G
2015-01-01
This paper presents a rectangular, anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core that possesses a magnetically hard axis in the long geometric axis direction. Previously, we have developed nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300–1000 nm thick metallic alloys (i.e. Ni 80 Fe 20 or Co 44 Ni 37 Fe 19 ) based on sequential electrodeposition, demonstrating suppressed eddy-current losses at MHz frequencies. In this work, magnetic anisotropy was induced to the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores by applying an external magnetic field (50–100 mT) during CoNiFe film electrodeposition. The fabricated cores comprised tens to hundreds of layers of 500–1000 nm thick CoNiFe laminations that have the hard-axis magnetic property. Packaged in a 22-turn solenoid test inductor, the anisotropic core showed 10% increased effective permeability and 25% reduced core power losses at MHz operation frequency, compared to an isotropic core of the identical geometry. Operating the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core in a step-down dc–dc converter (15 V input to 5 V output) demonstrated 81% converter efficiency at a switching frequency of 1.1 MHz and output power of 6.5 W. A solenoid microinductor with microfabricated windings integrated with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core was fabricated, demonstrating a constant inductance of 600 nH up to 10 MHz and peak quality factor exceeding 20 at 4 MHz. The performance of the microinductor with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core is compared with other previously reported microinductors. (fast track communication)
Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisker Skjoldan, P.
2011-03-15
Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e.g., with an unbalanced rotor or operating in wind shear, are treated with the general approaches of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases are small, but indicate that the controller creates nonlinear damping. In isotropic conditions the periodic mode shape contains up to three harmonic components, but in anisotropic conditions it can contain an infinite number of harmonic components with frequencies that are multiples of the rotor speed. These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between
Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures
Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en
2015-08-01
Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing
2016-01-01
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
Chen, Zhao-xian
2016-01-15
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Anisotropic response of the moving vortex lattice in superconducting Mo(1-x)Gex amorphous films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolz, M.I.; Shalóm, D.E.; Pastoriza, H.; López, D.O.
2012-01-01
We have performed magnetic susceptibility measurements in Mo 1-x Ge x amorphous thin films biased with an electrical current using anisotropic coils. We tested the symmetry of the vortex response changing the relative orientation between the bias current and the susceptibility coils. We found a region in the DC current-temperature phase diagram where the dynamical vortex structures behave anisotropically. In this region the shielding capability of the superconducting currents measured by the susceptibility coils is less effective along the direction of vortex motion compared to the transverse direction. This anisotropic response is found in the same region where the peak effect in the critical current is developed. On rising temperature the isotropic behavior is recovered.
Yang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Zhao, Jie; Dai, Jun Yan; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Liu Xi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun
2018-05-01
We propose a strategy to convert a linearly polarized wave from a single point source to an orbital angular momentum (OAM) wave by arbitrary polarization via an anisotropic frequency selective surface (FSS) in the microwave frequency. By tailoring the geometries of FSS elements, reflection-phases in x and y polarizations are engineered and encoded independently, which allows us to design the eventual polarization state of the generated OAM vortex beam by elaborately selecting individual coding sequences for each polarization. Two types of FSSs are designed and experimentally characterized to demonstrate the capability of OAM generation with circular and linear polarizations, respectively, showing excellent performance in a wide bandwidth from 14 to 16 GHz. This method provides opportunities for polarization multiplexing in microwave OAM communication systems.
Zhou, Yixuan; Yiwen, E.; Xu, Xinlong; Li, Weilong; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Lipeng; Bai, Jintao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Wang, Li
2016-12-01
Spatial dispersion effect of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the terahertz (THz) region has significance for both theoretical and applied consideration due to the unique intrinsically anisotropic physical properties of CNTs. Herein, we report the angular dependent reflection of p-polarized THz wave from vertically aligned multi-walled CNT arrays in both experiment and theory. The spectra indicate that the reflection depends on the film thickness of vertically aligned CNTs, the incident angle, and the frequency. The calculation model is based on the spatial dispersion effect of aligned CNTs and performed with effective impedance method and the Maxwell-Garnett approximation. The results fit well with the experiment when the thickness of CNT film is thin, which reveals a coherent superposition mechanism of the CNT surface reflection and CNTs/Si interface reflection. For thick CNT films, the CNTs/Si interface response determines the reflection at small incident angles, while the CNTs surface effect dominates at large incident angles. This work investigates the spatial dispersion effect of vertically aligned CNT arrays in the THz region, and paves a way for potential anisotropic THz applications based on CNTs with oblique incidence requirements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borgne, H.
2004-12-01
Seismic imaging is an important tool for ail exploration. From the filtered seismic traces and a subsurface velocity model, migration allows to localize the reflectors and to estimate physical properties of these interfaces. The subsurface is split up into a reference medium, corresponding to the low spatial frequencies (a smooth medium), and a perturbation medium, corresponding to the high spatial frequencies. The propagation of elastic waves in the medium of reference is modelled by the ray theory. The association of this theory with a principle of diffraction or reflection allows to take into account the high spatial frequencies: the Kirchhoff approach represents so the medium of perturbations with continuous surfaces, characterized by reflection coefficients. The target of the quantitative migration is to reconstruct this reflection coefficient, notably its behaviour according to the incidence angle. These information will open the way to seismic characterization of the reservoir domain, with. a stratigraphic inversion for instance. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative migration results, one of the current challenges is to take into account the anisotropy of the subsurface. Taking into account rocks anisotropy in the imaging process of seismic data requires two improvements from the isotropic case. The first one roughly concerns the modelling aspect: an anisotropic propagator should be used to avoid a mis-positioning or bad focusing of the imaged reflectors. The second correction concerns the migration aspect: as anisotropy affects the reflectivity of subsurface, a specific anisotropic imaging formula should be applied in the migration kernel, in order to recover the correct A V A behavior of the subsurface reflectors, If the first correction is DOW made in most so-called anisotropic imaging algorithms, the second one is currently ignored. The first part of my work concerns theoretical aspects. 1 study first the preservation of amplitudes in the
Hybrid localized waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanov, A. A.; Yermakov, O. Y.; Ovcharenko, A. I.
2016-01-01
We study both theoretically and experimentally a new class of surface electromagnetic waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurface. At certain frequency this type of metasurface demonstrates the topological transition from elliptical to hyperbolic regime.......We study both theoretically and experimentally a new class of surface electromagnetic waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurface. At certain frequency this type of metasurface demonstrates the topological transition from elliptical to hyperbolic regime....
Calvo-Velasco, D. M.; Porras-Montenegro, N.
2018-04-01
By using the scattering matrix formalism, it is studied the optical properties of one dimensional photonic crystals made of multiple layers of dielectric and uniaxial anisotropic single negative electric metamaterial with Drude type responses, with inclusions of graphene in between the dielectric-dielectric interfaces (DGMPC). The transmission spectra for transverse electric (TE) and magnetic (TM) polarization are presented as a function of the incidence angle, the graphene chemical potential, and the metamaterial plasma frequencies. It is found for the TM polarization the tunability of the DGMPC optical response with the graphene chemical potential, which can be observed by means of transmission or reflexion bands around the metamaterial plasmon-polariton frequency, with bandwidths depending on both the incidence angle and the metamaterial plasma frequency. Also, the transmission band is observed when losses in the metamaterial slabs are considered for finite systems. The conditions for the appearance of these bands are shown analytically. We consider this work contributes to open new possibilities to the design of photonic devices with DGMPCs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
We interpret the purely spectral forward Maxwell equation with up to third-order induced polarizations for pulse propagation and interactions in quadratic nonlinear crystals. The interpreted equation, also named the nonlinear wave equation in the frequency domain, includes quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities, delayed Raman effects, and anisotropic nonlinearities. The full potential of this wave equation is demonstrated by investigating simulations of solitons generated in the process of ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation. We show that a balance in the soliton delay can be achieved due...
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolz, M.I., E-mail: mdolz@unsl.edu.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, R8402AGP Rio Negro (Argentina); Shalom, D.E.; Pastoriza, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, R8402AGP Rio Negro (Argentina); Lopez, D.O. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Av., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2012-03-15
We have performed magnetic susceptibility measurements in Mo{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} amorphous thin films biased with an electrical current using anisotropic coils. We tested the symmetry of the vortex response changing the relative orientation between the bias current and the susceptibility coils. We found a region in the DC current-temperature phase diagram where the dynamical vortex structures behave anisotropically. In this region the shielding capability of the superconducting currents measured by the susceptibility coils is less effective along the direction of vortex motion compared to the transverse direction. This anisotropic response is found in the same region where the peak effect in the critical current is developed. On rising temperature the isotropic behavior is recovered.
Frequency Response Analysis Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kosterev, Dmitry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2014-12-01
Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.
Djebbi, Ramzi
2013-08-19
Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it\\'s kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.
Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it's kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Yuan; Han, Yiping, E-mail: yphan@xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ai, Xia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Test physics and Numerical Mathematical, Beijing 100076 (China); Liu, Xiuxiang [Science and Technology on Space Physics Laboratory, Beijing 100076 (China)
2014-12-15
In this paper, we investigate the propagation of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic magnetized plasma by JE convolution-finite difference time domain method. The anisotropic characteristic of the plasma, which leads to right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) and right-hand circularly polarized (LCP) waves, has been taken into account. The interaction between electromagnetic waves and magnetized plasma is illustrated by reflection and transmission coefficients for both RCP and LCP THz waves. The effects of both the magnetized plasma thickness and the external magnetized field are analyzed and numerical results demonstrate that the two factors could influence the THz wave greatly. It is worthy to note that besides the reflection and transmission coefficients in the frequency domain, the waveform of the electric field in the time domain varying with thicknesses and external magnetic fields for different polarized direction has been studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleury, W.H.; Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.
1975-09-01
A set of computer programs for the calculation of the flexural and torsional resonant frequencies of rectangular section bars of materials of orthotropic or higher symmetry are described. The calculations are used in the experimental determination and verification of the elastic constants of anisotropic materials. The simple finite element technique employed separates the inertial and elastic properties of the beam element into station and field transfer matrices respectively. It includes the Timoshenko beam corrections for flexure and Lekhnitskii's theory for torsion-flexure coupling. The programs also calculate the vibration shapes and surface nodal contours or Chladni figures of the vibration modes. (author)
2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramananjaona, Christophe; MacGregor, Lucy
2010-01-01
The marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) method is a low frequency (diffusive) electromagnetic subsurface imaging technique aimed at mapping the electric resistivity of the earth by measuring the response to a source dipole emitting an electromagnetic field in a marine environment. Although assuming isotropy for the inversion is the most straightforward approach, in many situations horizontal layering of the earth strata and grain alignment within earth materials creates electric anisotropy. Ignoring this during interpretation may create artifacts in the inversion results. Accounting for this effect therefore requires adequate forward modelling and inversion procedures. We present here an inversion algorithm for vertically anisotropic media based on finite element modelling, the use of Frechet derivatives, and different types of regularisation. Comparisons between isotropic and anisotropic inversion results are given for the characterisation of an anisotropic earth from data measured in line with the source dipole for both synthetic and real data examples.
Pekşen, Ertan; Yas, Türker; Kıyak, Alper
2014-09-01
We examine the one-dimensional direct current method in anisotropic earth formation. We derive an analytic expression of a simple, two-layered anisotropic earth model. Further, we also consider a horizontally layered anisotropic earth response with respect to the digital filter method, which yields a quasi-analytic solution over anisotropic media. These analytic and quasi-analytic solutions are useful tests for numerical codes. A two-dimensional finite difference earth model in anisotropic media is presented in order to generate a synthetic data set for a simple one-dimensional earth. Further, we propose a particle swarm optimization method for estimating the model parameters of a layered anisotropic earth model such as horizontal and vertical resistivities, and thickness. The particle swarm optimization is a naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithm. The proposed method finds model parameters quite successfully based on synthetic and field data. However, adding 5 % Gaussian noise to the synthetic data increases the ambiguity of the value of the model parameters. For this reason, the results should be controlled by a number of statistical tests. In this study, we use probability density function within 95 % confidence interval, parameter variation of each iteration and frequency distribution of the model parameters to reduce the ambiguity. The result is promising and the proposed method can be used for evaluating one-dimensional direct current data in anisotropic media.
Selective optical transmission in anisotropic multilayers structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouchani, N.; Bria, D.; Nougaoui, A.; Merad, A.E.
2007-08-01
We developed a Green's function method to study theoretically a single-defect photonic crystal composed of anisotropic dielectric materials. This structure can trap light of a given frequency range and filter only a certain frequency light with a very high quality. It is shown that the defect modes appear as peaks in the transmission spectrum. Their intensities and frequency positions depend on the incidence angle and the orientation of the principal axes of layers consisting of the superlattice and the layer defect. Our structure offers a great variety of possibilities for creating and controlling the number and transmitted intensities of defect modes. It can be a good candidate for realizing a selective electromagnetic filter. In addition to this filtration process, the defective anisotropic photonic crystal can be used to switch the modes when appropriate geometry is selected. (author)
Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon
2010-01-01
Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjoldan, Peter Fisker
frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions......Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies...... of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal...
Eastern Frequency Response Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.
2013-05-01
This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.
Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2016-01-01
Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...... to the original formulation. The new element was implemented into a co-rotational formulation and validated against natural frequencies and several static load cases of previous works....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Gaoxiang; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H
2005-01-01
We investigate the spontaneous-emission properties of a two-level atom embedded in a three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal. In addition to the modified density of states, the atom is driven by a coherent intense low-frequency field (LFF), which creates additional multiphoton decay channels with the exchange of two low-frequency photons and one spontaneous photon during an atomic transition. Due to the low frequency of the applied field, the various transition pathways may interfere with each other and thus give rise to a modified system dynamics. We find that even if all the atomic (bare and induced) transition frequencies are in the conducting band of the photonic crystal, there still may exist a photon-atom bound state in coexistence with propagating modes. The system also allows us to generate narrow lines in the spontaneous-emission spectrum. This spectrum is a function of the distance of the observer from the atom due to the band gap in the photonic crystal. The system properties depend on three characteristic frequencies, which are influenced by quantum interference effects. Thus these results can be attributed to a combination of interference and band-gap effects
Astrophysical gyrokinetics: turbulence in pressure-anisotropic plasmas at ion scales and beyond
Kunz, M. W.; Abel, I. G.; Klein, K. G.
2018-04-01
We present a theoretical framework for describing electromagnetic kinetic turbulence in a multi-species, magnetized, pressure-anisotropic plasma. The turbulent fluctuations are assumed to be small compared to the mean field, to be spatially anisotropic with respect to it and to have frequencies small compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. At scales above the ion-Larmor radius, the theory reduces to the pressure-anisotropic generalization of kinetic reduced magnetohydrodynamics (KRMHD) formulated by Kunz et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 81, 2015, 325810501). At scales at and below the ion-Larmor radius, three main objectives are achieved. First, we analyse the linear response of the pressure-anisotropic gyrokinetic system, and show it to be a generalization of previously explored limits. The effects of pressure anisotropy on the stability and collisionless damping of Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations are highlighted, with attention paid to the spectral location and width of the frequency jump that occurs as Alfvén waves transition into kinetic Alfvén waves. Secondly, we derive and discuss a very general gyrokinetic free-energy conservation law, which captures both the KRMHD free-energy conservation at long wavelengths and dual cascades of kinetic Alfvén waves and ion entropy at sub-ion-Larmor scales. We show that non-Maxwellian features in the distribution function change the amount of phase mixing and the efficiency of magnetic stresses, and thus influence the partitioning of free energy amongst the cascade channels. Thirdly, a simple model is used to show that pressure anisotropy, even within the bounds imposed on it by firehose and mirror instabilities, can cause order-of-magnitude variations in the ion-to-electron heating ratio due to the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence. Our theory provides a foundation for determining how pressure anisotropy affects turbulent fluctuation spectra, the differential heating of particle species and the ratio of parallel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Galvis
Full Text Available In this study, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS was used to characterize the anisotropic response of the amide I band of collagen as a basis for evaluating three-dimensional collagen fibril orientation in tissues. Firstly, the response was investigated theoretically by applying classical Raman theory to collagen-like peptide crystal structures. The theoretical methodology was then tested experimentally, by measuring amide I intensity anisotropy in rat tail as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization. For the theoretical study, several collagen-like triple-helical peptide crystal structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank were rotated "in plane" and "out of plane" to evaluate the role of molecular orientation on the intensity of the amide I band. Collagen-like peptides exhibit a sinusoidal anisotropic response when rotated "in plane" with respect to the polarized incident laser. Maximal intensity was obtained when the polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the molecule and minimal when parallel. In the case of "out of plane" rotation of the molecular structure a decreased anisotropic response was observed, becoming completely isotropic when the structure was perpendicular to the plane of observation. The theoretical Raman response of collagen was compared to that of alpha helical protein fragments. In contrast to collagen, alpha helices have a maximal signal when incident light is parallel to the molecule and minimal when perpendicular. For out-of-plane molecular orientations alpha-helix structures display a decreased average intensity. Results obtained from experiments on rat tail tendon are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the high potential of PRS for experimental evaluation of the three-dimensional orientation of collagen fibers in biological tissues.
Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials
Romao, Carl P.
2017-10-01
A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.
Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing
Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris
2018-05-01
The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance
Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites
Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping
2012-01-01
By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle
Mizuno, Daisuke; Head, David; Ikebe, Emi; Nakamasu, Akiko; Kinoshita, Suguru; Peijuan, Zhang; Ando, Shoji
2013-03-01
Forces are generated heterogeneously in living cells and transmitted through cytoskeletal networks that respond highly non-linearly. Here, we carry out high-bandwidth passive microrheology on vimentin networks reconstituted in vitro, and observe the nonlinear mechanical response due to forces propagating from a local source applied by an optical tweezer. Since the applied force is constant, the gel becomes equilibrated and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be employed to deduce the viscoelasticity of the local environment from the thermal fluctuations of colloidal probes. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate the anisotropic stiffening of the cytoskeletal network behind the applied force, with greater stiffening in the parallel direction. Quantitative agreement with an affine continuum model is obtained, but only for the response at certain frequency ~ 10-1000 Hz which separates the high-frequency power law and low-frequency elastic behavior of the network. We argue that the failure of the model at lower frequencies is due to the presence of non-affinity, and observe that zero-frequency changes in particle separation can be fitted when an independently-measured, empirical nonaffinity factor is applied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.
1998-01-01
Motivated by the recently increased interest in small aspect ratio tokamaks, we have derived a 2(1/2)D dielectric tensor-operator which can properly describe the plasma response to r.f. waves, under conditions prevailing in the pre-heated stages of arbitrary aspect ratio, axisymmetric toroidal fusion devices. The derived dielectric tensor elements are based on a two-fluid, weakly collisional plasma description, with the Hall term included. They are characterized by the following features: (i) They are cast in a form evidencing the dielectric (non-operator) and operator contributions - the latter being due to the toroidal structure of the V-operators present in Maxwell's equations, on the background of equilibrium currents and pressure gradients; (ii) They are not subject to any I imitation on the (relative) magnitude of the toroidal effects - no expansion in the inverse aspect ratio parameter is used for their derivation; (iii) They include anisotropic - parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field - contributions to the plasma resistivity; (iv) They are not Iimited by any restriction on the (relative) value of the wave frequency. The explicit, physically transparent formulation of the dielectric tensor is intended for the numerical solution of the full (E ll ≠ 0) wave equation and subsequently, evaluation of the Alfven wave current drive in small aspect ratio tokamaks
On plasma stability under anisotropic random electric field influence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabich, L.N.; Sosenko, P.P.
1987-01-01
The influence of anisotropic random field on plasma stability is studied. The thresholds and instability increments are obtained. The stabilizing influence of frequency missmatch and external magnetic field is pointed out
Ganapathy, Vinay; Ramachandran, Ramesh
2017-10-01
The response of a quadrupolar nucleus (nuclear spin with I > 1/2) to an oscillating radio-frequency pulse/field is delicately dependent on the ratio of the quadrupolar coupling constant to the amplitude of the pulse in addition to its duration and oscillating frequency. Consequently, analytic description of the excitation process in the density operator formalism has remained less transparent within existing theoretical frameworks. As an alternative, the utility of the "concept of effective Floquet Hamiltonians" is explored in the present study to explicate the nuances of the excitation process in multilevel systems. Employing spin I = 3/2 as a case study, a unified theoretical framework for describing the excitation of multiple-quantum transitions in static isotropic and anisotropic solids is proposed within the framework of perturbation theory. The challenges resulting from the anisotropic nature of the quadrupolar interactions are addressed within the effective Hamiltonian framework. The possible role of the various interaction frames on the convergence of the perturbation corrections is discussed along with a proposal for a "hybrid method" for describing the excitation process in anisotropic solids. Employing suitable model systems, the validity of the proposed hybrid method is substantiated through a rigorous comparison between simulations emerging from exact numerical and analytic methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten
A construction of Triebel-Lizorkin type spaces associated with flexible decompositions of the frequency space $R^d$ is considered. The class of admissible frequency decompositions is generated by a one parameter group of (anisotropic) dilations on $R^d$ and a suitable decomposition function. The ......, and their interpolation properties are studied. As the main application, we consider H¨ormander type classes of pseudo-differential operators adapted to the anisotropy and boundedness of such operators between corresponding Triebel-Lizorkin type spaces is proved.......A construction of Triebel-Lizorkin type spaces associated with flexible decompositions of the frequency space $R^d$ is considered. The class of admissible frequency decompositions is generated by a one parameter group of (anisotropic) dilations on $R^d$ and a suitable decomposition function....... The decomposition function governs the structure of the decomposition of the frequency space, and for a very particular choice of decomposition function the spaces are reduced to classical (anisotropic) Triebel-Lizorkin spaces. An explicit atomic decomposition of the Triebel-Lizorkin type spaces is provided...
MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro
2016-01-01
We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10 −26 ∼10 −27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.
Transient electromagnetic scattering on anisotropic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, R.D.
1990-01-01
This dissertation treats the problem of transient scattering of obliquely incident electromagnetic plane waves on a stratified anisotropic dielectric slab. Scattering operators are derived for the reflective response of the medium. The internal fields are calculated. Wave splitting and invariant imbedding techniques are used. These techniques are first presented for fields normally incident on a stratified, isotropic dielectric medium. The techniques of wave splitting and invariant imbedding are applied to normally incident plane waves on an anisotropic medium. An integro-differential equation is derived for the reflective response and the direct and inverse scattering problems are discussed. These techniques are applied to the case of obliquely incident plane waves. The reflective response is derived and the direct and inverse problems discussed and compared to those for the normal incidence case. The internal fields are investigated for the oblique incidence via a Green's function approach. A numerical scheme is presented to calculate the Green's function. Finally, symmetry relations of the reflective response are discussed
SO-FDTD analysis of anisotropic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanjing; Yuan Hong; Chen Rushan; Yang Yang
2007-01-01
A novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, called shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method is developed for anisotropic magnetized dispersive media. The recursive relation between operators is used. In this paper, some expressions containing the dielectric constants of magnetized dispersive media are written as rational polynomial function. The SO-FDTD formulation for anisotropic magnetized plasma is derived. The high efficiency and effectiveness of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer, with the direction of the propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field. A comparison with frequency domain analytic results is included. The CPU time was several times shorter than that of the JEC method. (authors)
Inflationary perturbations in anisotropic, shear-free universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Thiago S.; Carneiro, Saulo; Marugan, Guillermo A. Mena
2012-01-01
In this work, the linear and gauge-invariant theory of cosmological perturbations in a class of anisotropic and shear-free spacetimes is developed. After constructing an explicit set of complete eigenfunctions in terms of which perturbations can be expanded, we identify the effective degrees of freedom during a generic slow-roll inflationary phase. These correspond to the anisotropic equivalent of the standard Mukhanov-Sasaki variables. The associated equations of motion present a remarkable resemblance to those found in perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes with curvature, apart from the spectrum of the Laplacian, which exhibits the characteristic frequencies of the underlying geometry. In particular, it is found that the perturbations cannot develop arbitrarily large super-Hubble modes
An anisotropic elasto-viscoplastic model for short-fiber reinforced polymers
Amiri Rad, A.; Govaert, L.E.; van Dommelen, J.A.W.
2017-01-01
The influence of flow on the fiber orientation in injection molding of short-fiber composites leads to both anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the mechanical response. An anisotropic elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed to capture the anisotropic and time-dependent behavior and
An Anisotropic Elasto-Viscoplastic Model for Short-Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Amiri Rad, A.; Govaert, L.E.; van Dommelen, J.A.W.
2018-01-01
The influence of flow on the fiber orientation in injection molding of short-fiber composites leads to both anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the mechanical response. An anisotropic elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed to capture the anisotropic and time-dependent behavior and
Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2017-11-12
This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering
Effect of quasiparticles on interlayer transport in highly anisotropic layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artemenko, S.N.; Bulaevskii, L.N.; Maley, M.P.; Vinokur, V.M.
1999-01-01
We have performed a microscopic calculation of the dielectric response function in highly anisotropic layered superconductors and used the developed approach to obtain the frequency-dependent London penetration length and conductivity in the case of d-wave pairing for currents perpendicular to the layers. We consider a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling of electrons and take into account contributions from both superconducting electrons and quasiparticles to the dielectric response. We show that quasiparticles change the low-temperature behavior of the penetration length in the intermediate frequency range where the frequency is smaller than the superconducting order parameter but larger than the inverse quasiparticle scattering time. The obtained results are used to describe the low-temperature behavior of the Josephson plasma resonance, in particular the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and the resonance linewidth in zero external magnetic field. We compare our results with the available experimental data for Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) and show that results of a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling for the dc c-axis resistivity in the superconducting state are inconsistent with experimental data for underdoped and optimally doped Bi-2212 crystals. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany
Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erteza, I.A.
1995-04-01
Radiation testing of photonic components is not new, however component level testing to date has not completely addressed quantities which are important to system behavior. One characteristic that is of particular importance for optical processing systems is the frequency response. In this report, we present the analysis of data from an experiment designed to provide a preliminary understanding of the effects of radiation on the frequency response of acousto-optic devices. The goal of the analysis is to describe possible physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation effects and to discuss the effects on signal processing functionality. The experiment discussed in this report was designed by Sandia National Laboratories and performed by Sandia and Phillips Laboratory personnel at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). In the experiment, a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell was exposed to radiation from the WSMR linear accelerator. The TeO{sub 2} cell was placed in an experimental configuration which allowed swept frequency diffracted power measurements to be taken during radiation exposure and recovery. A series of exposures was performed. Each exposure consisted of between 1 to 800, 1{mu}sec radiation pulses (yielding exposures of 2.25 kRad(Si) to 913 kRad(Si)), followed by recovery time. At low total and cumulative doses, the bandshape of the frequency response (i.e. diffracted power vs. frequency) remained almost identical during and after radiation. At the higher exposures, however, the amplitude and width of the frequency response changed as the radiation continued, but returned to the original shape slowly after the radiation stopped and recovery proceeded. It is interesting to note that the location of the Bragg degeneracy does not change significantly with radiation. In this report, we discuss these effects from the perspective of anisotropic Bragg diffraction and momentum mismatch, and we discuss the effect on the signal processing functionality.
Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite
Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X. Z.; Matsui, Y.; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E. Ward; Zhang, Jiandi
2009-01-01
The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La0.69Ca0.31MnO3, leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a “colossal” AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings. PMID:19706504
Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ohnishi Naofumi
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.
Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media
Waheed, Umair bin
2014-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.
Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media
Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.
Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P
2015-04-01
Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar π-π* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA
FDTD analysis of 3-D conducting target coated by anisotropic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Lijun; Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang
2006-01-01
The JEC finite-difference time-domain (JEC-FDTD) method is extended to three dimensional anisotropic dispersive media- the magnetized plasma. The problem which incorporates both anisotropy and frequency dispersion at the same time is solved for the electromagnetic wave propagation. The three dimensional JEC-FDTD formulations for anisotropic magnetized plasma are derived. The method is applied to the electromagnetic scattering of dihedral corner reflector and sphere-cone coated with anisotropic magnetized plasma. By simulating the interaction of electromagnetic wave with magnetized plasma, some numerical results are obtained, which indicate that an appropriate plasma coating may efficiently reduce the RCS of a metallic target. (authors)
Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David
The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision......-induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric...... function of liquids at terahertz frequencies. We will review the current understanding of the high-frequency dielectric spectrum of water, and discuss the relation between the dielectric spectrum and the thermodynamic properties of certain aqueous solutions....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr; Woo, Eung Je, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Kyung, Eun Jung [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Bum [Department of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh In [Department of Mathematics, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.
Ghaffar, A.; Hussan, M. M.; Illahi, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.; Ur Rehman, Sajjad; Naz, M. Y.
2018-01-01
Effects on RCS of perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) sphere by coating with anisotropic plasma layer are studied in this paper. The incident, scattered and transmitted electromagnetic fields are expanded in term of spherical vector wave functions using extended classical theory of scattering. Co and cross-polarized scattered field coefficients are obtained at the interface of free space-anisotropic plasma and at anisotropic plasma-PEMC sphere core by scattering matrices method. The presented analytical expressions are general for any perfect conducting sphere (PMC, PEC, or PEMC) with general anisotropic/isotropic material coatings that include plasma and metamaterials. The behavior of the forward and backscattered radar cross section of PEMC sphere with the variation of the magnetic field strength, incident frequency, plasma density, and effective collision frequency for the co-polarized and the cross polarized fields are investigated. It is also observed from the obtained results that anisotropic layer on PEMC sphere shows reciprocal behavior as compared to isotopic plasma layer on PEMC sphere. The comparisons of the numerical results of the presented analytical expressions with available results of some special cases show the correctness of the analysis.
Nonlinear, anisotropic, and giant photoconductivity in intrinsic and doped graphene
Singh, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Saikat; Agarwal, Amit
2018-01-01
We present a framework to calculate the anisotropic and nonlinear photoconductivity for two band systems with application to graphene. In contrast to the usual perturbative (second order in the optical field strength) techniques, we calculate photoconductivity to all orders in the optical field strength. In particular, for graphene, we find the photoresponse to be giant (at large optical field strengths) and anisotropic. The anisotropic photoresponse in graphene is correlated with polarization of the incident field, with the response being similar to that of a half-wave plate. We predict that the anisotropy in the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal (σx x) and transverse (σy x) photoconductivity, with four probes, offers a unique experimental signature of the photovoltaic response, distinguishing it from the thermal-Seebeck and bolometric effects in photoresponse.
Anisotropic hypersonic phonon propagation in films of aligned ellipsoids.
Beltramo, Peter J; Schneider, Dirk; Fytas, George; Furst, Eric M
2014-11-14
A material with anisotropic elastic mechanical properties and a direction-dependent hypersonic band gap is fabricated using ac electric field-directed convective self-assembly of colloidal ellipsoids. The frequency of the gap, which is detected in the direction perpendicular to particle alignment and entirely absent parallel to alignment, and the effective sound velocities can be tuned by the particle aspect ratio. We hypothesize that the band gap originates from the primary eigenmode peak, the m-splitted (s,1,2) mode, of the particle resonating with the effective medium. These results reveal the potential for powerful control of the hypersonic phononic band diagram by combining anisotropic particles and self-assembly.
Electromagnetic Wave Transmittance Control using Anisotropic Plasma Lattice
Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Hoffman, Anthony
2017-11-01
Experiments of transmission through a lattice array of plasma columns have shown an absorption band close to the plasma frequency at 14 GHz. The beam was oriented at a 35° incident angle to the planar plasma cell. These experiments were designed to determine if the observed absorption was the result of the isotropic plasma medium or that of an anisotropic metamaterial. Transmission of the microwave energy was not consistent with an isotropic material in which absorption would monotonically increase below the plasma frequency. The experimental results are supported by an anisotropic model which was developed for the plasma permittivity using an effective medium approximation. The plasma columns were modeled as uniform rods with permittivity described by a Drude model while the components of the permittivity tensor was calculated using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. Electron densities of n = 4 x1012 cm-3 were assumed which is consistent with prior experimental measurements. This model confirms the existence of non-zero imaginary wave vector k in a narrow region centered about 14 GHz.
Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne
2013-01-01
Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...
Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2
cells containing equivalent anisotropic medium by the use of the linear slip equivalent model. Our. 16 results show ...... frequency regression predicted by equation (21) can be distorted by the effects of multiple scattering. 337 ..... other seismic attributes, at least for the relatively simple geometries of subsurface structure. 449.
An Efficient FPGA Implementation of Optimized Anisotropic Diffusion Filtering of Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chandrajit Pal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Digital image processing is an exciting area of research with a variety of applications including medical, surveillance security systems, defence, and space applications. Noise removal as a preprocessing step helps to improve the performance of the signal processing algorithms, thereby enhancing image quality. Anisotropic diffusion filtering proposed by Perona and Malik can be used as an edge-preserving smoother, removing high-frequency components of images without blurring their edges. In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of an edge-preserving anisotropic diffusion filter for digital images. The designed architecture completely replaced the convolution operation and implemented the same using simple arithmetic subtraction of the neighboring intensities within a kernel, preceded by multiple operations in parallel within the kernel. To improve the image reconstruction quality, the diffusion coefficient parameter, responsible for controlling the filtering process, has been properly analyzed. Its signal behavior has been studied by subsequently scaling and differentiating the signal. The hardware implementation of the proposed design shows better performance in terms of reconstruction quality and accelerated performance with respect to its software implementation. It also reduces computation, power consumption, and resource utilization with respect to other related works.
Black Holes with Anisotropic Fluid in Lyra Scalar-Tensor Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melis ULU DOĞRU
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate distribution of anisotropic fluid which is a resource of black holes in regard to Lyra scalar-tensor theory. As part of the theory, we obtain field equations of spherically symmetric space-time with anisotropic fluid. By using field equations, we suggest distribution of anisotropic fluid, responsible for space-time geometries such as Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Minkowski type, de Sitter type, Anti-de Sitter type, BTZ and charged BTZ black holes. Finally, we discuss obtained pressures and density of the fluid for different values of arbitrary constants, geometrically and physically.
Elastic-plastic response characteristics during frequency nonstationary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyama, T.; Kanda, J.; Iwasaki, R.; Sunohara, H.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study fundamental effects of the frequency nonstationarity on the inelastic responses. First, the inelastic response characteristics are examined by applying stationary waves. Then simple representation of nonstationary characteristics is considered to general nonstationary input. The effects for frequency nonstationary response are summarized for inelastic systems. The inelastic response characteristics under white noise and simple frequency nonstationary wave were investigated, and conclusions can be summarized as follows. 1) The maximum response values for both BL model and OO model corresponds fairly well with those estimated from the energy constant law, even when R is small. For the OO model, the maximum displacement response forms a unique curve except for very small R. 2) The plastic deformation for the BL model is affected by wide frequency components, as R decreases. The plastic deformation for the OO model can be determined from the last stiffness. 3). The inelastic response of the BL model is considerably affected by the frequency nonstationarity of the input motion, while the response is less affected by the nonstationarity for OO model. (orig./HP)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Tang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available With increasing penetration of wind power into the power system, wind power participation in frequency regulation is regarded as a beneficial strategy to improve the dynamic frequency response characteristics of power systems. The traditional power system frequency response (SFR model, which only includes synchronous generators, is no longer suitable for power systems with high penetrated wind power. An extended SFR model, based on the reduced-order model of wind turbine generator (WTG and the traditional SFR model, is presented in this paper. In the extended SFR model, the reduced-order model of WTG with combined frequency control is deduced by employing small signal analysis theory. Afterwards, the stability analysis of a closed-loop control system for the extended SFR model is carried out. Time-domain simulations using a test system are performed to validate the effectiveness of the extended SFR model; this model can provide a simpler, clearer and faster way to analyze the dynamic frequency response characteristic for a high-wind integrated power systems. The impact of additional frequency control parameters and wind speed disturbances on the system dynamic frequency response characteristics are investigated.
Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Iván Ravelo Arias
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current,[PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF]. The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR, giant magnetoresistance (GMR, spin-valve (GMR-SV and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR. The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications.
Anisotropic surface acoustic waves in tungsten/lithium niobate phononic crystals
Sun, Jia-Hong; Yu, Yuan-Hai
2018-02-01
Phononic crystals (PnC) were known for acoustic band gaps for different acoustic waves. PnCs were already applied in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as reflective gratings based on the band gaps. In this paper, another important property of PnCs, the anisotropic propagation, was studied. PnCs made of circular tungsten films on a lithium niobate substrate were analyzed by finite element method. Dispersion curves and equal frequency contours of surface acoustic waves in PnCs of various dimensions were calculated to study the anisotropy. The non-circular equal frequency contours and negative refraction of group velocity were observed. Then PnC was applied as an acoustic lens based on the anisotropic propagation. Trajectory of SAW passing PnC lens was calculated and transmission of SAW was optimized by selecting proper layers of lens and applying tapered PnC. The result showed that PnC lens can suppress diffraction of surface waves effectively and improve the performance of SAW devices.
Textile-templated electrospun anisotropic scaffolds for regenerative cardiac tissue engineering.
Şenel Ayaz, H Gözde; Perets, Anat; Ayaz, Hasan; Gilroy, Kyle D; Govindaraj, Muthu; Brookstein, David; Lelkes, Peter I
2014-10-01
For patients with end-stage heart disease, the access to heart transplantation is limited due to the shortage of donor organs and to the potential for rejection of the donated organ. Therefore, current studies focus on bioengineering approaches for creating biomimetic cardiac patches that will assist in restoring cardiac function, by repairing and/or regenerating the intrinsically anisotropic myocardium. In this paper we present a simplified, straightforward approach for creating bioactive anisotropic cardiac patches, based on a combination of bioengineering and textile-manufacturing techniques in concert with nano-biotechnology based tissue-engineering stratagems. Using knitted conventional textiles, made of cotton or polyester yarns as template targets, we successfully electrospun anisotropic three-dimensional scaffolds from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), and thermoplastic polycarbonate-urethane (PCU, Bionate(®)). The surface topography and mechanical properties of textile-templated anisotropic scaffolds significantly differed from those of scaffolds electrospun from the same materials onto conventional 2-D flat-target electrospun scaffolds. Anisotropic textile-templated scaffolds electrospun from both PLGA and PCU, supported the adhesion and proliferation of H9C2 cardiac myoblasts cell line, and guided the cardiac tissue-like anisotropic organization of these cells in vitro. All cell-seeded PCU scaffolds exhibited mechanical properties comparable to those of a human heart, but only the cells on the polyester-templated scaffolds exhibited prolonged spontaneous synchronous contractility on the entire engineered construct for 10 days in vitro at a near physiologic frequency of ∼120 bpm. Taken together, the methods described here take advantage of straightforward established textile manufacturing strategies as an efficient and cost-effective approach to engineering 3D anisotropic, elastomeric PCU scaffolds that can serve as a cardiac patch. Copyright
An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt
Waheed, Umair bin
2015-03-23
Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.
Dual-band high-efficiency polarization converter using an anisotropic metasurface
Lin, Baoqin; Wang, Buhong; Meng, Wen; Da, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Fang, Yingwu; Zhu, Zihang
2016-05-01
In this work, a dual-band and high-efficiency reflective cross-polarization converter based on an anisotropic metasurface for linearly polarized electromagnetic waves is proposed. Its unit cell is composed of an elliptical disk-ring mounted on grounded dielectric substrate, which is an anisotropic structure with a pair of mutually perpendicular symmetric axes u and v along ± 45 ° directions with respect to y-axis direction. Both the simulation and measured results show that the polarization converter can convert x- or y-polarized incident wave to its cross polarized wave in the two frequency bands (6.99-9.18 GHz, 11.66-20.40 GHz) with the conversion efficiency higher than 90%; moreover, the higher frequency band is an ultra-wide one with a relative bandwidth of 54.5% for multiple plasmon resonances. In addition, we present a detailed analysis for the polarization conversion of the polarization converter, and derive a formula to calculate the cross- and co-polarization reflections at y-polarized incidence according to the phase differences between the two reflected coefficients at u-polarized and v-polarized incidences. The simulated, calculated, and measured results are all in agreement with the entire frequency regions.
An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt
Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.
Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.
Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A
2018-02-20
Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.
Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn.
Galceran, R; Fina, I; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Frontera, C; López-Mir, L; Deniz, H; Park, K-W; Park, B-G; Balcells, Ll; Martí, X; Jungwirth, T; Martínez, B
2016-10-20
Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.
Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-11-30
Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This report presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.
Anisotropic constant-roll inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)
2018-01-15
We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)
Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zozulya, A.A.; Anderson, D.Z.; Mamaev, A.V.
1998-01-01
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the properties and formation of single solitons and higher-order bound dipole pairs in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The single solitons are elliptical beams, whereas the dipole pairs are formed by a pair of displa......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the properties and formation of single solitons and higher-order bound dipole pairs in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The single solitons are elliptical beams, whereas the dipole pairs are formed by a pair...
Modelling of ultrasonic nondestructive testing in anisotropic materials - Rectangular crack
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostroem, A.
2001-12-01
Nondestructive testing with ultrasound is a standard procedure in the nuclear power industry when searching for defects, in particular cracks. To develop and qualify testing procedures extensive experimental work on test blocks is usually required. This can take a lot of time and therefore be quite costly. A good mathematical model of the testing situation is therefore of great value as it can reduce the experimental work to a great extent. A good model can be very useful for parametric studies and as a pedagogical tool. A further use of a model is as a tool in the qualification of personnel. In anisotropic materials, e.g. austenitic welds, the propagation of ultrasound becomes much more complicated as compared to isotropic materials. Therefore, modelling is even more useful for anisotropic materials, and it in particular has a greater pedagogical value. The present project has been concerned with a further development of the anisotropic capabilities of the computer program UTDefect, which has so far only contained a strip-like crack as the single defect type for anisotropic materials. To be more specific, the scattering by a rectangular crack in an anisotropic component has been studied and the result is adapted to include transmitting and receiving ultrasonic probes. The component under study is assumed to be anisotropic with arbitrary anisotropy. On the other hand, it is assumed to be homogeneous, and this in particular excludes most welds, where it is seldom an adequate approximation to assume homogeneity. The anisotropy may be arbitrarily oriented and the same is true of the rectangular crack. The crack may also be located near a backside of the component. To solve the scattering problem for the crack an integral equation method is used. The probe model has been developed in an earlier project and to compute the signal response in the receiving probe an electromechanical reciprocity argument is employed. As a rectangle is a truly 3D scatterer the sizes of the
Anisotropic frequency response of critical density fluctuation of NIPA gel under oscillation shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugiyama, Masaaki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugiyama@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Vigild, Martin E. [Danish Polymer Centre, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fukunaga, Toshiharu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Itoh, Keiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Kazuhiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Annaka, Masahiko [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)
2006-11-15
A relation between rheology and structure of high density NIPA gel around a critical point on volume phase transition was studied by a simultaneous rheology and small-angle neutron scattering measurement. Just below the critical temperature, the NIPA gel showed softening: G{sup '} and G{sup '}' get closer (G{sup '}>G{sup '}'). At this temperature, the density fluctuation enhanced along the shear direction corresponding to the shear frequency but not to the shear strength. It means that this anisotropy is different from that observed in a statically stretched gel.
Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Zhao, Changhong; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine
2017-03-03
Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.
Frequency response of electrochemical cells
Thomas, Daniel L.
1990-01-01
The main objective was to examine the feasibility of using frequency response techniques (1) as a tool in destructive physical analysis of batteries, particularly for estimating electrode structural parameters such as specific area, porosity, and tortuosity and (2) as a non-destructive testing technique for obtaining information such as state of charge and acceptability for space flight. The phenomena that contribute to the frequency response of an electrode include: (1) double layer capacitance; (2) Faradaic reaction resistance; (3) mass transfer of Warburg impedance; and (4) ohmic solution resistance. Nickel cadmium cells were investigated in solutions of KOH. A significant amount of data was acquired. Quantitative data analysis, using the developed software, is planned for the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeyda, Triana; Robinson, Andrew; Richmond, Michael; Vazquez, Billy; Nikutta, Robert
2017-01-01
The obscuring circumnuclear torus of dusty molecular gas is one of the major components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The torus can be studied by analyzing the time response of its infrared (IR) dust emission to variations in the AGN continuum luminosity, a technique known as reverberation mapping. The IR response is the convolution of the AGN ultraviolet/optical light curve with a transfer function that contains information about the size, geometry, and structure of the torus. Here, we describe a new computer model that simulates the reverberation response of a clumpy torus. Given an input optical light curve, the code computes the emission of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds as a function of time at selected IR wavelengths, taking into account light travel delays. We present simulated dust emission responses at 3.6, 4.5, and 30 μ m that explore the effects of various geometrical and structural properties, dust cloud orientation, and anisotropy of the illuminating radiation field. We also briefly explore the effects of cloud shadowing (clouds are shielded from the AGN continuum source). Example synthetic light curves have also been generated, using the observed optical light curve of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418 as input. The torus response is strongly wavelength-dependent, due to the gradient in cloud surface temperature within the torus, and because the cloud emission is strongly anisotropic at shorter wavelengths. Anisotropic illumination of the torus also significantly modifies the torus response, reducing the lag between the IR and optical variations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almeyda, Triana; Robinson, Andrew; Richmond, Michael; Vazquez, Billy [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Nikutta, Robert, E-mail: tra3595@rit.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)
2017-07-01
The obscuring circumnuclear torus of dusty molecular gas is one of the major components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The torus can be studied by analyzing the time response of its infrared (IR) dust emission to variations in the AGN continuum luminosity, a technique known as reverberation mapping. The IR response is the convolution of the AGN ultraviolet/optical light curve with a transfer function that contains information about the size, geometry, and structure of the torus. Here, we describe a new computer model that simulates the reverberation response of a clumpy torus. Given an input optical light curve, the code computes the emission of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds as a function of time at selected IR wavelengths, taking into account light travel delays. We present simulated dust emission responses at 3.6, 4.5, and 30 μ m that explore the effects of various geometrical and structural properties, dust cloud orientation, and anisotropy of the illuminating radiation field. We also briefly explore the effects of cloud shadowing (clouds are shielded from the AGN continuum source). Example synthetic light curves have also been generated, using the observed optical light curve of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418 as input. The torus response is strongly wavelength-dependent, due to the gradient in cloud surface temperature within the torus, and because the cloud emission is strongly anisotropic at shorter wavelengths. Anisotropic illumination of the torus also significantly modifies the torus response, reducing the lag between the IR and optical variations.
Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2014-10-08
Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators
Preconditioned conjugate gradient technique for the analysis of symmetric anisotropic structures
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1987-01-01
An efficient preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) technique and a computational procedure are presented for the analysis of symmetric anisotropic structures. The technique is based on selecting the preconditioning matrix as the orthotropic part of the global stiffness matrix of the structure, with all the nonorthotropic terms set equal to zero. This particular choice of the preconditioning matrix results in reducing the size of the analysis model of the anisotropic structure to that of the corresponding orthotropic structure. The similarities between the proposed PCG technique and a reduction technique previously presented by the authors are identified and exploited to generate from the PCG technique direct measures for the sensitivity of the different response quantities to the nonorthotropic (anisotropic) material coefficients of the structure. The effectiveness of the PCG technique is demonstrated by means of a numerical example of an anisotropic cylindrical panel.
Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne
2013-01-01
. This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling....
Finite-difference time-domain simulation of electromagnetic bandgap and bi-anisotropic metamaterials
Bray, Matthew G.
The term "Metamaterial" has been introduced into the electromagnetic lexicon in recent years to describe new artificial materials with electromagnetic properties that are not found in naturally occurring materials. Metamaterials exhibit electromagnetic properties that are not observed in its constituent materials, and/or not observed in nature. This thesis will analyze two different classes of metamaterials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The first class of metamaterials are artificial magnetic conductors (AMC) which approximate the behavior of a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) over a finite frequency range. The AMC metamaterials are created through the use of an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure. A periodic FDTD code is used to simulate a full-wave model of the metallodielectric EBG structures. The AMCs developed with the aid of the FDTD tool are then used to create low-profile antenna systems consisting of a dipole antenna in close proximity to an AMC surface. Through the use of this FDTD tool, several original contributions were made to the electromagnetic community. These include the first dual-band independently tunable EBG AMC ground plane and the first linearly polarized single-band and dual-band tunable antenna/EBG systems. The second class of materials analyzed are bi-anisotropic metamaterials. Bi-anisotropic media are the largest class of linear media which is able to describe the macroscopic material properties of artificial dielectrics, artificial magnetics, artificial chiral materials, left-handed materials, and other composite materials. The dispersive properties of these materials can be approximated by the oscillator model. This model assumes a Lorentzian frequency profile for the permittivity and permeability and a Condon model for chirality. A new FDTD formulation is introduced which can simulate this type of bi-anisotropic media. This FDTD method incorporates the dispersive material properties through
Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Haijun
2014-01-01
Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ c , which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF
Debonding analyses in anisotropic materials with strain- gradient effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2012-01-01
A unit cell approach is adopted to numerically analyze the effect of plastic anisotropy on damage evolution in a micro-reinforced composite. The matrix material exhibit size effects and a visco-plastic anisotropic strain gradient plasticity model accounting for such size effects is adopted....... A conventional cohesive law is extended such that both the average as well as the jump in plastic strain across the fiber-matrix interface are accounted for. Results are shown for both conventional isotropic and anisotropic materials as well as for higher order isotropic and anisotropic materials...... with and without debonding. Generally, the strain gradient enhanced material exhibits higher load carry capacity compared to the corresponding conventional material. A sudden stress drop occurs in the macroscopic stress-strain response curve due to fiber-matrix debonding and the results show that a change in yield...
Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2014-01-01
Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....
Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.
Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M
2016-11-01
An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves
Simple types of anisotropic inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern
2010-01-01
We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klumov, B.A.; Tarakanov, V.P.
1994-01-01
The electron field with the anisotropic distribution function is being formed when the gas is being affected with ionizing radiation. The anisotropy of the distribution function occurs due to the fact that photoelectrons fly mainly in the direction perpendicular to that of ionizing radiation quantum propagation. In order to emphasize the most typical features of the developed anisotropic instability, photoelectrons were believed to fly strictly across the photon propagation direction. Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations have been carried out to study high-frequency disturbances in the plasma produced by ionizing radiation. Elastic processes were taken into account. It has been shown, in particular, that the energy of anisotropic electrons transforms mainly into that of magnetic pulsations (approximately 7% of the energy transforms into that of magnetic pulsations). Development of the anisotropic instability result in a space stratification into current filaments. The anisotropic instability study can be important for an interpretation of electromagnetic emission spectra for a plasma disturbed by radiation
On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng
1998-01-01
This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.
Coupled polaritonic band gaps in the anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices
Tang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Chun-Zhi; Lei, Da-Jun; Huang, Jian-Quan; Qiu, Feng; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi
2018-01-01
Anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (APSs) with the periodic arrangement of polarized anisotropic piezoelectric domains in a certain direction are presented, in which the coupled polaritonic band gaps (CPBGs) can be obtained in the whole Brillouin Zone and the maximum relative bandwidth (band-gap sizes divided by their midgap frequencies) of 5.1% can be achieved. The general characteristics of the APSs are similar to those of the phononic crystals composed of two types of materials, with the main difference being the formation mechanism of the CPBGs, which originate from the couplings between lattice vibrations along two different directions and electromagnetic waves rather than from the periodical modulation of density and elastic constants. In addition, there are no lattice mismatches because the APSs are made of the same material. Thus, the APSs can also be extended to the construction of novel acousto-optic devices.
Low-frequency versus high-frequency synchronisation in chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønne, Filip Munch; Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian
2011-01-01
This study investigates the frequency specific contribution to the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of chirp stimuli. Frequency rising chirps were designed to compensate for the cochlear traveling wave delay, and lead to larger wave-V amplitudes than for click stimuli as more auditory nerve fibr...
Frequency response of slow beam extraction process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toyama, Takeshi; Sato, Hikaru; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.
1994-01-01
A servo control system has been incorporated into the practical slow extraction system in order to stabilize the spill structure less than a few kHz. Frequency responses of the components of the servo-spill control system and the open-loop frequency response were measured. The beam transfer function of the slow extraction process was derived from the measured data and approximated using a simple function. This is utilized to improve the performance of the servo-loop. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teng, Fei, E-mail: fei.teng09@imperial.ac.uk; Aunedi, Marko; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)
2015-08-18
The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teng, Fei; Aunedi, Marko; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran
2015-01-01
The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.
Frequency response functions for nonlinear convergent systems
Pavlov, A.V.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.
2007-01-01
Convergent systems constitute a practically important class of nonlinear systems that extends the class of asymptotically stable linear time-invariant systems. In this note, we extend frequency response functions defined for linear systems to nonlinear convergent systems. Such nonlinear frequency
Gerges, Meana; Foldes, Emily L.; Ackermann, D. Michael; Bhadra, Narendra; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.
2010-12-01
High-frequency alternating currents (HFAC) have proven to be a reversible and rapid method of blocking peripheral nerve conduction, holding promise for treatment of disorders associated with undesirable neuronal activity. The delivery of HFAC is characterized by a transient period of neural firing at its inception, termed the 'onset response'. The onset response is minimized for higher frequencies and higher amplitudes, but requires larger currents. However, the complete block can be maintained at lower frequencies and amplitudes, using lower currents. In this in vivo study on whole mammalian peripheral nerves, we demonstrate a method to minimize the onset response by initiating the block using a stimulation paradigm with a high frequency and large amplitude, and then transitioning to a low-frequency and low-amplitude waveform, reducing the currents required to maintain the conduction block. In five of six animals, it was possible to transition from a 30 kHz to a 10 kHz waveform without inducing any transient neural firing. The minimum transition time was 0.03 s. Transition activity was minimized or eliminated with longer transition times. The results of this study show that this method is feasible for achieving a nerve block with minimal onset responses and current amplitude requirements.
Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei eTeng
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future GB electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from DSR. The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterised by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.
Ultraviolet laser-induced voltage in anisotropic shale
Miao, Xinyang; Zhu, Jing; Li, Yizhang; Zhao, Kun; Zhan, Honglei; Yue, Wenzheng
2018-01-01
The anisotropy of shales plays a significant role in oil and gas exploration and engineering. Owing to various problems and limitations, anisotropic properties were seldom investigated by direct current resistivity methods. Here in this work, a 248 nm ultraviolet laser was employed to assess the anisotropic electrical response of a dielectric shale. Angular dependence of laser-induced voltages (V p) were obtained, with a data symmetry at the location of 180° and a ~62.2% V p anisotropy of the sample. The double-exponential functions have provided an explanation for the electrical field controlled carrier transportation process in horizontal and vertical directions. The results demonstrate that the combination of optics and electrical logging analysis (Opti-electrical Logging) is a promising technology for the investigation of unconventional reservoirs.
Meson life time in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Allahbakhshi, Davood
2014-01-01
In the hot (an)isotropic plasma the meson life time τ is defined as a time scale after which the meson dissociates. According to the gauge/gravity duality, this time can be identified with the inverse of the imaginary part of the frequency of the quasinormal modes, ω_I, in the (an)isotropic black hole background. In the high temperature limit, we numerically show that at fixed temperature(entropy density) the life time of the mesons decreases(increases) as the anisotropy parameter raises. For general case, at fixed temperature we introduce a polynomial function for ω_I and observe that the meson life time decreases. Moreover, we realize that (s/T"3)"6, where s and T are entropy density and temperature of the plasma respectively, can be expressed as a function of anisotropy parameter over temperature. Interestingly, this function is a Padé approximant.
Anisotropic light diffraction in crystals with a large acoustic-energy walk-off
Balakshy, V. I.; Voloshin, A. S.; Molchanov, V. Ya.
2014-11-01
The influence of energy walk-off in an acoustic beam on the characteristic of anisotropic Bragg diffraction of light has been investigated by the example of paratellurite crystal. The angular and frequency characteristics of acousto-optic diffraction have been calculated in wide ranges of ultrasound frequencies and Bragg angles using the modified Raman-Nath equations. It is shown that the walk-off of an acoustic beam may change (either widen or narrow) significantly the frequency and angular ranges. The calculation results have been experimentally checked on an acousto-optic cell made of 10.5°-cut paratellurite crystal.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naoe, Masayuki, E-mail: naoe@denjiken.ne.jp [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobukiyo [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Ohnuma, Shigehiro [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Masumoto, Hiroshi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2015-10-01
Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF{sub 2} matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co{sub 0.69}Pd{sub 0.31}){sub 52}–(Ca{sub 0.31}F{sub 0.69}){sub 48} exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF{sub 2}-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • We fabricated high-resistive and anisotropic granular films by tandem-sputtering. • CaF{sub 2}-based films exhibit a hundredfold higher resistivity than conventional films. • Uniaxial field annealing improved the magnetic properties dramatically. • High uniaxial anisotropy extended ferromagnetic resonance frequency to 4 GHz. • Annealed samples can be regarded as a ferromagnetic homogenized material.
Frequency-dependent effects of background noise on subcortical response timing.
Tierney, A; Parbery-Clark, A; Skoe, E; Kraus, N
2011-12-01
The addition of background noise to an auditory signal delays brainstem response timing. This effect has been extensively documented using manual peak selection. Peak picking, however, is impractical for large-scale studies of spectrotemporally complex stimuli, and leaves open the question of whether noise-induced delays are frequency-dependent or occur across the frequency spectrum. Here we use an automated, objective method to examine phase shifts between auditory brainstem responses to a speech sound (/da/) presented with and without background noise. We predicted that shifts in neural response timing would also be reflected in frequency-specific phase shifts. Our results indicate that the addition of background noise causes phase shifts across the subcortical response spectrum (70-1000 Hz). However, this noise-induced delay is not uniform such that some frequency bands show greater shifts than others: low-frequency phase shifts (300-500 Hz) are largest during the response to the consonant-vowel formant transition (/d/), while high-frequency shifts (720-1000 Hz) predominate during the response to the steady-state vowel (/a/). Most importantly, phase shifts occurring in specific frequency bands correlate strongly with shifts in the latencies of the predominant peaks in the auditory brainstem response, while phase shifts in other frequency bands do not. This finding confirms the validity of phase shift detection as an objective measure of timing differences and reveals that this method detects noise-induced shifts in timing that may not be captured by traditional peak latency measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.
2014-01-01
Understanding and modeling the response of hcp metals to high stress impulsive loading is challenging because the lower crystal symmetry, compared to cubic metals, results in a significantly more complex material response. To gain insight into the inelastic deformation of hcp metals subjected to high dynamic stresses, shock wave compression of single crystals provides a useful approach because different inelastic deformation mechanisms can be examined selectively by shock compression along different crystal orientations. As a representative example, we report, here, on wave propagation simulations for beryllium (Be) single crystals shocked along the c-axis, a-axis, and several low-symmetry directions to peak stresses reaching 7 GPa. The simulations utilized a time-dependent, anisotropic material model that incorporated dislocation dynamics, deformation twinning, and shear cracking based descriptions of inelastic deformation. The simulation results showed good overall agreement with measured wave profiles for all the different crystal orientations examined [Pope and Johnson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 720 (1975)], including features arising from wave mode coupling due to the highly anisotropic inelastic response of Be. This good agreement demonstrates that the measured profiles can be understood in terms of dislocation slip along basal, prismatic, and pyramidal planes, together with deformation twinning along (101 ¯ 2) planes. Our results show that the response of shocked Be single crystals involves the simultaneous operation of multiple, distinct inelastic deformation mechanisms for all orientations except the c-axis. For shocked c-axis Be, the measured wave profiles do not provide good discrimination between pyramidal slip and other inelastic deformation mechanisms, such as shear cracking. The findings presented here provide insight into the complex inelastic deformation response of shocked Be single crystals and are expected to be useful for other hcp crystals. More
Providing frequency regulation reserve services using demand response scheduling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motalleb, Mahdi; Thornton, Matsu; Reihani, Ehsan; Ghorbani, Reza
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Proposing a market model for contingency reserve services using demand response. • Considering transient limitations of grid frequency for inverter-based generations. • Price-sensitive scheduling of residential batteries and water heaters using dynamic programming. • Calculating the profits of both generation companies and demand response aggregators. - Abstract: During power grid contingencies, frequency regulation is a primary concern. Historically, frequency regulation during contingency events has been the sole responsibility of the power utility. We present a practical method of using distributed demand response scheduling to provide frequency regulation during contingency events. This paper discusses the implementation of a control system model for the use of distributed energy storage systems such as battery banks and electric water heaters as a source of ancillary services. We present an algorithm which handles the optimization of demand response scheduling for normal operation and during contingency events. We use dynamic programming as an optimization tool. A price signal is developed using optimal power flow calculations to determine the locational marginal price of electricity, while sensor data for water usage is also collected. Using these inputs to dynamic programming, the optimal control signals are given as output. We assume a market model in which distributed demand response resources are sold as a commodity on the open market and profits from demand response aggregators as brokers of distributed demand response resources can be calculated. In considering control decisions for regulation of transient changes in frequency, we focus on IEEE standard 1547 in order to prevent the safety shut-off of inverter-based generation and further exacerbation of frequency droop. This method is applied to IEEE case 118 as a demonstration of the method in practice.
Optical properties of anisotropic 3D nanoparticles arrays
Santiago, E. Y.; Esquivel-Sirvent, R.
2017-07-01
The optical properties of 3D periodic arrays of spheroidal Au nanoparticles are calculated using a Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The optical response of the supra-crystal depends on the volume fraction of the nanoparticles and their aspect or size ratio (major/minor axis). All the nanoparticles have the same orientation, and this defines an anisotropic dielectric function of the crystal. As a function of the filling fraction, while keeping the size ratio fixed, the maximum in the extinction spectra along the major and minor axes does not show a significant change. However, for a fixed filling fraction, varying the aspect ratio of the particles induces a shift of several hundred of nanometers in the maximum of the extinction spectra along the major axis and almost no changes along the minor axis. Depending on the aspect ratio and the filling fraction, we show that the supra-crystal has three regimes with different values of an effective plasma frequency. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.
Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret
2015-01-01
Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun
Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret, E-mail: moddel@colorado.edu [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0425 (United States)
2015-08-28
Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.
Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response
Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret
2015-08-01
Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.
Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Heung Son; Ma, Pyung Sik; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-09-01
In this paper, the scattering (S-) parameter retrieval method is presented specifically for anisotropic elastic metamaterials; so far, no retrieval has been accomplished when elastic metamaterials exhibit fully anisotropic behavior. Complex constitutive property and intrinsic scattering behavior of elastic metamaterials make their characterization far more complicated than that for acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials. In particular, elastic metamaterials generally exhibit anisotropic scattering behavior due to higher scattering modes associated with shear deformation. They also exhibit nonlocal responses to some degrees, which originate from strong multiple scattering interactions even in the long wavelength limit. Accordingly, the conventional S-parameter retrieval methods cannot be directly used for elastic metamaterials, because they determine only the diagonal components in effective tensor property. Also, the conventional methods simply use the analytic inversion formulae for the material characterization so that inherent nonlocality cannot be taken into account. To establish a retrieval method applicable to anisotropic elastic metamaterials, we propose an alternative S-parameter method to deal with full anisotropy of elastic metamaterials. To retrieve the whole effective anisotropic parameter, we utilize not only normal but also oblique wave incidences. For the retrieval, we first retrieve the ratio of the effective stiffness tensor to effective density and then determine the effective density. The proposed retrieval method is validated by characterizing the effective material parameters of various types of non-resonant anisotropic metamaterials. It is found that the whole effective parameters are retrieved consistently regardless of used retrieval conditions in spite of inherent nonlocality.
Realization of Anisotropic Diamagnetic Kepler Problem in a Solid State Environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhanghai; Zhou Weihang; Zhang Bo; Yu, C. H.; Zhu Jingbing; Lu Wei; Shen, S. C.
2009-01-01
The anisotropic diamagnetic Kepler problem (ADKP) is realized experimentally by the orbital electrons of a P donor in Si under magnetic fields. The interference of electron wave packets which leads to quasi-Landau resonances (QLR) were observed. Applying the closed-orbit theory to an anisotropic solid state environment, we have identified orbits responsible for the QLR manifesting the quantum chaotic behavior in Rydberg atoms. The excellent consistency between the measured spectra and theoretical calculation provides unambiguous evidence of quantum chaotic dynamics of electrons in the ADKP.
Coherent manipulation of dipolar coupled spins in an anisotropic environment
Baibekov, E. I.; Gafurov, M. R.; Zverev, D. G.; Kurkin, I. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Barbara, B.
2014-11-01
We study coherent dynamics in a system of dipolar coupled spin qubits diluted in a solid and subjected to a driving microwave field. In the case of rare earth ions, an anisotropic crystal background results in anisotropic g tensor and thus modifies the dipolar coupling. We develop a microscopic theory of spin relaxation in a transient regime for the frequently encountered case of axially symmetric crystal field. The calculated decoherence rate is nonlinear in the Rabi frequency. We show that the direction of a static magnetic field that corresponds to the highest spin g factor is preferable in order to obtain a higher number of coherent qubit operations. The results of calculations are in excellent agreement with our experimental data on Rabi oscillations recorded for a series of CaW O4 crystals with different concentrations of N d3 + ions.
Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.
He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen
2015-08-14
A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.
Wu, Songtao; Zhu, Gaohua; Zhang, Jin S; Banerjee, Debasish; Bass, Jay D; Ling, Chen; Yano, Kazuhisa
2014-05-21
We report anisotropic expansion of self-assembled colloidal polystyrene-poly(dimethylsiloxane) crystals and its impact on the phonon band structure at hypersonic frequencies. The structural expansion was achieved by a multistep infiltration-polymerization process. Such a process expands the interplanar lattice distance 17% after 8 cycles whereas the in-plane distance remains unaffected. The variation of hypersonic phonon band structure induced by the anisotropic lattice expansion was recorded by Brillouin measurements. In the sample before expansion, a phononic band gap between 3.7 and 4.4 GHz is observed; after 17% structural expansion, the gap is shifted to a lower frequency between 3.5 and 4.0 GHz. This study offers a facile approach to control the macroscopic structure of colloidal crystals with great potential in designing tunable phononic devices.
De Geeter, N.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Van Hecke, W.; Leemans, A.
2012-04-01
Accurate simulations on detailed realistic head models are necessary to gain a better understanding of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Hitherto, head models with simplified geometries and constant isotropic material properties are often used, whereas some biological tissues have anisotropic characteristics which vary naturally with frequency. Moreover, most computational methods do not take the tissue permittivity into account. Therefore, we calculate the electromagnetic behaviour due to TMS in a head model with realistic geometry and where realistic dispersive anisotropic tissue properties are incorporated, based on T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. This paper studies the impact of tissue anisotropy, permittivity and frequency dependence, using the anisotropic independent impedance method. The results show that anisotropy yields differences up to 32% and 19% of the maximum induced currents and electric field, respectively. Neglecting the permittivity values leads to a decrease of about 72% and 24% of the maximum currents and field, respectively. Implementing the dispersive effects of biological tissues results in a difference of 6% of the maximum currents. The cerebral voxels show limited sensitivity of the induced electric field to changes in conductivity and permittivity, whereas the field varies approximately linearly with frequency. These findings illustrate the importance of including each of the above parameters in the model and confirm the need for accuracy in the applied patient-specific method, which can be used in computer-assisted TMS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeon Seo
Full Text Available Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5 that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information.
Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-12-15
We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.
Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.
2016-07-31
Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.
Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Daniel
2014-01-01
Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example of metal slanted columnar thin films, which have been conformally coated with a thin passivating oxide layer by atomic layer deposition. Furthermore, the application of an effective medium approximation approach to in-situ growth monitoring of this anisotropic thin film functionalization process is presented. It was found that structural parameters determined with the presented optical model equivalents for slanted columnar thin films agree very well with scanning electron microscope image estimates. - Highlights: • Summary of optical model strategies for sculptured thin films with arbitrary geometries • Application of the rigorous anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium applications • In-situ growth monitoring of atomic layer deposition on biaxial metal slanted columnar thin film
Wang, Hui
2014-05-01
This thesis addresses the efficiency improvement of seismic wave modeling and migration in anisotropic media. This improvement becomes crucial in practice as the process of imaging complex geological structures of the Earth\\'s subsurface requires modeling and migration as building blocks. The challenge comes from two aspects. First, the underlying governing equations for seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media are far more complicated than that in isotropic media which demand higher computational costs to solve. Second, the usage of whole prestack seismic data still remains a burden considering its storage volume and the existing wave equation solvers. In this thesis, I develop two approaches to tackle the challenges. In the first part, I adopt the concept of prestack exploding reflector model to handle the whole prestack data and bridge the data space directly to image space in a single kernel. I formulate the extrapolation operator in a two-way fashion to remove he restriction on directions that waves propagate. I also develop a generic method for phase velocity evaluation within anisotropic media used in this extrapolation kernel. The proposed method provides a tool for generating prestack images without wavefield cross correlations. In the second part of this thesis, I approximate the anisotropic models using effective isotropic models. The wave phenomena in these effective models match that in anisotropic models both kinematically and dynamically. I obtain the effective models through equating eikonal equations and transport equations of anisotropic and isotropic models, thereby in the high frequency asymptotic approximation sense. The wavefields extrapolation costs are thus reduced using isotropic wave equation solvers while the anisotropic effects are maintained through this approach. I benchmark the two proposed methods using synthetic datasets. Tests on anisotropic Marmousi model and anisotropic BP2007 model demonstrate the applicability of my
Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping
2015-08-24
Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.
Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media
Alkhalifah, Tariq; Ma, Xuxin; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain
2014-01-01
Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.
Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2014-07-03
Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.
Anisotropic Exciton Rabi Oscillation in Single Telecommunication-Band Quantum Dot
Toshiyuki Miyazawa,; Toshihiro Nakaoka,; Katsuyuki Watanabe,; Naoto Kumagai,; Naoki Yokoyama,; Yasuhiko Arakawa,
2010-06-01
Anisotropic Rabi oscillation in the exciton state in a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) was demonstrated in the telecommunication-band by selecting two orthogonal polarization angles of the excitation laser. Our InAs QDs were embedded in an intrinsic layer of an n-i-Schottky diode, which provides an electric field to extract photoexcited carriers from QDs. Owing to the potential anisotropy of QDs, the fine structure splitting (FSS) energy in the exciton state in single InAs QDs was ˜110 μeV, measured by polarization-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy. The ratio between two different Rabi frequencies, which reflect anisotropic dipole moments of two orthogonal exciton states, was estimated to be ˜1.2. This demonstrates that the selective control of two orthogonal polarized exciton states is a promising technique for exciton-based-quantum information devices compatible with fiber optics.
DC response of dust to low frequency AC signals
McKinlay, Michael; Konopka, Uwe; Thomas, Edward
2017-10-01
Macroscopic changes in the shape and equilibrium position of clouds of charged microparticles suspended in a plasma have been observed in response to low frequency AC signals. In these experiments, dusty plasmas consisting of 2-micron diameter silica microspheres suspended between an anode and cathode in an argon, DC glow discharge plasma are produced in a grounded, 6-way cross vacuum chamber. An AC signal, produced by a function generator and amplified by a bipolar op-amp, is superimposed onto the potential from the cathode. The frequencies of the applied AC signals, ranging from tens to hundreds of kHz, are comparable to the ion-neutral collision frequency; well below the ion/electron plasma frequencies, but also considerably higher than the dust plasma frequency. This presentation will detail the experimental setup, present documentation and categorization of observations of the dust response, and present an initial model of the response. This work is supported by funding from the US Dept. of Energy, Grant Number DE-SC0016330, and by the National Science Foundation, Grant Number PHY-1613087.
Day-Ahead Scheduling Considering Demand Response as a Frequency Control Resource
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Qing Bao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The development of advanced metering technologies makes demand response (DR able to provide fast response services, e.g., primary frequency control. It is recognized that DR can contribute to the primary frequency control like thermal generators. This paper proposes a day-ahead scheduling method that considers DR as a frequency control resource, so that the DR resources can be dispatched properly with other resources. In the proposed method, the objective of frequency control is realized by defining a frequency limit equation under a supposed contingency. The frequency response model is used to model the dynamics of system frequency. The nonlinear frequency limit equation is transformed to a linear arithmetic equation by piecewise linearization, so that the problem can be solved by mixed integer linear programming (MILP. Finally, the proposed method is verified on numerical examples.
Spatial frequency information modulates response inhibition and decision-making processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Jahfari
Full Text Available We interact with the world through the assessment of available, but sometimes imperfect, sensory information. However, little is known about how variance in the quality of sensory information affects the regulation of controlled actions. In a series of three experiments, comprising a total of seven behavioral studies, we examined how different types of spatial frequency information affect underlying processes of response inhibition and selection. Participants underwent a stop-signal task, a two choice speed/accuracy balance experiment, and a variant of both these tasks where prior information was given about the nature of stimuli. In all experiments, stimuli were either intact, or contained only high-, or low- spatial frequencies. Overall, drift diffusion model analysis showed a decreased rate of information processing when spatial frequencies were removed, whereas the criterion for information accumulation was lowered. When spatial frequency information was intact, the cost of response inhibition increased (longer SSRT, while a correct response was produced faster (shorter reaction times and with more certainty (decreased errors. When we manipulated the motivation to respond with a deadline (i.e., be fast or accurate, removal of spatial frequency information slowed response times only when instructions emphasized accuracy. However, the slowing of response times did not improve error rates, when compared to fast instruction trials. These behavioral studies suggest that the removal of spatial frequency information differentially affects the speed of response initiation, inhibition, and the efficiency to balance fast or accurate responses. More generally, the present results indicate a task-independent influence of basic sensory information on strategic adjustments in action control.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Udomsamuthirun, P.; Peamsuwan, R.; Kumvongsa, C.
2009-01-01
The effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors in BCS weak-coupling limit is investigated. An analytical specific heat jump and the numerical specific heat are shown by using anisotropic order parameters, and the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction. The two models of anisotropic order parameters are used for numerical calculation that we find little effect on the numerical results. The specific heat jump of MgB 2 , Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 and Nb 3 Sn superconductors can fit well with both of them. By comparing the experimental data with overall range of temperature, the best fit is Nb 3 Sn, MgB 2 , and Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 superconductors.
Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mamaev, A.V.; Zozulya, A.A.; Mezentsev, V.K.
1997-01-01
We find and analyze bound dipole solitary solutions in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The dipole solutions consist of two elliptically shaped Gaussian-type beams separated by several diameters, and with a pi phase shift between their fields. Spatial evolution...
Flaw location and characterization in anisotropic materials by ultrasonic spectral analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Simpson, W.A.; Lewis, D.K.
1978-01-01
A method of quantitatively determining size and location of flaws in anisotropic materials such as stainless steel welds is described. In previous work, it was shown that spectral analysis of a broad band ultrasonic pulse scattered from a defect can be used to determine size and orientation in isotropic materials if the velocity of sound in the material is known. In an anisotropic structural material (stainless steel weld, centrifugal cast pipe), the velocity (both shear and longitudinal) is direction-dependent. When anisotropy is not taken into account, defect location and defect size estimation is misjudged. It will be shown that the effect of this structural variation in materials must be considered to obtain the correct size and location of defects by frequency analysis. A theoretical calculation, including anisotropy, of the scattered field from defects will also be presented
Hwu, Chyanbin
2010-01-01
As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a
Polarization entanglement of sum-frequency photons: A tool to probe the Markovian limit
Volkov, Victor; Chelli, Riccardo
2015-06-01
The article addresses the possibility of entanglement-specific infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. In the case of an anisotropic interface, it is possible to employ SSS and PSS polarizations to detect responses not only specific to χY Y Y and χX Y Y nonlinearities, but also to higher-order χ(Y Y Y )(X Y Y ) and χ(X Y Y )(Y Y Y ) nonlinearities. Using quantum mechanical studies of the rhenium complex [Re (OH) 3(CO) 3] as a molecular model, we demonstrate that if such complexes would form an anisotropic orientational distribution at a surface, under the considered geometry and the polarization settings, we may prepare quantum correlated C =O vibrational states to emit polarization-entangled photons. Accordingly, we explore the possibility of a polarization-measurement protocol to extract spectral signatures of the entangled states. The response would be informative on intramolecular interactions. As a result, we discuss the possible practical implications in probing dynamics at interfaces, and different opportunities in the preparation of entangled vibrational states of quantified fidelity.
Radial stability of anisotropic strange quark stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arbañil, José D.V.; Malheiro, M., E-mail: jose.arbanil@upn.pe, E-mail: malheiro@ita.br [ITA—Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica—Departamento de Física, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, São Paulo (Brazil)
2016-11-01
The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic σ = p {sub t} − p {sub r} are considered, where p {sub t} and p {sub r} are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure: one that is null at the star's surface defined by p {sub r} ( R ) = 0, and one that is nonnull at the surface, namely, σ {sub s} = 0 and σ {sub s} {sub ≠} {sub 0}. In the case σ {sub s} = 0, the maximum mass value and the zero frequency of oscillation are found at the same central energy density, indicating that the maximum mass marks the onset of the instability. For the case σ {sub s} {sub ≠} {sub 0}, we show that the maximum mass point and the zero frequency of oscillation coincide in the same central energy density value only in a sequence of equilibrium configurations with the same value of σ {sub s} . Thus, the stability star regions are determined always by the condition dM / d ρ {sub c} {sub >} {sub 0} only when the tangential pressure is maintained fixed at the star surface's p {sub t} ( R ). These results are also quite important to analyze the stability of other anisotropic compact objects such as neutron stars, boson stars and gravastars.
Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.
Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W
2011-02-01
The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.
Anisotropic mechanical properties of graphene sheets from molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni Zhonghua; Bu Hao; Zou Min; Yi Hong; Bi Kedong; Chen Yunfei
2010-01-01
Anisotropic mechanical properties are observed for a sheet of graphene along different load directions. The anisotropic mechanical properties are attributed to the hexagonal structure of the unit cells of the graphene. Under the same tensile loads, the edge bonds bear larger load in the longitudinal mode (LM) than in the transverse mode (TM), which causes fracture sooner in LM than in TM. The Young's modulus and the third order elastic modulus for the LM are slightly larger than that for the TM. Simulation also demonstrates that, for both LM and TM, the loading and unloading stress-strain response curves overlap as long as the graphene is unloaded before the fracture point. This confirms that graphene sustains complete elastic and reversible deformation in the elongation process.
Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars
Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.
2017-07-01
We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.
Corrections for frequency domain transformations of Winfrith binary cross correlator responses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummins, J.D.
1968-04-01
This report considers the corrections for frequency domain transformations of Winfrith binary cross correlator responses; (i) for the finite bandwidth of the equivalent input signal; (2) for the finite time required for the actuator to move between the two positions appropriate to the two levels of the periodic binary chain code input and (3) for the averaging of experimental determinations of the system frequency response and calculations of the standard deviations of the modulus and phase of the frequency responses determined from the cross correlator responses. (author)
High-frequency homogenization of zero frequency stop band photonic and phononic crystals
Antonakakis, Tryfon; Guenneau, Sebastien
2013-01-01
We present an accurate methodology for representing the physics of waves, for periodic structures, through effective properties for a replacement bulk medium: This is valid even for media with zero frequency stop-bands and where high frequency phenomena dominate. Since the work of Lord Rayleigh in 1892, low frequency (or quasi-static) behaviour has been neatly encapsulated in effective anisotropic media. However such classical homogenization theories break down in the high-frequency or stop band regime. Higher frequency phenomena are of significant importance in photonics (transverse magnetic waves propagating in infinite conducting parallel fibers), phononics (anti-plane shear waves propagating in isotropic elastic materials with inclusions), and platonics (flexural waves propagating in thin-elastic plates with holes). Fortunately, the recently proposed high-frequency homogenization (HFH) theory is only constrained by the knowledge of standing waves in order to asymptotically reconstruct dispersion curves an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jalani G
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Ghulam Jalani,* Chan Woo Jung,* Jae Sang Lee, Dong Woo Lim Department of Bionano Engineering, College of Engineering Sciences, Hanyang University, Education Research Industry Cluster at Ansan Campus, Ansan, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Stimuli-responsive, polymer-based nanostructures with anisotropic compartments are of great interest as advanced materials because they are capable of switching their shape via environmentally-triggered conformational changes, while maintaining discrete compartments. In this study, a new class of stimuli-responsive, anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds with physically and chemically distinct compartments was prepared via electrohydrodynamic cojetting with side-by-side needle geometry. These nanofibers have a thermally responsive, physically-crosslinked compartment, and a chemically-crosslinked compartment at the nanoscale. The thermally responsive compartment is composed of physically crosslinkable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide poly(NIPAM copolymers, and poly(NIPAM-co-stearyl acrylate poly(NIPAM-co-SA, while the thermally-unresponsive compartment is composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylates. The two distinct compartments were physically crosslinked by the hydrophobic interaction of the stearyl chains of poly(NIPAM-co-SA or chemically stabilized via ultraviolet irradiation, and were swollen in physiologically relevant buffers due to their hydrophilic polymer networks. Bicompartmental nanofibers with the physically-crosslinked network of the poly(NIPAM-co-SA compartment showed a thermally-triggered shape change due to thermally-induced aggregation of poly(NIPAM-co-SA. Furthermore, when bovine serum albumin and dexamethasone phosphate were separately loaded into each compartment, the bicompartmental nanofibers with anisotropic actuation exhibited decoupled, controlled release profiles of both drugs in response to a temperature. A new class of multicompartmental nanofibers could be
Dynamic Response to Pedestrian Loads with Statistical Frequency Distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2012-01-01
on the magnitude of the resulting response. A frequency representation of vertical pedestrian load is developed, and a compact explicit formula is developed for the magnitude of the resulting response, in terms of the damping ratio of the structure, the bandwidth of the pedestrian load, and the mean footfall...... frequency. The accuracy of the formula is verified by a statistical moment analysis using the Lyapunov equations....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapaev, V. V.; Kopaev, Yu. V.; Savinov, S. A.; Murzin, V. N.
2013-01-01
The characteristics of the high-frequency response of single- and double-well resonant tunneling structures in a dc electric field are investigated on the basis of the numerical solution of a time-dependent Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions. The frequency dependence of the real part of high frequency conductivity (high-frequency response) in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/AlAs/InP structures is analyzed in detail for various values of the dc voltage V dc in the negative differential resistance (NDR) region. It is shown that double-well three-barrier structures are promising for the design of terahertz-band oscillators. The presence of two resonant states with close energies in such structures leads to a resonant (in frequency) response whose frequency is determined by the energy difference between these levels and can be controlled by varying the parameters of the structure. It is shown that, in principle, such structures admit narrow-band amplification, tuning of the amplification frequency, and a fine control of the amplification (oscillation) frequency in a wide range of terahertz frequencies by varying a dc electric voltage applied to the structure. Starting from a certain width of the central intermediate barrier in double-well structures, one can observe a collapse of resonances, where the structure behaves like a single-well system. This phenomenon imposes a lower limit on the oscillation frequency in three-barrier resonant tunneling structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-07-15
We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)
The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xingang [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Emami, Razieh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wang, Yi, E-mail: Xingang.Chen@utdallas.edu, E-mail: emami@ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2014-08-01
The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a chaotic-type large field complex inflaton which is charged under the U(1) gauge field. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic fingerprints in various correlations involving the B-mode polarization such as the TB cross-correlation which may be detected in upcoming Planck polarization data. In addition, the TT correlation receives an anisotropic contribution from the tensor sector which naturally decays after l ∼> 100. We expect that the mechanism of using tensor sector to induce asymmetry at low l to be generic which can also be applied to address other low l CMB anomalies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satter, M.A.
1990-08-01
In this paper, a formalism for studying the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in a dilute noble metal- transition metal magnetic alloy has been developed from relativistic scattering theory. The theoretical development and the computational techniques of this formalism are based on relativistic spin-polarized scattering theory and relativistic band structure frameworks. For studying the magnetic anisotropic effect a convenient ''working'' frame of reference with its axes oriented along the fcc crystal axes is set up. This formalism is applied to study the situation for two Fe impurities in paramagnetic Au hosts. For AuFe dilute alloy, the two impurity site interaction as a function of separation is not oscillatory and the anisotropic effect is found to be less than the two site interaction itself only by an order of magnitude. Apart from the anisotropic coupling of the two impurity spins to the separation vector, for the first time, another weak anisotropic coupling to the crystal axes is also contained in the two site interaction. These anisotropic effects are the results of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction which are incorporated into the formalism. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs
Raman scattering in a Heisenberg S = 1/2 antiferromagnet on the anisotropic triangular lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, Natalia; Brenig, Wolfram
2009-01-01
We investigate two-magnon Raman scattering from the S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice (THAF), considering both isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions. We find that the Raman intensity for the isotropic THAF is insensitive to the scattering geometry, while both the line profile and the intensity of the Raman response for the anisotropic THAF shows a strong dependence on the scattering geometry. For the isotropic case we present an analytical and numerical study of the Raman intensity including both the effect of renormalization of the one-magnon spectrum by 1 = S corrections and final-state magnonmagnon interactions. The bare Raman intensity displays two peaks related to one-magnon van-Hove singularities. We find that 1 = S self-energy corrections to the one-magnon spectrum strongly modify this intensity profile. The central Raman-peak is significantly enhanced due to plateaus in the magnon dispersion, the high frequency peak is suppressed due to magnon damping, and the overall spectral support narrows considerably. Additionally we investigate final-state interactions by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation to O(1 = S). In contrast to collinear antiferromagnets, the non-collinear nature of the magnetic ground state leads to an irreducible magnon scattering which is retarded and non-separable already to lowest order. We show that final-state interactions lead to a rather broad Raman-continuum centered around approximately twice the 'roton'-energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assadi, Abbas; Salehi, Manouchehr; Akhlaghi, Mehdi
2015-01-01
In this work, size dependent behavior of single crystalline normal and auxetic anisotropic nanoplates is discussed with consideration of material surface stresses via a generalized model. Bending of pressurized nanoplates and their fundamental resonant frequency are discussed for different crystallographic directions and anisotropy degrees. It is explained that the orientation effects are considerable when the nanoplates' edges are pinned but for clamped nanoplates, the anisotropy effect may be ignored. The size effects are the highest when the simply supported nanoplates are parallel to [110] direction but as the anisotropy gets higher, the size effects are reduced. The orientation effect is also discussed for possibility of self-instability occurrence in nanoplates. The results in simpler cases are compared with previous experiments for nanowires but with a correction factor. There are still some open questions for future studies. - Highlights: • Size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates are discussed. • A generalized model is established containing some physical assumptions. • Orientation dependent size effects due to material anisotropy are explained. • Bending, instability and frequencies are studied at normal/auxetic domain
High frequency oscillations in brain hemodynamic response
Akin, Ata; Bolay, Hayrunnisa
2007-07-01
Tight autoregulation of vessel tone guarantees proper delivery of nutrients to the tissues. This regulation is maintained at a more delicate level in the brain since any decrease in the supply of glucose and oxygen to neuronal tissues might lead to unrecoverable injury. Functional near infrared spectroscopy has been proposed as a new tool to monitor the cerebrovascular response during cognitive activity. We have observed that during a Stroop task three distinct oscillatory patterns govern the control of the cerebrovascular reactivity: very low frequency (0.02-0.05 Hz), low frequency (0.08-0.12 Hz) and high frequency (0.12-0.18 Hz). High frequency oscillations have been shown to be related to stress level of the subjects. Our findings indicate that as the stress level is increased so does the energy of the high frequency component indicating a higher stimulation from the autonomic nervous system.
HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROSTATIC INSTABILITIES IN A PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, M W; Auer, P L
1963-06-15
The dispersion relation is examined for a collisionless infinite plasma in the presence of an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution and a uniform external magnetic field. Unstable solutions exist below the muitiples of the electron cyclotron frequency provided the temperature anisotropy is sufficiently large. The dependence of the growth rate upon harmonic number, density, angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, and frequency is discussed for zero as well as non-zero parallel temperatures. In the latter case, the waves are strongly damped as their frequency approaches a multiple of the gyro- frequency. (auth)
Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials
Cowin, Stephen C
2013-01-01
Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.
Dynamics of anisotropic tissue growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bittig, Thomas; Juelicher, Frank [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wartlick, Ortrud; Kicheva, Anna; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos [Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Biology, Geneva University, Sciences II, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Marcos.Gonzalez@biochem.unige.ch, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de
2008-06-15
We study the mechanics of tissue growth via cell division and cell death (apoptosis). The rearrangements of cells can on large scales and times be captured by a continuum theory which describes the tissue as an effective viscous material with active stresses generated by cell division. We study the effects of anisotropies of cell division on cell rearrangements and show that average cellular trajectories exhibit anisotropic scaling behaviors. If cell division and apoptosis balance, there is no net growth, but for anisotropic cell division the tissue undergoes spontaneous shear deformations. Our description is relevant for the study of developing tissues such as the imaginal disks of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which grow anisotropically.
Haider, Mohammad Faisal; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Yasmeen, Farzana
2016-07-01
Heterogeneous materials, such as composites consist of clearly distinguishable constituents (or phases) that show different electrical properties. Multifunctional composites have anisotropic electrical properties that can be tailored for a particular application. The effective anisotropic electrical conductivity of composites is strongly affected by many parameters including volume fractions, distributions, and orientations of constituents. Given the electrical properties of the constituents, one important goal of micromechanics of materials consists of predicting electrical response of the heterogeneous material on the basis of the geometries and properties of the individual phases, a task known as homogenization. The benefit of homogenization is that the behavior of a heterogeneous material can be determined without resorting or testing it. Furthermore, continuum micromechanics can predict the full multi-axial properties and responses of inhomogeneous materials, which are anisotropic in nature. Effective electrical conductivity estimation is performed by using classical micromechanics techniques (composite cylinder assemblage method) that investigates the effect of the fiber/matrix electrical properties and their volume fractions on the micro scale composite response. The composite cylinder assemblage method (CCM) is an analytical theory that is based on the assumption that composites are in a state of periodic structure. The CCM was developed to extend capabilities variable fiber shape/array availability with same volume fraction, interphase analysis, etc. The CCM is a continuum-based micromechanics model that provides closed form expressions for upper level length scales such as macro-scale composite responses in terms of the properties, shapes, orientations and constituent distributions at lower length levels such as the micro-scale.
Step response and frequency response of an air conditioning system
Crommelin, R.D.; Jackman, P.J.
1978-01-01
A system of induction units of an existing air conditioning system has been analyzed with respect to its dynamic properties. Time constants were calculated and measured by analogue models. Comparison with measurements at the installation itself showed a reasonable agreement. Frequency responses were
Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials
Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii
2018-03-01
A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.
Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes
Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong
With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the
Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann
2012-01-01
In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....
Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann
In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....
Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)
2016-02-01
In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.
Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah
2012-08-01
This paper deals with the modeling of guided waves propagation in in vivo cortical long bone, which is known to be anisotropic medium with functionally graded porosity. The bone is modeled as an anisotropic poroelastic material by using Biot's theory formulated in high frequency domain. A hybrid spectral/finite element formulation has been developed to find the time-domain solution of ultrasonic waves propagating in a poroelastic plate immersed in two fluid halfspaces. The numerical technique is based on a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, which allows to obtain a reduced dimension problem in the frequency-wavenumber domain. In the spectral domain, as radiation conditions representing infinite fluid halfspaces may be exactly introduced, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analyzed by using finite element method. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed procedure. A preliminary study on the first arrived signal velocities computed by using equivalent elastic and poroelastic models will be presented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Šindler, M., E-mail: sindler@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Tesař, R. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Koláček, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Skrbek, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Transmission through thin NbN film in parallel magnetic field exhibits strong anisotropic behaviour in the terahertz range. • Response for a polarisation parallel with the applied field is given as weighted sum of superconducting and normal state contributions. • Effective medium approach fails to describe response for linear polarisation perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. - Abstract: Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.
Jegley, Dawn C.
1988-01-01
Natural vibration frequencies of orthotropic and anisotropic simply supported right circular cylinders are predicted using a higher-order transverse-shear deformation theory. A comparison of natural vibration frequencies predicted by first-order transverse-shear deformation theory and the higher-order theory shows that an additional allowance for transverse shear deformation has a negligible effect on the lowest predicted natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders but significantly reduces the higher natural vibration frequencies. A parametric study of the effects of ply orientation on the natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders indicates that while stacking sequence affects natural vibration frequencies, cylinder geometry is more important in predicting transverse-shear deformation effects. Interaction curves for cylinders subjected to axial compressive loadings and low natural vibration frequencies indicate that transverse shearing effects are less important in predicting low natural vibration frequencies than in predicting axial compressive buckling loads. The effects of anisotropy are more important than the effects of transverse shear deformation for most strongly anisotropic laminated cylinders in predicting natural vibration frequencies. However, transverse-shear deformation effects are important in predicting high natural vibration frequencies of thick-walled laminated cylinders. Neglecting either anisotropic effects or transverse-shear deformation effects leads to non-conservative errors in predicted natural vibration frequencies.
Jegley, Dawn C.
1989-01-01
Natural vibration frequencies of orthotropic and anisotropic simply supported right circular cylinders are predicted using a higher-order transverse-shear deformation theory. A comparison of natural vibration frequencies predicted by first-order transverse-shear deformation theory and the higher-order theory shows that an additional allowance for transverse shear deformation has a negligible effect on the lowest predicted natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders but significantly reduces the higher natural vibration frequencies. A parametric study of the effects of ply orientation on the natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders indicates that while stacking sequence affects natural vibration frequencies, cylinder geometry is more important in predicting transverse-shear deformation effects. Interaction curves for cylinders subjected to axial compressive loadings and low natural vibration frequencies indicate that transverse shearing effects are less important in predicting low natural vibration frequencies than in predicting axial compressive buckling loads. The effects of anisotropy are more important than the effects of transverse shear deformation for most strongly anisotropic laminated cylinders in predicting natural vibration frequencies. However, transverse-shear deformation effects are important in predicting high natural vibration frequencies of thick-walled laminated cylinders. Neglecting either anisotropic effects or transverse-shear deformation effects leads to non-conservative errors in predicted natural vibration frequencies.
Gockel, Hedwig E; Krugliak, Alexandra; Plack, Christopher J; Carlyon, Robert P
2015-12-01
The frequency following response (FFR) is a scalp-recorded measure of phase-locked brainstem activity to stimulus-related periodicities. Three experiments investigated the specificity of the FFR for carrier and modulation frequency using adaptation. FFR waveforms evoked by alternating-polarity stimuli were averaged for each polarity and added, to enhance envelope, or subtracted, to enhance temporal fine structure information. The first experiment investigated peristimulus adaptation of the FFR for pure and complex tones as a function of stimulus frequency and fundamental frequency (F0). It showed more adaptation of the FFR in response to sounds with higher frequencies or F0s than to sounds with lower frequency or F0s. The second experiment investigated tuning to modulation rate in the FFR. The FFR to a complex tone with a modulation rate of 213 Hz was not reduced more by an adaptor that had the same modulation rate than by an adaptor with a different modulation rate (90 or 504 Hz), thus providing no evidence that the FFR originates mainly from neurons that respond selectively to the modulation rate of the stimulus. The third experiment investigated tuning to audio frequency in the FFR using pure tones. An adaptor that had the same frequency as the target (213 or 504 Hz) did not generally reduce the FFR to the target more than an adaptor that differed in frequency (by 1.24 octaves). Thus, there was no evidence that the FFR originated mainly from neurons tuned to the frequency of the target. Instead, the results are consistent with the suggestion that the FFR for low-frequency pure tones at medium to high levels mainly originates from neurons tuned to higher frequencies. Implications for the use and interpretation of the FFR are discussed.
Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres.
Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Hai-Ying
2011-02-01
Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory and the Fourier transformation approach, electromagnetic (EM) scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes is investigated. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the EM fields in the uniaxial anisotropic spheres are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The interactive scattering coefficients and the expansion coefficients of the internal fields are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the bispheres is considered. Some selected calculations on the effects of the size parameter, the uniaxial anisotropic absorbing dielectric, and the sphere separation distance are described. The backward radar cross section of two uniaxial anisotropic spheres with a complex permittivity tensor changing with the sphere separation distance is numerically studied. The authors are hopeful that the work in this paper will help provide an effective calibration for further research on the scattering characteristic of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres or other shaped anisotropic particles.
Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers
Kang, Soon Ahm
1991-05-01
The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.
Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan
2006-01-01
For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement
Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites
Wu, Ying
2012-10-01
By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping
2014-01-01
In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered
Optical transmission properties of an anisotropic defect cavity in one-dimensional photonic crystal
Ouchani, Noama; El Moussaouy, Abdelaziz; Aynaou, Hassan; El Hassouani, Youssef; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2018-01-01
We investigate theoretically the possibility to control the optical transmission in the visible and infrared regions by a defective one dimensional photonic crystal formed by a combination of a finite isotropic superlattice and an anisotropic defect layer. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the reflection and the transmission coefficients, as well as the densities of states of the optical modes. We evaluate the delay times of the localized modes and we compare their behavior with the total densities of states. We show that the birefringence of an anisotropic defect layer has a significant impact on the behavior of the optical modes in the electromagnetic forbidden bands of the structure. The amplitudes of the defect modes in the transmission and the delay time spectrum, depend strongly on the position of the cavity layer within the photonic crystal. The anisotropic defect layer induces transmission zeros in one of the two components of the transmission as a consequence of a destructive interference of the two polarized waves within this layer, giving rise to negative delay times for some wavelengths in the visible and infrared light ranges. This property is a typical characteristic of the anisotropic photonic layer and is without analogue in their counterpart isotropic defect layers. This structure offers several possibilities for controlling the frequencies, transmitted intensities and the delay times of the optical modes in the visible and infrared regions. It can be a good candidate for realizing high-precision optical filters.
Frequency-dependent transient response of an oscillating electrically actuated droplet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dash, S; Kumari, N; Garimella, S V
2012-01-01
The transient response of a millimeter-sized sessile droplet under electrical actuation is experimentally investigated. Under dc actuation, the droplet spreading rate increases as the applied voltage is increased due to the higher electrical forces induced. At sufficiently high dc voltages, competition between the electrical actuation force, droplet inertia, the retarding surface tension force and contact line friction leads to droplet oscillation. The timescale for the droplet to attain its maximum wetted diameter during step actuation is analyzed. Systematic experiments are conducted over a frequency range of 5–200 Hz and actuation voltages of 40–80 V rms to determine the dependence of droplet oscillation on these parameters. The response of the droplet to different actuation frequencies and voltages is determined in terms of its contact angle and contact radius variation. The frequency of the driving force (equal to twice the frequency of the applied electrical signal) determines the mode of oscillation of the droplet which, together with its resonance characteristics, governs whether the droplet contact angle and contact radius vary in phase or out of phase with each other. In addition to the primary frequency response at the electrical forcing frequency, the droplet oscillation exhibits sub-harmonic oscillation at half of the forcing frequency that is attributed to the parametric nature of the electrical force acting on the triple contact line of the droplet. (paper)
Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN
2012-01-01
Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.
High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.
Bravo, Teresa; Maury, Cédric
2018-03-01
This paper describes analytical and experimental studies carried out to examine the attenuation and absorption properties of rigidly-backed fibrous anisotropic materials in contact with a uniform mean flow. The aim is to provide insights for the development of non-locally reacting wall-treatments able to dissipate the noise induced by acoustic excitations over in-duct or external lining systems. A model of sound propagation in anisotropic bulk-reacting liners is presented that fully accounts for anisotropic losses due to heat conduction, viscous dissipation and diffusion processes along and across the material fibres as well as for the convective effect of an external flow. The propagation constant for the least attenuated mode of the coupled system is obtained using a simulated annealing search method. The predicted acoustical performance is validated in the no-flow case for a wide range of fibre diameters. They are assessed against impedance tube and free-field pressure-velocity measurements of the normal incidence absorption coefficient and surface impedance. Parametric studies are then conducted to determine the key constitutive parameters such as the fibres orientation or the amount of anisotropy that mostly influence the axial attenuation or the normal absorption. They are supported by a low-frequency approximation to the axial attenuation under a low-speed flow.
Conversion of optical wave polarizations in 1D finite anisotropic photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouchani, N.; Nougaoui, N.; Daoudi, A.; Bria, D.
2006-07-01
We show that by using one dimensional anisotropic photonic structures, it is possible to realize optical wave polarization conversion by transmission or by reflection. Thus a single incident S(P) polarized plane wave can produce a single reflected P(S) polarized wave and a single transmitted P(S) polarized wave. This polarization conversion property can be fulfilled with a simple finite superlattice constituted by anisotropic dielectric materials. We discuss the appropriate choices of the material and geometrical properties to realize such structures. The transmission and reflection coefficients are discussed in relation with the dispersion curves of the finite structure embedded between two isotropic substrates. Both transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in the framework of Green's function method. The amplitude and the polarization characteristics of reflected and transmitted waves are determined as function of frequency ω , and wave vector k parallel ( parallel to the interface) and the orientations of the principal axes of the layers constituting the SL. Moreover, this structure exhibits a coupling between S and P waves that does not exist in SL composed only of isotropic materials. Specific applications of these results are given for a superlattice consisting of alternating biaxial anisotropic layers NaNO 2 /SbSi sandwiched between two identical semi-infinite isotropic media. (author)
Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2015-01-20
Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.
Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition.
Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F
2017-09-06
The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.
A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amjad Salari
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.
Multiscale energy reallocation during low-frequency steady-state brain response.
Wang, Yifeng; Chen, Wang; Ye, Liangkai; Biswal, Bharat B; Yang, Xuezhi; Zou, Qijun; Yang, Pu; Yang, Qi; Wang, Xinqi; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu
2018-05-01
Traditional task-evoked brain activations are based on detection and estimation of signal change from the mean signal. By contrast, the low-frequency steady-state brain response (lfSSBR) reflects frequency-tagging activity at the fundamental frequency of the task presentation and its harmonics. Compared to the activity at these resonant frequencies, brain responses at nonresonant frequencies are largely unknown. Additionally, because the lfSSBR is defined by power change, we hypothesize using Parseval's theorem that the power change reflects brain signal variability rather than the change of mean signal. Using a face recognition task, we observed power increase at the fundamental frequency (0.05 Hz) and two harmonics (0.1 and 0.15 Hz) and power decrease within the infra-slow frequency band ( .955) of their spatial distribution and brain-behavior relationship at all frequency bands. Additionally, the reallocation of finite energy was observed across various brain regions and frequency bands, forming a particular spatiotemporal pattern. Overall, results from this study strongly suggest that frequency-specific power and variability may measure the same underlying brain activity and that these results may shed light on different mechanisms between lfSSBR and brain activation, and spatiotemporal characteristics of energy reallocation induced by cognitive tasks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wind Generation Participation in Power System Frequency Response: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen
2017-01-01
The electrical frequency of an interconnected power system must be maintained close its nominal level at all times. Excessive under- and overfrequency excursions can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is a rising concern in the electric power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia with a response that is different from that of conventional generation. It is not yet entirely understood how such a response will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The modeling work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of wind generation's provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of instantaneous wind power penetrations (up to 80%). The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system.
Spin interferometry in anisotropic spin-orbit fields
Saarikoski, Henri; Reynoso, Andres A.; Baltanás, José Pablo; Frustaglia, Diego; Nitta, Junsaku
2018-03-01
Electron spins in a two-dimensional electron gas can be manipulated by spin-orbit (SO) fields originating from either Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions with independent isotropic characteristics. Together, though, they produce anisotropic SO fields with consequences on quantum transport through spin interference. Here we study the transport properties of modeled mesoscopic rings subject to Rashba and Dresselhaus [001] SO couplings in the presence of an additional in-plane Zeeman field acting as a probe. By means of one- and two-dimensional quantum transport simulations we show that this setting presents anisotropies in the quantum resistance as a function of the Zeeman field direction. Moreover, the anisotropic resistance can be tuned by the Rashba strength up to the point to invert its response to the Zeeman field. We also find that a topological transition in the field texture that is associated with a geometric phase switching is imprinted in the anisotropy pattern. We conclude that resistance anisotropy measurements can reveal signatures of SO textures and geometric phases in spin carriers.
Probing in-plane anisotropy in few-layer ReS2 using low frequency noise measurement
Mitra, Richa; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Das, Anindya
2018-04-01
ReS2, a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude. We have also observed that not only the electrical response of the material is anisotropic; the noise level is also dependent on direction. In fact the noise is found to be more sensitive towards the anisotropy. This fact has been explained by evoking the theory where the Hooge parameter is not a constant quantity, but has a distinct power law dependence on mobility along the two-axes direction. The anisotropy in 1/f noise measurement will pave the way to quantify the anisotropic nature of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which will be helpful for the design of low-noise transistors in future.
Eigenmodes of a microwave cavity partially filled with an anisotropic hot plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.
1978-01-01
The eigenmodes of a microwave cavity, which contains a uniform hot plasma with anisotropic temperature, are determined using the linearized fluid equations together with Maxwell's equations. Conditions are discussed under which hot plasma mode and the cold plasma mode are decoupled. The frequency shift of the microwave cavity is calculated and the theoretical results are shown to be in very good qualitative agreement with published experimental results obtained for the TM 010 mode. (author)
Scheme for achieving coherent perfect absorption by anisotropic metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2017-02-22
We propose a unified scheme to achieve coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves by anisotropic metamaterials. The scheme describes the condition on perfect absorption and offers an inverse design route based on effective medium theory in conjunction with retrieval method to determine practical metamaterial absorbers. The scheme is scalable to frequencies and applicable to various incident angles. Numerical simulations show that perfect absorption is achieved in the designed absorbers over a wide range of incident angles, verifying the scheme. By integrating these absorbers, we further propose an absorber to absorb energy from two coherent point sources.
An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-12
Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.
Papcke, Caluê; Krueger, Eddy; Olandoski, Marcia; Nogueira-Neto, Guilherme Nunes; Nohama, Percy; Scheeren, Eduardo Mendonça
2018-03-25
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a common tool that is used in clinical and laboratory experiments and can be combined with mechanomyography (MMG) for biofeedback in neuroprostheses. However, it is not clear if the electrical current applied to neuromuscular tissues influences the MMG signal in submaximal contractions. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the electrical stimulation frequency influences the mechanomyographic frequency response of the rectus femoris muscle during submaximal contractions. Thirteen male participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) recorded in isometric conditions to determine the maximal force of knee extensors. This was followed by the application of nine modulated NMES frequencies (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 75, and 100 Hz) to evoke 5% MVIC. Muscle behavior was monitored by the analysis of MMG signals, which were decomposed into frequency bands by using a Cauchy wavelet transform. For each applied electrical stimulus frequency, the mean MMG spectral/frequency response was estimated for each axis (X, Y, and Z axes) of the MMG sensor with the values of the frequency bands used as weights (weighted mean). Only with respect to the Z (perpendicular) axis of the MMG signal, the stimulus frequency of 20 Hz did not exhibit any difference with the weighted mean (P = 0.666). For the frequencies of 20 and 25 Hz, the MMG signal displayed the bands between 12 and 16 Hz in the three axes (P frequencies from 30 to 100 Hz, the muscle presented a higher concentration of the MMG signal between the 22 and 29 Hz bands for the X and Z axes, and between 16 and 34 Hz bands for the Y axis (P frequency, because their frequency contents tend to mainly remain between the 20- and 25-Hz bands. Hence, NMES does not interfere with the use of MMG in neuroprosthesis. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frequency-Independent Response of Self-Complementary Checkerboard Screens
Urade, Yoshiro; Nakata, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao
2015-06-01
This research resolves a long-standing problem on the electromagnetic response of self-complementary metallic screens with checkerboardlike geometry. Although Babinet's principle implies that they show a frequency-independent response, this unusual characteristic has not been observed yet due to the singularities of the metallic point contacts in the checkerboard geometry. We overcome this difficulty by replacing the point contacts with resistive sheets. The proposed structure is prepared and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It is experimentally confirmed that the resistive checkerboard structures exhibit a flat transmission spectrum over 0.1-1.1 THz. It is also demonstrated that self-complementarity can eliminate even the frequency-dependent transmission characteristics of resonant metamaterials.
Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows
Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2004-01-01
We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical
Numerical simulation of anisotropic polymeric foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volnei Tita
Full Text Available This paper shows in detail the modelling of anisotropic polymeric foam under compression and tension loadings, including discussions on isotropic material models and the entire procedure to calibrate the parameters involved. First, specimens of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC foam were investigated through experimental analyses in order to understand the mechanical behavior of this anisotropic material. Then, isotropic material models available in the commercial software AbaqusTM were investigated in order to verify their ability to model anisotropic foams and how the parameters involved can influence the results. Due to anisotropy, it is possible to obtain different values for the same parameter in the calibration process. The obtained set of parameters are used to calibrate the model according to the application of the structure. The models investigated showed minor and major limitations to simulate the mechanical behavior of anisotropic PVC foams under compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Results show that the calibration process and the choice of the material model applied to the polymeric foam can provide good quantitative results and save project time. Results also indicate what kind and order of error one will get if certain choices are made throughout the modelling process. Finally, even though the developed calibration procedure is applied to specific PVC foam, it still outlines a very broad drill to analyze other anisotropic cellular materials.
Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M
2015-06-01
A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.
Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion
Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nariai, Hidekazu
1981-01-01
As a sequel to previous works on the definition of a positive frequency part of a quantized scalar field near an initial stage of several Robertson-Walker universes with flat, open or closed 3-space and the associated pair-creation of those particles, an attempt is made to seek for the same concept in several Bianchi-type I anisotropic universes. It is shown that, if the positive frequency part is introduced, the pair-creation of scalar particles and their spectral law are uniquely determined, as in the case of isotropic universes. (author)
Modeling the frequency response of photovoltaic inverters
Ernauli Christine Aprilia, A.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Kling, W.L.
2012-01-01
The increased presence of photovoltaic (PV) systems inevitably affects the power quality in the grid. This new reality demands grid power quality studies involving PV inverters. This paper proposes several frequency response models in the form of equivalent circuits. Models are based on laboratory
Magnetic Frequency Response of HL-LHC Beam Screens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrone, M. [CERN; Martino, M. [CERN; De Maria, R. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Garion, C. [CERN
2017-10-12
Magnetic fields used to control particle beams in accelerators are usually controlled by regulating the electrical current of the power converters. In order to minimize lifetime degradation and ultimately luminosity loss in circular colliders, current-noise is a highly critical figure of merit of power converters, in particular for magnets located in areas with high beta-function, like the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) insertions. However, what is directly acting upon the beam is the magnetic field and not the current of the power converter, which undergoes several frequency-dependent transformations until the desired magnetic field, seen by the beam, is obtained. Beam screens are very rarely considered when assessing or specifying the noise figure of merit, but their magnetic frequency response is such that they realize relatively effective low pass filtering of the magnetic field produced by the system magnet-power converter. This work aims at filling this gap by quantifying the expected impact of different beam screen layouts for the most relevant HL-LHC insertion magnets. A welldefined post-processing technique is used to derive the frequency response of the different multipoles from multi-physics Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation results. In addition, a well approximated analytical formula for the low-frequency range of multi-layered beam screens is presented.
Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes
Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.
2011-01-01
Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes
Sun, Feng
2011-12-01
Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response
Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.
2013-01-08
Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.
Frequency Response of Graphene Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Mackin
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This work develops the first frequency-dependent small-signal model for graphene electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors (EGFETs. Graphene EGFETs are microfabricated to measure intrinsic voltage gain, frequency response, and to develop a frequency-dependent small-signal model. The transfer function of the graphene EGFET small-signal model is found to contain a unique pole due to a resistive element, which stems from electrolyte gating. Intrinsic voltage gain, cutoff frequency, and transition frequency for the microfabricated graphene EGFETs are approximately 3.1 V/V, 1.9 kHz, and 6.9 kHz, respectively. This work marks a critical step in the development of high-speed chemical and biological sensors using graphene EGFETs.
Band gaps in periodically magnetized homogeneous anisotropic media
Merzlikin, A. M.; Levy, M.; Vinogradov, A. P.; Wu, Z.; Jalali, A. A.
2010-11-01
In [A. M. Merzlikin, A. P. Vinogradov, A. V. Dorofeenko, M. Inoue, M. Levy, A. B. Granovsky, Physica B 394 (2007) 277] it is shown that in anisotropic magnetophotonic crystal made of anisotropic dielectric layers and isotropic magneto-optical layers the magnetization leads to formation of additional band gaps (BG) inside the Brillouin zones. Due to the weakness of the magneto-optical effects the width of these BG is much smaller than that of usual BG forming on the boundaries of Brillouin zones. In the present communication we show that though the anisotropy suppresses magneto-optical effects. An anisotropic magnetophotonic crystal made of anisotropic dielectric layers and anisotropic magneto-optical; the width of additional BG may be much greater than the width of the usual Brillouin BG. Anisotropy tends to suppress Brillouin zone boundary band gap formation because the anisotropy suppresses magneto-optical properties, while degenerate band gap formation occurs around points of effective isotropy and is not suppressed.
Human frequency-following response to speech-like sounds: correlates of off-frequency masking.
Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Agrawal, Smita
2010-01-01
Off-frequency masking of the second formant by energy at the first formant has been shown to influence both identification and discrimination of the second formant in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. While both excitatory spread and two-tone suppression have been implicated in this simultaneous masking, their relative contribution has been shown to depend on both the level of the masker and the frequency separation between the probe and the masker. Off-frequency masking effects were evaluated in 10 normal-hearing human adults using the frequency-following response (FFR) to two two-tone approximations of vowel stimuli (/a/ and /u/). In the first experiment, the masking effect of F(1) on F(2) was evaluated by attenuating the level of F(1) relative to a fixed F(2) level. In the second experiment, the masking effect was evaluated by increasing the frequency separation between F(1) and F(2) using F(2) frequency as the variable. Results revealed that both attenuation of the F(1) level, and increasing the frequency separation between F(1) and F(2) increased the magnitude of the FFR component at F(2). These results are consistent with a release from off-frequency masking. Given that the results presented here are for high signal and masker levels and for relatively smaller frequency separation between the masker and the probe, it is possible that both suppression and excitatory spread contributed to the masking effects observed in our data. Copyright2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Magnetostatics of anisotropic superconducting ellipsoid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saif, A.G.
1987-09-01
The magnetization and the magnetic field distribution inside (outside) an anisotropic type II superconducting ellipsoid, with filamentary structure, is formulated. We have shown that the magnetic field in this case is different from that of the general anisotropic one. The nucleations of the flux lines for specimens with large demagnetization factors are theoretically studied. We have shown that the nucleations of the flux lines, for specimens with large demagnetization factor, appears at a field larger than that of ellipsoidal shape. (author). 15 refs
Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.
1991-01-01
Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. 07338 (Mexico); Rangel-Rojo, R, E-mail: reyes@fisica.unam.mx [CICESE/Depto. de Optica, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B. C. 22860 (Mexico)
2011-01-01
In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO{sub 2}. We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, {chi}{sup (3)}. We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.
Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Torres-Torres, C; Rangel-Rojo, R
2011-01-01
In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO 2 . We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, χ (3) . We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.
Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, M.M.
1979-01-01
An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee
Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)
2016-12-15
Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.
Jet quenching in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma
Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego
2012-08-01
The jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic plasma depends on the relative orientation between the anisotropic direction, the direction of motion of the parton, and the direction along which the momentum broadening is measured. We calculate the jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary orientations and arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic value can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. We compare our results to analogous calculations for the real-world quark-gluon plasma and find agreement in some cases and disagreement in others.
Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian
2013-08-15
A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hypothesis is that the frequency response class of any given neuron in the IC is predominantly inherited from one of three major afferent pathways projecting to the IC, giving rise to three distinct receptive field classes. Here, we applied subjective classification, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and other objective statistical measures, to a large population (2826) of frequency response areas from single neurons recorded in the IC of the anaesthetised guinea pig. Subjectively, we recognised seven frequency response classes (V-shaped, non-monotonic Vs, narrow, closed, tilt down, tilt up and double-peaked), that were represented at all frequencies. We could identify similar classes using our objective classification tools. Importantly, however, many neurons exhibited properties intermediate between these classes, and none of the objective methods used here showed evidence of discrete response classes. Thus receptive field shapes in the IC form continua rather than discrete classes, a finding consistent with the integration of afferent inputs in the generation of frequency response areas. The frequency disposition of inhibition in the response areas of some neurons suggests that across-frequency inputs originating at or below the level of the IC are involved in their generation.
Naoe, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Masumoto, Hiroshi
2015-10-01
Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF2 matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co0.69Pd0.31)52-(Ca0.31F0.69)48 exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF2-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF2 matrix.
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)
2018-02-15
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)
Stability of anisotropic beams with space charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, I.
1997-07-01
We calculate coherent frequencies and stability properties of anisotropic or ''non-equipartitioned'' beams with different focusing constants and emittances in the two transverse directions. Based on the self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson equations the dispersion relations of transverse multipole oscillations with quadrupolar, sextupolar and octupolar symmetry are solved numerically. The eigenfrequencies give the coherent space charge tune shift for linear or nonlinear resonances in circular accelerators. We find that for sufficiently large energy anisotropy some of the eigenmodes become unstable in the space-charge-dominated regime. The properties of these anisotropy instabilities are used to show that ''non-equipartitioned'' beams can be tolerated in high-current linear accelerators. It is only in beams with strongly space-charge-depressed betatron tunes where harmful instabilities leading to emittance exchange should be expected. (orig.)
Jets in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Southampton, STAG Research Centre Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Morad, Razieh [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)
2018-01-15
In this paper, we study the dynamics of the light quark jet moving through the static, strongly coupled N = 4, anisotropic plasma with and without charge. The light quark is presented by a 2-parameters point-like initial condition falling string in the context of the AdS/CFT. We calculate the stopping distance of the light quark in the anisotropic medium and compare it with its isotropic value. We study the dependency of the stopping distance to the both string initial conditions and background parameters such as anisotropy parameter or chemical potential. Although the typical behavior of the string in the anisotropic medium is similar to the one in the isotropic AdS-Sch background, the string falls faster to the horizon depending on the direction of moving. Particularly, the enhancement of quenching is larger in the beam direction. We find that the suppression of stopping distance is more prominent when the anisotropic plasma have the same temperature as the isotropic plasma. (orig.)
CiOpt: a program for optimization of the frequency response of linear circuits
Miró Sans, Joan Maria; Palà Schönwälder, Pere
1991-01-01
An interactive personal-computer program for optimizing the frequency response of linear lumped circuits (CiOpt) is presented. CiOpt has proved to be an efficient tool in improving designs where the inclusion of more accurate device models distorts the desired frequency response, as well as in device modeling. The outputs of CiOpt are the element values which best match the obtained and the desired frequency response. The optimization algorithms used (the Fletcher-Powell and Newton's methods,...
The determination of frequency response function of the RSG Gas by laplace transform analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tukiran, S.; Surian, P.; Jujuratisbela, U.
1997-01-01
The response function of the RSG-GAS reactor system to the reactivity perturbations is necessary to be analyzed due to the interrelation with reliability and safety of reactor operation. the response depends on the power frequency response function H(s), while H(s) depends on the zero power frequency response function Z(s) and dynamic power coefficient of reactivity Kp(s) determination of the frequency response function of the RSG-GAS reactor was done by Fourier transform analysis method. Z(s) was obtained by fourier transform of P(t) and Cj(t) became P(S) and Cj(s) in point kinetic equations. Second order of simpson rule was used for completion of its numerical integration. then. LYMPR (Laplace transform for multipurpose reactor) code was made with fortran 77 computer language in vax 8550 system. the LTMPR code is able to determine the frequency response function and period-reactivity relation of RSG-GAS reactor by rod drop method. Profile of power as rod drop, zero power (without reactivity feedback) was used for determination frequency response of RSG-GAS reactor. The results of calculations are in a good agreement with experiment result, so the LTMPR code can be used for analysis response frequency of the RSG-GAS reactor
Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response
Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Morrison, William H [Manchester, CT; Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID
2012-04-03
Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.
Critical state of anisotropic hard superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero-Salazar, C; Perez-RodrIguez, F [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo Post J-48, Puebla, Pue 72570 (Mexico)
2003-11-01
The magnetic response of anisotropic irreversible type-II superconductors is investigated theoretically. Using an elliptic vertical law for the electric field E as a function of the current density J, we have reproduced available experimental magnetization curves of YBCO samples with the c axis lying in the sample plane. Specifically, we could reproduce quantitatively and interpret correctly the appearance of additional extrema and segments with relatively small slopes of the virgin magnetization curves when the direction of the applied magnetic field differs from the principal axes. The notable deformation of magnetization curves in a tilted magnetic field is connected to the strong coupling between the components of the magnetic induction.
Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zonca, A; Williams, B; Rubin, I; Meinhold, P; Lubin, P; Roucaries, B; D'Arcangelo, O; Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M; Jahn, S
2010-01-01
Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abderraouf Messai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.
Ultra-wideband reflective polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jia-Liang; Lin Bao-Qin; Da Xin-Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose an ultra-wideband reflective linear cross-polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface. Its unit cell is composed of a square-shaped resonator with intersectant diagonal and metallic ground sheet separated by dielectric substrate. Simulated results show that the converter can generate resonances at four frequencies under normal incident electromagnetic (EM) wave, leading to the bandwidth expansion of cross-polarization reflection. For verification, the designed polarization converter is fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results agree well with each other, showing that the fabricated converter can convert x - or y -polarized incident wave into its cross polarized wave in a frequency range from 7.57 GHz to 20.46 GHz with a relative bandwidth of 91.2%, and the polarization conversion efficiency is greater than 90%. The proposed polarization converter has a simple geometry but an ultra wideband compared with the published designs, and hence possesses potential applications in novel polarization-control devices. (paper)
Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Amato, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Evans, W. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics Universitat Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Giudice, P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, T. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kelly, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Kim, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Praki, K. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Ryan, S.M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skullerud, J.-I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)
2016-12-15
The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.
Evaluation of random temperature fluctuation problems with frequency response approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lejeail, Yves; Kasahara, Naoto
2000-01-01
Since thermal striping is a coupled thermohydraulic and thermomechanical phenomenon, sodium mock-up tests were usually required to confirm structural integrity. Authors have developed the frequency response function to establish design-by-analysis methodology for this phenomenon. Applicability of this method to sinusoidal fluctuation was validated through two benchmark problems with FAENA and TIFFSS facilities under EJCC contract. This report describes the extension of the frequency response method to random fluctuations. As an example of application, fatigue strength of a Tee junction of PHENIX secondary piping system was investigated. (author)
ESR study of advanced materials with new parameters frequency and pressure
Mizoguchi, K
2000-01-01
It is well known that electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful technique to investigate the magnetic properties of electrons in condensed matter. The frequency, as an additional parameter to the temperature, gives us the possibility to study the anisotropic dynamics of charge carriers with spin, even in polycrystalline materials. Furthermore, the pressure provides us a way to discuss how interactions between the electrons and their environments are responsible for the novel physical properties in these advanced materials, such as ferromagnetisms, charge-density waves, superconductivity, and so on. Results obtained by using ESR with these parameters are overviewed. Studies as a function of the frequency are demonstrated, especially for the conductive polymers, polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole with various dopants for which single crystals are not available yet. Alkali-electro-sodalite (AES), a kind of zeolite with a regular electron lattice known as an s-electron Mott insulator, and fullerene compo...
Anisotropic conductivity tensor imaging in MREIT using directional diffusion rate of water molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Oh In; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je
2014-01-01
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an emerging method to visualize electrical conductivity and/or current density images at low frequencies (below 1 KHz). Injecting currents into an imaging object, one component of the induced magnetic flux density is acquired using an MRI scanner for isotropic conductivity image reconstructions. Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) measures the intrinsic three-dimensional diffusion property of water molecules within a tissue. It characterizes the anisotropic water transport by the effective diffusion tensor. Combining the DT-MRI and MREIT techniques, we propose a novel direct method for absolute conductivity tensor image reconstructions based on a linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. We first recover the projected current density, which is the best approximation of the internal current density one can obtain from the measured single component of the induced magnetic flux density. This enables us to estimate a scale factor between the diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor. Combining these values at all pixels with the acquired diffusion tensor map, we can quantitatively recover the anisotropic conductivity tensor map. From numerical simulations and experimental verifications using a biological tissue phantom, we found that the new method overcomes the limitations of each method and successfully reconstructs both the direction and magnitude of the conductivity tensor for both the anisotropic and isotropic regions. (paper)
Study on DFIG wind turbines control strategy for improving frequency response characteristics
Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Zhiyu
2012-01-01
The active and reactive power decoupling control for the double-fed induction generator wind turbines(DFIG) does not play a positive role to the frequency response ability of power grid because it performs as the hidden inertia for the power grid. If we want to improve the transient frequency stability of the wind turbine when it is integrated with the system, we must ameliorate its frequency response characteristics. The inability of frequency control due to DFIG decoupling control could be overcome through releasing (or absorbing) a part of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor, so as to increase (or decrease) active power injected to the power system when the deviation of power system frequency appears. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the variable speed DFIG, including the aerodynamic model, pitch control system model, shaft model, generator model and inverter control model, and other key components, focusing on the mathematical model of the converters in rotor side and grid side. Based on the existing model of wind generator, the paper attaches the frequency control model on the platform of the simulation software DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can response quickly to transient frequency deviation and prove that wind farms can participate in the system frequency regulation to a certain extent. Finally, the result verifies the accuracy and plausibility of the inverter control model which attaches the frequency control module.
Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method
Chu, Chunlei
2012-07-01
Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Bias Errors due to Leakage Effects When Estimating Frequency Response Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Josefsson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Frequency response functions are often utilized to characterize a system's dynamic response. For a wide range of engineering applications, it is desirable to determine frequency response functions for a system under stochastic excitation. In practice, the measurement data is contaminated by noise and some form of averaging is needed in order to obtain a consistent estimator. With Welch's method, the discrete Fourier transform is used and the data is segmented into smaller blocks so that averaging can be performed when estimating the spectrum. However, this segmentation introduces leakage effects. As a result, the estimated frequency response function suffers from both systematic (bias and random errors due to leakage. In this paper the bias error in the H1 and H2-estimate is studied and a new method is proposed to derive an approximate expression for the relative bias error at the resonance frequency with different window functions. The method is based on using a sum of real exponentials to describe the window's deterministic autocorrelation function. Simple expressions are derived for a rectangular window and a Hanning window. The theoretical expressions are verified with numerical simulations and a very good agreement is found between the results from the proposed bias expressions and the empirical results.
Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harry H. Hilton
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.
Radjenović, B.; Radmilović-Radjenović, M.
2014-11-01
In this letter the evolution of the surface topography of a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity caused by different plasma etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) is studied by the three-dimensional level set method. The initial rough surface is generated starting from an experimental power spectral density. The time dependence of the rms roughness is analyzed and the growth exponential factors β are determined for two etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) assuming that isotropic etching is a much more effective mechanism of smoothing. The obtained simulation results could be useful for optimizing the parameters of the etching processes needed to obtain high quality niobium surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavities.
Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-12-01
Current power grid operation predominantly relies on scheduling and regulating generation resources to supply loads and balance load changes. Due to the inherent intermittency of renewable energy, more flexible and fast ramping capacity is required to compensate for the uncertainty and variability introduced by renewable energy resources. With the advancement of information technologies, power system end-use loads are becoming more agile and can participate in provision of balancing energy and other grid services. The use of demand response can greatly reduce the required generation reserve in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In this report, a new frequency responsive load (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.
Waves and discontinuities in relativistic and anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cissoko, Mahdy
1975-01-01
This work is devoted to the relativistic study of a non-dissipative anisotropic fluid diagram of infinite conductivity. Such a fluid diagram is constructed in part one. Starting from a macroscopic viewpoint a hydrothermodynamic study of the fluid diagram considered is carried out and the fundamental differential system of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics is deduced. Part two concerns the study of characteristic varieties and propagation of waves for a polytropic anisotropic fluid diagram. Three types of characteristic varieties are revealed: entropy waves (or material waves), magnetosonic waves and Alfven waves. The propagation rates of Alfven and magnetosonic waves are situated with respect to each other. The study of wave cones showed up on the one hand certain special features of wave propagation in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics and on the other hand the hyperbolic nature of differential operators associated with the various waves [fr
Role of Wind Power in Primary Frequency Response of an Interconnection: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Y. C.; Gevorgian, V.; Ela, E.; Singhvi, V.; Pourbeik, P.
2013-09-01
The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Large frequency deviations can lead to unintended consequences such as load shedding, instability, and machine damage, among others. Turbine governors of conventional generating units provide primary frequency response (PFR) to ensure that frequency deviations are not significant duringlarge transient events. Increasing penetrations of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, and planned retirements of conventional thermal plants - and thus a reduction in the amount of suppliers with PFR capabilities - causes concerns about a decline of PFR and system inertia in North America. The capability of inverter-coupled wind generation technologies to contribute toPFR and inertia, if appropriately equipped with the necessary control features, can help alleviate concerns. However, these responses differ from those supplied by conventional generation and inertia, and it is not entirely understood how variable renewable generation will affect the system response at different penetration levels. This paper evaluates the impact of wind generation providing PFRand synthetic inertial response on a large interconnection.
Anisotropic interpolation theorems of Musielak-Orlicz type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinxia Li
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Anisotropy is a common attribute of Nature, which shows different characterizations in different directions of all or part of the physical or chemical properties of an object. The anisotropic property, in mathematics, can be expressed by a fairly general discrete group of dilations { A k : k ∈ Z } $\\{A^{k}: k\\in\\mathbb{Z}\\}$ , where A is a real n × n $n\\times n$ matrix with all its eigenvalues λ satisfy | λ | > 1 $|\\lambda|>1$ . Let φ : R n × [ 0 , ∞ → [ 0 , ∞ $\\varphi: \\mathbb{R}^{n}\\times[0, \\infty\\to[0,\\infty$ be an anisotropic Musielak-Orlicz function such that φ ( x , ⋅ $\\varphi(x,\\cdot$ is an Orlicz function and φ ( ⋅ , t $\\varphi(\\cdot,t$ is a Muckenhoupt A ∞ ( A $\\mathbb {A}_{\\infty}(A$ weight. The aim of this article is to obtain two anisotropic interpolation theorems of Musielak-Orlicz type, which are weighted anisotropic extension of Marcinkiewicz interpolation theorems. The above results are new even for the isotropic weighted settings.
Anisotropic conductivity imaging with MREIT using equipotential projection algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degirmenci, Evren [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey); Eyueboglu, B Murat [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)
2007-12-21
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) combines magnetic flux or current density measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface potential measurements to reconstruct images of true conductivity with high spatial resolution. Most of the biological tissues have anisotropic conductivity; therefore, anisotropy should be taken into account in conductivity image reconstruction. Almost all of the MREIT reconstruction algorithms proposed to date assume isotropic conductivity distribution. In this study, a novel MREIT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed to image anisotropic conductivity. Relative anisotropic conductivity values are reconstructed iteratively, using only current density measurements without any potential measurement. In order to obtain true conductivity values, only either one potential or conductivity measurement is sufficient to determine a scaling factor. The proposed technique is evaluated on simulated data for isotropic and anisotropic conductivity distributions, with and without measurement noise. Simulation results show that the images of both anisotropic and isotropic conductivity distributions can be reconstructed successfully.
Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets
2004-01-01
The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency
Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector
Kuntz, Katanya B.; Wheatley, Trevor A.; Song, Hongbin; Webb, James G.; Mabrok, Mohamed; Huntington, Elanor H.; Yonezawa, Hidehiro
2017-01-01
Precise knowledge of an optical device's frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity's optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator's frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity's characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.
Generation of artificial time-histories, rich in all frequencies, from given response spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, S.; Wilkinson, J.P.D.
1976-01-01
In the design of nuclear power plants, it has been found desirable in certain instances to use the time-history method of dynamic analysis to determine the plant response to seismic input. In the implementation of this method, it is necessary to determine an adequate representation of the excitation as a function of time. Because many design criteria are specified in terms of design response spectra one is faced with the problem of generating a time-history whose own response spectrum approximates as far as possible to the originally specified design response spectrum. One objective of this paper is to present a method of synthesizing such time-histories from a given design response spectrum. The design response spectra may be descriptive of floor responses at a particular location in a plant, or they may be descriptive of seismic ground motions at a plant site. The method described in this paper allows the generation of time histories that are rich in all frequencies in the spectrum. This richness is achieved by choosing a large number of closely-spaced frequency points such that the half-power points of adjacent frequencies overlap. Examples are given concerning seismic design response spectra, and a number of points are discussed concerning the effect of frequency spacing on convergence. (Auth.)
Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen
2009-01-01
Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space
Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strickland, Michael
2014-06-15
In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.
Fitting of transfer functions to frequency response measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moret, J.M.
1994-12-01
An algorithm for approximating a given complex frequency response with a rational function of two polynomials with real coefficients is presented, together with its extension to distributed parameter systems, the corresponding error analysis and its application to a real case. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs
Structural health monitoring in composite materials using frequency response methods
Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Atalla, Mauro J.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Soutis, Constantinos
2001-08-01
Cost effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials in structural applications. Non-destructive evaluation techniques (e.g. ultrasound, radiography, infra-red imaging) are available for use during standard repair and maintenance cycles, however by comparison to the techniques used for metals these are relatively expensive and time consuming. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for the detection of damage in composite materials. The experimental results are presented for the application of modal analysis techniques applied to rectangular laminated graphite/epoxy specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Changes in natural frequencies and modes were then found using a scanning laser vibrometer, and 2-D finite element models were created for comparison with the experimental results. The models accurately predicted the response of the specimems at low frequencies, but the local excitation and coalescence of higher frequency modes make mode-dependent damage detection difficult and most likely impractical for structural applications. The frequency response method was found to be reliable for detecting even small amounts of damage in a simple composite structure, however the potentially important information about damage type, size, location and orientation were lost using this method since several combinations of these variables can yield identical response signatures.
Chun, Sehun
2017-07-01
Applying the method of moving frames to Maxwell's equations yields two important advancements for scientific computing. The first is the use of upwind flux for anisotropic materials in Maxwell's equations, especially in the context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Upwind flux has been available only to isotropic material, because of the difficulty of satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in anisotropic media. The second is to solve numerically Maxwell's equations on curved surfaces without the metric tensor and composite meshes. For numerical validation, spectral convergences are displayed for both two-dimensional anisotropic media and isotropic spheres. In the first application, invisible two-dimensional metamaterial cloaks are simulated with a relatively coarse mesh by both the lossless Drude model and the piecewisely-parametered layered model. In the second application, extremely low frequency propagation on various surfaces such as spheres, irregular surfaces, and non-convex surfaces is demonstrated.
Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeller, Hansjoerg
2014-01-01
In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the
Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeller, Hansjoerg
2014-05-26
In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the
Transmission of terahertz radiation by anisotropic MWCNT/polystyrene composite films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okotrub, A.V.; Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kubarev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 11 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova st., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kanygin, M.A.; Sedelnikova, O.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2011-11-15
Anisotropic composite materials have been prepared by repeated forge rolling of polystyrene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with length of {proportional_to}65 {mu}m. Transmission spectra of the composites were recorded for two different polarizations of the electric field. Obtained data indicated that the forge rolling resulted in a predominant orientation of CNTs in polymer matrix. Anisotropic response of the composites was measured at 130 {mu}m wavelength on the Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser and angular dependence of the transmitted light was determined. Absorption spectrum showed no strong resonance features and it was interpreted by CNTs breaking and agglomeration of CNT fragments during the composite fabrication procedure. Based on classical theory of scattering, considered the scatters as electromagnetic antennas, the size distribution of CNTs in composites was found. Anisotropy of terahertz radiation transmitted from MWCNT/polystyrene composite film on the Novosibirsk free electron laser at 130 {mu}m wavelength. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinm@coe.neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)
2016-01-14
We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leidy, C.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Crowe, J.H.
2002-01-01
by atomic force microscopy, we investigated the origin of these anisotropic lipid domain patterns, and found that ripple phase formation is directly responsible for the anisotropic nature of these domains. The nucleation and growth of fluid-phase domains are found to be directed by the presence of ripples....... In particular, the fluid-phase domains elongate parallel to the ripples. The results show that ripple phase formation may have implications for domain formation in biological systems....
Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids
Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam
2017-05-01
Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.
Joint time-frequency analysis of ultrasonic signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Sae Kyu; Nam, Ki Woo; Oh, Jung Hwan; Lee, Keun Chan; Jang, Hong Keun
1998-01-01
This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.
The effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Solomon, Thomas; Chambers, Edward S; Jeukendrup, Asker E
2008-01-01
Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin...... and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five healthy male volunteers were recruited from the general population: age 24 (SEM 2)years, body mass 75.7 (SEM 3.2) kg and BMI 23.8 (SEM 0.8) kg/m(2). Volunteers underwent three 8-h feeding regimens: fasting (FAST); low-frequency(two) meal ingestion (LOFREQ......(MEAL)); high-frequency (twelve) meal ingestion (HIFREQ(MEAL)). Meals were equi-energetic within trials,consisting of 64% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 13% protein. Total energy intake was equal between feeding trials. Total area under the curve for serum insulin and plasma ghrelin responses did not differ between...
Nonlinear and anisotropic tensile properties of graft materials used in soft tissue applications.
Yoder, Jonathon H; Elliott, Dawn M
2010-05-01
The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix grafts that are intended to augment or replace soft tissues should be comparable to the native tissue. Such grafts are often used in fiber-reinforced tissue applications that undergo multi-axial loading and therefore knowledge of the anisotropic and nonlinear properties are needed, including the moduli and Poisson's ratio in two orthogonal directions within the plane of the graft. The objective of this study was to measure the tensile mechanical properties of several marketed grafts: Alloderm, Restore, CuffPatch, and OrthADAPT. The degree of anisotropy and non-linearity within each graft was evaluated from uniaxial tensile tests and compared to their native tissue. The Alloderm graft was anisotropic in both the toe- and linear-region of the stress-strain response, was highly nonlinear, and generally had low properties. The Restore and CuffPatch grafts had similar stress-strain responses, were largely isotropic, had a linear-region modulus of 18MPa, and were nonlinear. OrthADAPT was anisotropic in the linear-region (131 MPA vs 47MPa in the toe-region) and was highly nonlinear. The Poisson ratio for all grafts was between 0.4 and 0.7, except for the parallel orientation of Restore which was greater than 1.0. Having an informed understanding of how the available grafts perform mechanically will allow for better assessment by the physician for which graft to apply depending upon its application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aschaffenburg, Daniel J; Williams, Michael R C; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A
2016-05-07
Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic polarimetry has been used to measure the polarization state of all spectral components in a broadband THz pulse upon transmission through generalized anisotropic media consisting of two-dimensional arrays of lithographically defined Archimedean spirals. The technique allows a full determination of the frequency-dependent, complex-valued transmission matrix and eigenpolarizations of the spiral arrays. Measurements were made on a series of spiral array orientations. The frequency-dependent transmission matrix elements as well as the eigenpolarizations were determined, and the eigenpolarizations were found be to elliptically corotating, as expected from their symmetry. Numerical simulations are in quantitative agreement with measured spectra.
A Morphing framework to couple non-local and local anisotropic continua
Azdoud, Yan
2013-05-01
In this article, we develop a method to couple anisotropic local continua with anisotropic non-local continua with central long-range forces. First, we describe anisotropic non-local models based on spherical harmonic descriptions. We then derive compatible classic continuum models. Finally, we apply the morphing method to these anisotropic non-local models and present three-dimensional numerical examples to validate the efficiency of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector
Kuntz, Katanya B.
2017-01-09
Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.
Generation of artificial time-histories, rich in all frequencies, from given response spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, S.; Wilkinson, J.P.D.
1975-01-01
In order to apply the time-history method of seismic analysis, it is often desirable to generate a suitable artificial time-history from a given response spectrum. The method described allows the generation of such a time-history that is also rich in all frequencies in the spectrum. This richness is achieved by choosing a large number of closely-spaced frequency points such that the adjacent frequencies have their half-power points overlap. The adjacent frequencies satisfy the condition that the frequency interval Δf near a given frequency f is such that (Δf)/f<2c/csub(c) where c is the damping of the system and csub(c) is the critical damping. In developing an artificial time-history, it is desirable to specify the envelope and duration of the record, very often in such a manner as to reproduce the envelope property of a specific earthquake record, and such an option is available in the method described. Examples are given of the development of typical artificial time-histories from earthquake design response spectra and from floor response spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
We study the anisotropic nature of the Kerr nonlinear response in a beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO) nonlinear crystal. The focus is on determining the relevant χ(3) cubic tensor components that affect interaction of type I cascaded second-harmonic generation. Various experiments in the literat...... a complete list that we propose as reference of the four major cubic tensor components in BBO. We finally discuss the impact of using the cubic anisotropic response in ultrafast cascading experiments in BBO.......We study the anisotropic nature of the Kerr nonlinear response in a beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO) nonlinear crystal. The focus is on determining the relevant χ(3) cubic tensor components that affect interaction of type I cascaded second-harmonic generation. Various experiments...... in the literature are analyzed and we correct the data from some of the experiments for contributions from cascading as well as for updated material parameters. We also perform an additional experimental measurement of the Kerr nonlinear tensor component responsible for self-phase modulation in cascading, and we...
Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian
2010-01-01
Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions
Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications
Li, Quan
2015-01-01
In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi
Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu
2016-01-01
Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (frequency characteristics of brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Plane-wave diffraction by periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazerooni, Azadeh Semsar; Shahabadi, Mahmoud
2010-01-01
Periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics are studied. The artificial anisotropic dielectric material in this work is made of two alternating isotropic dielectric layers. By a proper choice of the dielectric constant of the layers, we can realize a uniaxial anisotropic medium with controllable anisotropy. The artificial anisotropic dielectric is then used in periodic structures. For these structures, the optical axis of the artificial dielectric is assumed to be parallel or perpendicular to the period of the structure. Diffraction of plane waves by these structures is analyzed by a fully vectorial rigorous matrix method based on a generalized transmission line (TL) formulation. The propagation constants and field distributions are computed and diffraction properties of such structures are studied to show that, by a proper choice of structural parameters, these periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics can be used as polarizers or polarizing mirrors
A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters
Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.
2017-03-01
A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response
Estimating low-bias frequency response using random decrement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Brandt, Anders
2011-01-01
It is well known that in order to minimize the influence of leakage bias in frequency response function (FRF) estimates, smooth windows should be applied in the FFT processing. It is also normal practice to use self windowing excitation signals whenever possible. However, in many cases FRFs have...
Intraglomerular inhibition maintains mitral cell response contrast across input frequencies.
Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T
2013-11-01
Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Bijl, Hester
2009-01-01
The Unsteady Adaptive Stochastic Finite Elements (UASFE) method resolves the effect of randomness in numerical simulations of single-mode aeroelastic responses with a constant accuracy in time for a constant number of samples. In this paper, the UASFE framework is extended to multi-frequency responses and continuous structures by employing a wavelet decomposition pre-processing step to decompose the sampled multi-frequency signals into single-frequency components. The effect of the randomness on the multi-frequency response is then obtained by summing the results of the UASFE interpolation at constant phase for the different frequency components. Results for multi-frequency responses and continuous structures show a three orders of magnitude reduction of computational costs compared to crude Monte Carlo simulations in a harmonically forced oscillator, a flutter panel problem, and the three-dimensional transonic AGARD 445.6 wing aeroelastic benchmark subject to random fields and random parameters with various probability distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordio, P.L.; Segre, U.
1981-01-01
Dielectric and far-infra-red spectra of uniaxial liquid-crystal phase are analysed in terms of correlation functions calculated by a memory function formalism. SAIL (strong anisotropic interaction limit) conditions are always found to apply, resulting in diffusional regime at low working frequencies. Dipole friction has been also included in the calculations to consider many-particle interactions, its effect being analogous to the introduction of slowly relaxing local structures. (author)
Anisotropic Intervalley Plasmon Excitations in Graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Jian; Xu Huai-Zhe
2015-01-01
We investigate theoretically the intervalley plasmon excitations (IPEs) in graphene monolayer within the random-phase approximation. We derive an analytical expression of the real part of the dielectric function. We find a low-energy plasmon mode with a linear anisotropic dispersion which depends on the Fermi energy and the dielectric constant of substrate. The IPEs show strongly anisotropic behavior, which becomes significant around the zigzag crystallographic direction. More interestingly, the group velocity of IPE varies from negative to positive, and vanishes at special energy. (paper)
Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2012-01-01
Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...
Koch, Christian
2010-05-01
A technique for the calibration of photodiodes in ultrasonic measurement systems using standard and cost-effective optical and electronic components is presented. A heterodyne system was realized using two commercially available distributed feedback lasers, and the required frequency stability and resolution were ensured by a difference-frequency servo control scheme. The frequency-sensitive element generating the error signal for the servo loop comprised a delay-line discriminator constructed from electronic elements. Measurements were carried out at up to 450 MHz, and the uncertainties of about 5% (k = 2) can be further reduced by improved radio frequency power measurement without losing the feature of using only simple elements. The technique initially dedicated to the determination of the frequency response of photodetectors applied in ultrasonic applications can be transferred to other application fields of optical measurements.
Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal
Li, Ting-You
2016-04-01
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.
On Pokrovskii's anisotropic gap equations in superconductivity theory
Yang, Yisong
2003-11-01
An existence and uniqueness theorem for Pokrovskii's zero-temperature anisotropic gap equation is proved. Furthermore, it is shown that Pokrovskii's finite-temperature equation is inconsistent with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. A reformulation of the anisotropic gap equation is presented along the line of Pokrovskii and it is shown that the new equation is consistent with the BCS theory for the whole temperature range. As an application, the Markowitz-Kadanoff model for anisotropic superconductivity is considered and a rigorous proof of the half-integer-exponent isotope effect is obtained. Furthermore, a sharp estimate of the gap solution near the transition temperature is established.
Ultra-wideband reflective polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface
Wu, Jia-Liang; Lin, Bao-Qin; Da, Xin-Yu
2016-08-01
In this paper, we propose an ultra-wideband reflective linear cross-polarization converter based on anisotropic metasurface. Its unit cell is composed of a square-shaped resonator with intersectant diagonal and metallic ground sheet separated by dielectric substrate. Simulated results show that the converter can generate resonances at four frequencies under normal incident electromagnetic (EM) wave, leading to the bandwidth expansion of cross-polarization reflection. For verification, the designed polarization converter is fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results agree well with each other, showing that the fabricated converter can convert x- or y-polarized incident wave into its cross polarized wave in a frequency range from 7.57 GHz to 20.46 GHz with a relative bandwidth of 91.2%, and the polarization conversion efficiency is greater than 90%. The proposed polarization converter has a simple geometry but an ultra wideband compared with the published designs, and hence possesses potential applications in novel polarization-control devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471387, 61271250, and 61571460).
Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan [TNO Stieltjes weg 1, 2600 AD, Delft (Netherlands)
2012-05-17
Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.
Aircraft Fault Detection Using Real-Time Frequency Response Estimation
Grauer, Jared A.
2016-01-01
A real-time method for estimating time-varying aircraft frequency responses from input and output measurements was demonstrated. The Bat-4 subscale airplane was used with NASA Langley Research Center's AirSTAR unmanned aerial flight test facility to conduct flight tests and collect data for dynamic modeling. Orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs, summed with pilot stick and pedal inputs, were used to excite the responses. The aircraft was tested in its normal configuration and with emulated failures, which included a stuck left ruddervator and an increased command path latency. No prior knowledge of a dynamic model was used or available for the estimation. The longitudinal short period dynamics were investigated in this work. Time-varying frequency responses and stability margins were tracked well using a 20 second sliding window of data, as compared to a post-flight analysis using output error parameter estimation and a low-order equivalent system model. This method could be used in a real-time fault detection system, or for other applications of dynamic modeling such as real-time verification of stability margins during envelope expansion tests.
Generation of artificial time-histories, rich in all frequencies from given response spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, S.; Wilkinson, J.P.D.
1975-01-01
In order to apply the time-history method of seismic analysis, it is often desirable to generate a suitable artificial time-history from a given response spectrum. The method described in this paper allows the generation of such a time-history that is also rich in all frequencies in the spectrum. This richness is achieved by choosing a large number of closely-spaced frequency points such that the adjacent frequencies have their half-power points overlap. The adjacent frequencies satisfy the condition that the frequency interval Δf near a given frequency f is such that (Δf)/f<2c/csub(c) where c is the damping of the system and csub(c) is the critical damping. In developing an artificial time-history, it is desirable to specify the envelope and duration of the record, very often in such a manner as to reproduce the envelope property of a specific earthquake record, and such an option is available in the method described. Examples are given of the development of typical articifial time-histories from earthquake design response spectra and from floor response spectra. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, R.C.; Bhat, M.V.
2004-01-01
Ferrofluid squeeze film in an axially undefined porous journal bearing was analyzed to determine its performance considering anisotropic permeability of the porous facing and slip velocity at the interface of porous matrix and film region using Jenkins flow model. Expressions were obtained for dimensionless pressure, load capacity and response time of the squeeze film. How to deduce results for no-slip case, isotropic porous case and for Neuringer-Rosensweig model case were indicated. The computed values of dimensionless load capacity and response time were displayed in graphical form. They increased with increasing values of eccentricity ratio and anisotropic parameter while they decreased with increasing values of slip parameter or material parameter of Jenkins model
Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dohmen, E., E-mail: eike.dohmen@tu-dresden.de; Modler, N.; Gude, M.
2017-06-01
For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) . The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle. - Highlights: • Novel magnetic field angle testing device (MFATD) presented. • Determination of magnetic field dependent anisotropic mechanical properties. • Experimental data for different field directions shown for a commercial MR fluid. • Material description of MR fluids as transversal-isotropic solids. • Magnetic field angle dependent variations in shear stresses experimentally measured. • Determination of frictional coefficients between the MR fluid and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K
2000-07-01
A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (autho000.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K.
2000-01-01
A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (author)
A unified theoretical and experimental study of anisotropic hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehler, J.P.; Raclin, J.
1981-01-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a consistent formulation of the constitutive relations regarding anisotropic hardening materials. Attention is focused on the appearance and the evolution of mechanical anisotropies during irreversible processes, such as plastic forming and inelastic deformation of structures. The representation theorems for anisotropic tensor functions constitute a theoretical basis, allowing to reduce arbitrariness and to obtain a unified formulation of anisotropic hardening. In this approach, a general three-dimensional constitutive law is developed for prestrained initially orthotropic materials. Introduction of the plastic behavior results in the general forms of both the flow-law and the yield criterion. The developed theory is then specialized for the case of plane stress and different modes of anisotropic hardening are analyzed. A new generalization of the Von Mises criterion is proposed, in considering a homogeneous form of order two in stress and employing the simplest combinations of the basic invariants entering the general form of the yield condition. The proposed criterion involves specific terms accounting for the initial anisotropy, the deformation induced anisotropy and correlative terms between initial and induced anisotropy. The effects of prestrainings result in both isotropic and anisotropic hardening. An adequate experimental program, consisting of uniaxial tensile tests on oriented specimens of prestrained sheet-metal, was performed, in order to determine the specific form and the evolution of the anisotropic failure criterion for soft-steel subjected to different irreversible prestrainings. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2011-11-15
Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca
2011-01-01
Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold
Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Deng, Wei; Yang, Yaohui; Sun, Wei; Gao, Zhiyong; Hu, Yuehua
2017-11-01
The anisotropic adsorption of sodium oleate (NaOL) on feldspar surfaces was investigated to elucidate the different flotation properties of feldspar particles of four different size ranges. Microflotation experiments showed that the feldspar flotation recovery of particles with sizes spanning different ranges decreased in the order 0-19>19-38>45-75>38-45μm. Zeta potential and FTIR measurements showed that NaOL was chemically adsorbed on the Al sites of the feldspar surface. The anisotropic surface energies and broken bond densities estimated by density functional theory calculations showed that, although feldspar mostly exposed (010) and (001) surfaces, only the (001) surfaces contained the Al sites needed for NaOL adsorption. The interaction energies calculated by molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the more favorable NaOL adsorption on (001) than (010) surfaces, which may represent the main cause for the anisotropic NaOL adsorption on feldspar particles of different sizes. SEM measurements showed that the main exposed surfaces on coarse and fine feldspar particles were the side (010) and basal (001) ones, respectively. A higher fraction of Al-rich (001) surfaces is exposed on fine feldspar particles, resulting in better floatability compared with coarse particles. XPS and adsorption measurements confirmed that the Al content on the feldspar surface varied with the particle size, explaining the different NaOL flotation of feldspar particles of different sizes. Therefore, the present results suggest that coarsely ground ore should be used for the separation of feldspar gangue minerals. Further improvements in the flotation separation of feldspar from associated valuable minerals can be achieved through selective comminution or grinding processes favoring the exposure of (010) surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of mistuning and matrix structure on the topology of frequency response curves
Afolabi, Dare
1989-01-01
The stability of a frequency response curve under mild perturbations of the system's matrix is investigated. Using recent developments in the theory of singularities of differentiable maps, it is shown that the stability of a response curve depends on the structure of the system's matrix. In particular, the frequency response curves of a cylic system are shown to be unstable. Consequently, slight parameter variations engendered by mistuning will induce a significant difference in the topology of the forced response curves, if the mistuning transformation crosses the bifurcation set.
Anisotropic magnetoresistance and piezoelectric effect in GaAs Hall samples
Ciftja, Orion
2017-02-01
Application of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to a two-dimensional electron system leads to a variety of quantum phases ranging from incompressible quantum Hall liquid to Wigner solid, charge density wave, and exotic non-Abelian states. A few quantum phases seen in past experiments on GaAs Hall samples of electrons show pronounced anisotropic magnetoresistance values at certain weak magnetic fields. We argue that this might be due to the piezoelectric effect that is inherent in a semiconductor host such as GaAs. Such an effect has the potential to create a sufficient in-plane internal strain that will be felt by electrons and will determine the direction of high and low resistance. When Wigner solid, charge density wave, and isotropic liquid phases are very close in energy, the overall stability of the system is very sensitive to local order and, thus, can be strongly influenced even by a weak perturbation such as the piezoelectric-induced effective electron-electron interaction, which is anisotropic. In this work, we argue that an anisotropic interaction potential may stabilize anisotropic liquid phases of electrons even in a strong magnetic field regime where normally one expects to see only isotropic quantum Hall or isotropic Fermi liquid states. We use this approach to support a theoretical framework that envisions the possibility of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state of electrons in the lowest Landau level. In particular, we argue that an anisotropic liquid state of electrons may stabilize in the lowest Landau level close to the liquid-solid transition region at filling factor ν =1 /6 for a given anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for a liquid crystalline state with broken rotational symmetry indicate stability of liquid crystalline order consistent with the existence of an anisotropic liquid state of electrons stabilized by anisotropy at filling factor ν =1 /6 of the lowest Landau level.
Anisotropic inflation with derivative couplings
Holland, Jonathan; Kanno, Sugumi; Zavala, Ivonne
2018-05-01
We study anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when the inflaton and its derivative couple to a vector field. This type of coupling is motivated by D-brane inflationary models, in which the inflaton, and a vector field living on the D-brane, couple disformally (derivatively). We start by studying a phenomenological model where we show the existence of anisotropic solutions and demonstrate their stability via a dynamical system analysis. Compared to the case without a derivative coupling, the anisotropy is reduced and thus can be made consistent with current limits, while the value of the slow-roll parameter remains almost unchanged. We also discuss solutions for more general cases, including D-brane-like couplings.
Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models
Nasim, A.; Azam, M.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.
Polarization-resolved characterization of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Samusev, Anton; Mukhin, Ivan; Malureanu, Radu
2017-01-01
Optical metasurfaces have great potential to form a platform for manipulation of surface waves. A plethora of advanced surface-wave phenomena such as negative refraction, self-collimation and channeling of 2D waves can be realized through on-demand engineering of dispersion properties of a periodic...... metasurface. In this letter, we report on polarization-resolved measurement of dispersion of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface. We demonstrate that a subdiffractive array of strongly coupled resonant plasmonic nanoparticles supports both TE and TM plasmon modes at optical frequencies...... polarization degree of freedom for surface waves, our results open new routes for designing planar on-chip devices for surface photonics....
Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.
1998-01-01
The nonlinear self-focusing of beams in media with anisotropic (mix-signed) dispersion is investigated. Theoretical predictions employing virial-type arguments and self-similar techniques suggest that a pulse propagating in a nonlinear medium with anisotropic dispersion will not collapse...
Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing
Pellenard, Bertrand
2013-06-18
We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.
Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing
Pellenard, Bertrand; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alliez, Pierre
2013-01-01
We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.
Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong
2015-10-15
A calibration-free electrical method is proposed for measuring the absolute frequency response of directly modulated semiconductor lasers based on additional modulation. The method achieves the electrical domain measurement of the modulation index of directly modulated lasers without the need for correcting the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection. Moreover, it doubles measuring frequency range by setting a specific frequency relationship between the direct and additional modulation. Both the absolute and relative frequency response of semiconductor lasers are experimentally measured from the electrical spectrum of the twice-modulated optical signal, and the measured results are compared to those obtained with conventional methods to check the consistency. The proposed method provides calibration-free and accurate measurement for high-speed semiconductor lasers with high-resolution electrical spectrum analysis.
Transducer frequency response variations investigated by time reversal calibration
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 2 (2016), A16-A16 ISSN 1213-3825. [Europen Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing /32./. 07.09.2016-09.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : calibration * time reversal * transducer * frequency response Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Henry, Molly J; Obleser, Jonas
2013-01-01
Natural auditory stimuli are characterized by slow fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. However, the degree to which the neural responses to slow amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are capable of conveying independent time-varying information, particularly with respect to speech communication, is unclear. In the current electroencephalography (EEG) study, participants listened to amplitude- and frequency-modulated narrow-band noises with a 3-Hz modulation rate, and the resulting neural responses were compared. Spectral analyses revealed similar spectral amplitude peaks for AM and FM at the stimulation frequency (3 Hz), but amplitude at the second harmonic frequency (6 Hz) was much higher for FM than for AM. Moreover, the phase delay of neural responses with respect to the full-band stimulus envelope was shorter for FM than for AM. Finally, the critical analysis involved classification of single trials as being in response to either AM or FM based on either phase or amplitude information. Time-varying phase, but not amplitude, was sufficient to accurately classify AM and FM stimuli based on single-trial neural responses. Taken together, the current results support the dissociable nature of cortical signatures of slow AM and FM. These cortical signatures potentially provide an efficient means to dissect simultaneously communicated slow temporal and spectral information in acoustic communication signals.
Engineering Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response for Distributed Energy Resources: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guggilam, Swaroop [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj V [University of Minnesota; Chen, Yu C [University of British Columbia; Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-12-19
We propose a framework to engineer synthetic-inertia and droop-control parameters for distributed energy resources (DERs) so that the system frequency in a network composed of DERs and synchronous generators conforms to prescribed transient and steady-state performance specifications. Our approach is grounded in a second-order lumped-parameter model that captures the dynamics of synchronous generators and frequency-responsive DERs endowed with inertial and droop control. A key feature of this reduced-order model is that its parameters can be related to those of the originating higher-order dynamical model. This allows one to systematically design the DER inertial and droop-control coefficients leveraging classical frequency-domain response characteristics of second-order systems. Time-domain simulations validate the accuracy of the model-reduction method and demonstrate how DER controllers can be designed to meet steady-state-regulation and transient-performance specifications.
Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion
Feng, Shihang
2016-09-06
The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.
Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials
Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark
1985-05-07
Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.
Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.
1990-01-01
The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters
Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao
2013-01-01
The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.
On the quantification of SSVEP frequency responses in human EEG in realistic BCI conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafał Kuś
Full Text Available This article concerns one of the most important problems of brain-computer interfaces (BCI based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP, that is the selection of the a-priori most suitable frequencies for stimulation. Previous works related to this problem were done either with measuring systems that have little in common with actual BCI systems (e.g., single flashing LED or were presented on a small number of subjects, or the tested frequency range did not cover a broad spectrum. Their results indicate a strong SSVEP response around 10 Hz, in the range 13-25 Hz, and at high frequencies in the band of 40-60 Hz. In the case of BCI interfaces, stimulation with frequencies from various ranges are used. The frequencies are often adapted for each user separately. The selection of these frequencies, however, was not yet justified in quantitative group-level study with proper statistical account for inter-subject variability. The aim of this study is to determine the SSVEP response curve, that is, the magnitude of the evoked signal as a function of frequency. The SSVEP response was induced in conditions as close as possible to the actual BCI system, using a wide range of frequencies (5-30 Hz, in step of 1 Hz. The data were obtained for 10 subjects. SSVEP curves for individual subjects and the population curve was determined. Statistical analysis were conducted both on the level of individual subjects and for the group. The main result of the study is the identification of the optimal range of frequencies, which is 12-18 Hz, for the registration of SSVEP phenomena. The applied criterion of optimality was: to find the largest contiguous range of frequencies yielding the strong and constant-level SSVEP response.
Quantum phase transition and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model
Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Zheng, Shi-Biao
2017-01-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition (QPT) and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model when the ratio of the qubit transition frequency to the oscillator frequency approaches infinity. Based on the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we find an anti-Hermitian operator that maps the original Hamiltonian into a one-dimensional oscillator Hamiltonian within the spin-down subspace. We analytically derive the eigenenergy and eigenstate of the normal and superradiant phases and demonstrate that the system undergoes a second-order quantum phase transition at a critical border. The critical border is a straight line in a two-dimensional parameter space which essentially extends the dimensionality of QPT in the Rabi model. By combining the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and the adiabatic dynamics method, we find that the residual energy vanishes as the quench time tends to zero, which is a sharp contrast to the universal scaling where the residual energy diverges in the same limit.
Adaptive weighted anisotropic diffusion for computed tomography denoising
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Zhi; Silver, Michael D. [Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Inc., Vernon Hills, IL (United States); Noshi, Yasuhiro [Toshiba Medical System Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)
2011-07-01
With increasing awareness of radiation safety, dose reduction has become an important task of modern CT system development. This paper proposes an adaptive weighted anisotropic diffusion method and an adaptive weighted sharp source anisotropic diffusion method as image domain filters to potentially help dose reduction. Different from existing anisotropic diffusion methods, the proposed methods incorporate an edge-sensitive adaptive source term as part of the diffusion iteration. It provides better edge and detail preservation. Visual evaluation showed that the new methods can reduce noise substantially without apparent edge and detail loss. The quantitative evaluations also showed over 50% of noise reduction in terms of noise standard deviations, which is equivalent to over 75% of dose reduction for a normal dose image quality. (orig.)
Improved Detection of Vowel Envelope Frequency Following Responses Using Hotelling's T2 Analysis.
Vanheusden, Frederique J; Bell, Steven L; Chesnaye, Michael A; Simpson, David M
2018-05-11
Objective detection of brainstem responses to natural speech stimuli is an important tool for the evaluation of hearing aid fitting, especially in people who may not be able to respond reliably in behavioral tests. Of particular interest is the envelope frequency following response (eFFR), which refers to the EEG response at the stimulus' fundamental frequency (and its harmonics), and here in particular to the response to natural spoken vowel sounds. This article introduces the frequency-domain Hotelling's T (HT2) method for eFFR detection. This method was compared, in terms of sensitivity in detecting eFFRs at the fundamental frequency (HT2_F0), to two different single-channel frequency domain methods (F test on Fourier analyzer (FA) amplitude spectra [FA-F-Test] and magnitude-squared coherence [MSC]) in detecting envelope following responses to natural vowel stimuli in simulated data and EEG data from normal-hearing subjects. Sensitivity was assessed based on the number of detections and the time needed to detect a response for a false-positive rate of 5%. The study also explored whether a single-channel, multifrequency HT2 (HT2_3F) and a multichannel, multifrequency HT2 (HT2_MC) could further improve response detection. Four repeated words were presented sequentially at 70 dB SPL LAeq through ER-2 insert earphones. The stimuli consisted of a prolonged vowel in a /hVd/ structure (where V represents different vowel sounds). Each stimulus was presented over 440 sweeps (220 condensation and 220 rarefaction). EEG data were collected from 12 normal-hearing adult participants. After preprocessing and artifact removal, eFFR detection was compared between the algorithms. For the simulation study, simulated EEG signals were generated by adding random noise at multiple signal to noise ratios (SNRs; 0 to -60dB) to the auditory stimuli as well as to a single sinusoid at the fluctuating and flattened fundamental frequency (f0). For each SNR, 1000 sets of 440 simulated epochs
The effect of sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters on high-frequency response spectra
Boore, David M.; Goulet, Christine
2013-01-01
The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using
Long-term anisotropic mechanical response of surgical meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects.
Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B
2012-01-01
Routine hernia repair surgery involves the implant of synthetic mesh. However, this type of procedure may give rise to pain and bowel incarceration and strangulation, causing considerable patient disability. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term behaviour of three commercial meshes used to repair the partially herniated abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits: the heavyweight (HW) mesh, Surgipro(®) and lightweight (LW) mesh, Optilene(®), both made of polypropylene (PP), and a mediumweight (MW) mesh, Infinit(®), made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The implanted meshes were mechanical and histological assessed at 14, 90 and 180 days post-implant. This behaviour was compared to the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the unrepaired abdominal wall in control non-operated rabbits. Both uniaxial mechanical tests conducted in craneo-caudal and perpendicular directions and histological findings revealed substantial collagen growth over the repaired hernial defects causing stiffness in the repair zone, and thus a change in the original properties of the meshes. The mechanical behaviour of the healthy tissue in the craneo-caudal direction was not reproduced by any of the implanted meshes after 14 days or 90 days of implant, whereas in the perpendicular direction, SUR and OPT achieved similar behaviour. From a mechanical standpoint, the anisotropic PP-lightweight meshes may be considered a good choice in the long run, which correlates with the structure of the regenerated tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boyd, O.S.
2006-01-01
We have created a second-order finite-difference solution to the anisotropic elastic wave equation in three dimensions and implemented the solution as an efficient Matlab script. This program allows the user to generate synthetic seismograms for three-dimensional anisotropic earth structure. The code was written for teleseismic wave propagation in the 1-0.1 Hz frequency range but is of general utility and can be used at all scales of space and time. This program was created to help distinguish among various types of lithospheric structure given the uneven distribution of sources and receivers commonly utilized in passive source seismology. Several successful implementations have resulted in a better appreciation for subduction zone structure, the fate of a transform fault with depth, lithospheric delamination, and the effects of wavefield focusing and defocusing on attenuation. Companion scripts are provided which help the user prepare input to the finite-difference solution. Boundary conditions including specification of the initial wavefield, absorption and two types of reflection are available. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chiral magnetic effect in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Taghavi, Seyed Farid
2015-01-01
An anisotropic thermal plasma phase of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an anisotropic AdS black hole. The temperature and anisotropy parameter of the AdS black hole background of interest http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2011)054 is specified by the location of the horizon and the value of the Dilaton field at the horizon. Interestingly, for the first time, we obtain two functions for the values of the horizon and Dilaton field in terms of the temperature and anisotropy parameter. Then by introducing a number of spinning probe D7-branes in the anisotropic background, we compute the value of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We observe that in the isotropic and anisotropic plasma the value of the CME is equal for the massless quarks. However, at fixed temperature, raising the anisotropy in the system will increase the value of the CME for the massive quarks.
Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Department of Mathematics, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Commerce (Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2016-10-15
In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift. (orig.)
Low Frequency Dispersion Mechanism of Dielectric Response for Oil-paper Insulation Diagnosis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Lijun; LI Xianlang; WU Guangning
2013-01-01
Both the real part and imaginary part of complex permittivity approximately have a log-linear frequency dependency at low frequencies,especially at ultra-low frequencies under conditions of different moisture concentrations and temperatures,which is recognized as the low frequency dispersion (LFD).In order to explain this dispersion,a new mechanism of dielectric response of LFD of oil-paper insulation is proposed.A simplified one-dimensional mathematical model of concentration polarization carrier caused by slow migration is developed and solved,which indicates that ion mobility is closely related to the size of gap and the adsorption capacity of cellulose molecular chains to ions.A stochastic statistical model of the carrier mobility induced LFD is also developed.Moreover,actual tests under 50 ℃and 2％ moisture content were put forward,as well as simulations with according current waveforms.The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in that concentration polarization of carriers caused by slow migration is the probable cause of low frequency dispersion ofdielectric response for oil-paper insulation diagnosis.
Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nlebedim, I.C. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); McCallum, R.W. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McCall, Scott K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kramer, M.J. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)
2017-01-15
Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.
Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nlebedim, I.C.; Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B.; McCallum, R.W.; McCall, Scott K.; Kramer, M.J.; Paranthaman, M. Parans
2017-01-01
Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.
Microseismic Full Waveform Modeling in Anisotropic Media with Moment Tensor Implementation
Shi, Peidong; Angus, Doug; Nowacki, Andy; Yuan, Sanyi; Wang, Yanyan
2018-03-01
Seismic anisotropy which is common in shale and fractured rocks will cause travel-time and amplitude discrepancy in different propagation directions. For microseismic monitoring which is often implemented in shale or fractured rocks, seismic anisotropy needs to be carefully accounted for in source location and mechanism determination. We have developed an efficient finite-difference full waveform modeling tool with an arbitrary moment tensor source. The modeling tool is suitable for simulating wave propagation in anisotropic media for microseismic monitoring. As both dislocation and non-double-couple source are often observed in microseismic monitoring, an arbitrary moment tensor source is implemented in our forward modeling tool. The increments of shear stress are equally distributed on the staggered grid to implement an accurate and symmetric moment tensor source. Our modeling tool provides an efficient way to obtain the Green's function in anisotropic media, which is the key of anisotropic moment tensor inversion and source mechanism characterization in microseismic monitoring. In our research, wavefields in anisotropic media have been carefully simulated and analyzed in both surface array and downhole array. The variation characteristics of travel-time and amplitude of direct P- and S-wave in vertical transverse isotropic media and horizontal transverse isotropic media are distinct, thus providing a feasible way to distinguish and identify the anisotropic type of the subsurface. Analyzing the travel-times and amplitudes of the microseismic data is a feasible way to estimate the orientation and density of the induced cracks in hydraulic fracturing. Our anisotropic modeling tool can be used to generate and analyze microseismic full wavefield with full moment tensor source in anisotropic media, which can help promote the anisotropic interpretation and inversion of field data.
Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Jieliang [Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Room 3407, Building 9003, 100084 Beijing (China); Su, Zhengliang [Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Room 3407, Building 9003, 100084 Beijing (China); Department of Automotive Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Shaoze, E-mail: yansz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Room 3407, Building 9003, 100084 Beijing (China)
2015-12-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model the superhydrophobic surface with anisotropic and hierarchical structure. • Anisotropic wetting only shows in noncomposite state (not in composite state). • Transition from noncomposite to composite state on dual-scale structure is hard. • Droplets tend to roll in the particular direction. • Droplets tend to stably remain in one preferred thermodynamic state. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.
Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Jieliang; Su, Zhengliang; Yan, Shaoze
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model the superhydrophobic surface with anisotropic and hierarchical structure. • Anisotropic wetting only shows in noncomposite state (not in composite state). • Transition from noncomposite to composite state on dual-scale structure is hard. • Droplets tend to roll in the particular direction. • Droplets tend to stably remain in one preferred thermodynamic state. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.
Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao
2017-01-01
When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...
Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.
2000-01-01
In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical ...
Effect of bimodularity on frequency response of cylindrical panels ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
The actual stress strain behaviour ... The work on frequency response of bimodular structures is scarce in open literature (Khan .... Analysis is carried out using a C0 eight-noded serendipity quadrilateral shear flexible shell ..... specified convergence tolerance (each incremental displacement becomes less than equal to. 10.
Frequency Response Studies using Receptance Coupling Approach in High Speed Spindles
Shaik, Jakeer Hussain; Ramakotaiah, K.; Srinivas, J.
2018-01-01
In order to assess the stability of high speed machining, estimate the frequency response at the end of tool tip is of great importance. Evaluating dynamic response of several combinations of integrated spindle-tool holder-tool will consume a lot of time. This paper presents coupled field dynamic response at tool tip for the entire integrated spindle tool unit. The spindle unit is assumed to be relying over the front and rear bearings and investigated using the Timoshenko beam theory to arrive the receptances at different locations of the spindle-tool unit. The responses are further validated with conventional finite element model as well as with the experiments. This approach permits quick outputs without losing accuracy of solution and further these methods are utilized to analyze the various design variables on system dynamics. The results obtained through this analysis are needed to design the better spindle unit in an attempt to reduce the frequency amplitudes at the tool tip to improvise the milling stability during cutting process.
Low-frequency response in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Cr multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, F.G.; Guerrero, R.; Martinez, J.L.; Moshchalkov, V.V.; Bruynseraede, Y.; Villar, R.
2001-01-01
We have studied the magnetic field dependences of the real (χ) and imaginary (χ') contributions to the low-frequency magnetic susceptibility in epitaxial antiferromagnetically coupled [Fe(Cr(1 0 0)] n (n=10-50) multilayers. For the magnetic field directed along (1 1 0), the magnetic susceptibility shows on orientation phase transition. For the magnetic field either along the easy or the hard axes we observe a strong enhancement of the χ'(H) (i.e. magnetic losses) at low magnetic fields (H<50 Oe), which we relate to AC field-induced domain wall movement. This response is strongly dependent on frequency and temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Lehmann
Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Sippel
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Applications and volume of integrated circuits operating at frequencies up to 100 GHz are steadily increasing. This establishes serious challenges, especially for temporarily contacting such products during manufacturing tests with appropriate signal integrity. At present, existing test socket concepts have reached their applicability limit. The most promising candidates to meet the requirements of future microwave device interfacing are thin, anisotropic conducting polymers. This paper reports a survey covering measurement methodology for signal integrity properties of conducting polymers, model parameter extraction, measurement results from various materials, reliability issues, and a prototype application.
Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids
Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam
2017-01-01
Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domai...
Frequency response function (FRF) based updating of a laser spot welded structure
Zin, M. S. Mohd; Rani, M. N. Abdul; Yunus, M. A.; Sani, M. S. M.; Wan Iskandar Mirza, W. I. I.; Mat Isa, A. A.
2018-04-01
The objective of this paper is to present frequency response function (FRF) based updating as a method for matching the finite element (FE) model of a laser spot welded structure with a physical test structure. The FE model of the welded structure was developed using CQUAD4 and CWELD element connectors, and NASTRAN was used to calculate the natural frequencies, mode shapes and FRF. Minimization of the discrepancies between the finite element and experimental FRFs was carried out using the exceptional numerical capability of NASTRAN Sol 200. The experimental work was performed under free-free boundary conditions using LMS SCADAS. Avast improvement in the finite element FRF was achieved using the frequency response function (FRF) based updating with two different objective functions proposed.
Lin, Guoxing
2018-05-01
Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) anomalous diffusion is complicated, especially in the anisotropic case where limited research has been reported. A general PFG signal attenuation expression, including the finite gradient pulse (FGPW) effect for free general anisotropic fractional diffusion { 0 integral modified-Bloch equation, were extended to obtain general PFG signal attenuation expressions for anisotropic anomalous diffusion. Various cases of PFG anisotropic anomalous diffusion were investigated, including coupled and uncoupled anisotropic anomalous diffusion. The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) simulation was also carried out to support the theoretical results. The theory and the CTRW simulation agree with each other. The obtained signal attenuation expressions and the three-dimensional fractional modified-Bloch equations are important for analyzing PFG anisotropic anomalous diffusion in NMR and MRI.
The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.
Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan
2015-01-01
Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.
Anisotropic surface chemistry properties and adsorption behavior of silicate mineral crystals.
Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Fang, Shuai; Lu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Caifeng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua
2018-03-07
Anisotropic surface properties of minerals play an important role in a variety of fields. With a focus on the two most intensively investigated silicate minerals (i.e., phyllosilicate minerals and pegmatite aluminosilicate minerals), this review highlights the research on their anisotropic surface properties based on their crystal structures. Four surface features comprise the anisotropic surface chemistry of minerals: broken bonds, energy, wettability, and charge. Analysis of surface broken bond and energy anisotropy helps to explain the cleavage and growth properties of mineral crystals, and understanding surface wettability and charge anisotropy is critical to the analysis of minerals' solution behavior, such as their flotation performance and rheological properties. In a specific reaction, the anisotropic surface properties of minerals are reflected in the adsorption strengths of reagents on different mineral surfaces. Combined with the knowledge of mineral crushing and grinding, a thorough understanding of the anisotropic surface chemistry properties and the anisotropic adsorption behavior of minerals will lead to the development of effective relational models comprising their crystal structure, surface chemistry properties, and targeted reagent adsorption. Overall, such a comprehensive approach is expected to firmly establish the connection between selective cleavage of mineral crystals for desired surfaces and designing novel reagents selectively adsorbed on the mineral surfaces. As tools to characterize the anisotropic surface chemistry properties of minerals, DLVO theory, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-09-01
Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.
Bryan's effect and anisotropic nonlinear damping
Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.; Manzhirov, Alexander V.
2018-03-01
In 1890, G. H. Bryan discovered the following: "The vibration pattern of a revolving cylinder or bell revolves at a rate proportional to the inertial rotation rate of the cylinder or bell." We call this phenomenon Bryan's law or Bryan's effect. It is well known that any imperfections in a vibratory gyroscope (VG) affect Bryan's law and this affects the accuracy of the VG. Consequently, in this paper, we assume that all such imperfections are either minimised or eliminated by some known control method and that only damping is present within the VG. If the damping is isotropic (linear or nonlinear), then it has been recently demonstrated in this journal, using symbolic analysis, that Bryan's law remains invariant. However, it is known that linear anisotropic damping does affect Bryan's law. In this paper, we generalise Rayleigh's dissipation function so that anisotropic nonlinear damping may be introduced into the equations of motion. Using a mixture of numeric and symbolic analysis on the ODEs of motion of the VG, for anisotropic light nonlinear damping, we demonstrate (up to an approximate average), that Bryan's law is affected by any form of such damping, causing pattern drift, compromising the accuracy of the VG.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad [Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 (United States); Ryblewski, Radoslaw [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland)
2016-12-15
In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3){sub q} symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2016-01-01
In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.
Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle
2000-01-01
In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...
Anisotropic, Mixed-Norm Lizorkin-Triebel Spaces and Diffeomorphic Maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Jon; Hansen, Sabrina Munch; Sickel, Winfried
2014-01-01
This paper gives general results on invariance of anisotropic Lizorkin-Triebel spaces with mixed norms under coordinate transformations on Euclidean space, open sets, and cylindrical domains.......This paper gives general results on invariance of anisotropic Lizorkin-Triebel spaces with mixed norms under coordinate transformations on Euclidean space, open sets, and cylindrical domains....
Anisotropically Swelling Gels Attained through Axis-Dependent Crosslinking of MOF Crystals.
Ishiwata, Takumi; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki
2017-03-01
Anisotropically deforming objects have attracted considerable interest for use in molecular machines and artificial muscles. Herein, we focus on a new approach based on the crystal crosslinking of organic ligands in a pillared-layer metal-organic framework (PLMOF). The approach involves the transformation from crosslinked PLMOF to polymer gels through hydrolysis of the coordination bonds between the organic ligands and metal ions, giving a network polymer that exhibits anisotropic swelling. The anisotropic monomer arrangement in the PLMOF underwent axis-dependent crosslinking to yield anisotropically swelling gels. Therefore, the crystal crosslinking of MOFs should be a useful method for creating actuators with designable deformation properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The anisotropic Ising correlations as elliptic integrals: duality and differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCoy, B M; Maillard, J-M
2016-01-01
We present the reduction of the correlation functions of the Ising model on the anisotropic square lattice to complete elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind, the extension of Kramers–Wannier duality to anisotropic correlation functions, and the linear differential equations for these anisotropic correlations. More precisely, we show that the anisotropic correlation functions are homogeneous polynomials of the complete elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind. We give the exact dual transformation matching the correlation functions and the dual correlation functions. We show that the linear differential operators annihilating the general two-point correlation functions are factorized in a very simple way, in operators of decreasing orders. (paper)
Farthouat, Juliane; Franco, Ana; Mary, Alison; Delpouve, Julie; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe
2017-03-01
Humans are highly sensitive to statistical regularities in their environment. This phenomenon, usually referred as statistical learning, is most often assessed using post-learning behavioural measures that are limited by a lack of sensibility and do not monitor the temporal dynamics of learning. In the present study, we used magnetoencephalographic frequency-tagged responses to investigate the neural sources and temporal development of the ongoing brain activity that supports the detection of regularities embedded in auditory streams. Participants passively listened to statistical streams in which tones were grouped as triplets, and to random streams in which tones were randomly presented. Results show that during exposure to statistical (vs. random) streams, tritone frequency-related responses reflecting the learning of regularities embedded in the stream increased in the left supplementary motor area and left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), whereas tone frequency-related responses decreased in the right angular gyrus and right pSTS. Tritone frequency-related responses rapidly developed to reach significance after 3 min of exposure. These results suggest that the incidental extraction of novel regularities is subtended by a gradual shift from rhythmic activity reflecting individual tone succession toward rhythmic activity synchronised with triplet presentation, and that these rhythmic processes are subtended by distinct neural sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmiotti, G.; Carrico, C.B.; Lewis, E.E.
1995-10-01
The theoretical basis, implementation information and numerical results are presented for VARIANT (VARIational Anisotropic Neutron Transport), a FORTRAN module of the DIF3D code system at Argonne National Laboratory. VARIANT employs the variational nodal method to solve multigroup steady-state neutron diffusion and transport problems. The variational nodal method is a hybrid finite element method that guarantees nodal balance and permits spatial refinement through the use of hierarchical complete polynomial trial functions. Angular variables are expanded with complete or simplified P 1 , P 3 or P 5 5 spherical harmonics approximations with full anisotropic scattering capability. Nodal response matrices are obtained, and the within-group equations are solved by red-black or four-color iteration, accelerated by a partitioned matrix algorithm. Fission source and upscatter iterations strategies follow those of DIF3D. Two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries are implemented. Forward and adjoint eigenvalue, fixed source, gamma heating, and criticality (concentration) search problems may be performed
Finite frequency shear wave splitting tomography: a model space search approach
Mondal, P.; Long, M. D.
2017-12-01
Observations of seismic anisotropy provide key constraints on past and present mantle deformation. A common method for upper mantle anisotropy is to measure shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction). However, the interpretation is not straightforward, because splitting measurements represent an integration of structure along the ray path. A tomographic approach that allows for localization of anisotropy is desirable; however, tomographic inversion for anisotropic structure is a daunting task, since 21 parameters are needed to describe general anisotropy. Such a large parameter space does not allow a straightforward application of tomographic inversion. Building on previous work on finite frequency shear wave splitting tomography, this study aims to develop a framework for SKS splitting tomography with a new parameterization of anisotropy and a model space search approach. We reparameterize the full elastic tensor, reducing the number of parameters to three (a measure of strength based on symmetry considerations for olivine, plus the dip and azimuth of the fast symmetry axis). We compute Born-approximation finite frequency sensitivity kernels relating model perturbations to splitting intensity observations. The strong dependence of the sensitivity kernels on the starting anisotropic model, and thus the strong non-linearity of the inverse problem, makes a linearized inversion infeasible. Therefore, we implement a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in the inversion procedure. We have performed tests with synthetic data sets to evaluate computational costs and infer the resolving power of our algorithm for synthetic models with multiple anisotropic layers. Our technique can resolve anisotropic parameters on length scales of ˜50 km for realistic station and event configurations for dense broadband experiments. We are proceeding towards applications to real data sets, with an initial focus on the High Lava Plains of Oregon.
A new model for spherically symmetric anisotropic compact star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2016-05-15
In this article we obtain a new anisotropic solution for Einstein's field equations of embedding class one metric. The solution represents realistic objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37. We perform a detailed investigation of both objects by solving numerically the Einstein field equations with anisotropic pressure. The physical features of the parameters depend on the anisotropic factor i.e. if the anisotropy is zero everywhere inside the star then the density and pressures will become zero and the metric turns out to be flat. We report our results and compare with the above mentioned two compact objects as regards a number of key aspects: the central density, the surface density onset and the critical scaling behaviour, the effective mass and radius ratio, the anisotropization with isotropic initial conditions, adiabatic index and red shift. Along with this we have also made a comparison between the classical limit and theoretical model treatment of the compact objects. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the stability condition in a relativistic compact star. (orig.)
Prestack exploding reflector modelling and migration for anisotropic media
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-10-09
The double-square-root equation is commonly used to image data by downward continuation using one-way depth extrapolation methods. A two-way time extrapolation of the double-square-root-derived phase operator allows for up and downgoing wavefields but suffers from an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity is also associated with an anisotropic version of the double-square-root extrapolator. Perturbation theory allows us to separate the isotropic contribution, as well as the singularity, from the anisotropic contribution to the operator. As a result, the anisotropic residual operator is free from such singularities and can be applied as a stand alone operator to correct for anisotropy. We can apply the residual anisotropy operator even if the original prestack wavefield was obtained using, for example, reverse-time migration. The residual correction is also useful for anisotropic parameter estimation. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach. It also proves useful in approximately imaging the Vertical Transverse Isotropic Marmousi model.
Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.
2018-05-01
The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.
Nam, Hui; Guinan, John J
2017-12-14
Recent cochlear mechanical measurements show that active processes increase the motion response of the reticular lamina (RL) at frequencies more than an octave below the local characteristic frequency (CF) for CFs above 5 kHz. A possible correlate is that in high-CF (>5 kHz) auditory-nerve (AN) fibers, responses to frequencies 1-3 octaves below CF ("tail" frequencies) can be inhibited by medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents. These results indicate that active processes enhance the sensitivity of tail-frequency RL and AN responses. Perhaps related is that some apical low-CF AN fibers have tuning-curve (TC) "side-lobe" response areas at frequencies above and below the TC-tip that are MOC inhibited. We hypothesized that the tail and side-lobe responses are enhanced by the same active mechanisms as CF cochlear amplification. If responses to CF, tail-frequency, and TC-side-lobe tones are all enhanced by prestin motility controlled by outer-hair-cell (OHC) transmembrane voltage, then they should depend on OHC stereocilia position in the same way. To test this, we cyclically changed the OHC-stereocilia mechano-electric-transduction (MET) operating point with low-frequency "bias" tones (BTs) and increased the BT level until the BT caused quasi-static OHC MET saturation that reduced or "suppressed" the gain of OHC active processes. While measuring cat AN-fiber responses, 50 Hz BT level series, 70-120 dB SPL, were run alone and with CF tones, or 2.5 kHz tail-frequency tones, or side-lobe tones. BT-tone-alone responses were used to exclude BT sound levels that produced AN responses that might obscure BT suppression. Data were analyzed to show the BT phase that suppressed the tone responses at the lowest sound level. We found that AN responses to CF, tail-frequency, and side-lobe tones were suppressed at the same BT phase in almost all cases. The data are consistent with the enhancement of responses to CF, tail-frequency, and side-lobe tones all being due to the same
Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells.
Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun
2012-04-01
We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.
Modeling of charged anisotropic compact stars in general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dayanandan, Baiju; Maurya, S.K.; T, Smitha T. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)
2017-06-15
A charged compact star model has been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein-Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star model by using the radial pressure, the metric function e{sup λ} and the electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via the adiabatic index, TOV equations and the Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star model is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. Moreover, we also presented the EOS ρ = f(p) for the present charged compact star model. (orig.)
Anisotropic mechanical properties and Stone-Wales defects in graphene monolayer: A theoretical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, B.B.; Yang, X.B.; Zhang, R.
2010-01-01
We investigate the mechanical properties of graphene monolayer via the density functional theoretical (DFT) method. We find that the strain energies are anisotropic for the graphene under large strain. We attribute the anisotropic feature to the anisotropic sp 2 hybridization in the hexagonal lattice. We further identify that the formation energies of Stone-Wales (SW) defects in the graphene monolayer are determined by the defect concentration and also the direction of applied tensile strain, correlating with the anisotropic feature.
Direction-dependent stopping power and beam deflection in anisotropic solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, O.H.
1989-01-01
Directional effects on the motion of swift ions in anisotropic media are studied. The stopping power is a function of the direction of the velocity relative to the principle axes of the medium, and there is a nonzero lateral force on the ion tending to bend its trajectory. These effects arise from the anisotropy of the dielectric response, and are distinct from channeling. Simple expressions are derived for the stopping power and lateral force in the nonrelativistic high-velocity limit, and calculations are performed for crystalline graphite. 6 refs., 7 figs
Bianchi-type II spacetime and anisotropic brane-world cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevinc, O.
2010-01-01
Anisotropic generalization of Randall and Sundrum brane-world model is considered. I studied a bulk with an anisotropic space of motion of the brane, depending on both time and extra coordinate. Then I discussed possibility of obtaining the fine-tuning condition of Randall and Sundrum following the method of Andrei V. Frolov (Phys. Lett. B, 514,213).
Remarks on the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of an anisotropic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignat, M.
1980-01-01
Considering a pressure tensor of a general form, a relativistic rarefied, anisotropic, infinite electrically conducting and nondissipative plasma is studied. For this purpose, the method of the orthonormal frame of reference is used. The choice of the frame of reference is made adequately to the problem. Some thermodynamical properties of such a relativistic, anisotropic plasma are also given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Yande; Shu, Liming; Natsu, Wataru; He, Fuben
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The aim is to investigate the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting on machined surfaces. • The relationship between roughness and anisotropic wetting is modeled by thermodynamical analysis. • The effect of roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials is stronger than that on hydrophobic materials. • The energy barrier existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting. • The contact angle in the parallel direction is larger than that in the perpendicular direction. - Abstract: Anisotropic wetting of machined surfaces is widely applied in industries which can be greatly affected by roughness and solid's chemical properties. However, there has not been much work on it. A free-energy thermodynamic model is presented by analyzing geometry morphology of machined surfaces (2-D model surfaces), which demonstrates the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting. It can be concluded that the energy barrier is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay. In addition, experiments in investigating anisotropic wetting, which was characterized by the static contact angle and droplet's distortion, were performed on machined surfaces with different roughness on hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials. The droplet's anisotropy found on machined surfaces increased with mean slope of roughness profile Kr. It indicates that roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials has a stronger effect than that on hydrophobic materials. Furthermore, the contact angles predicted by the model are basically consistent with the experimentally ones
Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Altin, Müfit
according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...
Extended phase graphs with anisotropic diffusion
Weigel, M.; Schwenk, S.; Kiselev, V. G.; Scheffler, K.; Hennig, J.
2010-08-01
The extended phase graph (EPG) calculus gives an elegant pictorial description of magnetization response in multi-pulse MR sequences. The use of the EPG calculus enables a high computational efficiency for the quantitation of echo intensities even for complex sequences with multiple refocusing pulses with arbitrary flip angles. In this work, the EPG concept dealing with RF pulses with arbitrary flip angles and phases is extended to account for anisotropic diffusion in the presence of arbitrary varying gradients. The diffusion effect can be expressed by specific diffusion weightings of individual magnetization pathways. This can be represented as an action of a linear operator on the magnetization state. The algorithm allows easy integration of diffusion anisotropy effects. The formalism is validated on known examples from literature and used to calculate the effective diffusion weighting in multi-echo sequences with arbitrary refocusing flip angles.
Anisotropic plasma with flows in tokamak: Steady state and stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgisonis, V.I.
1996-01-01
An adequate description of equilibrium and stability of anisotropic plasma with macroscopic flows in tokamaks is presented. The Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) approximation is consistently used to analyze anisotropic plasma dynamics. The admissible structure of a stationary flow is found to be the same as in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics with isotropic pressure (MHD), which means an allowance for the same relabeling symmetry as in ideal MHD systems with toroidally nested magnetic surfaces. A generalization of the Grad-Shafranov equation for the case of anisotropic plasma with flows confined in the axisymmetric magnetic field is derived. A variational principle was obtained, which allows for a stability analysis of anisotropic pressure plasma with flows, and takes into account the conservation laws resulting from the relabeling symmetry. This principle covers the previous stability criteria for static CGL plasma and for ideal MHD flows in isotropic plasma as well. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Visuomotor Entrainment and the Frequency-Dependent Response of Walking Balance to Perturbations.
Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie; Allen, Matt; Thelen, Darryl G
2016-08-26
Visuomotor entrainment, or the synchronization of motor responses to visual stimuli, is a naturally emergent phenomenon in human standing. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and resolution of visuomotor entrainment in walking and the frequency-dependent response of walking balance to perturbations. We used a virtual reality environment to manipulate optical flow in ten healthy young adults during treadmill walking. A motion capture system recorded trunk, sacrum, and heel marker trajectories during a series of 3-min conditions in which we perturbed a virtual hallway mediolaterally with systematic changes in the driving frequencies of perceived motion. We quantified visuomotor entrainment using spectral analyses and balance deficits using trunk sway, gait variability, and detrended fluctuation analyses (DFA). ML kinematics were highly sensitive to visual perturbations, and instinctively synchronized (i.e., entrained) to a broad range of driving frequencies of perceived ML motion. However, the influence of visual perturbations on metrics of walking balance was frequency-dependent and governed by their proximity to stride frequency. Specifically, we found that a driving frequency nearest to subjects' average stride frequency uniquely compromised trunk sway, gait variability, and step-to-step correlations. We conclude that visuomotor entrainment is a robust and naturally emerging phenomenon during human walking, involving coordinated and frequency-dependent adjustments in trunk sway and foot placement to maintain balance at the whole-body level. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how the visuomotor control of walking balance is disrupted by visual perturbations and important reference values for the emergence of balance deficits due to age, injury, or disease.
Superluminal and negative delay times in isotropic-anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal
Ouchani, N.; El Moussaouy, A.; Aynaou, H.; El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.
2017-11-01
In this work, we investigate the possibility of superluminal and negative delay times for electromagnetic wave propagation in a linear and passive periodic structure consisting of alternating isotropic and anisotropic media. This phenomenon is due to the birefringence of the anisotropic layers of the structure. By adjusting the orientations of these layers, the delay times of transmitted waves can be controlled from subluminality to superluminality and vice versa. Numerical results indicate that the apparent superluminal propagation of light occurs inside the photonic band-gaps when the principal axes of the anisotropic layers are parallel or perpendicular to the fixed axes. For other orientations of these layers, tunneling and superluminal regimes appear inside the photonic bandgaps and in the allowed bands for frequencies close to the transmission minima. The effect of the number of unit cells of the photonic crystal structure on the propagation of light with superluminal and negative delay times is also investigated. We show that the structure exhibits the Hartman effect in which the tunneling delay time of the electromagnetic wave through the photonic band-gap of the structure converges asymptotically to a finite value with increasing the number of layers. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the transmission and reflection coefficients, the density of states, and the delay times of electromagnetic waves propagating through the structure. The control of the magnitude and the sign of the delay time of light propagation represent a key point in slow and fast light technologies. The proposed structure in this study represents a new system for controlling the delay times of wave propagation without a need of active or non-linear media as well as lossy or asymmetric periodic structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intsiful, J.D.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Tetteh, G.K.
1997-12-01
The frequency response measurements of a reactor at low power help in determining the kinetic parameters of a reactor and ultimately in investigating its stability with respect to small perturbations in reactivity. In this report, we present the results of the zero-power frequency response measurements of GHARR-1 by rod method and its analytical analogue. The comparison in calculated and measured values is reasonably good in the frequency range used (author)
Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.
Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng
2015-05-07
Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.
On cracking of charged anisotropic polytropes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azam, M. [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A., E-mail: azam.math@ue.edu.pk, E-mail: syedalimardanazmi@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Management and Technology, C-II, Johar Town, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)
2017-01-01
Recently in [1], the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways ( i ) by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter ( ii ) by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to [2] in the absence of charge.
Material Response Characterization
1977-08-01
models fit to vertical UX and TX data and a mean stress tension cutoff criterion. Because tests on the Kayenta sands one materials had revealed a definite...parameters. 9 This data characterizing the anisotropic response of the upper 30 feet of Kayenta material should not just be filed away; it should be used...9. Johnson, J. N., et al, "Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Kayenta Sandstone (MIXED COMPANY Site) for Ground Motion Calculations," Terra Tek TR
Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions
Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.
2018-05-01
Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Visser, P. J. de, E-mail: p.j.devisser@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Yates, S. J. C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen (Netherlands); Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Neto, A.; Llombart, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Terahertz Sensing Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Baryshev, A. M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen (Netherlands); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Terahertz Sensing Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)
2015-06-22
We have measured the absorption of terahertz radiation in a BCS superconductor over a broad range of frequencies from 200 GHz to 1.1 THz, using a broadband antenna-lens system and a tantalum microwave resonator. From low frequencies, the response of the resonator rises rapidly to a maximum at the gap edge of the superconductor. From there on, the response drops to half the maximum response at twice the pair-breaking energy. At higher frequencies, the response rises again due to trapping of pair-breaking phonons in the superconductor. In practice, this is a measurement of the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle creation efficiency due to pair-breaking in a superconductor. The efficiency, calculated from the different non-equilibrium quasiparticle distribution functions at each frequency, is in agreement with the measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, P. J. de; Yates, S. J. C.; Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.; Neto, A.; Llombart, N.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.
2015-01-01
We have measured the absorption of terahertz radiation in a BCS superconductor over a broad range of frequencies from 200 GHz to 1.1 THz, using a broadband antenna-lens system and a tantalum microwave resonator. From low frequencies, the response of the resonator rises rapidly to a maximum at the gap edge of the superconductor. From there on, the response drops to half the maximum response at twice the pair-breaking energy. At higher frequencies, the response rises again due to trapping of pair-breaking phonons in the superconductor. In practice, this is a measurement of the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle creation efficiency due to pair-breaking in a superconductor. The efficiency, calculated from the different non-equilibrium quasiparticle distribution functions at each frequency, is in agreement with the measurements
Anisotropy in the viscoelastic response of knee meniscus cartilage.
Coluccino, Luca; Peres, Chiara; Gottardi, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ceseracciu, Luca
2017-01-26
The knee meniscus is instrumental to stability, shock absorption, load transmission and stress distribution within the knee joint. Such functions are mechanically demanding, and replacement constructs used in meniscus repair often fail because of a poor match with the surrounding tissue. This study focused on the native structure-mechanics relationships and on their anisotropic behavior in meniscus, to define the target biomechanical viscoelastic properties required by scaffolds upon loading. To show regional orientation of the collagen fibers and their viscoelastic behavior, bovine lateral menisci were characterized by second harmonic generation microscopy and through time-dependent mechanical tests. Furthermore, their dynamic viscoelastic response was analyzed over a wide range of frequencies. Multilevel characterization aims to expand the biomimetic approach from the structure itself, to include the mechanical characteristics that give the meniscus its peculiar properties, thus providing tools for the design of novel, effective scaffolds. An example of modeling of anisotropic open-cell porous material tailored to fulfill the measured requirements is presented, leading to a definition of additional parameters for a better understanding of the load transmission mechanism and for better scaffold functionality.
Frequency response as a surrogate eigenvalue problem in topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik; Ferrari, Federico; Sigmund, Ole
2018-01-01
This article discusses the use of frequency response surrogates for eigenvalue optimization problems in topology optimization that may be used to avoid solving the eigenvalue problem. The motivation is to avoid complications that arise from multiple eigenvalues and the computational complexity as...
Sign rules for anisotropic quantum spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, R. F.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Parkinson, J. B.
2000-01-01
We present exact ''sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the importance of such sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations is emphasized. This is illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model
Brown, Andrew M.; Schmauch, Preston
2011-01-01
Turbine blades in rocket and jet engine turbomachinery experience enormous harmonic loading conditions. These loads result from the integer number of upstream and downstream stator vanes as well as the other turbine stages. Assessing the blade structural integrity is a complex task requiring an initial characterization of whether resonance is possible and then performing a forced response analysis if that condition is met. The standard technique for forced response analysis in rocket engines is to decompose a CFD-generated flow field into its harmonic components, and to then perform a frequency response analysis at the problematic natural frequencies. Recent CFD analysis and water-flow testing at NASA/MSFC, though, indicates that this technique may miss substantial harmonic and non-harmonic excitation sources that become present in complex flows. A substantial effort has been made to account for this denser spatial Fourier content in frequency response analysis (described in another paper by the author), but the question still remains whether the frequency response analysis itself is capable of capturing the excitation content sufficiently. Two studies comparing frequency response analysis with transient response analysis, therefore, of bladed-disks undergoing this complex flow environment have been performed. The first is of a bladed disk with each blade modeled by simple beam elements. Six loading cases were generated by varying a baseline harmonic excitation in different ways based upon cold-flow testing from Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test. It was hypothesized that the randomness and other variation from the standard harmonic excitation would reduce the blade structural response, but the results showed little reduction. The second study was of a realistic model of a bladed-disk excited by the same CFD used in the J2X engine program. It was hypothesized that enforcing periodicity in the CFD (inherent in the frequency response technique) would overestimate the
Equivalent circuit modeling of the dielectric properties of rubber wood at low frequency
Wan M. Daud; Kaida B. Khalid; Aziz H.A. Sidek
2000-01-01
Dielectric properties of rubber wood were studied at various moisture contents and grain directions at low frequencies from 10-2 to 105 Hz. Results showed that the moisture content of wood affected the dielectric properties considerably. Dielectric data at different anisotropic directions, i.e., longitudinal, radial, and...
Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider
Bilandzic, A.
2012-01-01
Anisotropic ﬂow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy
Double anisotropic electrically conductive flexible Janus-typed membranes.
Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Qianli; Tian, Jiao; Xi, Xue; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Xinlu; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia
2017-12-07
Novel type III anisotropic conductive films (ACFs), namely flexible Janus-typed membranes, were proposed, designed and fabricated for the first time. Flexible Janus-typed membranes composed of ordered Janus nanobelts were constructed by electrospinning, which simultaneously possess fluorescence and double electrically conductive anisotropy. For the fabrication of the Janus-typed membrane, Janus nanobelts comprising a conductive side and an insulative-fluorescent side were primarily fabricated, and then the Janus nanobelts are arranged into parallel arrays using an aluminum rotary drum as the collector to obtain a single anisotropically conductive film. Subsequently, a secondary electrospinning process was applied to the as-prepared single anisotropically conductive films to acquire the final Janus-typed membrane. For this Janus-typed membrane, namely its left-to-right structure, anisotropic electrical conduction synchronously exists on both sides, and furthermore, the two electrically conductive directions are perpendicular. By modulating the amount of Eu(BA) 3 phen complex and conducting polyaniline (PANI), the characteristics and intensity of the fluorescence-electricity dual-function in the membrane can be tuned. The high integration of this peculiar Janus-typed membrane with simultaneous double electrically conductive anisotropy-fluorescent dual-functionality is successfully realized in this study. This design philosophy and preparative technique will provide support for the design and construction of new types of special nanostructures with multi-functionality.
Holographic models with anisotropic scaling
Brynjolfsson, E. J.; Danielsson, U. H.; Thorlacius, L.; Zingg, T.
2013-12-01
We consider gravity duals to d+1 dimensional quantum critical points with anisotropic scaling. The primary motivation comes from strongly correlated electron systems in condensed matter theory but the main focus of the present paper is on the gravity models in their own right. Physics at finite temperature and fixed charge density is described in terms of charged black branes. Some exact solutions are known and can be used to obtain a maximally extended spacetime geometry, which has a null curvature singularity inside a single non-degenerate horizon, but generic black brane solutions in the model can only be obtained numerically. Charged matter gives rise to black branes with hair that are dual to the superconducting phase of a holographic superconductor. Our numerical results indicate that holographic superconductors with anisotropic scaling have vanishing zero temperature entropy when the back reaction of the hair on the brane geometry is taken into account.
Anisotropic models for compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2015-05-15
In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard.
1975-11-01
The Integral Transform Method for the neutron transport equation has been developed in last years by Asaoka and others. The method uses Fourier transform techniques in solving isotropic one-dimensional transport problems in homogeneous media. The method has been extended to linearly anisotropic transport in one-dimensional homogeneous media. Series expansions were also obtained using Hembd techniques for the new anisotropic matrix elements in cylindrical geometry. Carlvik spatial-spherical harmonics method was generalized to solve the same problem. By applying a relation between the isotropic and anisotropic one-dimensional kernels, it was demonstrated that anisotropic matrix elements can be calculated by a linear combination of a few isotropic matrix elements. This means in practice that the anisotropic problem of order N with the N+2 isotropic matrix for the plane and spherical geometries, and N+1 isotropic matrix for cylindrical geometries can be solved. A method of solving linearly anisotropic one-dimensional transport problems in homogeneous media was defined by applying Mika and Stankiewicz observations: isotropic matrix elements were computed by Hembd series and anisotropic matrix elements then calculated from recursive relations. The method has been applied to albedo and critical problems in cylindrical geometries. Finally, a number of results were computed with 12-digit accuracy for use as benchmarks [fr
Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades
Golfman, Yosif
2012-01-01
Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo
Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan
2014-01-01
We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...
Effect of reflecting modes on combined heat transfer within an anisotropic scattering slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi Hongliang; Tan Heping; Lu Yiping
2005-01-01
Under various interface reflecting modes, different transient thermal responses will occur in the media. Combined radiative-conductive heat transfer is investigated within a participating, anisotropic scattering gray planar slab. The two interfaces of the slab are considered to be diffuse and semitransparent. Using the ray tracing method, an anisotropic scattering radiative transfer model for diffuse reflection at boundaries is set up, and with the help of direct radiative transfer coefficients, corresponding radiative transfer coefficients (RTCs) are deduced. RTCs are used to calculate the radiative source term in energy equation. Transient energy equation is solved by the full implicit control-volume method under the external radiative-convective boundary conditions. The influences of two reflecting modes including both specular reflection and diffuse reflection on transient temperature fields and steady heat flux are examined. According to numerical results obtained in this paper, it is found that there exits great difference in thermal behavior between slabs with diffuse interfaces and that with specular interfaces for slabs with big refractive index
Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...
Speckle Suppression by Weighted Euclidean Distance Anisotropic Diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengcheng Guo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available To better reduce image speckle noise while also maintaining edge information in synthetic aperture radar (SAR images, we propose a novel anisotropic diffusion algorithm using weighted Euclidean distance (WEDAD. Presented here is a modified speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD method, which constructs a new edge detection operator using weighted Euclidean distances. The new edge detection operator can adaptively distinguish between homogenous and heterogeneous image regions, effectively generate anisotropic diffusion coefficients for each image pixel, and filter each pixel at different scales. Additionally, the effects of two different weighting methods (Gaussian weighting and non-linear weighting of de-noising were analyzed. The effect of different adjustment coefficient settings on speckle suppression was also explored. A series of experiments were conducted using an added noise image, GF-3 SAR image, and YG-29 SAR image. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only significantly suppress speckle, thus improving the visual effects, but also better preserve the edge information of images.
Self-force on dislocation segments in anisotropic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzgerald, S P; Aubry, S
2010-01-01
A dislocation segment in a crystal experiences a 'self-force', by virtue of the orientation dependence of its elastic energy. If the crystal is elastically isotropic, this force is manifested as a couple acting to rotate the segment toward the lower energy of the pure screw orientation (i.e. acting to align the dislocation line with its Burgers vector). If the crystal is anisotropic, there are additional contributions to the couple, arising from the more complex energy landscape of the lattice itself. These effects can strongly influence the dynamic evolution of dislocation networks, and via their governing role in dislocation multiplication phenomena, control plastic flow in metals. In this paper we develop a model for dislocation self-forces in a general anisotropic crystal, and briefly consider the technologically important example of α-iron, which becomes increasingly anisotropic as the temperature approaches that of the α-γ phase transition at 912 0 C.
Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis
Ambuj Kumar; Sunil Kumar Singh; Shrikant Singh
2015-01-01
Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented fo...
Touma Abe,; Tsuneyoshi Sugimoto,
2010-07-01
A sound wave vibration using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer are used as a method of exploring and imaging an extremely shallow underground. Flat speakers are used as a vibration source. We propose a method of distinguishing a buried object using a response range of a frequencies corresponding to a vibration velocities. Buried objects (plastic containers, a hollow steel can, an unglazed pot, and a stone) are distinguished using a response range of frequencies. Standardization and brightness imaging are used as methods of discrimination. As a result, it was found that the buried objects show different response ranges of frequencies. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.
1992-01-01
The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analysis that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs
Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm that effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analyses that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented
Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method
Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.
2012-01-01
Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems
Frequency response control of semiconductor laser by using hybrid modulation scheme.
Mieda, Shigeru; Yokota, Nobuhide; Isshiki, Ryuto; Kobayashi, Wataru; Yasaka, Hiroshi
2016-10-31
A hybrid modulation scheme that simultaneously applies the direct current modulation and intra-cavity loss modulation to a semiconductor laser is proposed. Both numerical calculations using rate equations and experiments using a fabricated laser show that the hybrid modulation scheme can control the frequency response of the laser by changing a modulation ratio and time delay between the two modulations. The modulation ratio and time delay provide the degree of signal mixing of the two modulations and an optimum condition is found when a non-flat frequency response for the intra-cavity loss modulation is compensated by that for the direct current modulation. We experimentally confirm a 8.64-dB improvement of the modulation sensitivity at 20 GHz compared with the pure direct current modulation with a 0.7-dB relaxation oscillation peak.
Time-dependent anisotropic distributed source capability in transient 3-d transport code tort-TD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.
2009-01-01
The transient 3-D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD has been extended to account for time-dependent anisotropic distributed external sources. The extension aims at the simulation of the pulsed neutron source in the YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly. Since feedback effects are not relevant in this zero-power configuration, this offers a unique opportunity to validate the time-dependent neutron kinetics of TORT-TD with experimental data. The extensions made in TORT-TD to incorporate a time-dependent anisotropic external source are described. The steady state of the YALINA-Thermal assembly and its response to an artificial square-wave source pulse sequence have been analysed with TORT-TD using pin-wise homogenised cross sections in 18 prompt energy groups with P 1 scattering order and 8 delayed neutron groups. The results demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD to subcritical problems with a time-dependent external source. (authors)
ANALYSIS OF DEFORMABILITY OF ANISOTROPIC AGRILLITE CLAYSTONES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.
Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility
Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane
2011-01-01
Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703
Ren, Zhengyong; Qiu, Lewen; Tang, Jingtian; Wu, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Zilong
2018-01-01
Although accurate numerical solvers for 3-D direct current (DC) isotropic resistivity models are current available even for complicated models with topography, reliable numerical solvers for the anisotropic case are still an open question. This study aims to develop a novel and optimal numerical solver for accurately calculating the DC potentials for complicated models with arbitrary anisotropic conductivity structures in the Earth. First, a secondary potential boundary value problem is derived by considering the topography and the anisotropic conductivity. Then, two a posteriori error estimators with one using the gradient-recovery technique and one measuring the discontinuity of the normal component of current density are developed for the anisotropic cases. Combing the goal-oriented and non-goal-oriented mesh refinements and these two error estimators, four different solving strategies are developed for complicated DC anisotropic forward modelling problems. A synthetic anisotropic two-layer model with analytic solutions verified the accuracy of our algorithms. A half-space model with a buried anisotropic cube and a mountain-valley model are adopted to test the convergence rates of these four solving strategies. We found that the error estimator based on the discontinuity of current density shows better performance than the gradient-recovery based a posteriori error estimator for anisotropic models with conductivity contrasts. Both error estimators working together with goal-oriented concepts can offer optimal mesh density distributions and highly accurate solutions.
Cai, Jianhua
2017-05-01
The time-frequency analysis method represents signal as a function of time and frequency, and it is considered a powerful tool for handling arbitrary non-stationary time series by using instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude. It also provides a possible alternative to the analysis of the non-stationary magnetotelluric (MT) signal. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. In contrast to conventional methods, the response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency. The theory of the method is presented and the mathematical model and calculation procedure, which are used to estimate response function based on HHT time-frequency spectrum, are discussed. To evaluate the results, response function estimates are compared with estimates from a standard MT data processing method based on the Fourier transform. All results show that apparent resistivities and phases, which are calculated from the HHT time-frequency method, are generally more stable and reliable than those determined from the simple Fourier analysis. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional Fourier methods, and the resulting parameter minimises the estimation bias caused by the non-stationary characteristics of the MT data.
Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Legarth, Brian Nyvang
2005-01-01
The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending...
Field theoretic approach to structure formation in an anisotropic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joy, Minu; Kuriakose, V.C.
2003-01-01
Considering a real scalar field distribution which is assumed to be locally anisotropic and coupled to a Bianchi type-I background spacetime, the energy density and pressure associated with the anisotropic matter field distribution are evaluated. The vanishing of the expectation values of the nondiagonal components of T μν allows us to treat the scalar field in complete analogy with the distribution of fluid. The primeval density perturbations produced by the vacuum fluctuations of the scalar field are considered and the Jeans criterion for structure formation is obtained. The metric and matter field perturbations are considered and it is found that for the present anisotropic case the perturbations of the pressure in the radial and tangential directions are different. The Jeans instability is discussed and the Jeans wave number for the present case is evaluated. It is found that for the anisotropic case the Jeans length depends on the velocity of the fluctuations in the radial and transverse directions and thus on the direction of propagation of the perturbations
Adaptation responses to increasing drought frequency
Loch, A. J.; Adamson, D. C.; Schwabe, K.
2016-12-01
Using state contingent analysis we discuss how and why irrigators adapt to alternative water supply signals. This analysis approach helps to illustrate how and why producers currently use state-general and state-allocable inputs to adapt and respond to known and possible future climatic alternative natures. Focusing on the timing of water allocations, we explore inherent differences in the demand for water by two key irrigation sectors: annual and perennial producers which in Australia have allowed a significant degree of risk-minimisation during droughts. In the absence of land constraints, producers also had a capacity to respond to positive state outcomes and achieve super-normal profits. In the future, however, the probability of positive state outcomes is uncertain; production systems may need to adapt to minimise losses and/or achieve positive returns under altered water supply conditions that may arise as a consequence of more frequent drought states. As such, producers must assess whether altering current input/output choice sets in response to possible future climate states will enhance their long-run competitive advantage for both expected new normal and extreme water supply outcomes. Further, policy supporting agricultural sector climate change resilience must avoid poorly-designed strategies that increase producer vulnerability in the face of drought. Our analysis explores the reliability of alternative water property right bundles and how reduced allocations across time influence alternative responses by producers. We then extend our analysis to explore how management strategies could adapt to two possible future drier state types: i) where an average reduction in water supply is experienced; and ii) where the frequency of droughts increase. The combination of these findings are subsequently used to discuss the role water reform policy has to deal with current and future climate scenarios. We argue current policy strategies could drive producers to
An anisotropic standing wave braneworld and associated Sturm-Liouville problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogberashvili, Merab; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto
2012-01-01
We present a consistent derivation of the recently proposed 5D anisotropic standing wave braneworld generated by gravity coupled to a phantom-like scalar field. We explicitly solve the corresponding junction conditions, a fact that enables us to give a physical interpretation to the anisotropic energy-momentum tensor components of the brane. So matter on the brane represents an oscillating fluid which emits anisotropic waves into the bulk. We also analyze the Sturm-Liouville problem associated with the correct localization condition of the transverse to the brane metric and scalar fields. It is shown that this condition restricts the physically meaningful space of solutions for the localization of the fluctuations of the model. (paper)
Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.
2017-01-01
An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar
On a hierarchical construction of the anisotropic LTSN solution from the isotropic LTSN solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foletto, Taline; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Bodmann, Bardo E.; Vilhena, Marco T.
2015-01-01
In this work, we present a recursive scheme targeting the hierarchical construction of anisotropic LTS N solution from the isotropic LTS N solution. The main idea relies in the decomposition of the associated LTS N anisotropic matrix as a sum of two matrices in which one matrix contains the isotropic and the other anisotropic part of the problem. The matrix containing the anisotropic part is considered as the source of the isotropic problem. The solution of this problem is made by the decomposition of the angular flux as a truncated series of intermediate functions and replace in the isotropic equation. After the replacement of these into the split isotropic equation, we construct a set of isotropic recursive problems, that are readily solved by the classic LTS N isotropic method. We apply this methodology to solve problems considering homogeneous and heterogeneous anisotropic regions. Numerical results are presented and compared with the classical LTS N anisotropic solution. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Yu Zhang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A new microfluidic approach to preparing anisotropic colloidal photonic crystal microparticles is developed and the self-assembly kinetics of colloidal nanoparticles is discussed. Based on the “coffee ring” effect in the self-assembly process of colloidal silica particle in strong solvent extraction environment, we successfully prepared anisotropic photonic crystal microparticles with different shapes and improved optical properties. The shapes and optical properties of photonic crystal microparticles can be controlled by adjusting the droplet size and extraction rate. We studied the self-assembly mechanism of colloidal silica particles in strong solvent extraction environment, which has potential applications in a variety of fields including optical communication technology, environmental response, photo-catalysis and chromic material.
Brazilian Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rocks: Review and New Insights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianshou Ma
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Strength anisotropy is one of the most distinct features of anisotropic rocks, and it also normally reveals strong anisotropy in Brazilian test Strength (“BtS”. Theoretical research on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks is seldom performed, and in particular some significant factors, such as the anisotropic tensile strength of anisotropic rocks, the initial Brazilian disc fracture points, and the stress distribution on the Brazilian disc, are often ignored. The aim of the present paper is to review the state of the art in the experimental studies on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks since the pioneering work was introduced in 1964, and to propose a novel theoretical method to underpin the failure mechanisms and predict the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks under Brazilian test conditions. The experimental data of Longmaxi Shale-I and Jixi Coal were utilized to verify the proposed method. The results show the predicted “BtS” results show strong agreement with experimental data, the maximum error is only ~6.55% for Longmaxi Shale-I and ~7.50% for Jixi Coal, and the simulated failure patterns of the Longmaxi Shale-I are also consistent with the test results. For the Longmaxi Shale-I, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure of the intact rock when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 24°, shear failure along the weakness planes when 24° ≤ βw ≤ 76°, and tensile failure along the weakness planes when 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°. For the Jixi Coal, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 23° or 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°, shear failure along the butt cleats when 23° ≤ βw ≤ 32°, and shear failure along the face cleats when 32° ≤ βw ≤ 76°. The proposed method can not only be used to predict the “BtS” and underpin the failure mechanisms of anisotropic rocks containing a single group of weakness planes, but can also be generalized for fractured rocks containing multi-groups of weakness planes.
Silva, Walter A.
1993-01-01
A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.
Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem
Servan-Camas, Borja; Tsai, Frank T.-C.
2010-02-01
This study develops a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with a two-relaxation-time collision operator (TRT) to cope with anisotropic heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and anisotropic velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion in the saltwater intrusion problem. The directional-speed-of-sound technique is further developed to address anisotropic hydraulic conductivity and dispersion tensors. Forcing terms are introduced in the LBM to correct numerical errors that arise during the recovery procedure and to describe the sink/source terms in the flow and transport equations. In order to facilitate the LBM implementation, the forcing terms are combined with the equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) to create pseudo-EDFs. This study performs linear stability analysis and derives LBM stability domains to solve the anisotropic advection-dispersion equation. The stability domains are used to select the time step at which the lattice Boltzmann method provides stable solutions to the numerical examples. The LBM was implemented for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem with high ratios of longitudinal to transverse dispersivities, and the results compared well to the solutions in the work of Abarca et al. (2007).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyong-Min Lee
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Many studies of anisotropic wetting surfaces with directional structures inspired from rice leaves, bamboo leaves, and butterfly wings have been carried out because of their unique liquid shape control and transportation. In this study, a precision mechanical cutting process, ultra-precision machining using a single crystal diamond tool, was used to fabricate a mold with microscale directional patterns of triangular cross-sectional shape for good moldability, and the patterns were duplicated on a flat thermoplastic polymer plate by compression molding for the mass production of an anisotropic wetting polymer surface. Anisotropic wetting was observed only with microscale patterns, but the sliding of water could not be achieved because of the pinning effect of the micro-structure. Therefore, an additional dip coating process with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecythricholosilanes, and TiO2 nanoparticles was applied for a small sliding angle with nanoscale patterns and a low surface energy. The anisotropic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated and the surface morphology and anisotropic wetting behaviors were investigated. The suggested fabrication method can be used to mass produce an anisotropic superhydrophobic polymer surface, demonstrating the feasibility of liquid shape control and transportation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghatnekar-Nilsson, S; Graham, J; Hull, R; Montelius, L
2006-01-01
We demonstrate arrays of cantilevers with different lengths, fabricated by focused ion beam milling. The arrays of oscillators generate a spectrum of different resonant frequencies, where each frequency correlates to the corresponding individual cantilever. The frequency response from all the cantilevers is collected from a single measurement under the same environment and conditions for the entire array. The mass response of the system generated the same Δf/f 0 for the cantilevers, within 0.1% accuracy. We denote the method MFSAC: multi-frequency signal analysis from an array of cantilevers. The simultaneous detection of several frequencies in one spectrum has great benefits in mass sensor applications, offering the possibility for true label-free detection
Anisotropic spin motive force in multi-layered Dirac fermion system, α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, K; Morinari, T
2015-01-01
We investigate the anisotropic spin motive force in α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I 3 , which is a multi-layered massless Dirac fermion system under pressure. Assuming the interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction and the interlayer anisotropic ferromagnetic interaction, we numerically examine the spin ordered state of the ground state using the steepest descent method. The anisotropic interaction leads to the anisotropic spin ordered state. We calculate the spin motive force produced by the anisotropic spin texture. The result quantitatively agrees with the experiment. (paper)
Frequency-dependence of the slow force response.
von Lewinski, Dirk; Zhu, Danan; Khafaga, Mounir; Kockskamper, Jens; Maier, Lars S; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Pieske, Burkert
2008-05-01
Stretch induces biphasic inotropic effects in mammalian myocardium. A delayed component (slow force response, SFR) has been demonstrated in various species, however, experimental conditions varied and the underlying mechanisms are controversial. The physiological relevance of the SFR is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in ventricular muscle strips from failing human hearts and non-failing rabbit hearts. Upon stretch, twitch force was assessed at basal conditions (1 Hz, 37 degrees C) and after changing stimulation frequency with and without blockade of the Na+/H+-exchanger-1 (NHE1) or reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX). Action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. Low stimulation rates (0.2 Hz) potentiated and higher stimulation rates (2 and 3 Hz) reduced the SFR. The extent of SFR inhibition by NHE1 or NCX inhibition was not affected by stimulation rate. APD decreased at 0.2 Hz but was not altered at higher stimulation rates. The data demonstrate frequency-dependence of the SFR with greater positive inotropic effects at lower stimulation rates. Subcellular mechanisms underlying the SFR are not fundamentally affected by stimulation rate. The SFR may have more pronounced physiological effects at lower heart rates.
Magnetic Frequency Response of HL-LHC Beam Screens
Morrone, M; De Maria, R; Fitterer, M; Garion, C
2017-01-01
Magnetic fields used to control particle beams in accelerators are usually controlled by regulating the electrical current of the power converters. In order to minimize lifetime degradation and ultimately luminosity loss in circular colliders, current-noise is a highly critical figure of merit of power converters, in particular for magnets located in areas with high beta-function, like the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) insertions. However, what is directly acting upon the beam is the magnetic field and not the current of the power converter, which undergoes several frequency-dependent transformations until the desired magnetic field, seen by the beam, is obtained. Beam screens are very rarely considered when assessing or specifying the noise figure of merit, but their magnetic frequency response is such that they realize relatively effective low pass filtering of the magnetic field produced by the system magnet-power converter. This work aims at filling this gap by quantifying the expected im...
Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.
2018-02-01
A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.
Bias and frequency response of the permeability of CoZrNb/SiO2 multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louis, E.; Jeong, I.S.; Walser, R.M.
1990-01-01
Compared to single-layer films, CoZrNb/SiO 2 multilayers with amorphous, soft magnetic films exhibit increased high-frequency response (to about 100 MHz) that is not understood. We studied single and multilayer films in this system and observed three distinct types of magnetic bias and frequency responses (phases I--III). The high-frequency responses of phase II and III films were reduced from that of phase I. Phase changes were produced in the single-layer amorphous CoZrNb films by varying the film thickness, and in double-layer (N=2) and multilayer (N>2) films by varying the magnetic layer thickness. The phase boundaries in the former were shifted by magnetostatic coupling of the perpendicular component of M. These studies indicated that phase I films had uniform planar magnetizations, while phase II and III films had perpendicular components. The results are summarized in the form of a phase diagram (film thickness versus inverse film separation), which suggests that the frequency response of multilayer thin films is enhanced when the individual magnetic layers are sufficiently thin to insure a planar magnetization (phase I)
Broadband frequency and angular response of a sinusoidal bull’s eye antenna
Beaskoetxea, U.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Beruete, M.
2016-07-01
A thorough experimental study of the frequency and beaming angle response of a metallic leaky-wave bull’s eye antenna working at 77 GHz with a sinusoidally corrugated profile is presented. The beam scanning property of these antennas as frequency is varied is experimentally demonstrated and corroborated through theoretical and numerical results. From the experimental results the dispersion diagram of the n = -1 and n = -2 space harmonics is extracted, and the operation at different frequency regimes is identified and discussed. In order to show the contribution of each half of the antenna, numerical examples of the near-field behavior are also displayed. Overall, experimental results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical and numerical calculations. Finally, an analysis of the beamwidth as a function of frequency is performed, showing that it can achieve values below 1.5° in a fractional bandwidth of 4% around the operation frequency, which is an interesting frequency-stable broadside radiation.
Huang, Xin; Yin, Chang-Chun; Cao, Xiao-Yue; Liu, Yun-He; Zhang, Bo; Cai, Jing
2017-09-01
The airborne electromagnetic (AEM) method has a high sampling rate and survey flexibility. However, traditional numerical modeling approaches must use high-resolution physical grids to guarantee modeling accuracy, especially for complex geological structures such as anisotropic earth. This can lead to huge computational costs. To solve this problem, we propose a spectral-element (SE) method for 3D AEM anisotropic modeling, which combines the advantages of spectral and finite-element methods. Thus, the SE method has accuracy as high as that of the spectral method and the ability to model complex geology inherited from the finite-element method. The SE method can improve the modeling accuracy within discrete grids and reduce the dependence of modeling results on the grids. This helps achieve high-accuracy anisotropic AEM modeling. We first introduced a rotating tensor of anisotropic conductivity to Maxwell's equations and described the electrical field via SE basis functions based on GLL interpolation polynomials. We used the Galerkin weighted residual method to establish the linear equation system for the SE method, and we took a vertical magnetic dipole as the transmission source for our AEM modeling. We then applied fourth-order SE calculations with coarse physical grids to check the accuracy of our modeling results against a 1D semi-analytical solution for an anisotropic half-space model and verified the high accuracy of the SE. Moreover, we conducted AEM modeling for different anisotropic 3D abnormal bodies using two physical grid scales and three orders of SE to obtain the convergence conditions for different anisotropic abnormal bodies. Finally, we studied the identification of anisotropy for single anisotropic abnormal bodies, anisotropic surrounding rock, and single anisotropic abnormal body embedded in an anisotropic surrounding rock. This approach will play a key role in the inversion and interpretation of AEM data collected in regions with anisotropic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiao, E-mail: sps_wangx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Lian, Jie [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Ping; Xu, XiJin [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li, MengMeng [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)
2017-01-15
The Fresnel equations are solved to analyze the reflection and propagation properties of the ordinary and extraordinary light of the optically anisotropic magnetic film. Using the boundary and propagation matrix, the longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr rotation expression is derived. After that, simulations are performed on optically anisotropic and isotropic Co/SiO{sub 2} film. Results show that for Co material in the thin-film limit, the anisotropic Co can provide larger max rotations than the isotropic Co in the visible region. This is because that the refractive index discrepancy of optically anisotropic Co film reduces the Fresnel reflective coefficient r{sub pp,} which improves the Kerr rotation. This makes the optically anisotropic Co film more effective in magneto optical sensor design and device fabrication. - Highlights: • In this work, using the boundary matrix and media propagation matrix developed by Zak and S.D.Bader,we get the analytical solution of the magneto-optical Kerr rotation of the optical anisotropic magnetic film. • Results show that for film in the thin-film limit, the anisotropic Co can provide larger maximum rotations than the isotropic Co. • The improvement of Kerr rotation can be attributed to the refractive index discrepancy of optically anisotropic Co film which reduce the Fresnel reflective coefficient rpp.
Frequency-Dependent Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticle Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majetich, Sara [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2016-05-17
In the proposed research program we will investigate the time- and frequency-dependent behavior of ordered nanoparticle assemblies, or nanoparticle crystals. Magnetostatic interactions are long-range and anisotropic, and this leads to complex behavior in nanoparticle assemblies, particularly in the time- and frequency-dependent properties. We hypothesize that the high frequency performance of composite materials has been limited because of the range of relaxation times; if a composite is a dipolar ferromagnet at a particular frequency, it should have the advantages of a single phase material, but without significant eddy current power losses. Arrays of surfactant-coated monodomain magnetic nanoparticles can exhibit long-range magnetic order that is stable over time. The magnetic domain size and location of domain walls is governed not by structural grain boundaries but by the shape of the array, due to the local interaction field. Pores or gaps within an assembly pin domain walls and limit the domain size. Measurements of the magnetic order parameter as a function of temperature showed that domains can exist at high temoerature, and that there is a collective phase transition, just as in an exchange-coupled ferromagnet. Dipolar ferromagnets are not merely of fundamental interest; they provide an interesting alternative to exchange-based ferromagnets. Dipolar ferromagnets made with high moment metallic particles in an insulating matrix could have high permeability without large eddy current losses. Such nanocomposites could someday replace the ferrites now used in phase shifters, isolators, circulators, and filters in microwave communications and radar applications. We will investigate the time- and frequency-dependent behavior of nanoparticle crystals with different magnetic core sizes and different interparticle barrier resistances, and will measure the magnetic and electrical properties in the DC, low frequency (0.1 Hz - 1 kHz), moderate frequency (10 Hz - 500
Dynamic Response and Fracture of Composite Gun Tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerome T. Tzeng
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The fracture behavior due to dynamic response in a composite gun tube subjected to a moving pressure has been investigated. The resonance of stress waves result in very high amplitude and frequency strains in the tube at the instant and location of pressure front passage as the velocity of the projectile approaches a critical value. The cyclic stresses can accelerate crack propagation in the gun tube with an existing imperfection and significantly shorten the fatigue life of gun tubes. The fracture mechanism induced by dynamic amplification effects is particularly critical for composite overwrap barrels because of a multi-material construction, anisotropic material properties, and the potential of thermal degradation.
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: Lavinia.heisenberg@googlemail.com, E-mail: r.kase@rs.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2016-11-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v {sup 2} || φ{sup 2} are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w {sub DE} in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w {sub DE}{sup (iso)} typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
A simple strategy to realize biomimetic surfaces with controlled anisotropic wetting
Wu, Dong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Yao, Jia; Guan, Yong-Chao; Wang, Jian-Nan; Niu, Li-Gang; Fang, Hong-Hua; Sun, Hong-Bo
2010-02-01
The study of anisotropic wetting has become one of the most important research areas in biomimicry. However, realization of controlled anisotropic surfaces remains challenging. Here we investigated anisotropic wetting on grooves with different linewidth, period, and height fabricated by laser interference lithography and found that the anisotropy strongly depended on the height. The anisotropy significantly increased from 9° to 48° when the height was changed from 100 nm to 1.3 μm. This was interpreted by a thermodynamic model as a consequence of the increase of free energy barriers versus the height increase. According to the relationship, controlled anisotropic surfaces were rapidly realized by adjusting the grooves' height that was simply accomplished by changing the resin thickness. Finally, the perpendicular contact angle was further enhanced to 131°±2° by surface modification, which was very close to 135°±3° of a common grass leaf.
Anuar Mohamad, Khairul; Tak Hoh, Hang; Alias, Afishah; Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Fukuda, Hisashi
2017-11-01
A metal-organic-metal (MOM) type Schottky diode based on poly (triarylamine) (PTAA) thin films has been fabricated by using the spin coating method. Investigation of the frequency dependent conductance-voltage (G-V-f) and capacitance-voltage (C-V-f) characteristics of the ITO/PTAA/Al MOM type diode were carried out in the frequency range from 12 Hz to 100 kHz using an LCR meter at room temperature. The frequency and bias voltage dependent electrical response were determined by admittance-based measured method in terms of an equivalent circuit model of the parallel combination of resistance and capacitance (RC circuit). Investigation revealed that the conductance is frequency and a bias voltage dependent in which conductance continuous increase as the increasing frequency, respectively. Meanwhile, the capacitance is dependent on frequency up to a certain value of frequency (100 Hz) but decreases at high frequency (1 - 10 kHz). The interface state density in the Schottky diode was determined from G-V and C-V characteristics. The interface state density has values almost constant of 2.8 x 1012 eV-1cm-2 with slightly decrease by increasing frequencies. Consequently, both series resistance and interface trap density were found to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency dependence of the electrical responses is attributed the distribution density of interface states that could follow the alternating current (AC) signal.
Handley, Scott Michael
graphite/epoxy laminates. Complementary ultrasonic parameters based on the frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation and integrated polar backscatter are investigated. In summary, the approach taken in this thesis is to examine the physical mechanisms in terms of a continuum mechanics framework and a linear elastic description of ultrasonic wave propagation in anisotropic media with specific application to the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite materials.
Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway
Dammyr, Øyvind
2016-06-01
Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.
A fortran programme for determining frequency responses for linear systems with time delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milsom, P.R.
1966-11-01
In this report a digital computer programme for evaluating frequency responses is described. In its standard form the programme is capable of determining the gain and phase of up to 35 variables over a range of up to 30 frequencies for a system described by up to 65 equations. The equations must be either first order differential or algebraic and either type may include time delayed terms. Up to 50 such terms are permissible throughout the equation set. Provision is made for up to 10 inputs and up to 50 differentiated input terms are permitted throughout the equation set. However, it is possible for the user to increase a maximum dimension, albeit at the expense of another array dimension. In punching the data from the equations the user has no sorting or arranging of coefficients to do, and the equations may be in any order. The specifying of other input information, such as frequency range, the inputs to be perturbed and the variables for which frequency responses are required, is also very straightforward. (author)
Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model
Burger, Martin
2017-11-24
We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.
Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model
Burger, Martin; Dü ring, Bertram; Kreusser, Lisa Maria; Markowich, Peter A.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2017-01-01
We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.
DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks
Jones, Matthew R.; Macfarlane, Robert J.; Lee, Byeongdu; Zhang, Jian; Young, Kaylie L.; Senesi, Andrew J.; Mirkin, Chad A.
2010-11-01
Directional bonding interactions in solid-state atomic lattices dictate the unique symmetries of atomic crystals, resulting in a diverse and complex assortment of three-dimensional structures that exhibit a wide variety of material properties. Methods to create analogous nanoparticle superlattices are beginning to be realized, but the concept of anisotropy is still largely underdeveloped in most particle assembly schemes. Some examples provide interesting methods to take advantage of anisotropic effects, but most are able to make only small clusters or lattices that are limited in crystallinity and especially in lattice parameter programmability. Anisotropic nanoparticles can be used to impart directional bonding interactions on the nanoscale, both through face-selective functionalization of the particle with recognition elements to introduce the concept of valency, and through anisotropic interactions resulting from particle shape. In this work, we examine the concept of inherent shape-directed crystallization in the context of DNA-mediated nanoparticle assembly. Importantly, we show how the anisotropy of these particles can be used to synthesize one-, two- and three-dimensional structures that cannot be made through the assembly of spherical particles.
Surface Waves Propagating on Grounded Anisotropic Dielectric Slab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuozhu Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of surface waves propagating on a grounded anisotropic dielectric slab. Distinct from the existing analyses that generally assume that the fields of surface wave uniformly distribute along the transverse direction of the infinitely large grounded slab, our method takes into account the field variations along the transverse direction of a finite-width slab. By solving Maxwell’s equations in closed-form, it is revealed that no pure transverse magnetic (TM or transverse electric (TE mode exists if the fields are non-uniformly distributed along the transverse direction of the grounded slab. Instead, two hybrid modes, namely quasi-TM and quasi-TE modes, are supported. In addition, the propagation characteristics of two hybrid modes supported by the grounded anisotropic slab are analyzed in terms of the slab thickness, slab width, as well as the relative permittivity tensor of the anisotropic slab. Furthermore, different methods are employed to compare the analyses, as well as to validate our derivations. The proposed method is very suitable for practical engineering applications.
Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, P.M.; Horvathy, P.A.; Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.; Kosiński, P.
2013-01-01
Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ► Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ► The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ► The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition
Lan, Xiang; Chen, Zhong; Dai, Gaole; Lu, Xuxing; Ni, Weihai; Wang, Qiangbin
2013-08-07
Discrete three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoarchitectures with well-defined spatial configuration and geometry have aroused increasing interest, as new optical properties may originate from plasmon resonance coupling within the nanoarchitectures. Although spherical building blocks have been successfully employed in constructing 3D plasmonic nanoarchitectures because their isotropic nature facilitates unoriented localization, it still remains challenging to assemble anisotropic building blocks into discrete and rationally tailored 3D plasmonic nanoarchitectures. Here we report the first example of discrete 3D anisotropic gold nanorod (AuNR) dimer nanoarchitectures formed using bifacial DNA origami as a template, in which the 3D spatial configuration is precisely tuned by rationally shifting the location of AuNRs on the origami template. A distinct plasmonic chiral response was experimentally observed from the discrete 3D AuNR dimer nanoarchitectures and appeared in a spatial-configuration-dependent manner. This study represents great progress in the fabrication of 3D plasmonic nanoarchitectures with tailored optical chirality.
A magnetic relaxation study on anisotropic reorientation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulder, C.W.R.
1984-01-01
The present thesis proposes a study on anisotropic reorientation of aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions. In particular, it is directed to the question to what extent information may be obtained on anisotropic reorientation by nuclear magnetic relaxation experiments. The polymethacrylic acid/water system has been chosen as probe system. (Auth.)
Anisotropic magnetoresistance in a Fermi glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovadyahu, Z.; Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84120)
1986-01-01
Insulating thin films of indium oxide exhibit negative, anisotropic magnetoresistance. The systematics of these results imply that the magnetoresistance mechanism may give different weight to the distribution of the localization lengths than that given by the hopping conductivity
Adaptive anisotropic diffusion filtering of Monte Carlo dose distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miao Binhe; Jeraj, Robert; Bao Shanglian; Mackie, Thomas R
2003-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for radiotherapy dose calculations, if used correctly. However, any Monte Carlo dose calculation is burdened with statistical noise. In this paper, denoising of Monte Carlo dose distributions with a three-dimensional adaptive anisotropic diffusion method was investigated. The standard anisotropic diffusion method was extended by changing the filtering parameters adaptively according to the local statistical noise. Smoothing of dose distributions with different noise levels in an inhomogeneous phantom, a conventional and an IMRT treatment case is shown. The resultant dose distributions were analysed using several evaluating criteria. It is shown that the adaptive anisotropic diffusion method can reduce statistical noise significantly (two to five times, corresponding to the reduction of simulation time by a factor of up to 20), while preserving important gradients of the dose distribution well. The choice of free parameters of the method was found to be fairly robust
Bedra, Sami; Bedra, Randa; Benkouda, Siham; Fortaki, Tarek
2017-12-01
In this paper, the effects of both anisotropies in the substrate and superstrate loading on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of high-Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. A rigorous analysis is performed using a dyadic Galerkin's method in the vector Hankel transform domain. Galerkin's procedure is employed in the spectral domain where the TM and TE modes of the cylindrical cavity with magnetic side walls are used in the expansion of the disk current. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. London's equations and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir are used in the calculation of the complex surface impedance of the superconducting circular disc. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate-superstrate materials. Good agreement is found among all sets of results. The numerical results obtained show that important errors can be made in the computation of the resonant frequencies and bandwidths of the superconducting resonators when substrate dielectric anisotropy, and/or superstrate anisotropy are ignored. Other theoretical results obtained show that the superconducting circular microstrip patch on anisotropic substrate-superstrate with properly selected permittivity values along the optical and the non-optical axes combined with optimally chosen structural parameters is more advantageous than the one on isotropic substrate-superstrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth characteristic.
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo
2015-01-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)
2015-07-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-01-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Brown, Andrew M.; Schmauch, Preston
2012-01-01
Turbine blades in rocket and jet engine turbomachinery experience enormous harmonic loading conditions. These loads result from the integer number of upstream and downstream stator vanes as well as the other turbine stages. The standard technique for forced response analysis to assess structural integrity is to decompose a CFD generated flow field into its harmonic components, and to then perform a frequency response analysis at the problematic natural frequencies. Recent CFD analysis and water-flow testing at NASA/MSFC, though, indicates that this technique may miss substantial harmonic and non-harmonic excitation sources that become present in complex flows. These complications suggest the question of whether frequency domain analysis is capable of capturing the excitation content sufficiently. Two studies comparing frequency response analysis with transient response analysis, therefore, have been performed. The first is of a bladed disk with each blade modeled by simple beam elements. It was hypothesized that the randomness and other variation from the standard harmonic excitation would reduce the blade structural response, but the results showed little reduction. The second study was of a realistic model of a bladed-disk excited by the same CFD used in the J2X engine program. The results showed that the transient analysis results were up to 10% higher for "clean" nodal diameter excitations and six times larger for "messy" excitations, where substantial Fourier content around the main harmonic exists.
Adjustable ferromagnetic resonance frequency in CoO/CoFeB system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonneau-Brault, A. [CEA Le Ripault, BP16, 37260 Monts (France); GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, University of Tours, 37200 Tours (France); Dubourg, S. [CEA Le Ripault, BP16, 37260 Monts (France); Thiaville, A. [LPS, CNRS UMR 8502, University of Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Rioual, S. [LMB EA4522, University of Brest, 6 av. Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Valente, D. [GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, University of Tours, 37200 Tours (France)
2015-01-21
Static and dynamic properties of (CoO/CoFeB){sub n} multilayers have been investigated. An anisotropy field enhancement was evidenced when the CoO layer was deposited under the CoFeB layer. Tuning the relative CoFeB and CoO layers thicknesses, high ferromagnetic resonance frequencies up to 4 GHz were achieved. The coupling effect between the CoO and CoFeB layers was induced by a dipolar coupling due to the anisotropic roughness topology of the CoO layer. This anisotropic roughness was induced by the deposition geometry and evidenced by atomic force microscopy. The strength of the dipolar interfacial coupling was calculated thanks to Schlömann's model. Multilayer stacks were fabricated and the magnetic properties observed for the trilayers could be maintained.
Adjustable ferromagnetic resonance frequency in CoO/CoFeB system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonneau-Brault, A.; Dubourg, S.; Thiaville, A.; Rioual, S.; Valente, D.
2015-01-01
Static and dynamic properties of (CoO/CoFeB) n multilayers have been investigated. An anisotropy field enhancement was evidenced when the CoO layer was deposited under the CoFeB layer. Tuning the relative CoFeB and CoO layers thicknesses, high ferromagnetic resonance frequencies up to 4 GHz were achieved. The coupling effect between the CoO and CoFeB layers was induced by a dipolar coupling due to the anisotropic roughness topology of the CoO layer. This anisotropic roughness was induced by the deposition geometry and evidenced by atomic force microscopy. The strength of the dipolar interfacial coupling was calculated thanks to Schlömann's model. Multilayer stacks were fabricated and the magnetic properties observed for the trilayers could be maintained
Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1971-01-01
The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....
Anisotropic stress as a signature of nonstandard propagation of gravitational waves.
Saltas, Ippocratis D; Sawicki, Ignacy; Amendola, Luca; Kunz, Martin
2014-11-07
We make precise the heretofore ambiguous statement that anisotropic stress is a sign of a modification of gravity. We show that in cosmological solutions of very general classes of models extending gravity-all scalar-tensor theories (Horndeski), Einstein-aether models, and bimetric massive gravity-a direct correspondence exists between perfect fluids apparently carrying anisotropic stress and a modification in the propagation of gravitational waves. Since the anisotropic stress can be measured in a model-independent manner, a comparison of the behavior of gravitational waves from cosmological sources with large-scale-structure formation could, in principle, lead to new constraints on the theory of gravity.
Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.
Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao
2017-11-15
Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.
An optimization-based framework for anisotropic simplex mesh adaptation
Yano, Masayuki; Darmofal, David L.
2012-09-01
We present a general framework for anisotropic h-adaptation of simplex meshes. Given a discretization and any element-wise, localizable error estimate, our adaptive method iterates toward a mesh that minimizes error for a given degrees of freedom. Utilizing mesh-metric duality, we consider a continuous optimization problem of the Riemannian metric tensor field that provides an anisotropic description of element sizes. First, our method performs a series of local solves to survey the behavior of the local error function. This information is then synthesized using an affine-invariant tensor manipulation framework to reconstruct an approximate gradient of the error function with respect to the metric tensor field. Finally, we perform gradient descent in the metric space to drive the mesh toward optimality. The method is first demonstrated to produce optimal anisotropic meshes minimizing the L2 projection error for a pair of canonical problems containing a singularity and a singular perturbation. The effectiveness of the framework is then demonstrated in the context of output-based adaptation for the advection-diffusion equation using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin discretization and the dual-weighted residual (DWR) error estimate. The method presented provides a unified framework for optimizing both the element size and anisotropy distribution using an a posteriori error estimate and enables efficient adaptation of anisotropic simplex meshes for high-order discretizations.
Study of anisotropic mechanical properties for aeronautical PMMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Shang
Full Text Available For the properties of polymer are relative to its structure, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of the aeronautical PMMA which has been treated by the directional tensile technology. Isodyne images reveal the stress state in directional PMMA. And then, an anisotropic mechanical model is established. Furthermore, all mechanical parameters are measured by the digital image correlation method. Finally, based on the anisotropic mechanical model and mechanical parameters, the FEM numerical simulation and experimental methods are applied to analyze the fracture mechanical properties along different directions.
Understanding nanoparticle-mediated nucleation pathways of anisotropic nanoparticles
Laramy, Christine R.; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jones, Matthew R.; O'Brien, Matthew N.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.
2017-09-01
Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural 'labels' to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.
Spring-like motion caused large anisotropic thermal expansion in nonporous M(eim)2 (M = Zn, Cd).
Liu, Zhanning; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran
2017-09-20
Two nonporous coordination polymers were found to possess large anisotropic thermal expansion, which was derived from the flexible structures. A "spring-like" thermal motion was proposed to illustrate the mechanism. Compound Cd(eim) 2 (eim = 2-ethylimidazole) possesses large linear and reversible thermal expansion properties and the emission intensity shows a linear decrease with temperature, making it a candidate for thermo-responsive materials.
Shih, C. Y.; Tsuei, Y. G.; Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.
1988-10-01
A method of using the matrix Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model in the Laplace domain for multiple-reference global parameter identification is presented. This method is particularly applicable to the area of modal analysis where high modal density exists. The method is also applicable when multiple reference frequency response functions are used to characterise linear systems. In order to facilitate the mathematical solution, the Forsythe orthogonal polynomial is used to reduce the ill-conditioning of the formulated equations and to decouple the normal matrix into two reduced matrix blocks. A Complex Mode Indicator Function (CMIF) is introduced, which can be used to determine the proper order of the rational polynomials.
Thermal fluctuations and critical behavior in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.
2013-01-01
Thermal fluctuations in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma are studied by applying standard methods, based on the Einstein rule, to the known thermodynamic potential of the system. It is found in particular that magnetic fluctuations become critical when the anisotropy p ∥ −p ⊥ changes sign. By examining the critical region, additional insight on the equations of state for near-critical anisotropic plasma is obtained
Board meeting frequency and corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting: Evidence from Malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurulyasmin Binti Ju Ahmad
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This study aims at determining the effectiveness of board meeting frequency on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting by public listed companies on the Main Market of Bursa Malaysia. A CSR reporting index consisting of 51 items was developed based on six themes: General, Community, Environment, Human Resource, Marketplace and Other. A content analysis was used to determine the extent of CSR reporting. An Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression was employed in determining the association between board meeting frequency and CSR reporting. The finding of the study is that advising tendency (frequency of board meetings is not associated with CSR reporting. Overall this study strengthens the idea that advising tendency of the board is essential to companies in order to safeguard all stakeholders’ interests. Accordingly, regulators and policymakers should be more stringent in monitoring company’s conformance towards regulations. This study provides a new avenue of knowledge and contributes to the literature on the practices of the board of directors and corporate social responsibility reporting in the context of a semi-developed country
Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying
2015-01-01
-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided
Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalvit, Diego A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milonni, Peter W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.
Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing
Anisotropic modelling of the electrical conductivity of fractured bedrock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flykt, M.J.; Sihvola, A.H.; Eloranta, E.H.
1995-01-01
The electromagnetic characterization of fractured bedrock is of importance when studying the final disposal of nuclear waste. The different types of discontinuities at all scales in rocks can be viewed as an inhomogeneity. In some cases there are reasons to assume the influence of the discontinuities on electrical conductivity is anisotropic in character. The effort has been made to use electromagnetic mixing rules in the definition of an equivalent homogeneous anisotropic conductivity tensor for such fractured rock mass. (author) (16 refs., 6 figs.)
Fourier Multipliers on Anisotropic Mixed-Norm Spaces of Distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cleanthous, Galatia; Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten
2018-01-01
A new general Hormander type condition involving anisotropies and mixed norms is introduced, and boundedness results for Fourier multi- pliers on anisotropic Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces of distributions with mixed Lebesgue norms are obtained. As an application, the continuity of such operat......A new general Hormander type condition involving anisotropies and mixed norms is introduced, and boundedness results for Fourier multi- pliers on anisotropic Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces of distributions with mixed Lebesgue norms are obtained. As an application, the continuity...
A Hardware transverse beam frequency response simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ning, J.; Tan, C.Y.
2005-01-01
We built an electronic instrument that can mimic the transverse beam frequency response. The instrument consists of (1) a time delay circuit with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) which contains a first-in-first-out random assess memory (FIFO RAM) and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); (2) a variable phase shifter circuit which is based on an all pass filter with a bandwidth of 25kHz to 30kHz and (3) a commutating filter which is a nonlinear band pass filter. With this instrument, we can dynamically adjust the betatron tune, the synchrotron tune, and the chromaticity. Using this instrument, we are able to test other beam systems without using actual beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, V. V.; Bormontov, E. N.
2013-01-01
A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material’s anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filippov, V. V., E-mail: wwfilippow@mail.ru [Lipetsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Bormontov, E. N. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)
2013-07-15
A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material's anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Khairul Anuar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A metal-organic-metal (MOM type Schottky diode based on poly (triarylamine (PTAA thin films has been fabricated by using the spin coating method. Investigation of the frequency dependent conductance-voltage (G-V-f and capacitance-voltage (C-V-f characteristics of the ITO/PTAA/Al MOM type diode were carried out in the frequency range from 12 Hz to 100 kHz using an LCR meter at room temperature. The frequency and bias voltage dependent electrical response were determined by admittance-based measured method in terms of an equivalent circuit model of the parallel combination of resistance and capacitance (RC circuit. Investigation revealed that the conductance is frequency and a bias voltage dependent in which conductance continuous increase as the increasing frequency, respectively. Meanwhile, the capacitance is dependent on frequency up to a certain value of frequency (100 Hz but decreases at high frequency (1 – 10 kHz. The interface state density in the Schottky diode was determined from G-V and C-V characteristics. The interface state density has values almost constant of 2.8 x 1012 eV−1cm−2 with slightly decrease by increasing frequencies. Consequently, both series resistance and interface trap density were found to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency dependence of the electrical responses is attributed the distribution density of interface states that could follow the alternating current (AC signal.
Theta frequency background tunes transmission but not summation of spiking responses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhanya Parameshwaran
Full Text Available Hippocampal neurons are known to fire as a function of frequency and phase of spontaneous network rhythms, associated with the animal's behaviour. This dependence is believed to give rise to precise rate and temporal codes. However, it is not well understood how these periodic membrane potential fluctuations affect the integration of synaptic inputs. Here we used sinusoidal current injection to the soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice to simulate background oscillations in the physiologically relevant theta and gamma frequency range. We used a detailed compartmental model to show that somatic current injection gave comparable results to more physiological synaptically driven theta rhythms incorporating excitatory input in the dendrites, and inhibitory input near the soma. We systematically varied the phase of synaptic inputs with respect to this background, and recorded changes in response and summation properties of CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch recordings. The response of the cell was dependent on both the phase of synaptic inputs and frequency of the background input. The probability of the cell spiking for a given synaptic input was up to 40% greater during the depolarized phases between 30-135 degrees of theta frequency current injection. Summation gain on the other hand, was not affected either by the background frequency or the phasic afferent inputs. This flat summation gain, coupled with the enhanced spiking probability during depolarized phases of the theta cycle, resulted in enhanced transmission of summed inputs during the same phase window of 30-135 degrees. Overall, our study suggests that although oscillations provide windows of opportunity to selectively boost transmission and EPSP size, summation of synaptic inputs remains unaffected during membrane oscillations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dineva Petia
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation method (BIEM is proposed for the treatment of crack systems in piezoelectric or anisotropic plane domains loaded by time-harmonic waves. The solution is based on the frequency dependent fundamental solution obtained by Radon transform. The proposed method is flexible, numerically efficient and has virtually no limitations regarding the material type, crack geometry and type of wave loading. The accuracy and convergence of the BIEM solution for stress intensity factors is validated by comparison with existing results from the literature. Simulations for different crack configurations such as coplanar collinear or cracks in arbitrary position to each other are presented and discussed. They demonstrate among others the strong effect of electromechanical coupling, show the frequency dependent shielding and amplification resulting from crack interaction and reveal the sensitivity of the K-factors on the complex influence of both wave-crack and crack-crack interaction.
Takaura, Kana; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Fujii, Naotaka
2016-01-01
Electrocorticography (ECoG) constitutes a powerful and promising neural recording modality in humans and animals. ECoG signals are often decomposed into several frequency bands, among which the so-called high-gamma band (80-250Hz) has been proposed to reflect local cortical functions near the cortical surface below the ECoG electrodes. It is typically assumed that the lower the frequency bands, the lower the spatial resolution of the signals; thus, there is not much to gain by analyzing the event-related changes of the ECoG signals in the lower-frequency bands. However, differences across frequency bands have not been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we recorded ECoG activity from two awake monkeys performing a retinotopic mapping task. We characterized the spatiotemporal profiles of the visual responses in the time-frequency domain. We defined the preferred spatial position, receptive field (RF), and response latencies of band-limited power (BLP) (i.e., alpha [3.9-11.7Hz], beta [15.6-23.4Hz], low [30-80Hz] and high [80-250Hz] gamma) for each electrode and compared them across bands and time-domain visual evoked potentials (VEPs). At the population level, we found that the spatial preferences were comparable across bands and VEPs. The high-gamma power showed a smaller RF than the other bands and VEPs. The response latencies for the alpha band were always longer than the latencies for the other bands and fastest in VEPs. Comparing the response profiles in both space and time for each cortical region (V1, V4+, and TEO/TE) revealed regional idiosyncrasies. Although the latencies of visual responses in the beta, low-, and high-gamma bands were almost identical in V1 and V4+, beta and low-gamma BLP occurred about 17ms earlier than high-gamma power in TEO/TE. Furthermore, TEO/TE exhibited a unique pattern in the spatial response profile: the alpha and high-gamma responses tended to prefer the foveal regions, whereas the beta and low-gamma responses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mietta, José L; Martín Negri, R; Jorge, Guillermo
2014-01-01
A flexible, anisotropic and portable stress sensor (logarithmic reversible response between 40–350 kPa) was fabricated, in which i) the sensing material, ii) the electrical contacts and iii) the encapsulating material, were based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The sensing material is a slide of an anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), formed by dispersing silver-covered magnetite particles (Fe 3 O 4 @Ag) in PDMS and by curing in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Thus, the MRE is a structure of electrically conducting pseudo-chains (needles) aligned in a specific direction, in which electrical conductivity increases when stress is exclusively applied in the direction of the needles. Electrical conductivity appears only between contact points that face each other at both sides of the MRE slide. An array of electrical contacts was implemented based on PDMS-silver paint metallic composites. The array was encapsulated with PDMS. Using Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles also opens up possibilities for a magnetic field sensor, due to the magnetoresistance effects. (paper)
Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A.
1990-01-01
The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
Ishizaki, Takuya; Nagano, Hosei
2015-11-01
A new measurement technique to measure the in-plane thermal diffusivity, the distribution of in-plane anisotropy, and the out-of-plane thermal diffusivity has been developed to evaluate the thermal conductivity of anisotropic materials such as carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs). The measurements were conducted by using a laser-spot-periodic-heating method. The temperature of the sample is detected by using lock-in thermography. Thermography can analyze the phase difference between the periodic heat input and the temperature response of the sample. Two kinds of samples, unidirectional (UD) and cross-ply (CP) pitch-based CFRPs, were fabricated and tested in an atmospheric condition. All carbon fibers of the UD sample run in one direction [90°]. The carbon fibers of the CP sample run in two directions [0°/90°]. It is found that, by using lock-in thermography, it is able to visualize the thermal anisotropy and calculate the angular dependence of the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the CFRPs. The out-of-plane thermal diffusivity of CFRPs was also measured by analyzing the frequency dependence of the phase difference.
3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media
Djebbi, Ramzi
2014-01-01
The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.
Broadband frequency and angular response of a sinusoidal bull’s eye antenna
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beaskoetxea, U; Beruete, M; Navarro-Cía, M
2016-01-01
A thorough experimental study of the frequency and beaming angle response of a metallic leaky-wave bull’s eye antenna working at 77 GHz with a sinusoidally corrugated profile is presented. The beam scanning property of these antennas as frequency is varied is experimentally demonstrated and corroborated through theoretical and numerical results. From the experimental results the dispersion diagram of the n = −1 and n = −2 space harmonics is extracted, and the operation at different frequency regimes is identified and discussed. In order to show the contribution of each half of the antenna, numerical examples of the near-field behavior are also displayed. Overall, experimental results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical and numerical calculations. Finally, an analysis of the beamwidth as a function of frequency is performed, showing that it can achieve values below 1.5° in a fractional bandwidth of 4% around the operation frequency, which is an interesting frequency-stable broadside radiation. (paper)
Time-frequency analysis of railway bridge response in forced vibration
Cantero, Daniel; Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir; Karoumi, Raid
2016-08-01
This paper suggests the use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform in combination with the Modified Littlewood-Paley basis to analyse bridge responses exited by traversing trains. The analysis provides an energy distribution map in the time-frequency domain that offers a better resolution compared to previous published studies. This is demonstrated with recorded responses of the Skidträsk Bridge, a 36 m long composite bridge located in Sweden. It is shown to be particularly useful to understand the evolution of the energy content during a vehicle crossing event. With this information it is possible to distinguish the effect of several of the governing factors involved in the dynamic response including vehicle's speed and axle configuration as well as non-linear behaviour of the structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rađenović Branislav M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper contains results of the three-dimensional simulations of the surface topography evolution of the niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities during isotropic and anisotropic etching modes. The initial rough surface is determined from the experimental power spectral density. The simulation results based on the level set method reveal that the time dependence of the root mean square roughness obeys Family-Viscek scaling law. The growth exponential factors b are determined for both etching modes. Exponential factor for the isotropic etching is 100 times lower than that for the anisotropic etching mode reviling that the isotropic etching is very useful mechanism of the smoothing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. O171037 i br. III45006
Low-loss single-mode hollow-core fiber with anisotropic anti-resonant elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Habib, Selim; Bang, Ole; Bache, Morten
2016-01-01
A hollow-core fiber using anisotropic anti-resonant tubes in thecladding is proposed for low loss and effectively single-mode guidance. We show that the loss performance and higher-order mode suppression is significantly improved by using symmetrically distributed anisotropic antiresonant tubes i...
Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2018-01-16
We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/t_{c})^{2} e^{-t/t$_c$}, where t_{c} = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.
Algebraic collapsing acceleration of the characteristics method with anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.; Roy, R.
2004-01-01
In this paper, the characteristics solvers implemented in the lattice code Dragon are extended to allow a complete anisotropic treatment of the collision operator. An efficient synthetic acceleration method, called Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA), is presented. Tests show that this method can substantially speed up the convergence of scattering source iterations. The effect of boundary conditions, either specular or white reflections, on anisotropic scattering lattice-cell problems is also considered. (author)
A study on the effective hydraulic conductivity of an anisotropic porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seong, Kwan Jae
2002-01-01
Effective hydraulic conductivity of a statistically anisotropic heterogeneous medium is obtained for steady two-dimensional flows employing stochastic analysis. Flow equations are solved up to second order and the effective conductivity is obtained in a semi-analytic form depending only on the spatial correlation function and the anisotropy ratio of the hydraulic conductivity field, hence becoming a true intrinsic property independent of the flow field. Results are obtained using a statistically anisotropic Gaussian correlation function where the anisotropic is defined as the ratio of integral scales normal and parallel to the mean flow direction. Second order results indicate that the effective conductivity of an anisotropic medium is greater than that of an isotropic one when the anisotropy ratio is less than one and vice versa. It is also found that the effective conductivity has upper and lower bounds of the arithmetic and the harmonic mean conductivities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johann Courteaud
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the design and the environmental conditions of a micromachined thermal accelerometer, based on convection effect, are discussed and studied in order to understand the behavior of the frequency response evolution of the sensor. It has been theoretically and experimentally studied with different detector widths, pressure and gas nature. Although this type of sensor has already been intensively examined, little information concerning the frequency response modeling is currently available and very few experimental results about the frequency response are reported in the literature. In some particular conditions, our measurements show a cut-off frequency at −3 dB greater than 200 Hz. By using simple cylindrical and planar models of the thermal accelerometer and an equivalent electrical circuit, a good agreement with the experimental results has been demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Wan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The history of methods for the electromagnetic scattering by an anisotropic sphere has been reviewed. Two main methods, angular expansion method and T-matrix method, which are widely used for the anisotropic sphere, are expressed in Cartesian coordinate firstly. The comparison of those and the further exploration on the scattering field are illustrated afterwards. Based on the most general form concluded by variable separation method, the coupled electric field and magnetic field of radial anisotropic sphere can be derived. By simplifying the condition, simpler case of uniaxial anisotropic media is expressed with confirmed coefficients for the internal and external field. Details of significant phenomenon are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ki Bang
2009-01-01
A theoretical response of an electrostatic gap-closing actuator based on parallel plates to constant and low-frequency accelerations has been derived as a function of the applied acceleration and voltage. The nonlinear equation of motion is obtained in a dimensionless form from the fact that the inertial and damping forces are neglected at a frequency much less than the resonant frequency of the parallel plate, and thereafter the nonlinear equation is solved for the stable inter-plate gap at the acceleration and voltage. From the derived solution, the pull-in acceleration is obtained as a function of the applied voltage, and the pull-in voltage is also expressed as a function of the acceleration. The closed-form solution is validated by comparison with a numerical solution. The theoretical solution is in excellent agreement with the numerical results when the actuator is exposed to a constant acceleration as well as a low-frequency acceleration. The theoretical solution and pull-in acceleration and voltage thus provide guidance to prescribe operational constraints for devices that use the parallel plate actuator and to predict the response of the electrostatic gap-closing parallel plates to constant and low-frequency acceleration
Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.
1996-10-01
The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs
Van der Waals Attraction of Vortices in Anisotropic and Layered Superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blatter, G.; Geshkenbein, V.
1996-01-01
We show that in anisotropic and layered superconductors the fluctuations of vortex lines produce an attractive long-range vortex-vortex interaction of the van der Waals type. This attraction follows from the anisotropic screening properties of the material and has profound consequences for the low-field phase diagram of these materials. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Gransier, Robin; Deprez, Hanne; Hofmann, Michael; Moonen, Marc; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan
2016-05-01
Previous studies have shown that objective measures based on stimulation with low-rate pulse trains fail to predict the threshold levels of cochlear implant (CI) users for high-rate pulse trains, as used in clinical devices. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) can be elicited by modulated high-rate pulse trains, and can potentially be used to objectively determine threshold levels of CI users. The responsiveness of the auditory pathway of profoundly hearing-impaired CI users to modulation frequencies is, however, not known. In the present study we investigated the responsiveness of the auditory pathway of CI users to a monopolar 500 pulses per second (pps) pulse train modulated between 1 and 100 Hz. EASSRs to forty-three modulation frequencies, elicited at the subject's maximum comfort level, were recorded by means of electroencephalography. Stimulation artifacts were removed by a linear interpolation between a pre- and post-stimulus sample (i.e., blanking). The phase delay across modulation frequencies was used to differentiate between the neural response and a possible residual stimulation artifact after blanking. Stimulation artifacts were longer than the inter-pulse interval of the 500pps pulse train for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. As a result the stimulation artifacts could not be removed by artifact removal on the bases of linear interpolation for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. However, artifact-free responses could be obtained in all subjects from recording electrodes contralateral to the CI, when subject specific reference electrodes (Cz or Fpz) were used. EASSRs to modulation frequencies within the 30-50 Hz range resulted in significant responses in all subjects. Only a small number of significant responses could be obtained, during a measurement period of 5 min, that originate from the brain stem (i.e., modulation frequencies in the 80-100 Hz range). This reduced synchronized activity of brain stem
Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: christine.asuncion@u.nus.edu [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)
2016-10-01
Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.
Double-grooved nanofibre surfaces with enhanced anisotropic hydrophobicity.
Liang, Meimei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Jin, Xiangyu; Huang, Chen
2017-11-02
This study reports a facile method for fabricating double-grooved fibrous surfaces. The primary grooves of the surface are formed by aligned fibres, while the secondary grooves are achieved by oriented nanogrooves on the fibre surface. Investigation into the formation mechanism reveals that the nanogrooves can be readily tailored through adjusting the solvent ratio and relative humidity. With this understanding, a variety of polymers have been successfully electrospun into fibres having the same nanogrooved feature. These fibres show high resemblance to natural hierarchical structures, and thereby endowing the corresponding double-grooved surface with enhanced anisotropic hydrophobicity. A water droplet at a parallel direction to the grooves exhibits a much higher contact angle and a lower roll-off angle than the droplet at a perpendicular direction. The application potential of such anisotropic hydrophobicity has been demonstrated via a fog collection experiment, in which the double-grooved surface can harvest the largest amount of water. Moreover, the fabrication method requires neither post-treatment nor sophisticated equipment, making us anticipate that the double-grooved surface would be competitive in areas where a highly ordered surface, a large surface area and an anisotropic hydrophobicity are preferred.
Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-04-30
Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Longitudinal disordering of vortex lattices in anisotropic superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harshman, D.R.; Brandt, E.H.; Fiory, A.T.; Inui, M.; Mitzi, D.B.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.
1993-01-01
Vortex disordering in superconducting crystals is shown to be markedly sensitive to penetration-depth anisotropy. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the muon-spin-rotation spectra for the highly anisotropic Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ material are found to be anomalously narrow and symmetric about the applied field, in a manner consistent with a layered vortex sublattice structure with pinning-induced misalignment between layers. In contrast, spectra for the less-anisotropic YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ compounds taken at comparable fields are broader and asymmetric, showing that the vortex lattices are aligned parallel to the applied-field direction
An anisotropic diffusion approximation to thermal radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Seth R.; Larsen, Edward W.
2011-01-01
This paper describes an anisotropic diffusion (AD) method that uses transport-calculated AD coefficients to efficiently and accurately solve the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations. By assuming weak gradients and angular moments in the radiation intensity, we derive an expression for the radiation energy density that depends on a non-local function of the opacity. This nonlocal function is the solution of a transport equation that can be solved with a single steady-state transport sweep once per time step, and the function's second angular moment is the anisotropic diffusion tensor. To demonstrate the AD method's efficacy, we model radiation flow down a channel in 'flatland' geometry. (author)
Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.; Wood, J. D.; Alducin, D.; Myers, B. D.; Liu, X.; Fisher, B. L.; Santiago, U.; Guest, J. R.; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Oganov, A. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Guisinger, N. P.
2015-12-17
At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.
Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics
Lichtner, Aaron Zev
The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.
Anisotropic swim stress in active matter with nematic order
Yan, Wen; Brady, John F.
2018-05-01
Active Brownian particles (ABPs) transmit a swim pressure {{{\\Pi }}}{{swim}}=n\\zeta {D}{{swim}} to the container boundaries, where ζ is the drag coefficient, D swim is the swim diffusivity and n is the uniform bulk number density far from the container walls. In this work we extend the notion of the isotropic swim pressure to the anisotropic tensorial swim stress {{\\boldsymbol{σ }}}{{swim}}=-n\\zeta {{\\boldsymbol{D}}}{{swim}}, which is related to the anisotropic swim diffusivity {{\\boldsymbol{D}}}{{swim}}. We demonstrate this relationship with ABPs that achieve nematic orientational order via a bulk external field. The anisotropic swim stress is obtained analytically for dilute ABPs in both 2D and 3D systems. The anisotropy, defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum of the three principal stresses, is shown to grow exponentially with the strength of the external field. We verify that the normal component of the anisotropic swim stress applies a pressure {{{\\Pi }}}{{swim}}=-({{\\boldsymbol{σ }}}{{swim}}\\cdot {\\boldsymbol{n}})\\cdot {\\boldsymbol{n}} on a wall with normal vector {\\boldsymbol{n}}, and, through Brownian dynamics simulations, this pressure is shown to be the force per unit area transmitted by the active particles. Since ABPs have no friction with a wall, the difference between the normal and tangential stress components—the normal stress difference—generates a net flow of ABPs along the wall, which is a generic property of active matter systems.
Anisotropic temperature relaxation of plasmas in an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, M.H.A.
1977-01-01
The magnetized kinetic equation derived in an earlier paper (Hassan and Watson, 1977) is used to study the problem of relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures in a magnetized plasma. In the case of anisotropic electron temperature relaxation, it is shown that for small anisotropies the exchange of energy within the electrons between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction determine the relaxation rate. For anisotropic ion temperature relaxation it is shown that the essential mechanism for relaxation is provided by energy transfer between ions and electrons, and that the expression for the relaxation rate perpendicular to the magnetic field contains a significant term proportional to ln eta 0 ln (msub(e)/msub(i)) (where eta 0 = Ωsub(e)/ksub(D)Vsub(e perpendicular to)), in addition to the term proportional to the Coulomb logarithm. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Chen
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the anisotropic magnetoelectric(ME characteristics for the five-layer magnetization-graded multiferroic composites(MGMC. The magnetic anisotropy and corresponding anisotropic magnetomechanical effect, demagnetization effect and magneto-mechanical damping’s dependence on magnetic field direction result in an obvious anisotropic ME coupling effect. The experimental results show that ME voltage coefficient in H33 mode is remarkably larger than the other ones (H11, H31 and H13 over the whole Hdc range. Correspondingly, ∂VME/∂Hdc arrives about 420mV/Oe at an optimum bias magnetic field of 46Oe, which is approximately 40 times larger than that of the previous reported composite. Furthermore, it also demonstrates an obvious angular dependence on dc magnetic field. Taking advantage of these specifications, the MGMC can be used to detect weak dc magnetic field and its spatial orientation.
δ M formalism and anisotropic chaotic inflation power spectrum
Talebian-Ashkezari, A.; Ahmadi, N.
2018-05-01
A new analytical approach to linear perturbations in anisotropic inflation has been introduced in [A. Talebian-Ashkezari, N. Ahmadi and A.A. Abolhasani, JCAP 03 (2018) 001] under the name of δ M formalism. In this paper we apply the mentioned approach to a model of anisotropic inflation driven by a scalar field, coupled to the kinetic term of a vector field with a U(1) symmetry. The δ M formalism provides an efficient way of computing tensor-tensor, tensor-scalar as well as scalar-scalar 2-point correlations that are needed for the analysis of the observational features of an anisotropic model on the CMB. A comparison between δ M results and the tedious calculations using in-in formalism shows the aptitude of the δ M formalism in calculating accurate two point correlation functions between physical modes of the system.
Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian
2013-01-01
A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hy...
Analysis and interpretation of diffraction data from complex, anisotropic materials
Tutuncu, Goknur
Most materials are elastically anisotropic and exhibit additional anisotropy beyond elastic deformation. For instance, in ferroelectric materials the main inelastic deformation mode is via domains, which are highly anisotropic crystallographic features. To quantify this anisotropy of ferroelectrics, advanced X-ray and neutron diffraction methods were employed. Extensive sets of data were collected from tetragonal BaTiO3, PZT and other ferroelectric ceramics. Data analysis was challenging due to the complex constitutive behavior of these materials. To quantify the elastic strain and texture evolution in ferroelectrics under loading, a number of data analysis techniques such as the single peak and Rietveld methods were used and their advantages and disadvantages compared. It was observed that the single peak analysis fails at low peak intensities especially after domain switching while the Rietveld method does not account for lattice strain anisotropy although it overcomes the low intensity problem via whole pattern analysis. To better account for strain anisotropy the constant stress (Reuss) approximation was employed within the Rietveld method and new formulations to estimate lattice strain were proposed. Along the way, new approaches for handling highly anisotropic lattice strain data were also developed and applied. All of the ceramics studied exhibited significant changes in their crystallographic texture after loading indicating non-180° domain switching. For a full interpretation of domain switching the spherical harmonics method was employed in Rietveld. A procedure for simultaneous refinement of multiple data sets was established for a complete texture analysis. To further interpret diffraction data, a solid mechanics model based on the self-consistent approach was used in calculating lattice strain and texture evolution during the loading of a polycrystalline ferroelectric. The model estimates both the macroscopic average response of a specimen and its hkl
Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Qiang; Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun
2010-01-01
We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.
Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Bodnar, G. B.; Kushnerick, L. Ya.; Savich, V. O.
2013-12-01
The bases of method of the space-frequency of the filtering phase allocation of blood plasma pellicle are given here. The model of the optical-anisotropic properties of the albumen chain of blood plasma pellicle with regard to linear and circular double refraction of albumen and globulin crystals is proposed. Comparative researches of the effectiveness of methods of the direct polarized mapping of the azimuth images of blood plasma pcllicle layers and space-frequency polarimetry of the laser radiation transformed by divaricate and holelikc optical-anisotropic chains of blood plasma pellicles were held. On the basis of the complex statistic, correlative and fracta.1 analysis of the filtered frcquencydimensional polarizing azimuth maps of the blood plasma pellicles structure a set of criteria of the change of the double refraction of the albumen chains caused by the prostate cancer was traced and proved.
Anisotropic Interactions between Cold Rydberg Atoms
2015-09-28
AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0002 Anisotropic interactions between cold Rydberg atoms Luis Marcassa INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 09/28...problem with the report +551633739806 Organization / Institution name Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos Grant/Contract Title The full title of the
TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured
Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia
2015-12-01
A generalized and efficient model for rotating anisotropic rotor-bearing systems is presented in this paper with full considerations of the system's anisotropy in stiffness, inertia and damping. Based on the 3D finite element model and the model order reduction method, the effects of anisotropy in shaft and bearings on the forced response and whirling of anisotropic rotor-bearing systems are systematically investigated. First, the coefficients of journal bearings are transformed from the fixed frame to the rotating one. Due to the anisotropy in shaft and bearings, the motion is governed by differential equations with periodically time-variant coefficients. Then, a free-interface complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate efficient reduced-order models (ROM) for the periodically time-variant systems. In order to solve the obtained equations, a variant of Hill's method for systems with multiple harmonic excitations is developed. Four dimensionless parameters are defined to quantify the types and levels of anisotropy of bearings. Finally, the effects of the four types of anisotropy on the forced response and whirl orbits are studied. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of bearings in stiffness splits the sole resonant peak into two isolated ones, but the anisotropy of bearings in damping coefficients mainly affect the response amplitudes. Moreover, the whirl orbits become much more complex when the shaft and bearings are both anisotropic. In addition, the cross-coupling stiffness coefficients of bearings significantly affect the dynamic behaviors of the systems and cannot be neglected, though they are often much smaller than the principle stiffness terms.
Influence of material anisotropy on the hydroelastic response of composite plates in water
Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Young, Yin Lu
2018-03-01
Flexible lightweight plate-like lifting surfaces in external flows have a diverse range of use from propelling and controlling marine and aerospace vehicles to converting wind and ocean energy to electrical energy. Design and analysis of such structures are complex for underwater applications where the water density is much higher than air. The hydrodynamic loads, which vary with the inflow speed, can significantly alter the dynamic response and stability. This paper focuses on the hydroelastic response of composite plates in water. The results show that the dynamics and stability of the structure can be significantly modified by taking advantage of the material anisotropic; on the contrary, careless composite material designs may lead to unwanted dynamic instability failures. The resonance frequencies, divergence speeds, and fluid loss coefficients change with material anisotropy and hydrodynamic loads. The resonance frequencies are much lower in water than in air. The critical divergence speed increases, if the principal fiber direction is oriented towards the inflow. Hydrodynamic damping is shown to be much higher than the material damping, and tend to increase with flow speed and to decrease with increasing modal frequency. The paper derives Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) for sample composite plates in water and use them to predict the motion response when subject to stochastic flow excitations. We show how material anisotropy can be used to passively tailor the plate vibration response spectrum to limit or enhance flow-induced vibrations of the plate depending on the desired applications.
Response of air stagnation frequency to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, Daniel E; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Harshvardhan
2012-01-01
Stagnant atmospheric conditions can lead to hazardous air quality by allowing ozone and particulate matter to accumulate and persist in the near-surface environment. By changing atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns, global warming could alter the meteorological factors that regulate air stagnation frequency. We analyze the response of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) air stagnation index (ASI) to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing using global climate model projections of late-21st century climate change (SRESA1B scenario). Our results indicate that the atmospheric conditions over the highly populated, highly industrialized regions of the eastern United States, Mediterranean Europe, and eastern China are particularly sensitive to global warming, with the occurrence of stagnant conditions projected to increase by 12–25% relative to late-20th century stagnation frequencies (3–18 + days yr −1 ). Changes in the position/strength of the polar jet, in the occurrence of light surface winds, and in the number of precipitation-free days all contribute to more frequent late-21st century air mass stagnation over these high-population regions. In addition, we find substantial inter-model spread in the simulated response of stagnation conditions over some regions using either native or bias corrected global climate model simulations, suggesting that changes in the atmospheric circulation and/or the distribution of precipitation represent important sources of uncertainty in the response of air quality to global warming. (letter)