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Sample records for anion gap bicarbonate

  1. Metabolic Acidosis or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation of a Low Plasma Bicarbonate Using the Urine Anion Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, Daniel; Chin-Theodorou, Jamie; Tucker, Bryan M

    2017-09-01

    Hypobicarbonatemia, or a reduced bicarbonate concentration in plasma, is a finding seen in 3 acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis, chronic respiratory alkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. Hypobicarbonatemia due to chronic respiratory alkalosis is often misdiagnosed as a metabolic acidosis and mistreated with the administration of alkali therapy. Proper diagnosis of the cause of hypobicarbonatemia requires integration of the laboratory values, arterial blood gas, and clinical history. The information derived from the urinary response to the prevailing acid-base disorder is useful to arrive at the correct diagnosis. We discuss the use of urine anion gap, as a surrogate marker of urine ammonium excretion, in the evaluation of a patient with low plasma bicarbonate concentration to differentiate between metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. The interpretation and limitations of urine acid-base indexes at bedside (urine pH, urine bicarbonate, and urine anion gap) to evaluate urine acidification are discussed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anion Gap Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/aniongapbloodtest.html Anion Gap Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? An anion gap blood test is a way ...

  3. Bicarbonate adsorption band of the chromatography for carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Obanawa, Heiichiro; Hata, Masahisa; Sato, Katsuya

    1985-01-01

    The equilibria of bicarbonate ion between two phases were studied for the carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers. The condition of the formation of a bicarbonate adsorption band was quantitatively discussed. The formation of the adsorption band depends on the difference of S-potential which is the sum of the standard redection chemical potentials and L-potential which is the sum of the reduction chemical potential. The isotopic separation factor observed was about 1.012, independent of the concentrations of acid and alkali in the solutions. The isotopic separation factor was considered to be determined by the reaction of bicarbonate ion on anion exchangers and carbon dioxide dissolved in solutions. The enriched carbon isotope whose isotopic abundance ratio ( 13 C/ 12 C) was 1.258 was obtained with the column packed with anion exchangers. (author)

  4. Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Objective: To determine the relationship of mortality to plasma osmolality and anion gap inpatients on haemodialysis.

  5. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. [Disorders of the acid-base balance and the anion gap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Martin; Alscher, Mark Dominik

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of the acid-base balance and pH is critical for the organism. The most important buffer system is CO 2 / HCO 3 - . The kidney controls systemic bicarbonate and therefore the metabolic regulation and the lung is relevant for respiratory regulation by an effective CO 2 elimination. There are four acid-base disorders with two metabolic and two respiratory disorders (acidosis and alkalosis). The anion gap enables a further workup of metabolic acidosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Electric and electrochemical properties of surface films formed on copper in the presence of bicarbonate anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirkiae, P.; Saario, T.; Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-01-01

    Copper is used as an outer shield of cast iron canisters planned for storage of spent nuclear fuel. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) anions on the stability of the copper oxide film. The work consists of a brief literature survey and an experimental part, in which voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc resistance measurements via the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) technique were used. The studies reported in the literature indicated that HCO 3 - ions increase the solubility of copper in the stability region of Cu(II). Thus they render the oxide film formed on copper susceptible to local damage and to localised corrosion at high potentials. Unfortunately, despite the great importance of bicarbonates in copper corrosion, most of the environments used in the electrochemical and corrosion studies are not comparable with repository conditions. In the existing studies either the bicarbonate concentrations or pH of the solutions were too high. In addition, no such studies were available, in which not only the effect of carbonate ions, but also possible synergetic effects of them with other aggressive ions would have been clarified. The voltammetric results of the experimental part of this work point to a bilayer structure of the anodic film on copper in neutral solutions containing HCO 3 - ions. The transport of ionic defects through a thin continuous p-type semiconductor layer was concluded to be the rate limiting step of the anodic oxidation of copper in the stability region of monovalent copper and in the mixed oxide (Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxide) region. Films formed in the divalent copper region did not show well-pronounced semiconductor behaviour. Substantial evidence was found in the voltammetric, CER and impedance results for the increased defectiveness of the anodic film in the Cu(II) region. The oxidation rate of copper in

  9. Electric and electrochemical properties of surface films formed on copper in the presence of bicarbonate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirkiae, P.; Saario, T.; Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Copper is used as an outer shield of cast iron canisters planned for storage of spent nuclear fuel. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) anions on the stability of the copper oxide film. The work consists of a brief literature survey and an experimental part, in which voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc resistance measurements via the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) technique were used. The studies reported in the literature indicated that HCO{sub 3}{sup -} ions increase the solubility of copper in the stability region of Cu(II). Thus they render the oxide film formed on copper susceptible to local damage and to localised corrosion at high potentials. Unfortunately, despite the great importance of bicarbonates in copper corrosion, most of the environments used in the electrochemical and corrosion studies are not comparable with repository conditions. In the existing studies either the bicarbonate concentrations or pH of the solutions were too high. In addition, no such studies were available, in which not only the effect of carbonate ions, but also possible synergetic effects of them with other aggressive ions would have been clarified. The voltammetric results of the experimental part of this work point to a bilayer structure of the anodic film on copper in neutral solutions containing HCO{sub 3}{sup -}ions. The transport of ionic defects through a thin continuous p-type semiconductor layer was concluded to be the rate limiting step of the anodic oxidation of copper in the stability region of monovalent copper and in the mixed oxide (Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxide) region. Films formed in the divalent copper region did not show well-pronounced semiconductor behaviour. Substantial evidence was found in the voltammetric, CER and impedance results for the increased defectiveness of the anodic film in the Cu(II) region. The

  10. Diagnostic Challenge in a Patient with Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene M. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the patient with acute renal failure and elevated anion and osmolal gap is difficult. Differential diagnoses include toxic alcohol ingestion, diabetic or starvation ketoacidosis, or 5-oxoproline acidosis. We present a 76-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who was found at home in a confused state. Laboratory analysis revealed serum pH 6.84, bicarbonate 5.8 mmol/L, pCO2 29 mmHg, anion gap 22.2 mmol/L, osmolal gap 17.4 mOsm/kg, elevated beta-hydroxybutyrate (4.2 mmol/L, random blood sugar 213 mg/dL, creatinine 2.1 mg/dL, and potassium 7.5 mmol/L with no electrocardiogram (EKG changes. Fomepizole and hemodialysis were initiated for presumed ethylene glycol or methanol ingestion. Drug screens returned negative for ethylene glycol, alcohols, and acetaminophen, but there were elevated urine levels of acetone (11 mg/dL. The acetaminophen level was negative, and 5-oxoproline was not analyzed. After 5 days in the intensive care unit (ICU, her mental status improved with supportive care. She was discharged to a nursing facility. Though a diagnosis was not established, our patient’s presentation was likely due to starvation ketosis combined with chronic acetaminophen ingestion. Acetone ingestion is less likely. Overall, our case illustrates the importance of systematically approaching an elevated osmolal and anion gap metabolic acidosis.

  11. Rifampicin Induces Bicarbonate-Rich Choleresis in Rats: Involvement of Anion Exchanger 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Xiaofei; Cai, Yi; Chen, Lihong; Zhang, Weiping; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that rifampicin induced choleresis, the mechanisms of which have not been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying in vivo rifampicin-induced choleresis. In one experimental set, rats were treated chronically with rifampicin on days 1, 3 and 7. Serum and biliary parameters were assayed, and mRNA and protein levels, as well as the locations of the hepatic export transporters were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. Ductular mass was evaluated immunohistochemically. In another experimental set, rats received an acute infusion of rifampicin. The amount of rifampicin in bile was detected using HPLC. Biliary parameters were monitored following intrabiliary retrograde fluxes of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) or 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) in the infused rats. Biliary bicarbonate output increased in parallel to the augmented bile flow in response to rifampicin, and this effect was abolished with intrabiliary administration of DIDS, but not NPPB. The biliary secretion of rifampicin with increases in bile flow and biliary rifampicin in response to different infused doses of the antibiotic show no significant correlations. After rifampicin treatment, the expression level of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) increased, while the location of hepatic transporters did not change. However, RIF treatment did not increase ductular mass significantly. These results indicate that the increase in bile flow induced by rifampicin is mainly due to increased HCO3 (-) excretion mediated by increased AE2 protein expression and activity.

  12. Closing anion gap without insulin in euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Raj Poudel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA occurs in patients with poor carbohydrate intake who continue to take insulin. For these patients are not truly in the insulin-deficient state, intravenous fluid resuscitation alone can correct the ketoacidosis without any risk of hypoglycaemia. Diagnosis of euDKA can be missed in inexperienced settings; therefore, calculating anion gap and measuring ketone levels should be practiced in every sick diabetic patient regardless of glucose levels.

  13. Starvation Ketoacidosis: A Cause of Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a diabetogenic state characterized by relative insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, elevated free fatty acids and increased ketogenesis. In this setting, short period of starvation can precipitate ketoacidosis. This sequence of events is recognized as “accelerated starvation.” Metabolic acidosis during pregnancy may have adverse impact on fetal neural development including impaired intelligence and fetal demise. Short periods of starvation during pregnancy may present as severe anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA. We present a 41-year-old female in her 32nd week of pregnancy, admitted with severe AGMA with pH 7.16, anion gap 31, and bicarbonate of 5 mg/dL with normal lactate levels. She was intubated and accepted to medical intensive care unit. Urine and serum acetone were positive. Evaluation for all causes of AGMA was negative. The diagnosis of starvation ketoacidosis was established in absence of other causes of AGMA. Intravenous fluids, dextrose, thiamine, and folic acid were administered with resolution of acidosis, early extubation, and subsequent normal delivery of a healthy baby at full term. Rapid reversal of acidosis and favorable outcome are achieved with early administration of dextrose containing fluids.

  14. Severe non-anion gap metabolic acidosis induced by topiramate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiber, Joseph R

    2010-05-01

    A non-anion gap acidosis can be induced by topiramate, causing symptomatic dyspnea and confusion. Discuss the pathophysiology of the hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis caused by topiramate, the typical clinical presentation, and the recommended treatment. This case presents a young woman with a clinically significant non-anion gap metabolic acidosis believed to be caused by topiramate. She had been taking the medication for several months without prior adverse effects. Once she began having dyspnea as a respiratory response to the renal tubule acidosis, she had decreased oral intake of food and fluids, which induced a pre-renal acute renal failure that worsened her acidemia. In the Emergency Department, she received intravenous fluids and sodium bicarbonate, and later was intubated for mechanical ventilation due to respiratory fatigue. With the topiramate withdrawn, the patient had a full recovery of her renal function and metabolic acid-base status over the next 72 h. This case serves to increase awareness of this possible adverse effect and the recommended treatment as topiramate becomes more widely used. Topiramate can induce a renal tubule acidosis resulting in a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Recognition of the underlying cause is crucial so that the drug can be withdrawn while supportive care is provided. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells with Improved CO2 Tolerance: Impact of Chemically Induced Bicarbonate Ion Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yu; Yamauchi, Kosuke; Hayashi, Kohei; Okanishi, Takeou; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Kikkawa, Yuuki; Negishi, Takayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Isomura, Takenori; Eguchi, Koichi

    2017-08-30

    Over the last few decades, because of the significant development of anion exchange membranes, increasing efforts have been devoted the realization of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) that operate with the supply of hydrogen generated on-site. In this paper, ammonia was selected as a hydrogen source, following which the effect of conceivable impurities, unreacted NH 3 and atmospheric CO 2 , on the performance of AEMFCs was established. As expected, we show that these impurities worsen the performance of AEMFCs significantly. Furthermore, with the help of in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, it was revealed that the degradation of the cell performance was primarily due to the inhibition of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). This is attributed to the active site occupation by CO-related adspecies derived from (bi)carbonate adspecies. Interestingly, this degradation in the HOR activity is suppressed in the presence of both NH 3 and HCO 3 - because of the bicarbonate ion consumption reaction induced by the existence of NH 3 . Further analysis using in situ ATR-IR and electrochemical methods revealed that the poisonous CO-related adspecies were completely removed under NH 3 -HCO 3 - conditions, accompanied by the improvement in HOR activity. Finally, a fuel cell test was conducted by using the practical AEMFC with the supply of NH 3 -contained H 2 gas to the anode and ambient air to the cathode. The result confirmed the validity of this positive effect of NH 3 -HCO 3 - coexistence on CO 2 -tolerence of AEMFCs. The cell performance achieved nearly 95% of that without any impurity in the fuels. These results clearly show the impact of the chemically induced bicarbonate ion consumption reaction on the realization of highly CO 2 -tolerent AEMFCs.

  16. Common, yet elusive: a case of severe anion gap acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Akanksha; Kishlyansky, Marina; Biso, Sylvia; Patnaik, Soumya; Punjabi, Chitra

    2017-09-01

    Acid-base disturbances are common occurrence in hospitalized patients with life threatening complications. 5-oxoproline has been increasingly recognized as cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA) in association with chronic acetaminophen use. However, laboratory workup for it are not widely available. We report case of 56-year-old female with severe AGMA not attributable to ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis or toxic ingestion. History was significant for chronic acetaminophen use, and laboratory workup negative for all frequent causes of AGMA. Given history and clinical presentation, our suspicion for 5-oxoproline toxicity was high. Our patient required emergent hemodialysis and subsequently improved clinically. With an increasing awareness of the uncommon causes of high AGMA, tests should be more readily available to detect their presence. Physicians should be more vigilant of underdiagnosed causes of AGMA if the presentation and laboratory values do not reflect a common cause, as definitive treatment may vary based on the offending agent.

  17. Anionic salts in the prepartum diet and addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum replacer, and their effects on immunoglobulin G absorption in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Marston, S P; Whitehouse, N L; Van Amburgh, M E; Schwab, C G; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine whether feeding anionic salts to prepartum Holstein cows affected their calf's colostral IgG passive transfer and whether adding sodium bicarbonate to a colostrum replacer (CR) would increase the efficiency of IgG absorption. Forty Holstein cows and their resulting calves were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design based on expected date of calving. Three weeks before the projected due date, cows were placed on 1 of 2 treatments: a diet without anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of +77 mEq/kg) or a diet with anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of -100 mEq/kg). Within 45 min after birth, all calves received 1 dose of a commercially available CR (132g of IgG) without or with supplemental sodium bicarbonate (19.5 g/dose). A half-dose of CR (66g of IgG) and sodium bicarbonate (9.75g) was fed at 6h of age. Calves received milk replacer at 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Blood samples were obtained from calves at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h and were analyzed for IgG concentration. Cows fed the diet supplemented with anionic salts had lower DMI on d 8, 5, 4, and 1 and lower urine pH 2 and 1 wk before parturition compared with cows fed the diet without supplemental anionic salts. Calves born from dams receiving anionic salts had similar IgG concentrations (15.1 vs. 14.4g/L) and apparent efficiency of absorption values (29.2 vs. 28.2%) compared with calves born from dams not fed anionic salts. Calves receiving supplemental sodium bicarbonate in the CR had higher serum IgG concentrations at 12 (14.4 vs. 12.0g/L), 24 (16.3 vs. 13.2g/L), and 48h (14.6 vs. 11.2g/L) and higher apparent efficiency of absorption values (31.2 vs. 26.1%) than calves that did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the CR. Calves receiving sodium bicarbonate also had greater area under the curve values for IgG absorption compared with calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate. There was a trend

  18. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu; Hu, Honghong; Ries, Amber; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  19. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  20. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  1. Refeeding syndrome as an unusual cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Manish; Perry, Alexandra; Lavery, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by hypophosphatemia in the setting of malnutrition. It is commonly seen in patients with anorexia, alcoholism, or malignancy, and it is often a missed diagnosis. Because of the potential morbidity associated with missing the diagnosis of refeeding syndrome, it is important to monitor for this disease in any malnourished patient. We present a case of a 49-year-old male with chronic alcohol abuse who presented for alcohol detoxification and was found to have low phosphate, potassium, and magnesium on presentation, in addition to an elevated anion gap of unclear etiology. After extensive workup to evaluate the cause of his elevated anion gap and worsening of his electrolyte abnormalities despite replenishment, it was felt his symptoms were a result of refeeding syndrome. After oral intake was held and aggressive electrolyte replenishment was performed for 24 hours, the patient's anion gap closed and his electrolyte levels stabilized. This case demonstrates a unique presentation of refeeding syndrome given the patient's profound metabolic acidosis that provided a clue toward his eventual diagnosis. The standard workup for an anion gap metabolic acidosis was negative, and it was not until his refeeding syndrome had been treated that the anion gap closed.

  2. High anion gap metabolic acidosis induced by cumulation of ketones, L- and D-lactate, 5-oxoproline and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heireman, Laura; Mahieu, Boris; Helbert, Mark; Uyttenbroeck, Wim; Stroobants, Jan; Piqueur, Marian

    2017-07-27

    Frequent causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) are lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis and impaired renal function. In this case report, a HAGMA caused by ketones, L- and D-lactate, acute renal failure as well as 5-oxoproline is discussed. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with lowered consciousness, hyperventilation, diarrhoea and vomiting. The patient had suffered uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, underwent gastric bypass surgery in the past and was chronically treated with high doses of paracetamol and fosfomycin. Urosepsis was diagnosed, whilst laboratory analysis of serum bicarbonate concentration and calculation of the anion gap indicated a  HAGMA. L-lactate, D-lactate, β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone and 5-oxoproline serum levels were markedly elevated and renal function was impaired. We concluded that this case of HAGMA was induced by a variety of underlying conditions: sepsis, hyperglycaemia, prior gastric bypass surgery, decreased renal perfusion and paracetamol intake. Risk factors for 5-oxoproline intoxication present in this case are female gender, sepsis, impaired renal function and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, chronic antibiotic treatment with fosfomycin might have played a role in the increased production of 5-oxoproline. Paracetamol-induced 5-oxoproline intoxication should be considered as a cause of HAGMA in patients with female gender, sepsis, impaired renal function or uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, even when other more obvious causes of HAGMA such as lactate, ketones or renal failure can be identified.

  3. Analysis of serum anion gap and osmolal gap in diagnosis and prognosis of acute methanol poisoning: clinical study in 86 patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 787-794 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : serum anion gap * osmolal gap * acute methanol poisoning Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  4. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  5. Bicarbonate uptake via an anion exchange protein is the main mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) under variable pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pamela A; Hurd, Catriona L; Roleda, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera is a widely distributed, highly productive, seaweed. It is known to use bicarbonate (HCO3 (-) ) from seawater in photosynthesis and the main mechanism of utilization is attributed to the external catalyzed dehydration of HCO3 (-) by the surface-bound enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAext ). Here, we examined other putative HCO3 (-) uptake mechanisms in M. pyrifera under pHT 9.00 (HCO3 (-) : CO2  = 940:1) and pHT 7.65 (HCO3 (-) : CO2  = 51:1). Rates of photosynthesis, and internal CA (CAint ) and CAext activity were measured following the application of AZ which inhibits CAext , and DIDS which inhibits a different HCO3 (-) uptake system, via an anion exchange (AE) protein. We found that the main mechanism of HCO3 (-) uptake by M. pyrifera is via an AE protein, regardless of the HCO3 (-) : CO2 ratio, with CAext making little contribution. Inhibiting the AE protein led to a 55%-65% decrease in photosynthetic rates. Inhibiting both the AE protein and CAext at pHT 9.00 led to 80%-100% inhibition of photosynthesis, whereas at pHT 7.65, passive CO2 diffusion supported 33% of photosynthesis. CAint was active at pHT 7.65 and 9.00, and activity was always higher than CAext , because of its role in dehydrating HCO3 (-) to supply CO2 to RuBisCO. Interestingly, the main mechanism of HCO3 (-) uptake in M. pyrifera was different than that in other Laminariales studied (CAext -catalyzed reaction) and we suggest that species-specific knowledge of carbon uptake mechanisms is required in order to elucidate how seaweeds might respond to future changes in HCO3 (-) :CO2 due to ocean acidification. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Recurrent Anion Gap Acidosis: An Unusual Presentation of X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in a Five-year-old Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Joel; Pena, Loren; Sigman, Laura; Waggoner, Darrel

    2010-01-01

    We are presenting a five-year-old male with recurrent anion gap acidosis. During his last admission, it was detected that he had elevated VLCFA and the evaluation discovered that he had X-linked Adrenooleukodystrophy. He had the Addisonian only phenotype without any clinical or radiographic CNS findings. We were unable to find any other reports of this presentation of ALD. If the work-up of recurrent anion gap acidosis does not uncover an etiology, X-linked ALD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  7. The serum anion gap in the evaluation of acid-base disorders: what are its limitations and can its effectiveness be improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Nagami, Glenn T

    2013-11-01

    The serum anion gap has been utilized to identify errors in the measurement of electrolytes, to detect paraproteins, and, most relevant to the nephrologist, to evaluate patients with suspected acid-base disorders. In regard to the latter purpose, traditionally an increased anion gap is identified when it exceeds the upper limit of normal for a particular clinical laboratory measurement. However, because there is a wide range of normal values (often 8-10 mEq/L), an increase in anion concentration can be present in the absence of an increased anion gap. In addition, the type of retained anion can affect the magnitude of the increase in anion gap relative to change in serum [HCO3(-)] being greater with lactic acidosis compared with ketoacidosis. This review examines the methods of calculation of the serum anion gap in textbooks and published literature, the effect of perturbations other than changes in acid-base balance, and its effectiveness in identifying mild and more severe disturbances in acid-base balance. Limitations of the present methods of determining the normal anion gap and change in the anion gap are highlighted. The possibility of identifying the baseline value for individuals to optimize the use of the calculation in the detection of metabolic acidosis is suggested.

  8. The Serum Anion Gap in the Evaluation of Acid-Base Disorders: What Are Its Limitations and Can Its Effectiveness Be Improved?

    OpenAIRE

    Kraut, Jeffrey A.; Nagami, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    The serum anion gap has been utilized to identify errors in the measurement of electrolytes, to detect paraproteins, and, most relevant to the nephrologist, to evaluate patients with suspected acid-base disorders. In regard to the latter purpose, traditionally an increased anion gap is identified when it exceeds the upper limit of normal for a particular clinical laboratory measurement. However, because there is a wide range of normal values (often 8–10 mEq/L), an increase in anion concentrat...

  9. An unusual cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis: pyroglutamic acidemia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jorge E; Htyte, Nay

    2013-01-01

    Pyroglutamic acidemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder, which is usually diagnosed at early ages. The mechanism of action is thought to be glutathione depletion, and its clinical manifestations consist of hemolytic anemia, mental retardation, ataxia, and chronic metabolic acidosis. However, an acquired form has been described in adult patients, who usually present with confusion, respiratory distress, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). It is also associated with many conditions, including chronic acetaminophen consumption. A 68-year-old white male, with chronic acetaminophen use presented to our service on multiple occasions with severe HAGMA. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and required mechanical ventilation and aggressive supportive measures. After ruling out the most frequent etiologies for his acid-base disorder and considering the long history of Tylenol ingestion, his 5-oxiproline (pyroglutamic acid) levels were sent to diagnose pyroglutamic acidemia. Clinicians need to be aware of this cause for metabolic acidosis since it might be a more common metabolic disturbance in compromised patients than would be expected. Subjects with HAGMA that cannot be explained by common causes should be tested for the presence of 5-oxoproline. Discontinuation of the offending drug is therapeutic.

  10. Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-04-01

    Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Successfully Treated Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: Two Cases of a High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis with Intravenous Sodium Thiosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Joshua L.; Miyata, Kana N.; Dadzie, Kobena A.; Gruber, Steven J.; Sulica, Roxana; Winchester, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare and potentially fatal disorder of calcification involving subcutaneous small vessels and fat in patients with renal insufficiency. We describe the successful use of intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) for the treatment of CUA in two patients. The first case was complicated by the development of a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, which was accompanied by a seizure. Both patients had complete wound healing within five months. Although STS should be considered in the treatment of CUA, little is known about pharmacokinetics and additional studies are required to determine dosing strategies to minimize severe potential side effects. PMID:25506005

  12. Band-gap-confinement and image-state-recapture effects in the survival of anions scattered from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Andrew; Shaw, John; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Thumm, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The resonant charge transfer process in the collision of hydrogen anions with metal surfaces is described within a single-active-electron wave-packet propagation method. The ion-survival probability is found to be strongly enhanced at two different surface-specific perpendicular velocities of the ion. It is shown that, while the low-velocity enhancement is induced from a dynamical confinement of the ion level inside the band gap, the high-velocity enhancement is due to electron recapture from transiently populated image states. Results are presented for Li(110), Cu(111), and Pd(111) surfaces.

  13. Tetraethylammonium bicarbonate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3−·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014 Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}. The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring layers, constructing a sandwich-like structure with an interlayer distance of 7.28 Å.

  14. Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H+, HCO3- is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membrane...

  15. Use of the anion gap and intermittent hemodialysis following continuous hemodiafiltration in extremely high dose acute-on-chronic lithium poisoning: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaru, Yohei; Inokuchi, Ryota; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Doi, Kent

    2018-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman intentionally took 40,000 mg of lithium carbonate, and she was transferred to our hospital with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She was diagnosed as having bipolar disorder 10 years ago and was receiving oral lithium therapy. Blood test results on arrival were remarkable for a negative anion gap of -2.1 and later, the serum lithium level turned out to be as high as 15.4 mEq/L. Intubation was required because of disrupted consciousness, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was immediately started in the intensive care unit to obtain constant removal of lithium. After adding intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) twice during the daytime to accelerate the lithium clearance, CHDF became unnecessary on day 4, and she was extubated on day 6 with complete recovery of consciousness. Close monitoring of the patient data showed recovery of the decreased anion gap as indicator of the serum lithium level reduction. On day 36, she was discharged without any complication and sequela. The current case highlighted the effective use of CHDF between IHD sessions to prevent the rebound elevation of lithium and the role of the anion gap as a surrogate marker of serum lithium concentration during the treatment. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Epoxidation of Alkenes with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide and Quaternary Ammonium Bicarbonate Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kegnæs, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A range of solid and liquid catalysts containing bicarbonate anions were synthesised and tested for the epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The combination of bicarbonate anions and quaternary ammonium cations opens up for new catalytic systems that can help to overcome...

  17. Anion gap as a prognostic tool for risk stratification in critically ill patients - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmacher, Stella Andrea; Stones, William

    2016-08-30

    Lactate concentration is a robust predictor of mortality but in many low resource settings facilities for its analysis are not available. Anion gap (AG), calculated from clinical chemistry results, is a marker of metabolic acidosis and may be more easily obtained in such settings. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we investigated whether the AG predicts mortality in adult patients admitted to critical care settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and regional electronic databases from inception until May 2016. Studies conducted in any clinical setting that related AG to in-hospital mortality, in-intensive care unit mortality, 31-day mortality or comparable outcome measures were eligible for inclusion. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. Descriptive meta-analysis was performed and the I(2) test was used to quantify heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was undertaken to identify potential sources of heterogeneity between studies. Nineteen studies reporting findings in 12,497 patients were included. Overall, quality of studies was poor and most studies were rated as being at moderate or high risk of attrition bias and confounding. There was substantial diversity between studies with regards to clinical setting, age and mortality rates of patient cohorts. High statistical heterogeneity was found in the meta-analyses of area under the ROC curve (I(2) = 99 %) and mean difference (I(2) = 97 %) for the observed AG. Three studies reported good discriminatory power of the AG to predict mortality and were responsible for a large proportion of statistical heterogeneity. The remaining 16 studies reported poor to moderate ability of the AG to predict mortality. Subgroup analysis suggested that intravenous fluids affect the ability of the AG to predict mortality. Based on the limited quality of available evidence, a single AG measurement cannot be

  18. What is the clinical significance of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) in high anion gap metabolic acidosis following paracetamol (acetaminophen) exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, D B; Paden, M S; Schwarz, E S; Mullins, M E

    2013-11-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion is the most frequent pharmaceutical overdose in the developed world. Metabolic acidosis sometimes occurs, but the acidosis is infrequently persistent or severe. A growing number of case reports and case series describe high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) following paracetamol exposure with subsequent detection or measurement of 5-oxoproline (also called pyroglutamic acid) in blood, urine, or both. Typically 5-oxoprolinuria or 5-oxoprolinemia occurs in the setting of inborn genetic errors in glutathione metabolism. It is unknown whether 5-oxoprolinemia in the setting of paracetamol exposure reflects an acquired or transient derangement of glutathione metabolism or previously unrecognized genetic defects. We reviewed the published cases of 5-oxoprolinemia or 5-oxoprolinuria among patients with HAGMA in the setting of paracetamol exposure. Our goal was to identify any consistent features that might increase our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of similar cases. We searched the medical literature using PUBMED and EMBASE from inception to 28 August 2013 applying search terms ("oxoproline" OR "pyroglutamic acid" AND "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen"). The intersection of these two searches returned 77 articles, of which 64 involved human subjects and were in English. Two articles, one each in Spanish and Dutch, were reviewed. An additional Google Scholar search was done with the same terms. We manually searched the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify additional four relevant articles. We focused on articles including measured 5-oxoproline concentrations in urine or blood. Twenty-two articles included quantified 5-oxoproline concentrations. Several additional articles mentioned only qualitative detection of 5-oxoproline in urine or blood without concentrations being reported. Our manual reference search yielded four additional articles for a total of 24 articles describing 43 patients

  19. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350) or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cláudio Luís Nina; Ribeiro Filho, José Dantas; Faleiros, Rafael Resende; Dantas, Fernanda Timbó D'el Rey; Amorim, Lincoln da Silva; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following tr...

  20. Is Bicarbonate Therapy Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all. An exception to this is kidney disease, wherein sodium bicarbonate therapy may have a valuable role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  2. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated.

  3. Effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on mortality in patients with lactic acidosis: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death. METHODS: We conducted a single center analysis from May 2011 through April 2012. We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients with lactic acidosis among 207 patients with metabolic acidosis. We used SOFA and APACHE II as severity scores to estimate illness severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis models were used to identify factors that affect mortality. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients with a mean age of 66.1±11.4 years, eighty-three patients (80.6% died from sepsis (61.4%, hepatic failure, cardiogenic shock and other causes. The percentage of sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.006, catecholamine use, ventilator care and male gender were higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. The non-survival group had significantly higher initial and follow-up lactic acid levels, lower initial albumin, higher SOFA scores and APACHE II scores than the survival group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.016 was associated with higher mortality. Independent factors that affected mortality were SOFA score (Exp (B = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12-2.63, p = 0.013 and sodium bicarbonate administration (Exp (B = 6.27, 95% CI = 1.10-35.78, p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis, which has a high mortality rate, should be evaluated in patients with metabolic acidosis. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be prescribed with caution in the case of lactic acidosis because sodium bicarbonate

  4. Studies on the behavior of plutonium(IV) in alkaline carbonate/bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charyulu, M.M.; Satao, K.J.; Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.; Patil, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution ratios of plutonium(IV) between carbonate/bicarbonate media and strong base anion exchanger Amberlyst A-26 have been measured. Distribution ratio values are much higher in case of bicarbonate medium. The equilibrium was also achieved in a very short period in this medium. These data indicate feasibility of recovery of plutonium from such aqueous media using simple ion exchange method. (author)

  5. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  6. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.

  7. Tetra?ethyl?ammonium bicarbonate trihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Heping; Hou, Yimin; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3−·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014 Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}). The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring lay...

  8. Anion gap as bio-diagnostic index in prediction of dystocia, retained placenta and delayed uterine involution of Baladi goat (Field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Raey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anion gap (AG validity in prediction the goat's fertility before parturition.Methods: This study was carried out on two groups (20/20, aged 4–6 years and weighted 30–43 kg of pluriparous pregnant Baladi goats. Animals were subjected to clinical examination, blood sampling to assess serum biochemical parameters in correlation with utrasonographic assessment of uterine horn involution (UTI and placental dropping time after kidding. Unpaired student t–test was used to detect the significance of differences (P<0.05. Correlation coefficient was used to study the relationships among the different assessed parameters, analysis (r was assigned at P<0.05 using the same statistics program.Results: Results revealed that there were highly significant differences (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goats concerning Cl-, K+, Na+, P, Mg2+, Total/Ca2+, albumin, glucose and AG. Goats suffered from dystocia having high levels of HCO3-, cortisol and lactate. Additionally, there were significant differences (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goat does regarding the process of UTI starting from 3rd to 10th wk after parturition. Furthermore, there was a highly significant difference (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goat does concerning their placental dropping time; where, distressed/ abnormally parturated goat having the longest time. Furthermore, there were highly strong correlation coefficient between Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, glucose, albumin, AG and corrected AG concentrations during goat's prepartum period and UTI, placental dropping time.Conclusions: Reporting serum bio-chemical changes and AG during goat's prepartum period could be used as diagnostic tool to judge the normality of parturition process, placental dropping, UTI and genital health, in other word, could be used as predictor for goat's fertility prior to parturition.

  9. Copper nano composites functionalized by bis-benzimidazole diamide ligand: Effect of size, co-anion dependent conductivity and band gap studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Manisha; Mohapatra, Subash Chandra; Ahmad, Sharif

    2012-01-01

    Copper (I) and copper (II) nano composites capped with a bis-benzimidazole diamide ligand were prepared by reverse micelle method and characterized using CHNS, FTIR, 1 H NMR, TEM and DLS studies. All particles were spherical ranging between 10 and 70 nm. They displayed a quasi reversible redox wave due to the Cu (II)/Cu (I) reduction process. The E g1 ′ values shift anodically as NO 3 − − − . Electrochemical HOMO and LUMO band gap (E g1 ′ ) for the nano composites were +1.80 (NO 3 − ), +2.80 (Cl − ) and +4.10 (SCN − ) eV, respectively. However, the optical band gap (E g1 ) for the nano composites was calculated from their absorption edges and lie between 1.77 and 4.13 eV. Fluorescence studies reveal that nano composites in themselves behave as an enhancer and quencher in respect to ligand, Quantum yield (φ) is varying from 0.008 to 0.02 photon. The activation energies range from 34 to 54 kJ mol −1 and are quite low in comparison to that of the free bis-benzimidazole diamide ligand (137 kJ mol −1 ). The lower activation energies further re-emphasize the nano size of these composites. At room temperature, the dc conductivity lies between 1 × 10 −4 –9.33 × 10 −4 S cm −1 [NO 3 − > SCN − > Cl − ] indicating them to be on the semiconductor insulator interface. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and the ac conductivity were measured for all nano at room temperature and below the room temperature for the nano composite containing nitrate as co-anion. The conductivity was found to follow the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism; the exponent factor (s) varies from 0.5 to 1. -- Highlights: ► Nano composites of copper, capped by bis benzimidazole diamide ligand. ► Such copper nano composites have not been used in conductivity studies before. ► Conductance studies for these thus make this work unique. ► The dc conductivity of these composites is much higher than normal.

  10. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  11. Three-Stream, Bicarbonate-Based Hemodialysis Solution Delivery System Revisited: With an Emphasis on Some Aspects of Acid-Base Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Susie Q; Kohn, Orly F; Cheng, Yuk-Lun; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Ing, Todd S

    2017-06-01

    Hemodialysis patients can acquire buffer base (i.e., bicarbonate and buffer base equivalents of certain organic anions) from the acid and base concentrates of a three-stream, dual-concentrate, bicarbonate-based, dialysis solution delivery machine. The differences between dialysis fluid concentrate systems containing acetic acid versus sodium diacetate in the amount of potential buffering power were reviewed. Any organic anion such as acetate, citrate, or lactate (unless when combined with hydrogen) delivered to the body has the potential of being converted to bicarbonate. The prescribing physician aware of the role that organic anions in the concentrates can play in providing buffering power to the final dialysis fluid, will have a better knowledge of the amount of bicarbonate and bicarbonate precursors delivered to the patient. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Carbonate and Bicarbonate Ion Transport in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    comparable assumptions, a similar equation can be derived starting with the Nernst -Planck equation . σ = ∑ σi = ∑ F2z2i RT (ε− ε0)q D0i 1 + δi Ci [1] Using Eq...an appropriate ion-membrane diffusion coefficient. Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic...Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic conductivity of the membrane in different counter ion forms

  13. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  14. Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed dur- .... total VCO2 was < 3 % and the average respiratory quotient ..... a part of the nonrespiratory losses of 13CO2 occur to this.

  15. Apparent Bicarbonate Space in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto, Horacio A.; Penna, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The amount needed to change the concentration of a solute requires the knowledge of its volume of distribution in the solution. Electrolytes that do not participate in active metabolic reactions have a fixed volume of distribution that corresponds to the volume of water in which they solubilize. Bicarbonate infusion is used to correct hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Its volume of distribution (bicarbonate space) changes with its participation in the blood buffer systems. In other words, it...

  16. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  17. The use of elements of the Stewart model (Strong Ion Approach) for the diagnostics of respiratory acidosis on the basis of the calculation of a value of a modified anion gap (AGm) in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławuta, P; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Cekiera, A

    2015-01-01

    Apart from the HH equation, the acid-base balance of an organism is also described by the Stewart model, which assumes that the proper insight into the ABB of the organism is given by an analysis of: pCO2, the difference of concentrations of strong cations and anions in the blood serum - SID, and the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids - Acid total. The notion of an anion gap (AG), or the apparent lack of ions, is closely related to the acid-base balance described according to the HH equation. Its value mainly consists of negatively charged proteins, phosphates, and sulphates in blood. In the human medicine, a modified anion gap is used, which, including the concentration of the protein buffer of blood, is, in fact, the combination of the apparent lack of ions derived from the classic model and the Stewart model. In brachycephalic dogs, respiratory acidosis often occurs, which is caused by an overgrowth of the soft palate, making it impossible for a free air flow and causing an increase in pCO2--carbonic acid anhydride The aim of the present paper was an attempt to answer the question whether, in the case of systemic respiratory acidosis, changes in the concentration of buffering ions can also be seen. The study was carried out on 60 adult dogs of boxer breed in which, on the basis of the results of endoscopic examination, a strong overgrowth of the soft palate requiring a surgical correction was found. For each dog, the value of the anion gap before and after the palate correction procedure was calculated according to the following equation: AG = ([Na+ mmol/l] + [K+ mmol/l])--([Cl- mmol/l]+ [HCO3- mmol/l]) as well as the value of the modified AG--according to the following equation: AGm = calculated AG + 2.5 x (albumins(r)--albumins(d)). The values of AG calculated for the dogs before and after the procedure fell within the limits of the reference values and did not differ significantly whereas the values of AGm calculated for the dogs before and after

  18. Studies on bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; C-H, To; Pelis, Ryan M.; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Bicarbonate transport plays a role in aqueous humor (AH) secretion. Here, we examined bicarbonate transport mechanisms and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE). Methods Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) was measured in cultured porcine NPE loaded with BCECF. Anion exchanger (AE), sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and CA were examined by RT-PCR and immunolocalization. AH secretion was measured in the intact porcine eye using a fluorescein dilution technique. Results Anion exchanger AE2, CAII and CAIV were abundant in the NPE layer. In cultured NPE superfused with a CO2/HCO3− free HEPES buffer, exposure to a CO2/HCO3−-containing buffer caused a rapid acidification followed by a gradual pHi increase. Subsequent removal of CO2/HCO3− with HEPES buffer caused rapid alkalinization followed by gradual pHi decrease. The rate of gradual alkalinization after addition of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by sodium-free conditions, DIDS, CA inhibitors acetazolamide and methazolamide but not by Na-H exchange inhibitor dimethylamiloride or low chloride buffer. The phase of gradual acidification after removal of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by DIDS, acetazolamide, methazolamide and by low chloride buffer. DIDS reduced baseline pHi. In the intact eye, DIDS and acetazolamide reduced AH secretion by 25% and 44% respectively. Conclusion The results suggest the NPE uses a Na+-HCO3− cotransporter to import bicarbonate and a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger to export bicarbonate. CA influences the rate of bicarbonate transport. AE2, CAII and CAIV are enriched in the NPE layer of the ciliary body and their coordinated function may contribute to AH secretion by effecting bicarbonate transport into the eye. PMID:19011010

  19. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  20. Serum bicarbonate and dehydration severity in gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Narchi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of bicarbonate was measured in serum samples from 106 children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. A concentration less than 22 mmol/l was more common in children with severe dehydration, but the magnitude of bicarbonate reduction was not significantly different with increasing degrees of dehydration. Doctors should not rely on the serum bicarbonate concentration when assessing fluid deficit.



  1. Bicarbonate uptake by marine Crenarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuchter, C.; Schouten, S.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Biphytanyl membrane lipids and 16S rRNA sequences derived from marine Crenarchaeota were detected in shallow North Sea surface water in February 2002. To investigate the carbon fixation mechanism of these uncultivated archaea in situ 13C bicarbonate tracer experiments were performed with this water

  2. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  3. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  4. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Novis Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1 analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2 avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3 analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4 fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1 analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2 comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3 critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized

  5. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

  6. [Involvement of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, T V

    2015-01-01

    An important role of carbonate/bicarbonate ions has been recognized in the superoxide generating reaction of adrenaline autooxidation in an alkaline buffer (a model of quinoid adrenaline oxidation in the body). It is suggested that these ions are directly involved not only in formation of superoxide anion radical (О(2)(-)) but also other radicals derived from the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. Using various buffers it was shown that the rate of accumulation of adrenochrome, the end product of adrenaline oxidation, and the rate of О(2)(-)· formation depend on concentration of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the buffer and that these ions significantly accelerate adrenaline autooxidation thus demonstrating prooxidant properties. The detectable amount of diformazan, the product of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, was significantly higher than the amount of adrenochrome formed; taking into consideration the literature data on О(2)(-)· detection by NBT it is suggested that adrenaline autooxidation is accompanied by one-electron reduction not only of oxygen dissolved in the buffer and responsible for superoxide formation but possible carbon dioxide also dissolved in the buffer as well as carbonate/bicarbonate buffer components leading to formation of corresponding radicals. The plots of the dependence of the inhibition of adrenochrome and diformazan formation on the superoxide dismutase concentration have shown that not only superoxide radicals are formed during adrenaline autooxidation. Since carbonate/bicarbonate ions are known to be universally present in the living nature, their involvement in free radical processes proceeding in the organism is discussed.

  7. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 μM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 μM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  8. Contribution of various metabolites to the "unmeasured" anions in critically ill patients with metabolic acidosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Terpstra, A.M.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The physicochemical approach, described by Stewart to investigate the acid-base balance, includes the strong ion gap (SIG), a quantitative measure of "unmeasured" anions, which strongly correlates to the corrected anion gap. The chemical nature of these anions is for the most part

  9. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  10. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 ...

  11. Determinação de eletrólitos, gases sanguíneos, osmolalidade, hematócrito, hemoglobina, base titulável e anion gap no sangue venoso de equinos destreinados submetidos a exercício máximo e submáximo em esteira rolante Determination of electrolytes, hemogasometry, osmalility, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base concentration, and anion gap in detrained equines submitted a maximum and submaximum exercise on treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações nos eletrólitos, nos gases sanguíneos, na osmolalidade, no hematócrito, na hemoglobina, nas bases tituláveis e no anion gap no sangue venoso de 11 equinos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe, destreinados, submetidos a exercício máximo e submáximo em esteira rolante. Esses animais passaram por período de três dias de adaptação à esteira rolante e posteriormente realizaram dois exercícios testes, um de curta e outro de longa duração. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue venoso antes, imediatamente após e 30 minutos após o término dos exercícios. Após a realização do exercício máximo, observou-se diminuição significativa no pHv, na PvCO2, no HCO3, na cBase além de elevação no AG. Detectou-se também aumento do K+, do Ht e da Hb. Ao final do exercício submáximo, constatou-se somente aumento significativo no pHv, na cBase, na SatvO2 e na PvO2. Conclui-se que os equinos submetidos a exercício máximo desenvolveram acidose metabólica e alcalose respiratória compensatória, hipercalemia e aumento nos valores de hematócrito e hemoglobina. No exercício submáximo, os animais apresentaram alcalose metabólica hipoclorêmica e não ocorreram alterações no equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico.Changes in electrolytes, blood gas, osmolality, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base concentration, and anion gap in 11 detrained Arabian horses during exercise on a high-speed treadmill were investigated. After a period of three days of adaptation on the rolling mat, the animals were submitted to two exercises: one of short (maximum and other of long duration (submaximum. Venous blood samples were obtained right before, and 30 minutes after the exercise. After the maximum exercise, it was observed a significative decrease in pHv, PvCO2, HCO3, and cBase and an increase in AG. It was also observed hypercalemia and increase in Ht and Hb. At the final of the submaximum exercise, it was observed significative increase in pH, c

  12. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product....

  15. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  16. The anion exchanger Ae2 is required for enamel maturation in mouse teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Mulder, L.; Mardones, P.; Medina, J.F.; Kellokumpu, S.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Everts, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate intracellular pH is exchanging bicarbonate for Cl-. We tested the hypothesis that in ameloblasts the anion exchanger-2 (Ae2) is involved in pH regulation during maturation stage amelogenesis. Quantitative X-ray microprobe mineral content

  17. The anion exchanger Ae2 is required for enamel maturation in mouse teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D. M.; Bronckers, A. L. J. J.; Mulder, L.; Mardones, P.; Medina, J. F.; Kellokumpu, S.; Oude Elferink, R. P. J.; Everts, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate intracellular pH is exchanging bicarbonate for Cl(-). We tested the hypothesis that in ameloblasts the anion exchanger-2 (Ae2) is involved in pH regulation during maturation stage amelogenesis. Quantitative X-ray microprobe mineral content

  18. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  19. Anions in Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  20. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Bicarbonate utilization by leaf protoplasts from Potamogeton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Leaves from the submerged angiosperm P. lucens are able to assimilate bicarbonate. These leaves behave polarly: during bicarbonate utilization protons (H + ) are excreted by the cells of the lower epidermis, while hydroxyl (OH - ) ions are excreted by the upper epidermal cells. It has been proposed that acidification of the apoplast is a prerequisite for bicarbonate utilization. To test this hypothesis 14 C fixation by protoplasts was determined at different pH values. Also experiments, using the isotopic disequilibrium technique were performed. They showed that at pH values > 8, bicarbonate is a major carbon source for photosynthesis in protoplasts, despite the absence of cell walls and polarity. At pH values around 6, the rate of 14 C-fixation in protoplasts equals that of intact leaves. At pH values > 8, however, intact leaves show a higher rate. From this, and other experiments, the authors conclude that at least 2 processes contribute to bicarbonate utilization in P. lucens leaves: active transport (H + -HCO 3 - symport?) and acidification of the apoplast resulting in the conversion of bicarbonate into CO 2 . Polarity may increase the efficiency of both

  2. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  3. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J.; Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev ) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize tha...

  4. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  5. Novel Fragmentation Pathways of Anionic Adducts of Steroids Formed by Electrospray Anion Attachment Involving Regioselective Attachment, Regiospecific Decompositions, Charge-Induced Pathways, and Ion-Dipole Complex Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannulu, Nalaka S.; Cole, Richard B.

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of several bifunctional neutral steroids, 5-α-pregnane diol (5-α-pregnane-3α-20βdiol), estradiol (3,17α-dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratriene), progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione), lupeol (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene), pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one), and pregnenolone acetate (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one acetate) was accomplished by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) employing adduct formation with various anions: fluoride, bicarbonate, acetate, and chloride. Fluoride yielded higher abundances of anionic adducts and more substantial abundances of deprotonated molecules compared with other investigated anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor [M + anion]- adducts of these steroids revealed that fluoride adduct [M + F]- precursors first lose HF to produce [M - H]- and then undergo consecutive decompositions to yield higher abundances of structurally-informative product ions than the other tested anions. In addition to charge-remote fragmentations, the majority of CID pathways of estradiol are deduced to occur via charge-induced fragmentation. Most interestingly, certain anions exhibit preferential attachment to a specific site on these bifunctional steroid molecules, which we are calling "regioselective anion attachment." Regioselective anion attachment is evidenced by subsequent regiospecific decomposition. Regioselective attachment of fluoride (and acetate) anions to low (and moderate) acidity functional groups of pregnenolone, respectively, is demonstrated using deuterated compounds. Moreover, the formation of unique intermediate ion-dipole complexes leading to novel fragmentation pathways of fluoride adducts of pregnenolone acetate, and bicarbonate adducts of d4-pregnenolone, are also discussed.

  6. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish - why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Rod W.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp

    2002-01-01

    Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange......Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange...

  7. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 18...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  11. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Alkaline-earth metal bicarbonates as lixiviants for uranium (VI) under CO2 sparging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, F.; White, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that uranium is significantly soluble in solutions of alkaline-earth metal bicarbonates -particularly those of magnesium and calcium. A system has been proposed by previous authors in which milled uranium ore is leached in a medium to which an oxidizing agent, the metal hydroxide and CO 2 are added. The alkaline-earth metal hydroxides are much more readily soluble in this medium than the corresponding carbonates. Magnesium and calcium bicarbonates are quite soluble in aqueous media at neutral or nearly neutral pH. The pH determines the relative quantities of bicarbonate and carbonate ions in the system. Even if the pH is quite low, small amounts of carbonate ion are present that can complex with the uranyl ion to produce anionic uranyl complexes. Both UO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 2- and UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- complexes are known and both have a very high stability constant. Despite the appearance of several patents on the use of alkaline-earth metal ions in carbonate media as uranium lixiviants, little theoretical or experimental work on the system has been published. In view of the potential of these systems for cheap, large-scale dissolution of uranium the present contribution will discuss the theory behind this method and provide some experimental data to verify the theoretical treatment. (author)

  13. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...... be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on icarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa....

  14. Adsorption Equilibrium Equation of Carboxylic Acids on Anion-Exchange Resins in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Urano, Kohei; Kokado, Naohiro; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni

    2001-06-01

    The adsorption of propionic acid and benzoic acid on anion-exchange resins was analyzed, and an adsorption equilibrium equation of carboxylic acids was proposed. The adsorption of carboxylic acids on the anion-exchange resins was considered to be the sum of the physical adsorption of the molecule and the ion-exchange adsorption of the ion, which were independent of each other. For the physical adsorption of carboxylic acids, it was conformed to the Freundlich equation. For the ion-exchange adsorption of carboxylate ions, the equilibrium equation corresponded well with the experimental results for wide ranges of concentration and pH. The equation contains a selectivity coefficient S(A)(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the carboxylate ion, which was considered essentially a constant. The influent of the bicarbonate ion from carbon dioxide in air could also be expressed by the additional equilibrium equation with the selectivity coefficient S(HCO(3))(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the bicarbonate ion. Consequently, an adsorption equilibrium equation can estimate the equilibrium adsorption amounts. Even the effect of a coexisting bicarbonate ion is inconsequential when the parameters of the Freundlich isotherm equation and the selectivity coefficients of the carboxylate ion and the bicarbonate ion in each resin are determined in advance. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Integrated bicarbonate-form ion exchange treatment and regeneration for DOC removal: Model development and pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Boyer, Treavor H

    2017-05-15

    The application of bicarbonate-form anion exchange resin and sodium bicarbonate salt for resin regeneration was investigated in this research is to reduce chloride ion release during treatment and the disposal burden of sodium chloride regeneration solution when using traditional chloride-form ion exchange (IX). The target contaminant in this research was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The performance evaluation was conducted in a completely mixed flow reactor (CMFR) IX configuration. A process model that integrated treatment and regeneration was investigated based on the characteristics of configuration. The kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed to obtain required parameters for the process model. The pilot plant tests were conducted to validate the model as well as provide practical understanding on operation. The DOC concentration predicted by the process model responded to the change of salt concentration in the solution, and showed a good agreement with pilot plant data with less than 10% difference in terms of percentage removal. Both model predictions and pilot plant tests showed over 60% DOC removal by bicarbonate-form resin for treatment and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration, which was comparable to chloride-form resin for treatment and sodium chloride for regeneration. Lastly, the DOC removal was improved by using higher salt concentration for regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bicarbonate Balance and Prescription in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2017-03-01

    The optimal approach to managing acid-base balance is less well defined for patients receiving hemodialysis than for those receiving peritoneal dialysis. Interventional studies in hemodialysis have been limited and inconsistent in their findings, whereas more compelling data are available from interventional studies in peritoneal dialysis. Both high and low serum bicarbonate levels associate with an increased risk of mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis, but high values are a marker for poor nutrition and comorbidity and are often highly variable from month to month. Measurement of pH would likely provide useful additional data. Concern has arisen regarding high-bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis-induced alkalemia, but whether these truly cause harm remains to be determined. The available evidence is insufficient for determining the optimal target for therapy at this time. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  18. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E

    2011-01-07

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

  19. Reducing nitrogen crossover in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells by using adjacent anion exchange membranes and anion exchange resin

    KAUST Repository

    Wallack, Maxwell J.; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial reverse electrodialysis cells (MRECs) combine power generation from salinity gradient energy using reverse electrodialysis (RED), with power generation from organic matter using a microbial fuel cell. Waste heat can be used to distill ammonium bicarbonate into high (HC) and low salt concentration (LC) solutions for use in the RED stack, but nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber must be minimized to avoid ammonia loses, and foster a healthy microbial community. To reduce nitrogen crossover, an additional low concentration (LC) chamber was inserted before the anode using an additional anion exchange membrane (AEM) next to another AEM, and filled with different amounts of anion or cation ion exchange resins. Addition of the extra AEM increased the ohmic resistance of the test RED stack from 103 Ω cm2 (1 AEM) to 295 Ω cm2 (2 AEMs). However, the use of the anion exchange resin decreased the solution resistance of the LC chamber by 74% (637 Ω cm2, no resin; 166 Ω cm2 with resin). Nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber was reduced by up to 97% using 50% of the chamber filled with an anion exchange resin compared to the control (no additional chamber). The added resistance contributed by the use of the additional LC chamber could be compensated for by using additional LC and HC membrane pairs in the RED stack.

  20. Anion transport and GABA signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andreas Huebner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas activation of GABAA receptors by GABA usually results in a hyperpolarizing influx of chloride into the neuron, the reversed chloride driving force in the immature nervous system results in a depolarizing efflux of chloride. This GABAergic depolarization is deemed to be important for the maturation of the neuronal network. The concept of a developmental GABA switch has mainly been derived from in vitro experiments and reliable in vivo evidence is still missing. As GABAA receptors are permeable for both chloride and bicarbonate, the net effect of GABA also critically depends on the distribution of bicarbonate. Whereas chloride can either mediate depolarizing or hyperpolarizing currents, bicarbonate invariably mediates a depolarizing current under physiological conditions. Intracellular bicarbonate is quickly replenished by cytosolic carbonic anhydrases. Intracellular bicarbonate levels also depend on different bicarbonate transporters expressed by neurons. The expression of these proteins is not only developmentally regulated but also differs between cell types and even subcellular regions. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about the role of some of these transporters for brain development and brain function.

  1. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  2. Photodetachment of Isolated Bicarbonate Anion: Electron Binding Energy of HCO3-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue B.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-04-29

    We report the first direct photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopy of HCO3 in the gas phase under low temperature conditions. The observed photoelectron spectra are complicated due to excitations of manifolds in both vibrational and electronic states. A long and single vibrational progression with a frequency of 530 ± 20 cm-1 is partially resolved in the threshold of the T=20 K, 266 nm spectrum. The adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) of HCO3, or in other words the electron affinity (EA) of neutral HCO3, is experimentally determined from the (0-0) transition to be 3.680 ± 0.015 eV. High-level ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of theory produce an anharmonic frequency of 546 cm-1 for HCO3 and a value of 3.62 eV for the (0,0) transition, both in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values.

  3. Determination of mycophenolic acid in mest products using mixed mode reversed phase-anion exchange clean-up and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A method for determination of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in dry-cured ham, fermented sausage and liver pate is described. MPA was extracted from meat with bicarbonate-acetonitrile, further cleaned-up by mixed mode reversed phase-anion exchange and detected using a LC-MS system with electrospray...

  4. Current status of bicarbonate in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis was one of the earliest complications to be recognized and explained pathologically in patients with CKD. Despite the accumulated evidence of deleterious effects of acidosis, treatment of acidosis has been tested very little, especially with respect to standard clinical outcomes. On the basis of fundamental research and small alkali supplementation trials, correcting metabolic acidosis has a strikingly broad array of potential benefits. This review summarizes the published evidence on the association between serum bicarbonate and clinical outcomes. We discuss the role of alkali supplementation in CKD as it relates to retarding kidney disease progression, improving metabolic and musculoskeletal complications. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J; Lewis, Michele D; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B; Amann, Stephen T; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-07-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  6. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica LaRusch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF, a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002. Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005 and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001. WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in

  7. The phosphaturic effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Milford; Brazeau, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Urinary inorganic phosphate excretion was studied before and during the administration of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs that were not given infusions of phosphate. The excretion fraction of filtered phosphate increased after sodium bicarbonate or acetazolamide was given. This phosphaturia was attributed to decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate consequent to alkalinization of either tubular urine or cells. PMID:5645865

  8. Determining serum bicarbonate; a simple syringe titrator and colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOONE, C W; FIELD, J B

    1953-12-01

    The use of a tuberculin syringe as a burette has made possible an easy bedside technique for the determination of serum bicarbonate. By combining it with the use of a simple colorimeter, a relatively untrained person can do numerous bicarbonate determinations with a high degree of accuracy. The same technique also lends itself to other colorimetric clinical procedures such as determination of gastric acidity.

  9. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means...

  10. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrouz Ghadimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 . The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO 3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU or hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO 3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients (86% received NaHCO 3 . Total NaHCO 3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0-535 mEq per patient. Total NaHCO 3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001, minimum serum bicarbonate (r = −0.40, P < 0.001, maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007, duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002, and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007. Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO 3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Conclusion: Routine administration of NaHCO 3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO 3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO 3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO 3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes.

  11. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution by Bicarbonate Modified Coconut Oilcake Residue Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumari, N; Srinivasan, K

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption of Ni (II) on modified coconut oilcake residue carbon (bicarbonate treated coconut oilcake residue carbon-BCORC) was employed for the removal of Ni (II) from water and wastewater. The influence of various factors such as agitation time, pH and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity has been studied. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In order to understand the reaction mechanism, kinetic data has been studied using reversible first order rate equation. Similar studies were carried out using commercially available activated carbon--CAC, for comparison purposes. Column studies were conducted to obtain breakthrough capacities of BCORC and CAC. Common anions and cations affecting the removal of Ni (II) on both the carbons were also studied. Experiments were also done with wastewater containing Ni (II), to assess the potential of these carbons.

  12. Anionic surface binders

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja; Hočevar Nežka

    2004-01-01

    The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When opt...

  13. Formation of interstellar anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Maria Luisa

    2012-05-01

    Formation of interstellar anions: M.L. Senent. The recent detection of negative charged species in the ISM1 has instigated enthusiasm for anions in the astrophysical community2. Many of these species are new and entail characterization. How they are formed in astrophysical sources is a question of major relevance. The anion presence in ISM was first predicted theoretically on the basis of electron affinities and on the negative linear chain molecular stabilities. Although very early, they were considered in astrochemical models3-4, their discovery is so recent because their abundances seem to be relatively low. These have to be understood in terms of molecular stabilities, reaction probabilities and radiative and collisional excitations. Then, we present our theoretical work on even carbon chains type Cn and CnH (n=2,4,6) focused to the understanding of anion abundances. We use highly correlated ab initio methods. We performed spectroscopic studies of various isomers that can play important roles as intermediates5-8. In previous papers9-10, we compared C2H and C2H- collisional rates responsible for observed line intensities. Actually, we study hydrogen attachment (Cn +H → CnH and Cn- +H → CnH-) and associative detachment processes (Cn- +H → CnH +e-) for 2, 4 and 6 carbon atom chains11. [1] M.C.McCarthy, C.A.Gottlieb, H.Gupta, P.Thaddeus, Astrophys.J, 652, L141 (2006) [2] V.M.Bierbaum, J.Cernicharo, R.Bachiller, eds., 2011, pp 383-389. [3] A. Dalgarno, R.A. Mc Cray, Astrophys.J,, 181, 95 (1973) [4] E. Herbst E., Nature, 289, 656 (1981); [5] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, P.Rosmus, M.Hochlaf, J.Chem.Phys., 124, 234304 (2006) [6] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, Astrophys. J. , 708, 1452(2010) [7] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, J.Phys.Chem.A, 113, 12404 (2009) [8] D. Hammoutene, M.Hochlaf, M.L.Senent, submitted. [9] A. Spielfiedel, N. Feautrier, F. Najar, D. ben Abdallah, F. Dayou, M.L. Senent, F. Lique, Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc., 421, 1891 (2012) [10] F.Dumouchel, A, Spielfieldel , M

  14. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence...... or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release...

  15. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiper, J. Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  16. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  17. Unusual radiolytic behavior of neptunium ions in aqueous bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Gogolev, A.V.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Behavior of neptunium ions in carbonate and bicarbonate aqueous solutions saturated with air, oxygen or argon during gamma radiation ( 60 Co) by doses up to 3 kGy at dose rates 10 and 25 Gy/min was studied by the method of spectrophotometry. It is shown that in neptunium (5) bicarbonate solution nearly complete (95%) neptunium ion oxidation occurs under the effect of radiation, whereas no oxidation is observed in carbonate solution. Radiation-chemical yield of neptunium (5) oxidation and stationary concentration of neptunium (6) ions depend on concentration of bicarbonate-ions. Explanation to the results obtained is made from the viewpoint of potential radiolytic reactions [ru

  18. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange ...

  19. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high......H 6.9 v 6.8; p>0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mu mol/h; pstimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mu mol/h; pstimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mu mol/h; p>0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control...... experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p=0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid...

  20. The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hao; Li, Wen-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Wei; Chen, Shou-Yen; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2013-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  2. Stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Jennifer; McPherson, Timothy B; Kolling, William M

    2010-06-15

    The stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at 21-24 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C was evaluated. Sodium bicarbonate injection was obtained in 50-mL vials of 8.4% (1 meq/mL). A total of 50, 100, or 150 meq of sodium bicarbonate was added to each 1-L polyolefin bag of either sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection. All solutions were prepared in a laminar-airflow hood using aseptic technique. Bags were punctured once to remove headspace air and once for the addition of each 50 meq of sodium bicarbonate. Six replicates of each test solution were prepared. The solutions were stored at 21-24 degrees C and 2-4 degrees C. Control solutions (50 and 150 meq) were similarly prepared in triplicate. Control solutions were sparged with either nitrogen gas or oxygen gas before storage. Sodium bicarbonate stability was assessed by measuring solution pH. Bicarbonate content was measured utilizing titration. Both pH and bicarbonate concentrations were measured immediately upon preparation and on days 3, 5, and 7 for both test and control solutions. All 95% confidence interval values for sample solution pH remained within 7.0-8.5 for seven days at 2-4 degrees C. Sodium bicarbonate solutions of 50, 100, and 150 meq in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection were stable for up to seven days when refrigerated. The 50-meq solution was stable for up to 48 hours when stored at room temperature, and the 100- and 150-meq solutions were stable for up to 30 hours when stored at room temperature.

  3. Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 augmented with bicarbonate: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, K.R.; Westerman, B.R.; Quinn, J.L. III; Meyers, S.; Barresi, V.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was used to enhance the myocardial concentration of Tl-201 in rabbits and dogs. Organ distribution studies in rabbits and in vivo imaging in dogs showed a 1.5 to 2-fold increase in myocardial Tl-201 concentration in bicarbonate-treated animals as compared with matched controls. Image improvement was noted, with threefold enhancement of myocardium-to-liver ratios. The results suggest that a similar improvement may be possible for clinical myocardial imaging

  4. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  5. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  6. Role of phosphate and other proton-donating anions in respiration-coupled transport of Ca2+ by mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, A L

    1974-04-01

    Measurements of extra oxygen consumption, (45)Ca(2+) uptake, and the osmotic expansion of the matrix compartment show that not all permeant anions are capable of supporting and accompanying the energy-dependent transport of Ca(2+) from the medium into the matrix in respiring rat-liver mitochondria. Phosphate, arsenate, acetate, butyrate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and bicarbonate + CO(2) supported Ca(2+) uptake, whereas the permeant anions, nitrate, thiocyanate, chlorate, and perchlorate, did not. The active anions share a common denominator, the potential ability to donate a proton to the mitochondrial matrix; the inactive anions lack this capacity. Phosphate and the other active permeant anions move into the matrix in response to the alkaline-inside electrochemical gradient of protons generated across the mitochondrial membrane by electron transport, thus forming a negative-inside anion gradient. It is postulated that the latter gradient is the immediate "pulling" force for the influx of Ca(2+) on the electrogenic Ca(2+) carrier in respiring mitochondria under intracellular conditions. Since mitochondria in the cell are normally exposed to an excess of phosphate (and the bicarbonate-CO(2) system), particularly in state 4, inward transport of these proton-yielding anions probably precedes and is necessary for inward transport of Ca(2+) and other cations under biological conditions. These observations indicate that a negative-inside gradient of phosphate generated by electron transport is a common step and provides the immediate motive power not only for (a) the inward transport of dicarboxylates and tricarboxylates and (b) the energy-dependent exchange of external ADP(3-) for internal ATP(4-) during oxidative phosphorylation, as has already been established, but also for (c) the inward transport of Ca(2+), K(+), and other cations.

  7. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  8. [Vitamin C+sodium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate alone in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, L; Triki, M; Ibn Elhaj, Z; Ben Halima, A; Boukhris, M; Ben Amara, W; Keskes, H; Kraiem, S; Lahidheb, D; Marrakchi, S; Kammoun, I; Addad, F; Kachboura, S

    2017-09-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common and severe complication in interventional cardiology. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in two accelerated hydration protocols: the first one by the serum bicarbonate and the second combining the serum bicarbonate and oral vitamin C. This is a multicenter prospective, randomized study conducted between October 2012 and May 2013, including 160 patients. The mean age of our study population was 60.8±9.3 years (36-83 years). The two study groups were comparable in terms of cardiovascular risk factors, concomitant medication, and baseline serum creatinine. The CIN incidence was 6.3% in the vitamin C group and 10% in the control group (P=0.38). No significant difference was observed in terms of CIN incidence between the different subgroups analyzed. According to our study, ascorbic acid administered orally as part of an accelerated hydration protocol does not reduce the incidence of CIN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  10. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Hefeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands

  11. Specific anion effects on copper surface through electrochemical treatment: Enhanced photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction activity of derived nanostructures induced by chaotropic anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2018-05-01

    Copper derivatives are the most prominent CO2 reduction electrocatalyst. Herein, the metallic copper has been electrochemically treated with some of common ionic salts such as N3bar, HPO2bar, S2bar, Fbar, Clbar, Brbar and Ibar based on the dissolution of a metallic working electrode in an aqueous solution to derive the surface roughness incorporated with nanostructures. Diverse surface morphology can be obtained when the ionic radii of anions are changed. Surface study reveals various roughness shapes based on the size and polarity of the anions, where the ions with higher ionic radii have higher impact on the Cu surface. In comparison, polyatomic oxyanion such as HPO2bar even with large ionic radii do not have enough strength to create the surface roughness than that of oxygen-free anions with large ionic radii. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the modified surfaces toward CO2 reduction is studied at a wide potential window in bicarbonate aqueous solution. Based on our investigations, treated surfaces by Ibar, Clbar and S2bargive a more surface roughness, while Ibar and N3bar offer higher catalytic activity toward CO2 reduction due to possible complexing ability of these anions with Cu cations, followed by formation of the co-catalyst semiconductor and facilitate electron transfer. This methodology can be applied to investigate the effect of ions on transition metals along with obtaining different surface morphologies tailored to different applications.

  12. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  13. Hemodynamic effects of sodium bicarbonate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, A C; Brown, M K; Hassan, K; Poeltler, D M; Patel, D A; Brown, V K; Sauberan, J B

    2017-05-01

    To describe the hemodynamic changes that occur with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) administration in premature neonates. This retrospective study included premature neonates 23 to 31+6 weeks of gestational age who underwent continuous cardiac and cerebral monitoring as participants in prospective trials at our institution, and who received NaHCO 3 infused over 30 min in the first 24 h of life. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, cardiac output (CO), SpO 2 and cerebral oximetry (StO 2 ) were captured every 2 s. A baseline was established for all continuous data and averaged over the 10 min before NaHCO 3 administration. Baseline was compared with measurements over 10 min epochs until 80 min after administration. Arterial blood gases before and within 1 h of administration were also compared. Significance was set at P<0.05. A total of 36 subjects received NaHCO 3 (1.3±0.3 mEq kg -1 ) in the first 24 h (14±8.5 h) of life. NaHCO 3 administration increased pH (7.23 vs 7.28, P<0.01) and decreased base deficit (-8.9 vs -6.8, P<0.01) and PaCO 2 (45 vs 43 mm Hg, P<0.05). There was a transient but significant (P<0.05) decrease in systemic BP coinciding with an increase in cerebral oxygenation without an increase in oxygen extraction. CO did not change. Early postnatal NaHCO 3 administration does not acutely improve CO but does cause transient fluctuations in cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics in extremely premature infants.

  14. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  15. Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

    1987-01-01

    The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of 22 Na + in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of 36 Cl - . Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na + was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of 22 Na + was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na + . At a constant external concentration of HCO 3 -, the amount of 22 Na + associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO 3 - decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO 3 - is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of 36 Cl - both in the absence and presence of Na + . At alkaline internal pH, HCO 3 - stimulated the efflux of 36 Cl - from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na + and HCO 3 - were required to induce 36 Cl - efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane

  16. Serum Bicarbonate Concentration and Cognitive Function in Hypertensive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Bates, Jeffrey T; Chonchol, Michel B; Cohen, Debbie L; Hostetter, Thomas H; Raphael, Kalani L; Taylor, Addison A; Lerner, Alan J; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2018-04-06

    Cognitive function worsens as kidney function declines, but mechanisms contributing to this association are not completely understood. Metabolic acidosis, a common complication of CKD, leads to neural networks overexcitation and is involved in cerebral autoregulation. We aimed to evaluate the association between serum bicarbonate concentration as a measure of metabolic acidosis, and cognitive function in hypertensive adults with and without CKD. Five cognitive summary scores were measured (global cognitive function, executive function, memory, attention/concentration, and language) in 2853 participants in the Systolic BP Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, systolic BP, medications, eGFR and albuminuria evaluated the cross-sectional association between bicarbonate and cognition at SPRINT baseline. In a subset ( n =681) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, the models were adjusted for white matter hyperintensity volume, vascular reactivity, and cerebral blood flow. The mean age (SD) was 68 (8.5) years. Global cognitive and executive functions were positively associated with serum bicarbonate (estimate [SEM]: 0.014 [0.006]; P =0.01, and 0.018 [0.006]; P =0.003, respectively). Each 1 mEq/L lower bicarbonate level had a similar association with global cognitive and executive function as being 4.3 and 5.4 months older, respectively. The association with global cognition persisted after magnetic resonance imaging findings adjustment (estimate [SEM]: 0.03 [0.01]; P =0.01). There was no association between serum bicarbonate level and memory, attention/concentration, and language. In a large cohort of hypertensive adults, higher serum bicarbonate levels were independently associated with better global cognitive and executive performance. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01206062). Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. High bicarbonate assimilation in the dark by Arctic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Galand, Pierre E; Casamayor, Emilio O; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Although both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms incorporate CO₂ in the dark through different metabolic pathways, this process has usually been disregarded in oxic marine environments. We studied the significance and mediators of dark bicarbonate assimilation in dilution cultures inoculated with winter Arctic seawater. At stationary phase, bicarbonate incorporation rates were high (0.5-2.5 μg C L⁻¹ d⁻¹) and correlated with rates of bacterial heterotrophic production, suggesting that most of the incorporation was due to heterotrophs. Accordingly, very few typically chemoautotrophic bacteria were detected by 16S rRNA gene cloning. The genetic analysis of the biotin carboxylase gene accC putatively involved in archaeal CO₂ fixation did not yield any archaeal sequence, but amplified a variety of bacterial carboxylases involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, anaplerotic pathways and leucine catabolism. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the seawater cultures (40-70% of cell counts), followed by Betaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria as shown by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARDFISH). Both Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were active in leucine and bicarbonate uptake, while Flavobacteria did not take up bicarbonate, as measured by microautoradiography combined with CARDFISH. Within Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas-Colwellia and Oleispira were very active in bicarbonate uptake (ca. 30 and 70% of active cells, respectively), while the group Arctic96B-16 did not take up bicarbonate. Our results suggest that, potentially, the incorporation of CO₂ can be relevant for the metabolism of specific Arctic heterotrophic phylotypes, promoting the maintenance of their cell activity and/or longer survival under resource depleted conditions.

  18. Rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Elliot, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the bicarbonate ion has been determined to be 8.5 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . This value was calculated from: the measured rate of formation of the CO 3 - radical in pulsed electron irradiation of bicarbonate solutions over the pH range 7.0 to 9.4; the pK for the equilibrium HCO 3 - = CO 3 2- + H + ; and the rate constant for hydroxyl radicals reacting with the carbonate ion. (author)

  19. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  20. Hemodynamic Behavior During Hemodialysis: Effects of Dialysate Concentrations of Bicarbonate and Potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultrafiltration that occurs during hemodialysis (HD promotes profound alterations in a relatively short period of time. The dialysate content of bicarbonate (DBic and potassium (DK may have impact over intradialytic hemodynamics, which goes beyond ultrafiltration, and its impact was evaluated in a prospective cohort. Methods: 30 patients under HD were submitted to hemodynamic assessment (HA at the beginning and at the end of HD sessions, through a non-invasive method. Serum minus dialysate potassium concentration was expressed as K-Gap. Cardiac index (CI and peripheral arterial resistance (PAR variation (post-HD minus pre-HD were expressed as ΔCI and ΔPAR. Dialysate content of sodium and calcium were expressed as DNa and DCa, respectively. Results: Mean DNa, DK and DBic were, respectively, 136.4 ± 1.1, 2.1 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 2.1 mEq/L. In 15 patients, DCa was >1.5 mmol/L and in the other 15 patients ≤ 1.5 mmol/L. The K-Gap ranged from 1.4 to 5.1 mEq/l (median 3.0 mEq/L. There was a reduction in post-HD CI and systolic blood pressure (ΔCI = -0.72l/min/m2 and -11.3±15.1mmHg, respectively, p5, pConclusion: We confirmed that Na and Ca dialysate content exerts and important role on hemodynamic during HD. In addition, our findings pointed out that higher dialysate concentrations of bicarbonate and potassium promote lower cardiac performance at the end of hemodialysis session.

  1. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  2. Validating the utilisation of venous bicarbonate as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Crush injury secondary to sjambok beatings is a well-described phenomenon in southern Africa. Owing to a number of factors, it can result in acute kidney injury (AKI). In 1992, Muckart et al. described a risk stratification system using venous bicarbonate (VB) that can be used in the management of these ...

  3. Regulation of Photosystem II Electron transport by Bicarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.

    2012-01-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and further reduced to carbohydrates. However, CO2, in the form of carbonate or bicarbonate, is also directly involved in the “light reactions” through structural and regulatory roles

  4. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  5. Influence of bicarbonate on ventilatory drive in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, J.G.; Veltink, Peter; Heunks, Leo M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute hypoventilation results in CO2 retention and respiratory acidosis. Bicarbonate retention aims to restore pH level. However, after institution of mechanical ventilation metabolic alkalosis may develop, which could impair respiratory drive. Aim To investigate whether increased plasma

  6. Spontaneous gastric rupture after Sodium Bicarbonate consumption: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, A; Domínguez, C; Perdomo, C F

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous gastric rupture is a rare condition however a prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to decrease mortality and morbidity. We report a case of stomach rupture after the ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate (SB); imaging findings with a brief review of the literature are presented. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium Bicarbonate for Control of ICP: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Sader, Nicholas; West, Michael; Gillman, Lawrence M

    2018-01-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate for intracranial pressure (ICP) reduction in patients with neurologic illness. Data sources: articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to April 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. 2 reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics and treatment characteristics. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education methodology. Our search strategy produced a total 559 citations. Three original articles were included in the review. There were 2 prospective studies, 1 randomized control trial and 1 single arm, and 1 retrospective case report.Across all studies there were a total of 19 patients studied, with 31 episodes of elevated ICP being treated. Twenty-one of those episodes were treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion, with the remaining 10 treated with hypertonic saline in a control model. All elevated ICP episodes treated with sodium bicarbonate solution demonstrated a significant drop in ICP, without an elevation of serum partial pressure of carbon dioxide. No significant complications were described. There currently exists Oxford level 4, Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education D evidence to support an ICP reduction effect with intravenous sodium bicarbonate in TBI. No comments on its impact in other neuropathologic states, or on patient outcomes, can be made at this time.

  8. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  9. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  10. Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said

  11. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  12. Ionic liquids comprising heteraromatic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William F.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Maginn, Edward J.; Mindrup, Elaine; Gurkan, Burcu; Price, Erica; Goodrich, Brett

    2018-04-24

    Some embodiments described herein relate to ionic liquids comprising an anion of a heteraromatic compound such as optionally substituted pyrrolide, optionally substituted pyrazolide, optionally substituted indolide, optionally substituted phospholide, or optionally substituted imidazolide. Methods and devices for gas separation or gas absorption related to these ionic liquids are also described herein.

  13. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  14. IMPROVING OF ANION EXCHANGERES REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inthis study, Different basis [NaOH and KOH] of variable concentration are usedto reactivate Anion exchangers employing different schemes .The Laboratoryresults showed large improvement in efficiency of these exchangers ( i.eoperating time was increased from 12 to 42 hours .The results of this work showed that the environmentalload (waste water can be reduced greatly when using the proposed regenerationscheme .

  15. Quantum mechanics of toroidal anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    We consider a toroidal solenoid with an electric charge attached to it. It turns out that statistical properties of the wave function describing interacting toroidal anions depend on both their relative position and orientation. The influence of the particular gauge choice on the exchange properties of the wave function is studied. 30 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  17. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  18. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  19. Comparative solubilisation of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in hot dimethylformamide: application of cylindrical particle surface-controlled dissolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forryan, Claire L; Compton, Richard G; Klymenko, Oleksiy V; Brennan, Colin M; Taylor, Catherine L; Lennon, Martin

    2006-02-07

    A surface-controlled dissolution of cylindrical solid particles model is applied to potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at elevated temperatures. Previously published data for the dissolution of potassium carbonate is interpreted assuming a cylindrical rather than a spherical shape of the particles, the former representing a closer approximation to the true shape of the particles as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The dissolution kinetics of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were investigated via monitoring of the deprotonation of 2-cyanophenol with dissolved solid to form the 2-cyanophenolate anion that was detected with UV-visible spectroscopy. From fitting of experimental results to theory, the dissolution rate constant, k, for the dissolutions of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were found to have the values of (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-7) mol cm(-2) s(-1), (5.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1) and (9.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1), respectively.

  20. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  1. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201 Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201 Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy

  2. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, 110054, Delhi (India)

    2004-04-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of {sup 201}Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of {sup 201}Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium

  3. Characterization of an anion antisite defect as a deep double donor in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Katsui, A.; Jeon, D.Y.; Watkins, G.D.; Gislason, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    A study of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) on the anion antisite defect in electron irradiated InP has been made by monitoring the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), combined with DLTS experiment. Comparison of the ODMR and DLTS results reveals that the intrinsic anion antisite defect acts as a deep double-donor in the gap. The first ionization (D o /D 1+ ) process occurs both in thermal and optical excitation as a mid-gap electron trap, detected by DLTS and DLOS experiment. (author) 12 refs., 6 figs

  4. Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

  5. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  6. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad; Mohammed, Omar F.; Aly, Shawkat M.; Alarousu, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  7. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2016-08-18

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  8. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  9. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.

    2003-01-01

    and the expulsion of anions; a broad anodic peak centered at ca. - 0.5 V representing the expulsion of cations; and a second broad peak at +0.2 to +0.5 V corresponding to anions being inserted. Although the motion of cations is the most important, as expected, there is a significant anion contribution, thereby...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  10. Supramolecular Chemistry of Environmentally Relevant Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, Kristin; Moyer, B.A.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of highly selective extractants for anions targeting important and timely problems of critical interest to the EMSP mission. In particular, sulfate poses a special problem in cleaning up the Hanford waste tanks in that it interferes with vitrification, but available technologies for sulfate removal are limited. The basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions have been probed. Key findings include: (1) some of the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Receptor design, structural influences on anion binding affinities, and findings from liquid-liquid extraction studies will be discussed

  11. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. P.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J. D.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3- CO32- + H+, when HCO3- is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80-100 atoms) to represent the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from -6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 < pH < 6.35, where H2CO30 is the dominant dissolved species. When bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution, 10.35. This means that adsorbed carbonate is stable even when the concentration of dissolved CO32- is several orders of magnitude lower. This has a significant effect on surface charge and thus the behaviour of the calcite surface. Our results help explain the potential determining behaviour of the carbonate species in calcite-water systems, particularly in the pH range where the bicarbonate species dominates in water and where the carbonate species dominates at the surface, i.e. when 7.5 < pH < 10.35. Our atomic scale data for the various calcite surface sites provide the needed input to improve and constrain surface complexation modelling and are especially useful for predicting behaviour in systems where experiments are difficult or impossible, such as at high temperature and pressure.

  12. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic efficacy of Sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03) and its effects on haematology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in five different concentrations [0.00 g/L (control), 50.00, 100.00, 150.00 and 200.00 g/L] were determined in two sizes: juvenile (mean length 26.64 cm ± 3.11SD; mean weight 356.21 g ± 12.91SD) ...

  13. Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Jamous, J.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Intermolecular proton transfer in anionic complexes of uracil with alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Radisic, Dunja; Stokes, Sarah T.; Bowen, Kit H.

    2005-01-01

    A series of eighteen alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation (H DP ) in a range of 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH...U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with three alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV only the ROH...U - minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in a range of 14.3-14.8 eV two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO - ...HU . and ROH...U - structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH...U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO - ...HU . . A driving force for the intermolecular proton transfer is to stabilize the excess negative charge localized on a orbital of uracil. Therefore, these complexes with proton transferred to the anionic uracil are characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy (VDE). The values of VDE for anionic complexes span a range from 1.0 to 2.3 eV and roughly correlate with the acidity of alcohols. However, there is a gap of ∼0.5 eV in the values of VDE, which separates the two families, ROH...U - and RO - ...HU . , of anionic complexes. The energy of stabilization for the anionic complexes spans a range from 0.6 to 1.7 eV and roughly correlates with the acidity of alcohols. The measured photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions

  15. Anion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vadivel Murugan

    2003-01-01

    . Its characterization is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The hybrid material presents predominantly high electronic conductivities of around 2.0 and 7.0 S cm-1 at 300 and 400K respectively.

  16. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2016-01-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3− CO32− + H+, when HCO3− is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80–100 atoms) to represent...... the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from −6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite...... even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution...

  17. Bicarbonate-dependent secretion and proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc. affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues.

  18. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  19. Reliability and effect of sodium bicarbonate: buffering and 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Slater, Gary J; Gore, Christopher J; Dawson, Brian; Burke, Louise M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect and reliability of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion for 2000-m rowing ergometer performance (watts) and blood bicarbonate concentration [HCO3-]. In a crossover study, 7 well-trained rowers performed paired 2000-m rowing ergometer trials under 3 double-blinded conditions: (1) 0.3 grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM) acute bicarbonate; (2) 0.5 g/kg BM daily chronic bicarbonate for 3 d; and (3) calcium carbonate placebo, in semi-counterbalanced order. For 2000-m performance and [HCO3-], we examined differences in effects between conditions via pairwise comparisons, with differences interpreted in relation to the likelihood of exceeding smallest worthwhile change thresholds for each variable. We also calculated the within-subject variation (percent typical error). There were only trivial differences in 2000-m performance between placebo (277 ± 60 W), acute bicarbonate (280 ± 65 W) and chronic bicarbonate (282 ± 65 W); however, [HCO3-] was substantially greater after acute bicarbonate, than with chronic loading and placebo. Typical error for 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.0%) for acute bicarbonate, 3.6% (2.5 to 7.0%) for chronic bicarbonate, and 1.6% (1.1 to 3.0%) for placebo. Postsupplementation [HCO3-] typical error was 7.3% (5.0 to 14.5%) for acute bicarbonate, 2.9% (2.0 to 5.7%) for chronic bicarbonate and 6.0% (1.4 to 11.9%) for placebo. Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  1. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  2. Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Gallagher, Martin; Jneid, Hani; Garcia, Santiago; Cass, Alan; Thwin, Soe-Soe; Conner, Todd A; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhatt, Deepak L; Shunk, Kendrick; Parikh, Chirag R; McFalls, Edward O; Brophy, Mary; Ferguson, Ryan; Wu, Hongsheng; Androsenko, Maria; Myles, John; Kaufman, James; Palevsky, Paul M

    2018-02-15

    Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary end point was a composite of death, the need for dialysis, or a persistent increase of at least 50% from baseline in the serum creatinine level at 90 days. Contrast-associated acute kidney injury was a secondary end point. The sponsor stopped the trial after a prespecified interim analysis. There was no interaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetylcysteine with respect to the primary end point (P=0.33). The primary end point occurred in 110 of 2511 patients (4.4%) in the sodium bicarbonate group as compared with 116 of 2482 (4.7%) in the sodium chloride group (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.22; P=0.62) and in 114 of 2495 patients (4.6%) in the acetylcysteine group as compared with 112 of 2498 (4.5%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.88). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. Among patients at high risk for renal complications who were undergoing angiography, there was no benefit of intravenous sodium bicarbonate over intravenous sodium chloride or of oral acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of death, need for dialysis, or persistent decline in kidney function at 90 days or for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. (Funded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development and the National Health and Medical Research

  3. Environmental behavior of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Wildung, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent efforts have addressed two aspects of anion behavior in the soil/plant system. The first involves evaluation of the gaseous component of the terrestrial iodine cycle in soils and plants. Field analyses of 129 I in soils and vegetation adjacent to a fuels reprocessing facility, which was idle for 10 years prior to the study, indicated that there may be a significant gaseous component to the terrestrial iodine cycle. Soil substrates, including a silt-sand, organic forest soil, quartz sand, and a sterilized soil, were amended with radioiodide, and the rates and quality of the volatile components evaluated

  4. [Renal response to intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate in newborn infants of different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Gutiérrez, L; Araujo, B; Fuse-Moteji, R; del Castillo, E D

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised a series of 16 neonates made up of 5 patients of 33 weeks of gestation, 5 infants of 35 weeks and 6 more of 40 weeks of gestation. Blood pH, PaCO2 and HCO3- were measured together with bicarbonate, ammonium, titrable acidity and hydrogen ions in urine before and after intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate. Before infusion of bicarbonate, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity in urine were higher in accordance with a greater gestational age. As the administration of bicarbonate elapsed, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity dropped with increase in concentration of bicarbonate. A hypothesis is set forth that the differences found in the factors evaluated in urine before administration of bicarbonate depend on the physiologic characteristics set in the newborn by gestational age.

  5. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  6. A randomized controlled study on the effects of acetate-free biofiltration on organic anions and acid-base balance in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Canel, Juan J; Hernández-Jaras, Julio; Pons-Prades, Ramón

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis correction is achieved by the transfer of bicarbonate and other buffer anions in dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the main anions of intermediary metabolism on standard hemodiafiltration (HDF) and on acetate-free biofiltration (AFB). A prospective, in-center, crossover study was carried out with 22 patients on maintenance dialysis. Patients were randomly assigned to start with 12 successive sessions of standard HDF with bicarbonate (34 mmol/L) and acetate dialysate (3 mmol/L) or 12 successive sessions of AFB without base in the dialysate. Acetate increased significantly during the standard HDF session from 0.078 ± 0.062 mmol/L to 0.156 ± 0.128 mmol/L (P acid-base equilibrium through a bicarbonate substitution fluid. It also prevents hyperacetatemia and restores internal homeostasis with less production of intermediary metabolites. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  7. Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Teutonico, Annalisa; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Lomonte, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important pathogenetic factors involved in the onset of intradialysis arrhytmias is the alteration in electrolyte concentration, particularly potassium (K(+)). Two studies were performed: Study A was designed to investigate above all the isolated effect of the factor time t on intradialysis K(+) mass balance (K(+)MB): 11 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one standard (∼4 h) and one long-hour (∼8 h) bicarbonate haemodialysis (HD) session. The latter were pair-matched as far as the dialysate and blood volume processed (90 L) and volume of ultrafiltration are concerned. Study B was designed to identify and rank the other factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: 63 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one 4-h standard bicarbonate HD session. Dialysate K(+) concentration was 2.0 mmol/L in both studies. Blood samples were obtained from the inlet blood tubing immediately before the onset of dialysis and at t60, t120, t180 min and at end of the 4- and 8-h sessions for the measurement of plasma K(+), blood bicarbonates and blood pH. Additional blood samples were obtained at t360 min for the 8 h sessions. Direct dialysate quantification was utilized for K(+)MBs. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for K(+) measurements. Study A: mean K(+)MBs were significantly higher in the 8-h sessions (4 h: -88.4 ± 23.2 SD mmol versus 8 h: -101.9 ± 32.2 mmol; P = 0.02). Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), area under the curve (AUC) of the hourly inlet dialyser diffusion concentration gradient of K(+) (hcgAUCK(+)) and AUC of blood bicarbonates and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB in both 4- and 8-h sessions. A multiple linear regression output with K(+)MB as dependent variable showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and duration of HD sessions per se remained statistically significant. Study B: mean K(+)MBs were -86.7 ± 22.6 mmol

  8. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 1 molecule of HCO(-) 3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 2 molecules of HCO(-) 3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pH i ) and sodium concentration ([Na(+)] i ). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pH i and [Na(+)] i , which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pH i and [Na(+)] i , which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  9. MODULATION OF THE CARDIAC SODIUM/BICARBONATE COTRANSPORTER BY THE RENIN ANGIOTENSIN ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM: PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Celeste De Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1 molecule of HCO3- (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1 and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1. Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pHi and sodium concentration ([Na+]i. In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pHi and [Na+]i, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX, conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pHi and [Na+]i, which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  10. Electrochemical Oxidation of [1-X-12-I-CB11Me10–] Anions: Formation of Borenium Ylides [12-Dehydro-1-X-CB11Me10] and Iodonium Ylide Anions [{12-(1-X-CB11Me10–)}2I+

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wahab, Abdul; Kaleta, Jiří; Wen, Jin; Valášek, Michal; Polášek, Miroslav; Michl, Josef; Ludvík, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 24 (2016), s. 12815-12821 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/0727 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : WEAKLY COORDINATING ANIONS * SUBSTITUTION SYMMETRY * CARBORANE ANIONS Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  11. Effect of beta-alanine, with and without sodium bicarbonate, on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g · d(-1) for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  13. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  14. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  15. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  16. Dialysate bicarbonate variation in maintenance hemodiafiltration patients: Impact on serum bicarbonate, intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Márcio; Cândido, Cristina; Felgueiras, Joana; Clemente, José; Barros, Sara; Farbota, Rostislav; Vera, Filipa; Matos, Antero; Sousa, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    The dialysate bicarbonate (DB) influences the acid-base balance in dialysis patients. Very low and high serum bicarbonate (SB) have been related with a higher mortality. Acid-base balance also has been associated with hemodynamic effects in these patients. The trial aim was to compare the effect of DB concentration variation on SB levels in maintenance hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients and the effect on intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain. A prospective study, with 9 months of follow-up, involving 93 patients, divided in two groups: group 1 and group 2 with a DB of 34 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L, respectively, with monitoring of pre and post HDF SB, intradialytic hypotension, and interdialytic weight gain. Pre dialysis SB was higher in group 1: median concentration of 22.7 mmol/L vs. 21.1 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Post dialysis SB levels were higher in group 1: median concentration of 28.0 mmol/L vs. 25.3 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Post dialysis SB in alkalotic range was only detected in group 1 (51.2% of the patients). No significant differences were detected in intradialytic hypotension rate [28.0 vs. 27.4 episodes per 1000 sessions in group 1 and 2, respectively, (P = 0.906)] or in average interdialytic weight gain [2.9% vs. 3.0% in group 1 and 2, respectively, (P = 0.710)]. DB of 30 mmol/L appears to be associated with SB levels closer to physiological levels than 34 mmol/L. The bicarbonate dialysate, in the tested concentrations, did not appear to have a significant impact on intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain in maintenance HDF patients. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  17. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar H. Flood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures.

  18. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Long; Li, Xiao-Gang; Du, Cui-Wei; Pan, Ying; Li, Tao; Liu, Qian

    2011-04-01

    The passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions was investigated using potentiodynamic, dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results show that the shape of polarization curves changes with HCO{3/-} concentration. The critical `passive' concentration is 0.009 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions. No anodic current peak exists in HCO3/- solutions when the concentration is lower than 0.009 mol/L, whereas there are one and two anodic current peaks when the HCO3/- concentration ranges from 0.009 to 0.05 mol/L and is higher than 0.1 mol/L, respectively. DEIS measurements show that there exist active dissolution range, transition range, pre-passive range, passive layer formation range, passive range, and trans-passive range for X80 pipeline steel in the 0.1 mol/L HCO{3/-} solutions. The results of DEIS measurements are in complete agreement with the potentiodynamic diagram. An equivalent circuit containing three sub-layers is used to explain the Nyquist plots in the passive range. Analyses are well made for explaining the corresponding fitted capacitance and impedance. The Mott-Schottky plots show that the passive film of X80 pipeline steel is an n-type semiconductor, and capacitance measurements are in good accordance with the results of DEIS experiment.

  20. Vanadium extraction from slimes by the lime-bicarbonate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishchenko, T.V.; Vdovina, L.V.; Slobodchikova, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Some main parameters of the lime-bicarbonate method of extracting vanadium from residues obtained in washing waters of mazut boilers on thermal stations have been determined. To study the process of vanadium extraction during caking of the residues with lime and subsequent leaching of water-soluble vanadium, a ''Minsk-22'' computer has been used for computation. Analysis of the equation derived has shown that a change in temperature of vanadium leaching, density of pulp, and a kind of heating of the charge affect the process only slightly. It has also been shown that the calcination temperature is expedient to be kept above 850 deg C and consumption temperature is expedient to be kept above 85O deg C and consumption of lime must not exceed 20% of the residues weight. Bicarbonate consumption exerts a decisive influence on completeness of vanadium extraction and must be increased up to >35%; duration of leaching should be raised up to 30-45 minutes. With increasing calcination temperature the duration of leaching decreases. When temperature and duration of calcination increase, the formation of water-soluble vanadium intensifies. With the aid of optimization program seven variants have been chosen, which ensure vanadium extraction into solution by 95-100%

  1. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej eGorbatenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells towards more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in the cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1 and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary tumors, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+,HCO3--cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1, are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer.

  2. Pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion: challenge of the acinar acid load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHegyi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation of luminal pH by both cell types. Protons co-released during exocytosis from acini cause significant acidosis, whereas, bicarbonate secreted by ductal cells cause alkalization in the lumen. This suggests that the first and probably one of the most important role of bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic ductal cells is not only to neutralize the acid chyme entering into the duodenum from the stomach, but to neutralize acidic content secreted by acinar cells. To accomplish this role, it is more than likely that ductal cells have physiological sensing mechanisms which would allow them to regulate luminal pH. To date, four different classes of acid-sensing ion channels have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract (transient receptor potential ion channels, two-pore domain potassium channel, ionotropic purinoceptor and acid-sensing ion channel, however, none of these have been studied in pancreatic ductal cells. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge of these channels and urge scientists to characterize ductal acid-sensing mechanisms and also to investigate the challenge of the acinar acid load on ductal cells.

  3. Is Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy Still Up To Date?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate (SB, which has a vital role in the regulation of acid-base balance of all tissues and organs, is one of the most important buffering systems of the body. SB plays an important role in the treatment of poisoning caused by numerous agents including mainly salicylate and tricyclic antidepressants. In metabolic acidosis (MA occurred in patient with systemic and metabolic diseases, first, the primary disease should be treated and in the case of low bicarbonate levels such as diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis, missing SB should be recovered. As the kidney has an important role in acid-base balance, SB is widely used in the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure. Although there is no conclusive evidence to prevent contrast nephropathy, SB comes to the fore compared to other agents. SB is used due to MA and its effects occurring in acute renal failure. In addition, SB treatment applied to reduce the increased acid levels in chronic kidney failure may reduce mortality. While SB can be used as individualized in lactic acidosis and cardiac arrest cases, it can be used safely as a performance enhancer for athletes. SB is used widely in gastrointestinal tract diseases due to its antacid effects and its routine use is not recommended in diabetic ketoacidosis. These data demonstrate that SB is still popular and it will retain its popularity in the near future.

  4. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide...

  6. Is it safe to re-access sodium bicarbonate bottles for use in minor surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Lindsay; Bucevska, Marija; Tilley, Peter; Verchere, Cynthia

    2018-04-06

    Sodium bicarbonate is added to lidocaine to reduce injection pain. In Canada, it is available in vials exceeding the injection volume 100-fold. These are single-use vials that should be disposed of after one access. Some surgeons re-use vials to reduce waste, potentially causing contamination. This study aims to review the safety of sodium bicarbonate and assess alternatives to current practice. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia were used to assess bacterial growth in vials of sodium bicarbonate. Each pathogen was inoculated into a vial for 14 days at room temperature. At several time points, 1 mL of solution was removed and diluted. One hundred microliters were transferred to blood agar plates and incubated at 35 °C. Colony counts were calculated, averaged and plotted onto a logarithmic graph. Colony counts of all strains fell below observational threshold after 7 days in sodium bicarbonate. Although all strains were reduced, bacteria can survive in sodium bicarbonate for several days, during which transmission may occur. Sodium bicarbonate vials should be treated as single-dose, as indicated by the manufacturers. To reduce waste, hospital pharmacies can repackage sodium bicarbonate into smaller vials or pre-alkalize lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate...

  8. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Poschenrieder

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO3− may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM. This is especially relevant in the CO2-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C4 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM. The presence of HCO3− in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO3− in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO3− transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO3− in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO2/HCO3− in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO3− is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO3− uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO3− tolerance in crop plants.

  9. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Fernández, José Antonio; Rubio, Lourdes; Pérez, Laura; Terés, Joana; Barceló, Juan

    2018-05-03

    Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO₃ − may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM). This is especially relevant in the CO₂-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C₄ and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). The presence of HCO₃ − in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO₃ − in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO₃ − transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO₃ − in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO₂/HCO₃ − in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO₃ − is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO₃ − uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO₃ − tolerance in crop plants.

  10. Density functional theory studies on theelectronic, structural, phonon dynamicaland thermo-stability properties of bicarbonates MHCO3, M D Li, Na, K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Zhang, Bo; Sorescu, Dan C.; Johnson, Karl; Majzoub, Eric H; Luebke, David R.

    2012-07-01

    The structural, electronic, phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of MHCO3 (M D Li, Na, K) solids were investigated using density functional theory. The calculated bulk properties for both their ambient and the high-pressure phases are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. Solid phase LiHCO3 has not yet been observed experimentally. We have predicted several possible crystal structures for LiHCO3 using crystallographic database searching and prototype electrostatic ground state modeling. Our total energy and phonon free energy .FPH/ calculations predict that LiHCO3 will be stable under suitable conditions of temperature and partial pressures of CO2 and H2O. Our calculations indicate that the HCO 3 groups in LiHCO3 and NaHCO3 form an infinite chain structure through O H O hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the HCO 3 anions form dimers, .HCO 3 /2, connected through double hydrogen bonds in all phases of KHCO3. Based on density functional perturbation theory, the Born effective charge tensor of each atom type was obtained for all phases of the bicarbonates. Their phonon dispersions with the longitudinal optical–transverse optical splitting were also investigated. Based on lattice phonon dynamics study, the infrared spectra and the thermodynamic properties of these bicarbonates were obtained. Over the temperature range 0–900 K, the FPH and the entropies (S) of MHCO3 (M D Li, Na, K) systems vary as FPH.LiHCO3/ > FPH.NaHCO3/ > FPH.KHCO3/ and S.KHCO3/ > S.NaHCO3/ > S.LiHCO3/, respectively, in agreement with the available experimental data. Analysis of the predicted thermodynamics of the CO2 capture reactions indicates that the carbonate/bicarbonate transition reactions for Na and K could be used for CO2 capture technology, in agreement with experiments.

  11. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  12. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zaichun; Song, Guang-Ling; Song, Shizhe

    2014-01-01

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  13. Stimulation of amphibian gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by sucralfate and aluminium: role of local prostaglandin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, J R; Gibbons, L C; Rees, W D

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were designed to explore the possible mode of protective and ulcer healing actions of sucralfate by examining its effect on gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by isolated amphibian mucosa. Luminal sucralfate (0.5 g/l) significantly increased bicarbonate secretion by fundic and antral mucosa without influencing transmucosal potential difference. Significant stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion occurred only at 1.0 g/l without change in potential difference. Aluminium, a component of sucralfate, produced similar increases in bicarbonate secretion, while the sucrose and sulphate components were without effect. Pretreatment of mucosae with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 5M) did not abolish the secretory response to sucralfate or aluminium. The results suggest that stimulation of gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion, possibly by the aluminium moiety of sucralfate, may play a role in its protective and ulcer healing actions. PMID:3260886

  14. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunther, W.; Lothenbach, B.; Scrivener, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  15. Ménage-à-trois: The ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and the pH regulate the capacity of neutrophils to form NETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maueröder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we identified and characterized the potential of a high ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and a moderately alkaline pH to render neutrophils prone to undergo neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation. Both experimental settings increased the rate of spontaneous NET release and potentiated the NET-inducing capacity of phorbol esters (PMA, ionomycin, monosodium urate and LPS. In contrast, an acidic environment impaired neutrophil extracellular trap formation both spontaneous and induced. Our findings indicate that intracellular alkalinization of neutrophils in response to an alkaline environment leads to an increase of intracellular calcium and neutrophil activation. We further found that the anion channel blocker DIDS strongly reduced NET formation induced by bicarbonate. This finding suggests that the effects observed are due to a molecular program that renders neutrophils susceptible to neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Inflammatory foci are characterized by an acidic environment. Our data indicates that NET formation is favored by the higher pH at the border regions of inflamed areas. Moreover our findings highlight the necessity for strict pH control during assays of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

  16. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S.; Palermo, Nancy J.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and women. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In this double-blind, controlled trial, 171 men and women age 50 and older were randomized to receive placebo or 67.5 mmol/d of potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium chloride for 3 months. All subjects received calcium (600 mg of calcium as triphosphate) and 525 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour urinary N-telopeptide and calcium were measured at entry and after 3 months. Changes in these measures were compared across treatment groups in the 162 participants included in the analyses. Results: Bicarbonate affected the study outcomes, whereas potassium did not; the two bicarbonate groups and the two no bicarbonate groups were therefore combined. Subjects taking bicarbonate had significant reductions in urinary N-telopeptide and calcium excretion, when compared with subjects taking no bicarbonate (both before and after adjustment for baseline laboratory value, sex, and changes in urinary sodium and potassium; P = 0.001 for both, adjusted). Potassium supplementation did not significantly affect N-telopeptide or calcium excretion. Conclusions: Bicarbonate, but not potassium, had a favorable effect on bone resorption and calcium excretion. This suggests that increasing the alkali content of the diet may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults. PMID:18940881

  17. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

    2017-09-04

    The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Anodic behavior of nickel alloys in media containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S; Carranza, R. M.; Giordano, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alloy 22 has been designed to resist corrosion in oxidizing and reducing conditions. Thanks to these properties it is considered a possible candidate for the fabrication of containers of high-level radioactive waste. Since the containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is required in order to produce cracking. It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media potentials below trans-passivity. The aim of this work is to study the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in different media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions in various concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with other alloys containing nickel, and relate them to the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a future job. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni- Cr-Fe), 800h (Ni-Fe- Cr) and 201 (Ni commercially pure) in the following environments: 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 , 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The tests were performed at the following temperatures: 90°C, 75°C, 60°C and 25°C. It was found that alloy 22 has a current peak in the anodic domain at potentials below trans-passivity between 200 and 300 m VECS, when the test temperature was 90°C. The potential, at which this peak occurred, increased with decreasing temperature. Also there was a variation of the peak with the composition of the solution. When bicarbonate ions were added to a solution containing chloride ions, the peak potential shifted to higher current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions. It was found that diminishing the content of

  19. Bicarbonate modulates oxidative and functional damage in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queliconi, Bruno B; Marazzi, Thire B M; Vaz, Sandra M; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith; Augusto, Ohara; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-02-01

    The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)) pair is the main biological pH buffer. However, its influence on biological processes, and in particular redox processes, is still poorly explored. Here we study the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) on ischemic injury in three distinct models (cardiac HL-1 cells, perfused rat heart, and Caenorhabditis elegans). We found that, although various concentrations of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) do not affect function under basal conditions, ischemia-reperfusion or similar insults in the presence of higher CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) resulted in greater functional loss associated with higher oxidative damage in all models. Because the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was observed in all models tested, we believe this buffer is an important determinant of oxidative damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time......, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from...... cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question...

  1. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J; Sale, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance, as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. The authors examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance. Twenty male rowers (age 23 ± 4 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg, 2000-m personal-best time 409 ± 16 s) completed two 2000-m rowing-ergometer time trials, separated by 48 h. Participants were supplemented before exercise with 0.3 g/kg body mass of SB or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The trials were conducted using a double-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced crossover study design. Time to complete the 2000-m and time taken for each 500-m split were recorded. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH, and base excess were determined preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. Performance data were analyzed using paired t tests, as well as magnitude-based inferences; hematological data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA. Using paired t tests, there was no benefit of SB over PLA (P = .095). However, using magnitude-based inferences there was a likely beneficial effect of SB compared with PLA (PLA 412.0 ± 15.1 s, SB 410.7 ± 14.9 s). Furthermore, SB was 0.5 ± 1.2 s faster than PLA in the third 500 m (P = .035; possibly beneficial) and 1.1 ± 1.7 s faster in the fourth 500 m (P = .004; very likely beneficial). All hematological data were different between SB and PLA and were different from preexercise to postexercise. SB supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000-m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event.

  2. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization

  3. Efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-de-la-Tijera, Fátima

    2018-03-14

    Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their onset of action may be slow. To assess the available literature regarding the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate in gastroesophageal reflux patients. A systematic review was conducted. A systematic literature search starting from 2000. Reviewed manuscripts concerning the effectiveness of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease were reviewed and the data were extracted. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistics. This review included information of four studies. Two trials compared the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate versus omeprazole. One study compared the efficacy of once-daily morning or nighttime dosing. And another study compared omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate/alginate versus omeprazole. In total, there was no difference between omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and omeprazole. However, there is a trend towards more sustained response and a greater proportion of patients with sustained total relief by 30 minutes with omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate. Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate therapy is not more effective than omeprazole in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, data obtained suggest that it can have a more sustained response and sustained total relief.

  4. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  5. Characterization of bicarbonate-dependent potassium uptake in cultured corneal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savion, N.; Farzame, N.; Berlin, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    Bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells in culture demonstrated 86Rb+ uptake which was mostly ouabain-sensitive with some (15 to 50%) ouabain-insensitive uptake that was dependent on the presence of bicarbonate in the incubation medium. Bovine smooth muscle (SM) cells demonstrated ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake but the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake was not bicarbonate-dependent. Although omission of bicarbonate from the incubation buffer resulted in some reduction in the pH, this change was not responsible for the reduction in the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake. Furthermore, the removal of bicarbonate decreased the 86Rb+ influx but not its efflux. This ouabain-insensitive and bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ influx in BCE cells proceeded at a linear rate for at least 60 min and increased as a function of bicarbonate concentration such that almost maximal uptake was observed at a concentration of about 10 to 15 mM. Saturation of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ pump in BCE cells occurred at a concentration of 2 mM Rb+ in the incubation buffer, similar to the previously observed value for the Na+, K+-ATPase. Competition experiments with both unlabeled Rb+ and K+ demonstrated that likewise in the Na+, K+-ATPase the 86Rb+ influx represented physiological influx of K+. Furthermore, the energy requirements of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ uptake were similar to those of the 86Rb+ uptake via the Na+, K+-ATPase. The results described in this work demonstrated a novel bicarbonate-dependent K+ pump in addition to the Na+, K+-ATPase pump.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  7. Association of serum bicarbonate levels with mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Anderson, John E.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2009-01-01

    Background. Metabolic acidosis, usually manifested by low serum bicarbonate level, is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and appears to be associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. It is not known whether a similar association is present in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). Methods. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to examine the association between baseline and time-variable serum bicarbonate (measured as total CO2) with the outcomes of all-cause mortality and the composite of pre-dialysis mortality or end-stage renal disease in 1240 male patients with moderate and advanced NDD-CKD. Results. Serum bicarbonate showed a significant U-shaped association with all-cause mortality, with the highest mortality rate observed in patients with baseline serum bicarbonate levels <22 mmol/L [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for patients with serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L versus ≥22 mmol/L: 1.33 (1.05–1.69), P = 0.02] and the lowest mortality observed in patients with baseline serum bicarbonate of 26–29 mmol/L. The associations between lower serum bicarbonate level and mortality were more accentuated in subgroups of patients with better nutritional status and lower inflammation. Conclusions. Both lower and higher serum bicarbonates are associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with moderate and advanced NDD-CKD. Clinical trials are needed to determine if therapeutic interventions aimed at optimizing serum bicarbonate can result in improved outcomes in this population. PMID:19015169

  8. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  9. Toward an in vivo dissolution methodology: a comparison of phosphate and bicarbonate buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jennifer J; McNamara, Daniel P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the difference between the pharmaceutical phosphate buffers and the gastrointestinal bicarbonates in dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin, to illustrate the dependence of buffer differential on biopharmaceutical properties of BCS II weak acids, and to recommend phosphate buffers equivalent to bicarbonates. The intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin were experimentally measured using a rotating disk method at 37 degrees C in USP SIF/FaSSIF and various concentrations of bicarbonates. Theoretical models including an improved reaction plane model and a film model were applied to estimate the surrogate phosphate buffers equivalent to the bicarbonates. Experimental results show that the intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin in USP and FaSSIF phosphate buffers are 1.5-3.0 times that in the 15 mM bicarbonates. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the buffer differential is largely dependent on the drug pK(a) and second on solubility, and weakly dependent on the drug diffusivity. Further, in accordance with the drug pK(a), solubility and diffusivity, a simple phosphate surrogate was proposed to match an average bicarbonate value (15 mM) of the upper gastrointestinal region. Specifically, phosphate buffers of 13-15 mM and 3-4 mM were recommended for ketoprofen and indomethacin, respectively. For both ketoprofen and indomethacin, the intrinsic dissolution using the phosphate surrogate buffers closely approximated the 15 mM bicarbonate buffer. This work demonstrates the substantial difference between pharmaceutical phosphates and physiological bicarbonates in determining the drug intrinsic dissolution rates of BCS II weak acids, such as ketoprofen and indomethacin. Surrogate phosphates were recommended in order to closely reflect the in vivo dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin in gastrointestinal bicarbonates, which has significant implications for defining buffer systems for

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the 6-azauracil anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Buonaugurio, Angela; Dolgounitcheva, Olga; Zakrzewski, V G; Bowen, Kit H; Ortiz, J V

    2013-02-14

    We report the photoelectron spectrum of the 6-azauracil anion. The spectrum is dominated by a broad band exhibiting a maximum at an electron binding energy (EBE) of 1.2 eV. This spectral pattern is indicative of a valence anion. Our calculations were carried out using ab initio electron propagator and other many-body methods. Comparison of the anion and corresponding neutral of 6-azauracil with those of uracil shows that substituting a nitrogen atom for C-H at the C6 position of uracil gives rise to significant changes in the electronic structure of 6-azauracil versus that of uracil. The adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of the canonical 6-azauracil tautomer is substantially larger than that of canonical uracil. Among the five tautomeric, 6-azauracil anions studied computationally, the canonical structure was found to be the most stable. The vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the canonical, valence-bound anion of 6-azauracil and its closest "very-rare" tautomer have been calculated. Electron propagator calculations on the canonical anion yield a VDE value that is in close agreement with the experimentally determined VDE value of 1.2 eV. The AEA value of 6-azauracil, assessed at the CCSD(T) level of theory to be 0.5 eV, corresponds with the EBE value of the onset of the experimental spectrum.

  11. Hole localization, migration, and the formation of peroxide anion in perovskite SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2014-07-01

    Hybrid density functional calculations are carried out to investigate the behavior of holes in SrTiO3. As in many other oxides, it is shown that a hole tend to localize on one oxygen forming an O- anion with a concomitant lattice distortion; therefore a hole polaron. The calculated emission energy from the recombination of the localized hole and a conduction-band electron is about 2.5 eV, in good agreement with experiments. Therefore the localization of the hole or self-trapping is likely to be responsible for the green photoluminescence at low temperature, which was previously attributed to an unknown defect state. Compared to an electron, the calculated hole polaron mobility is three orders of magnitude lower at room temperature. In addition, two O- anions can bind strongly to form an O22- peroxide anion. No electronic states associated with the O22- peroxide anion are located inside the band gap or close to the band edges, indicating that it is electronically inactive. We suggest that in addition to the oxygen vacancy, the formation of the O22- peroxide anion can be an alternative to compensate acceptor doping in SrTiO3.

  12. Relationship between bicarbonate ion, pH, and /sup 59/Fe uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falade, J A

    1972-01-01

    Iron absorption by barley, pea, and runner bean is stimulated by bicarbonate but inhibited by increasing pH. Bicarbonate stimulates translocation of Fe in barley but inhibits it in pea and bean. Increasing pH stimulates translocation in barley and pea with no effect in bean. The presence of other ions in the external solution appears to inhibit absorption but enhances translocation of Fe in bean and pea. It is concluded that whether or not bicarbonate will induce chlorosis in a plant depends on species and variety.

  13. Reduction of neptunium(V) and uranium(VI) in bicarbonate solutions by iron(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogolev, A.V.; Zakharova, E.V.; Rodygina, N.I.; Fedoseev, A.M.; Shilov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of Np(VI) and Fe(II) compounds in bicarbonate solutions is investigated. Interaction of Np(V) with Fe(II) in the presence of phthalate-ions is studied briefly. Fe(II) compounds reduce Np(V) compounds in saturated with Ar or CO 2 solutions with any bicarbonate-ion concentrations. Chemical reaction kinetics is studied. Reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) compounds takes place in the case of diluted bicarbonate solutions. UO 2 and FeOOH are products of reaction at raised temperatures [ru

  14. Cardiotoxicity of tricyclic antidepressant treated by 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hassan; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants is an important cause of drug-related self-poisoning in the developed world and a very common cause of poisoning and mortality in developing countries. Electrocardiographic manifestations of most tricyclic antidepressant-poisoned patients resolve by the administration of 1-2 mEq/kg of sodium bicarbonate. Some rare cases have been reported who have been resistant to the long-term or high doses of bicarbonate administration. We present a case of acute tricyclic antidepressant toxicity referring with status epilepticus, hypotension, and refractory QRS complex widening that resolved after the intravenous administration of 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate.

  15. Uses and misuses of sodium bicarbonate in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amélie; Sahni, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    Over the past several decades, bicarbonate therapy continues to be used routinely in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates despite the lack of evidence for its effectiveness in the treatment of acid-base imbalance, and evidence indicating that it may be detrimental. Clinicians often feel compelled to use bicarbonate since acidosis implies a need for such therapy and thus the justification for its use is based on hearsay rather than science. This review summarizes the evidence and refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate to treat metabolic acidosis associated with several specific clinical syndromes in neonates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiotoxicity of tricyclic antidepressant treated by 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants is an important cause of drug-related self-poisoning in the developed world and a very common cause of poisoning and mortality in developing countries. Electrocardiographic manifestations of most tricyclic antidepressant-poisoned patients resolve by the administration of 1–2 mEq/kg of sodium bicarbonate. Some rare cases have been reported who have been resistant to the long-term or high doses of bicarbonate administration. We present a case of acute tricyclic antidepressant toxicity referring with status epilepticus, hypotension, and refractory QRS complex widening that resolved after the intravenous administration of 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate.

  17. Brain superoxide anion formation in immature rats during seizures: Protection by selected compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Otáhal, Jakub; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2012), s. 421-429 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA ČR GAP303/10/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immature rats * DL-homocysteic acid-induced seizures * superoxide anion * SOD mimetics * protection * Fluoro-Jade B staining * brain damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2012

  18. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2017-01-01

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. PMID:29167180

  19. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Emel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Jennings, Michael L; Forrest, Lucy R

    2017-12-04

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. © 2017 Ficici et al.

  20. An experimental study on the inhibitory effect of high concentration bicarbonate on the reduction of U(VI) in groundwater by functionalized indigenous microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianxin Li; Nan Hu; Dexin Ding; Shimi Li; Guangyue Li; Yongdong Wang

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic microcosms amended with 30 mM bicarbonate and without bicarbonate were established, respectively, and the reduction of U(VI) in the microcosms by functionalized indigenous microbial communities was investigated. Results of the chemical extraction and XANES analysis showed that the proportions of U(IV) in the microcosms amended with bicarbonate were 10 % lower than without bicarbonate at day 46. The amount of Cellulomonadaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptococcaceae and Veillonellaceae amended with bicarbonate was lower than without bicarbonate, so the reduction of U(VI) was less. The experimental results show that the high concentration bicarbonate has a significantly inhibitory effect on the reduction of U(VI). (author)

  1. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

  2. pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate in cancer patients: correlation with seric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Morales, Thais; Navas, Rita; Viera, Ninoska; Alvarez, Carmen Julia; Chaparro, Neira

    2008-07-01

    To determine the correlation between pH and bicarbonate of soda in blood and saliva in child and adolescent patients during the administration of 3 g/m2 of methotrexate. A controlled clinical test was performed on 23 patients diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Ages ranged from 4 to 18. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient was used to interpret the data. No significant correlation was found between pH levels and seric and salivary sodium bicarbonate. However, there was a significant correlation between the levels of sodium bicarbonate in the body fluids evaluated (rs 0.2576, p=0.0354). Changes modifying the microenvironment of the oral cavity probably do not allow saliva to be used to determine blood pH and seric bicarbonate.

  3. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips , Elizabeth J.P.; Landa, Edward R.; Lovely, Derek R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranuum-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20–94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils.

  4. Controllable synthesis of nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with high homogeneity for a high-performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Zhuang; Bian, Zhenpan; Jin, Cuihong; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Baipeng; Wu, Tianhui; Wang, Lin; Tang, Shoufeng; Wang, Hongchao; Gao, Faming

    2017-08-01

    The electrochemical performance of supercapacitors might be associated with the homogeneous structure of the electrode materials. However, the relationship between the degree of uniformity for the electrode materials and the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is not clear. Herein, we synthesize two types of nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with different degrees of uniformity to investigate this relationship. As the electroactive material, the nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with a homogeneous structure could provide a larger space and offer more exposed atoms for the electrochemical reaction than the nanocrystals with a heterogeneous structure. The homogeneous nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals exhibit better electrochemical performance and show excellent specific capacitance (1596 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 1260 F g-1 at 30 A g-1), which is approximately twice that of the heterogeneous nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals. The cycling stability for the homogeneity (˜80%) is higher than the inhomogeneity (˜61%) at a high current density of 5 A g-1.

  5. Bicarbonate Elution of Uranium from Amidoxime-Based Polymer Adsorbents for Sequestering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Horng-Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Wai, Chien M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Das, Sadananda [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Mayes, Richard T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Janke, Christopher J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA

    2017-05-02

    Uranium adsorbed on amidoxime-based polyethylene fibers in simulated seawater can be quantitatively eluted using 3 M KHCO3 at 40°C. Thermodynamic calculations are in agreement with the experimental observation that at high bicarbonate concentrations (3 M) uranyl ions bound to amidoxime molecules are converted to uranyl tris-carbonato complex in the aqueous solution. The elution process is basically the reverse reaction of the uranium adsorption process which occurs at a very low bicarbonate concentration (~10-3 M) in seawater. In real seawater experiments, the bicarbonate elution is followed by a NaOH treatment to remove natural organic matter adsorbed on the polymer adsorbent. Using the sequential bicarbonate and NaOH elution, the adsorbent is reusable after rinsing with deionized water and the recycled adsorbent shows no loss of uranium loading capacity based on real seawater experiments.

  6. Serum Bicarbonate And Survival In Peritoneal Dialysis (Pd: Comparison With Hemodialysis (Hd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Correction of metabolic acidosis is one of the goals of effective dialysis. The KDOQI guidelines recommend serum bicarbonate >22 meq/L irrespective of dialysis modality. Since the measured bicarbonate reflects the steady state in PD patients and the lowest inter-dialytic value in HD patients, we compared the survival predictability of serum bicarbonate 10,400 PD and 110,951 HD patients treated in DaVita facilities from 7/2001-6/2006 with follow-up through 6/2007. PD patients were substantially less likely to have lower serum bicarbonate (adjusted odds, 22 meq/L for all end-stage renal disease irrespective of dialysis modality.fx1

  7. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranium-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20-94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils. (author)

  8. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kalani L; Murphy, Rachel A; Shlipak, Michael G; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Patel, Kushang V; Newman, Anne B; Sarnak, Mark J; Ix, Joachim H; Fried, Linda F

    2016-02-05

    Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70-79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis also associated with higher mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  10. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Holger; Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the structural motifs of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory. Our calculations show that all fluorobenzene anions under investigation are strongly distorted from the neutral planar molecular geometries. In the anions, different F atoms are no longer equivalent, providing structurally different binding sites for water molecules and giving rise to a multitude of low-lying isomers. The absorption bands for hexa- and pentafluorobenzene show that only one isomer for the respective monohydrate complexes is populated in our experiment. For C 6 F 6 - ·H 2 O, we can assign these bands to an isomer where water forms a weak double ionic hydrogen bond with two F atoms in the ion, in accord with the results of Bowen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 014312 (2007), following paper.] The spectroscopic motif of the binary complexes changes slightly with decreasing fluorination of the aromatic anion. For dihydrated hexafluorobenzene anions, several isomers are populated in our experiments, some of which may be due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  12. Acetate and bicarbonate assimilation and metabolite formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a 13C-NMR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Singh

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolite analyses by (13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly (13C-labelled acetate ((13CH(3-COOH or CH(3-(13COOH supported that both the (13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2(aq. The observed metabolite(s upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2(aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2(aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2(aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii.

  13. Generalized model for the radiolysis of groundwaters: bicarbonate chemistry and influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolosi, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    A groundwater radiolysis model has been developed at Battelle-Columbus which is applicable to groundwaters containing bicarbonate species. The model consists of a chemical mechanism which describes interactions between groundwater species and radiolytic species. Due to the chemical kinetics nature of the model, elementary reactions can be added to extend its range of applicability to other groundwaters. This paper describes the chemical kinetics and influences of bicarbonate species in the model. 23 references, 2 tables

  14. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Rodney W.; Valentine, Holly L.; Valentine, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H 2 S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H 2 S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H 2 S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H 2 S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may

  15. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Oscar A; Núñez-Villena, Felipe; Soto, Sarita E; Ugalde, José Manuel; López-Solís, Remigio; Toledo, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  16. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  17. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO 2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL -1 of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO 2 -based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO 2 , because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO 2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated spectrophotometric bicarbonate analysis in duodenal juice compared to the back titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchinger, Friedemann; Engjom, Trond; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd H; Dimcevski, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have recently evaluated a short endoscopic secretin test for exocrine pancreatic function. Bicarbonate concentration in duodenal juice is an important parameter in this test. Measurement of bicarbonate by back titration as the gold standard method is time consuming, expensive and technically difficult, thus a simplified method is warranted. We aimed to evaluate an automated spectrophotometric method in samples spanning the effective range of bicarbonate concentrations in duodenal juice. We also evaluated if freezing of samples before analyses would affect its results. Patients routinely examined with short endoscopic secretin test suspected to have decreased pancreatic function of various reasons were included. Bicarbonate in duodenal juice was quantified by back titration and automatic spectrophotometry. Both fresh and thawed samples were analysed spectrophotometrically. 177 samples from 71 patients were analysed. Correlation coefficient of all measurements was r = 0.98 (p titration gold standard. This is a major simplification of direct pancreas function testing, and allows a wider distribution of bicarbonate testing in duodenal juice. Extreme values for Bicarbonate concentration achieved by the autoanalyser method have to be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  20. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Microsolvated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte Linde

    the gas-phase α-effect. The experimental studies are performed by means of the flowing after glow selected ion flow tube technique, and these are supplemented by electronic structure calculations. The α-nucleophile employed is the microsolvated hydrogen peroxide anion whose reactivity is compared......Gas-phase studies of ion-molecule reactions shed light on the intrinsic factors that govern reactivity; and even solvent effects can be examined in the gasphase environment by employing microsolvated ions. An area that has received considerable attention with regard to the interplay between...... to that of a series of microsolvated oxygen centered anions. The association of the nucleophiles with a single water or methanol molecule allows the α-effect to be observed in the SN2 reaction with methyl chloride; this effect was not apparent in the reactions of the unsolvated anions. The results suggest...

  1. Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Center for Complex Molecular Systems and Biomolecules, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mikael.lund@uochb.cas.cz

    2008-12-10

    We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions are attracted to non-polar residues due to several solvent assisted mechanisms. Incorporating ion and surface specificity into a mesoscopic model for protein-protein interactions we calculate the free energy of interaction between lysozyme molecules in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. In agreement with experiment, our finding is that 'salting out' follows the reverse Hofmeister series for pH below the iso-electric point and the direct series for pH above pI.

  2. New borohydride anion B6H7-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Vinitskij, D.M.; Solntsev, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The [Ni(Bipy) 3 ] (B 6 H 7 ) 2 , (Ph 4 P)B 6 H 7 , [Ni(Phen) 3 ](B 6 H 7 ) 2 crystals (where Bipy = bipyridine, Phen = phenathroline, Ph = phenyl) are obtained via the exchange reaction with a subsequent recrystallization from aqua-acetonic and acetonic solutions. The structure is studied of a new borohydride anion B 6 H 7 - possessing a four-valence bond unique for polyhedral borohydride anions. A triangular face of boride skeleton coordinating a hydrogen atom is considerably larger than other faces, and the electron density on this hydrogen atom is evidently much higher than at the end hydride hydrogen atoms. The trend of B 6 H 7 - anion to form statistically disordered structurs testifies to a rather slight effect of the seventh hydrogen atom position on the structure pattern of the ionic crystal lattice

  3. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3 -). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3 - responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3 -. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  4. Performance evaluation of household water treatment systems used in Kerman for removal of cations and anions from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakootian, Mohammad; Amirmahani, Najmeh; Yazdanpanah, Ghazal; Nasiri, Alireza; Asadipour, Ali; Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Darvish Moghaddam, Sodaif

    2017-12-01

    Increased awareness in society of the consequences of contaminants in drinking water has created a demand for household water treatment systems, which provide higher quality water, to spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of household water treatment systems used in Kerman for the removal of cations and anions. Various brands of home water treatment devices commonly used in Kerman were selected, with one device chosen from each brand for study. In cases in which the devices were used extensively, samples were selected with filters that had been changed in proper time, based on the device's operational instructions. The samples were selected from homes in the center and four geographical directions of Kerman. Then, sampling was conducted in three stages of input and output water of each device. For each of the samples, parameters were measured, such as chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, nitrate and nitrite (mg/L), temperature (°C), and pH. The average removal efficiency of different parameters by 14 brands in Kerman, which include chloride ions, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, nitrites, nitrates, and total hardness, was obtained at 68.48, 85, 67, 61.21, 78.97, 80.24, 32.59, 66.83, and 69.38%, respectively. The amount of sulfate, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and nitrate in the output water of household water treatment systems was less than the input water of these devices, but nitrite concentration in the output of some devices was more than the input water and showed a significant difference ( p > 0.05).

  5. Purification and inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-03-15

    A high activity α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been purified from various tissues of the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. The new enzyme, denominated lwCA, has a catalytic activity for the physiologic CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate reaction, similar to that of the high activity human isoform hCA II, with a k(cat) of 1.1×10(6) s(-1), and a k(cat)/K(m) of 1.4×10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme was highly inhibited by cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, bicarbonate, carbonate, as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic/phenylarsonic acids (K(I)s in the range of 46-100 μM). Many clinically used sulfonamides, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and benzolamide were low nanomolar inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 5.7-67 nM. Dichlorophenamide, zonisamide, saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide were weaker inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 513-5390 nM. The inhibition profile with anions and sulfonamides of the seal enzyme was rather different from those of the human isoforms hCA I and II. The high sensitivity to bicarbonate inhibition of lwCA, unlike that of the human enzymes, may reflect an evolutionary adaptation to the deep water, high CO(2) partial pressure and hypoxic conditions in which Weddell seals spend much of their life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  7. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization reactor, it is the best way to avoid any termination of living polymers during the number of steps for the synthesis of polymers with complex structure. In this chapter, we describe the different polymerization reactors and HVTs for the purification of monomers, solvents, and other reagents for anionic polymerization as well as few model reactions for the synthesis of polymers with simple to complex structure.

  8. Dibromine radical anion reactions with heme enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicka, L.; Gebicki, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of Br 2 radical anion with heme enzymes, catalase horseradish peroxidase, have been studied by pulse radiolysis. It has been found that Br 2 - does not react with the heme centre of investigated enzymes. Dibromine radical anion reacts with tryptophan residues of catalase without any influence on the activity of catalase. It is suggested that in pulse radiolysis studies, where horseradish peroxidase is at about tenfold excess toward Br 2 - , the enzyme is modified rather by Br 2 , than by Br 2 - . (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  9. Facilitated Anion Transport Induces Hyperpolarization of the Cell Membrane That Triggers Differentiation and Cell Death in Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Manuel-Manresa, Pilar; Hernando, Elsa; Calabuig-Fariñas, Silvia; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Knöpfel, Thomas; García-Valverde, María; Rodilla, Ananda M; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloisa; Farràs, Rosa; Ciruela, Francisco; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

    2015-12-23

    Facilitated anion transport potentially represents a powerful tool to modulate various cellular functions. However, research into the biological effects of small molecule anionophores is still at an early stage. Here we have used two potent anionophore molecules inspired in the structure of marine metabolites tambjamines to gain insight into the effect induced by these compounds at the cellular level. We show how active anionophores, capable of facilitating the transmembrane transport of chloride and bicarbonate in model phospholipid liposomes, induce acidification of the cytosol and hyperpolarization of plasma cell membranes. We demonstrate how this combined effect can be used against cancer stem cells (CSCs). Hyperpolarization of cell membrane induces cell differentiation and loss of stemness of CSCs leading to effective elimination of this cancer cell subpopulation.

  10. CO2 consumption and bicarbonate fluxes by chemical weathering in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Cations released by chemical weathering are mainly counterbalanced by atmospheric/soil CO2 dissolved in water. Existing approaches to quantify CO2 consumption by chemical weathering are mostly based on the parameters runoff and lithology. Land cover is not implemented as predictor in existing regional or global scale models for atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption. Here, bicarbonate fluxes in North American rivers are quantified by an empirical forward model using the predictors runoff, lithology and land cover. The model was calibrated on chemical data from 338 river monitoring stations throughout North America. It was extrapolated to the entire North American continent by applying the model equation spatially explicitly to the geodata used for model calibration. Because silicate mineral weathering derived bicarbonate in rivers originates entirely from atmospheric/soil CO2, but carbonate mineral weathering additionally releases lithogenic bicarbonate, those source minerals are distinguished to quantify the CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Extrapolation of the model results in a total bicarbonate flux of 51 Mt C a-1 in North America; 70% of which originate from atmospheric/soil CO2. On average, chemical weathering consumes 2.64 t atmospheric/soil C km-2 a-1 (~ 30%-40% above published world average values). For a given runoff and land cover, carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks export the most bicarbonate. However, half of this is assumed to be of lithogenic origin. Thus, the most atmospheric/soil CO2 per runoff is modeled to be consumed by basic plutonics. The least bicarbonate is exported and the least CO2 is consumed per runoff by weathering of metamorphic rocks. Of the distinguished different land cover classes of which urban areas export the most bicarbonate for a given lithology and runoff, followed by shrubs, grasslands and managed lands. For a given runoff and lithology, the least bicarbonate is exported from areas with forested land cover. The model shows 1

  11. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  13. The assessment of pellicular anion-exchange resins for the determination of anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1981-01-01

    Because pellicular anion-exchange resins suitable for the determination, by ion chromatography, of anions with alkaline eluents were unavailable in South Africa at the inception of this work, an attempt was made to prepare such resins. In this study it is shown that the pellicular resins produced are more efficient than the surface-aminated resins used previously. The simultaneous separation and determination of five common anions is demonstrated. The method was applied to the analysis of uranium leach liquors, effluent samples, and a solid sample of ferric oxide (goethite)

  14. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg∙kg⁻¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  16. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovar, Bryan S [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  17. Synthesis of azaphenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Møller; Lysén, M.; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new and convergent synthesis of azaphenanthridines via an anionic ring closure is reported. Ortho-lithiation/in situ borylation of cyanopyridines produces the corresponding cyanopyridylboronic esters, which undergo a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling to give the key intermediates. Addition of lithium...

  18. Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Takumi; Zhu, Liehong; Murakami, Makoto; Shibata, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mV Ag/ A gCl . and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

  19. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  20. High rates of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in seawater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Gregório, S F; Gaetano, P; Trischitta, F; Fuentes, J

    2017-05-01

    Osmoregulation in fish is a complex process that requires the orchestrated cooperation of many tissues. In fish facing hyperosmotic environments, the intestinal absorption of some monovalent ions and the secretion of bicarbonate are key processes to favor water absorption. In the present study, we showed that bicarbonate levels in the intestinal fluid are several fold higher in seawater than in freshwater acclimated tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In addition, we analyzed gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms involved in HCO 3 - movements i.e. slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and v-type H-ATPase sub C in the intestine of tilapia acclimated to both seawater and freshwater. Our results show an anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in tilapia in terms of expression patterns, which is affected by environmental salinity mostly in the anterior and mid intestine. Analysis of bicarbonate secretion using pH-Stat in tissues mounted in Ussing chambers reveals high rates of bicarbonate secretion in tilapia acclimated to seawater from anterior intestine to rectum ranging between ~900 and ~1700nmolHCO 3 - cm -2 h -1 . However, a relationship between the expression of slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and the rate of bicarbonate secretion seems to be compromised in the rectum. In this region, the low expression of the bicarbonate transporters could not explain the high bicarbonate secretion rates here described. However, we postulate that the elevated v-type H-ATPase mRNA expression in the rectum could be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  2. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  3. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p ...The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p basal and vagally...

  4. 14C fixation by leaves and leaf cell protoplasts of the submerged aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens: Carbon dioxide or bicarbonate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens L. The leaves utilize bicarbonate as a carbon source for photosynthesis, and show polarity; that is acidification of the periplasmic space of the lower, and alkalinization of the space near the upper leaf side. At present there are two models under consideration for this photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization process: conversion of bicarbonate into free carbon dioxide as a result of acidification and, second, a bicarbonate-proton symport across the plasma membrane. Carbon fixation of protoplasts was studied at different pH values and compared with that in leaf strips. Using the isotopic disequilibrium technique, it was established that carbon dioxide and not bicarbonate was the form in which DIC actually crossed the plasma membrane. It is concluded that there is probably no true bicarbonate transport system at the plasma membrane of these cells and that bicarbonate utilization in this species apparently rests on the conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide. Experiments with acetazolamide, an inhibitor of periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, and direct measurements of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact leaves indicate that in this species the role of this enzyme for periplasmic conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide is insignificant

  5. Intestinal Ileus as a Possible Cause of Hypobicarbonatemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Serrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible occurrence of metabolic acidosis in patients with intestinal ileus is not well recognized. We describe a patient with acute alcohol-induced pancreatitis and a large transverse colon ileus in which plasma bicarbonate dropped rapidly in the absence of an increase in the plasma anion gap. The urinary anion gap and ammonium excretion were consistent with an appropriate renal response to metabolic acidosis and against the possibility of respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the falling plasma bicarbonate was ascribed to intestinal bicarbonate sequestration owing to the enhancement of chloride-bicarbonate exchange in a dilated paralyzed colon.

  6. Regulation of organic anion transport in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM

    1997-01-01

    In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter

  7. Loss of Slc4a1b chloride/bicarbonate exchanger function protects mechanosensory hair cells from aminoglycoside damage in the zebrafish mutant persephone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale W Hailey

    Full Text Available Mechanosensory hair cell death is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders in the human population. Hair cells are remarkably sensitive to environmental insults such as excessive noise and exposure to some otherwise therapeutic drugs. However, individual responses to damaging agents can vary, in part due to genetic differences. We previously carried out a forward genetic screen using the zebrafish lateral line system to identify mutations that alter the response of larval hair cells to the antibiotic neomycin, one of a class of aminoglycoside compounds that cause hair cell death in humans. The persephone mutation confers resistance to aminoglycosides. 5 dpf homozygous persephone mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings, but differ in their retention of lateral line hair cells upon exposure to neomycin. The mutation in persephone maps to the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger slc4a1b and introduces a single Ser-to-Phe substitution in zSlc4a1b. This mutation prevents delivery of the exchanger to the cell surface and abolishes the ability of the protein to import chloride across the plasma membrane. Loss of function of zSlc4a1b reduces hair cell death caused by exposure to the aminoglycosides neomycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin, and the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Pharmacological block of anion transport with the disulfonic stilbene derivatives DIDS and SITS, or exposure to exogenous bicarbonate, also protects hair cells against damage. Both persephone mutant and DIDS-treated wild-type larvae show reduced uptake of labeled aminoglycosides. persephone mutants also show reduced FM1-43 uptake, indicating a potential impact on mechanotransduction-coupled activity in the mutant. We propose that tight regulation of the ionic environment of sensory hair cells, mediated by zSlc4a1b activity, is critical for their sensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  8. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The major thrust of this project, led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-James), entails an exploration of the basic determinants of anion recognition and their application to the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key scientific inspiration for the work comes from the need, codified in simple-to-appreciate terms by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory component of the team (viz. Dr. Bruce Moyer), for chemical entities that can help in the extractive removal of species that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Among such species, sulfate anion, has been identified as particularly insidious. Its presence interferes with the vitrification process, thus rendering the remediation of tank waste from, e.g., the Hanford site far more difficult and expensive. The availability of effective extractants, that would allow for the separation of separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate, could allow for pre-vitrification removal of sulfate via liquid-liquid extraction. The efforts at The University of Texas, the subject of this report, have thus concentrated on the development of new sulfate receptors. These systems are designed to increase our basic understanding of anion recognition events and set the stage for the development of viable sulfate anion extractants. In conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) members of the research team, several of these new receptors were studied as putative extractants, with two of the systems being shown to act as promising synergists for anion exchange.

  9. Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chebbi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

  10. Effect of application approaches of ammonium bicarbonate on yield of spring wheat and nitrogen balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Pan Jiarong; Zheng Xingyun

    1995-01-01

    The results from 15 N-tracing experiment showed that at the same rate of nitrogen application, the nitrogen utilization ammonium bicarbonate was 33.50%, 32.30% and 23.19% respectively and the nitrogen loss rate of ammonium bicarbonate was 22.12%, 26.93% and 45.32% respectively for fertilizer mixed thoroughly with soil before sowing, buried into soil and spread on the surface of soil at both joining stage (1/2N) and booting stage (1/2N) of spring wheat. The nitrogen utilization of ammonium bicarbonate for top-application at both joining (1/2N) and booting stage (1/2N) was significantly lower but nitrogen loss rate was significantly higher than that of either thorough incorporation with soil or deep application at joining and booting stages. Between the latter treatments there was no significantly difference observed. There was no significant difference in biomass and grain yield of spring wheat between the former treatment and either of the latter treatments, indicating that buried into soil or mixed with soil thoroughly as a basal fertilizer was an available approach to increase the nitrogen availability of ammonium bicarbonate and crop yield. It was also shown that no significant difference in biomass and grain yield of spring wheat between deep application of ammonium bicarbonate and top-application of urea at the same rate of N application

  11. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel for overpack in groundwater containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Toshiyasu; Dong, Junpha

    2009-01-01

    Carbon steel is considered in Japan the candidate material for overpacks in high-level radioactive waste disposal. Effects of bicarbonate solutions on the corrosion behavior and corrosion products of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements, FT-IR and XRD analyses. The anodic polarization measurements showed that bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) accelerated the anodic dissolution and the outer layer film formation of carbon steel in the case of high concentrations, on the other hand, it inhibited these processes in the case of low concentrations. The FT-IR and XRD analyses of the anodized film showed that siderite (FeCO 3 ) was formed in 0.5 to 1.0 mol/L bicarbonate solution, and Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 in 0.1 to 0.2 mol/L bicarbonate solution, while Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 was formed in 0.02 to 0.05 mol/L bicarbonate solutions. The stability of these corrosion products was able to be explained by using the actual potential-pH diagrams for the Fe-H 2 O-CO 2 system. (author)

  12. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  13. Physical disruption of oral biofilms by sodium bicarbonate: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, J; Wiecek, J; Mordan, N; Lomax, A; Patel, N; Spratt, D; Middleton, A M

    2016-08-01

    Sodium bicarbonate has been shown clinically to be efficacious at removing dental plaque; however, its effect of mechanism against biofilms has not been evaluated in vitro. Here, we used a well-established in vitro plaque biofilm model to investigate the disruption of dental plaque biofilms. Biofilms were grown in a constant depth film fermentor for up to 14 days. The fermentor was inoculated with pooled human saliva and growth maintained with artificial saliva. After various time points, replicate biofilms were removed and subjected to treatment at varying concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. Disruption of the plaque was assessed by viable counts and microscopy. The viable count results showed that younger biofilms were less susceptible to the action of sodium bicarbonate; however, biofilms of 7 days and older were increasingly susceptible to the material with the oldest biofilms being the most susceptible. Sixty-seven percentage of sodium bicarbonate slurry was able to reduce the number of organisms present by approx. 3 log10 . These quantitative data were corroborated qualitatively with both confocal and electron microscopy, which both showed substantial qualitative removal of mature biofilms. The results from this study have shown that sodium bicarbonate is able to disrupt mature dental plaque grown in vitro and that its reported efficacy in maintaining oral hygiene may be related to this key factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  15. [Correlation between the use of sodium bicarbonate and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pasquel, María José; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Being born preterm implies comorbidities, among them the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The use of sodium bicarbonate has been linked to the presence of IVH. The main purpose of this study was to determine if the infusion of sodium bicarbonate during the first 24 hours increases the risk of IVH in preterm infants. Our study is a cohort; we analyzed the files of 160 patients and divided them into two groups: one in which sodium bicarbonate was not used and another in which it was; this latter group was subdivided into two considering if the use was therapeutic of prophylactic. In our total group of patients 10 % presented IVH; had a mean weight of 1500 g and 31 weeks of gestational age. The incidence of IVH was identical between both groups, although patients in which bicarbonate was used were more premature, unstable, and in worse clinical conditions. Our data indicate the need of large scale studies to determine if the clinical benefits of the use of sodium bicarbonate outweigh the risk of IVH.

  16. Effect of sodium bicarbonate against Candida albicans in denture stomatitis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolmoulouk Najafi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate against candida albicans, the main infectious factor of denture stomatitis, and to compare it with other common anti-candida medications. Materials and Methods: Three concentrations of Candida albicans (105, 106, 107 CFU/mL were prepared. Experimental substances were 5% sodium bicarbonate, nystatin, chlorhexidine, and sterile saline (as control. Each of them was added separately to the same amounts of Candida albicans of different concentrations, and sampled at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Then, the samples were cultured and incubated. The number of formed colonies was counted for each plate. The data were analyzed, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Sodium bicarbonate showed a noticeable anti-candida effect on the concentrations of 105 and 106 CFU/mL, with almost similar anti-candida effect as nystatin and chlorehexidine(P=0.29, P=0.32. Nystatin was the most effective medication on the concentration of 107 CFU/mL of candida (P=0.03, P=0.01. Sodium bicarbonate and chlorhexidine were less effective in this concentration with no statistically significant difference (P=1.00. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate showed a significant anti-candida effect at low and medium concentrations of Candida albicans, but nystatin was more effective in the higher concentrations.

  17. Association between sodium bicarbonate consumption and human health: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadolah Fakhri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is a chemical compound dissolved in water which is widely used as an additive in foods and mineral water and as a medicine. In Iran, due to the introduction of harmful effects of this compound, using it in baking is prohibited. Therefore, we tried to search and evaluate all health effects of using this compound with a systematic review. In this study, all available evidences on the beneficial and harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate were searched. The method was based on systematic study of reputable databases including Embase, Ovid, Scopus, Pubmed and ISI Web of science. Invalid studies were found that shows the relationship of harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate on general health. In addition to that, the studies showed therapeutic aspects and useful effects of this material. Some studies showed the harmful effects of therapeutic using of sodium bicarbonate with high dose that randomly happened. Reviewing of credible studies showed that not only using sodium bicarbonate is not harmful for human health, but also using it as a drug can be useful in treatment and relief of some diseases

  18. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Ayach, Taha; Barbaryan, Aram; Talari, Goutham; Chadha, Romil; Gray, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  19. Electrospun gelatin/sodium bicarbonate and poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)/sodium bicarbonate nanofibers as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Qingqing; Williams, Gareth R; Wu, Huanling; Liu, Kailin; Li, Heyu; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report electrospun nanofibers made of model hydrophobic (poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone); PLCL) and hydrophilic (gelatin) polymers. We explored the effect on drug release of the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate (SB) into these fibers, using the potent antibacterial agent ciprofloxacin as a model drug. The fibers prepared are smooth and have relatively uniform diameters lying between ca. 600 and 850nm. The presence of ciprofloxacin in the fibers was confirmed using IR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed the drug to be incorporated into the fibers in the amorphous form. In vitro drug release studies revealed that, as expected, more rapid drug release was seen with gelatin fibers than those made of PLCL, and a greater final release percentage was obtained. The inclusion of SB in the gelatin fibers imparts them with pH sensitivity: gelatin/SB fibers showed faster release at pH5 than pH7.4, while fibers without SB gave the same release profiles at both pHs. The PLCL fibers have no pH sensitivity, even when SB was included, as a result of their hydrophobic structure precluding the ingress of solvent. In vitro cell culture studies showed that all the fibers are able to promote cell proliferation. The ciprofloxacin loaded fibers are effective in inhibiting Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth in antibacterial tests. Thus, the gelatin-based fibers can be used as pH-responsive drug delivery systems, with potential applications for instance in the treatment of tumor resection sites. Should these become infected, the pH would drop, resulting in ciprofloxacin being released and the infection halted. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of sulfamethoxazole by UV, UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate (PDS): Formation of oxidation products and effect of bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Lu, Xinglin; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Liu, Guanqi; Cao, Ying; Liu, Weili; Li, Juan; Pang, Suyan; Kong, Xiujuan; Luo, Congwei

    2017-07-01

    The frequent detection of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in wastewater and surface waters gives rise of concerns about their ecotoxicological effects and potential risks to induce antibacterial resistant genes. UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) and UV/persulfate (UV/PDS) advanced oxidation processes have been demonstrated to be effective for the elimination of SMX, but there is still a need for a deeper understanding of product formations. In this study, we identified and compared the transformation products of SMX in UV, UV/H 2 O 2 and UV/PDS processes. Because of the electrophilic nature of SO 4 - , the second-order rate constant for the reaction of sulfate radical (SO 4 - ) with the anionic form of SMX was higher than that with the neutral form, while hydroxyl radical (OH) exhibited comparable reactivity to both forms. The direct photolysis of SMX predominately occurred through cleavage of the NS bond, rearrangement of the isoxazole ring, and hydroxylation mechanisms. Hydroxylation was the dominant pathway for the reaction of OH with SMX. SO 4 - favored attack on NH 2 group of SMX to generate a nitro derivative and dimeric products. The presence of bicarbonate in UV/H 2 O 2 inhibited the formation of hydroxylated products, but promoted the formation of the nitro derivative and the dimeric products. In UV/PDS, bicarbonate increased the formation of the nitro derivative and the dimeric products, but decreased the formation of the hydroxylated dimeric products. The different effect of bicarbonate on transformation products in UV/H 2 O 2 vs. UV/PDS suggested that carbonate radical (CO 3 - ) oxidized SMX through the electron transfer mechanism similar to SO 4 - but with less oxidation capacity. Additionally, SO 4 - and CO 3 - exhibited higher reactivity to the oxazole ring than the isoxazole ring of SMX. Ecotoxicity of transformation products was estimated by ECOSAR program based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis as well as by experiments using

  1. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  2. The role of bicarbonate in platelet additive solution for apheresis platelet concentrates stored with low residual plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, Katherine; Min, Kyungyoon

    2013-03-01

    Complex platelet additive solutions (PASs) are required to store platelet (PLT) concentrates with plasma levels below 30%. Previously, apheresis PLTs stored with 5% plasma in acetate- and bicarbonate-containing PAS maintained stable pH and bicarbonate levels during 7-day storage. Due to this observation, the necessity of added bicarbonate in PAS was investigated and whether the concurrent increase in PAS pH after bicarbonate addition had any effect on PLT storage. Apheresis PLTs were stored in 5% plasma-95% high- or low-pH PAS, with or without bicarbonate (n=10 per arm). Bicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired and nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired (split from same double-dose collection). PLTs were evaluated for in vitro variables on Days 1 and 7 and up to Day 14 if the Day 7 pH was higher than 6.2. PLT pH was maintained above 7.3 to Day 14 in bicarbonate PAS PLTs while pH failures below 6.2 were observed in 4 of 10 and 2 of 10 units on Day 7 in low- and high-pH nonbicarbonate PAS arms, respectively. Day 7 in vitro variables in nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs with pH values of higher than 6.2 were comparable to Day 7 variables in bicarbonate PAS PLTs. The pH of bicarbonate PAS did have a small effect on pH and bicarbonate levels in PLT units, but did not have an effect on functional variables and metabolism. Bicarbonate was not required to maintain in vitro PLT function in 5% plasma-95% PAS, but was required as a pH buffer and increased PAS pH did not significantly contribute to this effect. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Association between mortality and replacement solution bicarbonate concentration in continuous renal replacement therapy: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    Full Text Available Given the known deleterious effects seen with bicarbonate supplementation for acidemia, we hypothesized that utilizing high bicarbonate concentration replacement solution in continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH would be independently associated with higher mortality.In a propensity score-matched historical cohort study conducted at a single tertiary care center from December 9, 2006, through December 31, 2009, a total of 287consecutive adult critically ill patients with Stage III acute kidney injury (AKI requiring CVVH were enrolled. We excluded patients on maintenance dialysis, those who received other modalities of continuous renal replacement therapies, and patients that received a mixed of 22 and 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution pre- and post-filter. The primary outcome was in-hospital and 90-day mortality rates.Among enrollees, 68 were used 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution, and 219 received 22mEq/L bicarbonate solution for CVVH. Patients on 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution were more often non-surgical, had lower pH and bicarbonate level but had higher blood potassium and phosphorus levels in comparison with those on 22 mEq/L bicarbonate solution. After adjustment for the baseline characteristics, the use of 32 bicarbonate solution was significantly associated with increased in-hospital (HR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.02-3.79 and 90-day mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.03-2.14. There was a significant increase in the hospital (p = .03 and 90-day (p = .04 mortality between the 22 vs. 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution groups following propensity matching.Our data showed there is a strong association between using high bicarbonate solution and mortality independent of severity of illness and comorbid conditions. These findings need to be evaluated further in prospective studies.

  4. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  5. [Effect of IV hydration with sodium bicarbonate on high-dose methotrexate disposition kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, N; Goto, M; Konishi, H; Yamashina, H

    1984-04-01

    Following two-compartment kinetic analysis, the effect of loading of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate on methotrexate disposition was investigated in 13 cases with malignant tumor, being treated with high-dose methotrexate. The mean values of total body clearance, when administered at doses 50 mg and 100 mg per kg body weight, were 0.369 and 0.402 (l/h) per kg, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between alpha value and total amount of transfusion, of urine or dosage of sodium bicarbonate. The other kinetic parameters on elimination, beta value, K10 and total body clearance, did not also correlate with those values described above. These results suggest that the elimination profile of methotrexate show linear kinetics, and that massive administration of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate be not necessary if pH value of urine exceeds 7.0.

  6. Physiological responses in swine treated with water containing sodium bicarbonate as a prophylactic for gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J T; Argenzio, R A; Eisemann, J H

    2004-09-01

    Maintenance of gastric pH above 4.0 aids the prevention of bile acid-mediated ulcerative damage to the pars esophageal tissue in pigs. One means of doing so is the addition of buffering compounds, such as sodium bicarbonate, to the water supply; however, any potential physiological effect of buffer consumption has yet to be determined. Experiment 1 tested the acute effects of buffer addition to the water supply on systemic acid-base and electrolyte balance in swine (BW 40.7 +/- 3.0 kg). Consumption of water calculated to a 200 mOsm solution with sodium bicarbonate for 24 h increased (P sodium bicarbonate can safely be added to the water supply for pigs, with no clinically relevant alterations in acid-base balance because the animals readily compensate for buffer intake.

  7. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    In the course of our studies on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants, we have observed a striking depressing effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion on cerebral blood flow which in some cases may severely aggravate cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow before and after the treatment...... with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior...... to the bicarbonate infusion. In one case an extreme reduction occurred: cerebral blood flow was reduced to 3 ml/100 g/min, well below the level compatible with tissue survival. The results are discussed with regard to the optimal treatment of the acidotic newborn....

  8. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of uranium(IV), -(V), and -(VI) in carbonate-bicarbonate buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Recently a need for more detailed knowledge of the chemistry of actinide ions in basic media has arisen in connection with deducing their chemistry in the environment. In this work the results of polarographic, cyclic voltammetric, and spectroscopic studies of U(IV), -(V), and -(VI) in carbonate and bicarbonate media are reported. Polarographic studies were in excellent agreement with those reported previously. Cyclic voltammetric scans confirmed the irreversible reduction to U(V) in both solutions, but disproportionation of the U(V) was observed only in the bicarbonate solutions. The oxidation of U(V) in carbonate was followed spectroscopically for the first time. Reduction in bicarbonate produced U(IV), the spectrum of which is now reported and the oxidation of which was also followed spectroscopically for the first time

  9. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  10. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-08-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal.

  11. Oral Bicarbonate Slows Decline of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui; Wu, Feng; Tao, Xin-Chao; Li, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Pei

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common consequence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) which may result in a substantial adverse outcome. The effect of oral bicarbonate on the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has been rarely reported. We randomly assigned 40 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients to the oral bicarbonate group or placebo group at a 1: 1 ratio. All enrollments were followed for a duration of 104 weeks. We took residual creatinine clearance (CCr), a measure of residual renal function (RRF), as the primary outcome. Residual CCr was calculated as the average of urea and creatinine clearance from a 24-hour urine collection. Thirteen patients in the placebo group and 15 patients in the treatment group completed the 104 weeks of follow-up with a comparable dropout rate (placebo group: 35% vs treatment group: 25%). Compared with the placebo group, serum bicarbonate in treatment group was significantly increased at each time point, and oral bicarbonate resulted in a slower declining rate of residual CCr (F=5.113, p=0.031). Baseline residual CCr at enrollment also had a significant effect on residual CCr (F=168.779, Pcalculate a comorbidity score had no significant effect on residual CCr loss (F=0.168, P=0.685). Oral bicarbonate may have a RRF preserving effect in CAPD patients, and a normal to high level of serum bicarbonate (≥24mmol/L) may be appropriate for RRF preservation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Water permeation through anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Wright, Andrew; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

  13. Effect of N-protecting compound ammonium bicarbonate and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifen; Zeng Hanting; Huang Min; Tu Shuxin; Wen Xianfang

    2004-01-01

    A kind of N-protecting compound ammonium bicarbonate fertilizer was created. Compared with common ammonium bicarbonate, the fertilizer can raise nitrogen use efficiency by 5.2%-15% and reduce ammonia loss due to volatilization by 5%-12%. Yields of rice and cotton were raised by 5%-10% and 6%-20%, respectively. And it also has the following characteristics, such as hard lump not be formed, easy to use, less bad smell caused by ammonia, reducing of production cost, etc. Demonstration of applying this fertilizer to cotton and rice in more than 13.3 hm 2 showed good effect on increasing crop yield

  14. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  15. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination.......05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate...

  16. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  17. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Velissaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH>7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate on severe metabolic acidosis during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Donnino, Michael W; Kim, Won Young

    2018-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is controversial. Current guidelines recommend sodium bicarbonate injection in patients with existing metabolic acidosis, but clinical trials, particularly, those involving patients with acidosis, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with severe metabolic acidosis during prolonged CPR. Prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2015 and December 2015, at a single center emergency department (ED). After 10 minutes of CPR, patients who failed to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and with severe metabolic acidosis (pH<7.1 or bicarbonate <10 mEq/L) were enrolled. Sodium bicarbonate (n=25) or normal saline (n=25) were administered. The primary end point was sustained ROSC. The secondary end points were the change of acidosis and good neurologic survival. Sodium bicarbonate group had significant effect on pH (6.99 vs. 6.90, P=0.038) and bicarbonate levels (21.0 vs. 8.0 mEq/L, P=0.007). However, no significant differences showed between sodium bicarbonate and placebo groups in sustained ROSC (4.0% vs. 16.0%, P=0.349) or good neurologic survival at 1 month (0.0% vs. 4.0%, P=1.000). The use of sodium bicarbonate improved acid-base status, but did not improve the rate of ROSC and good neurologic survival. We could not draw a conclusion, but our pilot data could be used to design a larger trial to verify the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate. NCT02303548 (http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov).

  19. ABH antigens as recognition sites for the activation of red blood cell anion exchange by the lectin ulex europaeus agglutinin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, B

    1993-11-01

    The blood group antigen H (blood group O) and fucose-specific lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1) (10 micrograms/ml) was found to increase the rate constant of Cl- efflux into 100 mM Na+ oxalate media by about 40% in erythrocytes taken from antigen H donors. In 100 mM K+ oxalate, 150 mM Na+ pyruvate and in 150 mM Na+ acetate media the lectin elevated the rate constant of Cl- efflux by 20-50%. The acceleration of Cl- efflux by UEA1 was completely blocked by 10 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) indicating that the effect of the lectin is mediated by the anion exchanger of human erythrocytes (band 3 protein). In antigen A1 erythrocytes no significant stimulation of anion exchange by UEA1 was seen. The activation of Cl- efflux was completely prevented by addition of 1 mM fucose to the medium. These results suggest that the effect of UEA1 is mediated through interaction with the fucose residues of H antigens. Increasing extracellular Ca++ from 0.5 to 5 mM in Na+ pyruvate or Na+ acetate media slightly reduced the acceleration of anion exchange by the lectin. On the other hand, replacing part of extracellular chloride by bicarbonate did not considerably alter the (previously reported) stimulatory effect of UEA1 on red blood cell Ca++ uptake. This suggests that the acceleration of anion exchange and of Ca++ uptake by UEA1, respectively, are mediated by different mechanisms. It is concluded that UEA1 activates anion exchange of human erythrocytes most probably by a direct interaction with H antigens present on extracellular domains of the band 3 protein.

  20. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  1. Hydration of a Large Anionic Charge Distribution - Naphthalene-Water Cluster Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mathias; Adams, Christopher L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of anionic clusters of naphthalene with up to three water molecules. Comparison of the experimental infrared spectra with theoretically predicted spectra from quantum chemistry calculations allow conclusions regarding the structures of the clusters under study. The first water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with the π electron system of the naphthalene moiety. Subsequent water ligands interact with both the naphthalene and the other water ligands to form hydrogen bonded networks, similar to other hydrated anion clusters. Naphthalene-water anion clusters illustrate how water interacts with negative charge delocalized over a large π electron system. The clusters are interesting model systems that are discussed in the context of wetting of graphene surfaces and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. On the effect of image states on resonant neutralization of hydrogen anions near metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Niederhausen, Thomas; Thumm, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    We directly assess the role of image state electronic structures on the ion-survival by comparing the resonant charge transfer dynamics of hydrogen anions near Pd(1 1 1), Pd(1 0 0), and Ag(1 1 1) surfaces. Our simulations show that image states that are degenerate with the metal conduction band favor the recapture of electrons by outgoing ions. In sharp contrast, localized image states that occur inside the band gap hinder the recapture process and thus enhance the ion-neutralization probability

  3. Transforming Anion Instability into Stability: Contrasting Photoionization of Three Protonation Forms of the Phosphate Ion upon Moving into Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluhařová, Eva; Ončák, M.; Seidel, R.; Schroeder, C.; Schroeder, W.; Winter, B.; Bradforth, S. E.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Slavíček, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 44 (2012), s. 13254-13264 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/10/1724; GA ČR GA203/08/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiply-charged anions * ab-initio calculations * aqueous-solution * photoelectron-spectroscopy * ionization energies * emission-spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2012

  4. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  5. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  6. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  7. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A; Köllisch, Ulrich; Schulte, Rolf F; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Frank, Annette; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Menzel, Marion I

    2015-06-01

    Because pH plays a crucial role in several diseases, it is desirable to measure pH in vivo noninvasively and in a spatially localized manner. Spatial maps of pH were quantified in vitro, with a focus on method-based errors, and applied in vivo. In vitro and in vivo (13) C mapping were performed for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral-spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction. After optimizing the signal to noise ratio of the hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate, error estimation of the spectral-spatial excited spectrum reveals that the method covers the biologically relevant pH range of 6 to 8 with low pH error (< 0.2). Quantification of pH maps shows negligible impact of the residual bicarbonate signal. pH maps reflect the induction of acute metabolic alkalosis. Inflamed, infected regions exhibit lower pH. Hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate pH mapping was shown to be sensitive in the biologically relevant pH range. The mapping of pH was applied to healthy in vivo organs and interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zaishan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)], E-mail: weizaishan98@163.com; Lin Zhehang; Niu Hejingying; He Haiming; Ji Yongfeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and zeolite could reduce SO{sub 2} to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO{sub x} to nitrogen with the best NO{sub x} purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO{sub x} concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO{sub 2} concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent.

  9. Ammonium Bicarbonate Addition Improves the Detection of Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Elahe; Venter, Andre R.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of protein by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is considered impractical due to a mass-dependent loss in sensitivity with increase in protein molecular weights. With the addition of ammonium bicarbonate to the DESI-MS analysis the sensitivity towards proteins by DESI was improved. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) improvement for a variety of proteins increased between 2- to 3-fold relative to solvent systems containing formic acid and more than seven times relative to aqueous methanol spray solvents. Three methods for ammonium bicarbonate addition during DESI-MS were investigated. The additive delivered improvements in S/N whether it was mixed with the analyte prior to sample deposition, applied over pre-prepared samples, or simply added to the desorption spray solvent. The improvement correlated well with protein pI but not with protein size. Other ammonium or bicarbonate salts did not produce similar improvements in S/N, nor was this improvement in S/N observed for ESI of the same samples. As was previously described for ESI, DESI also caused extensive protein unfolding upon the addition of ammonium bicarbonate. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Regulation of photosynthetic electron flow in isolated chloroplasts by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes some efforts that were made to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides in chloroplasts. In the past decade a large amount of research has been devoted to get insight into the

  11. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1177 Section 180.1177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.117...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1244 Section 180.1244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244...

  13. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior...

  14. Goblet Cell Hyperplasia Requires High Bicarbonate Transport To Support Mucin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrieri, Giulia; Scudieri, Paolo; Caci, Emanuela; Schiavon, Marco; Tomati, Valeria; Sirci, Francesco; Napolitano, Francesco; Carrella, Diego; Gianotti, Ambra; Musante, Ilaria; Favia, Maria; Casavola, Valeria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Rea, Federico; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Di Bernardo, Diego; Galietta, Luis J V

    2016-10-27

    Goblet cell hyperplasia, a feature of asthma and other respiratory diseases, is driven by the Th-2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. In human bronchial epithelial cells, we find that IL-4 induces the expression of many genes coding for ion channels and transporters, including TMEM16A, SLC26A4, SLC12A2, and ATP12A. At the functional level, we find that IL-4 enhances calcium- and cAMP-activated chloride/bicarbonate secretion, resulting in high bicarbonate concentration and alkaline pH in the fluid covering the apical surface of epithelia. Importantly, mucin release, elicited by purinergic stimulation, requires the presence of bicarbonate in the basolateral solution and is defective in cells derived from cystic fibrosis patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that Th-2 cytokines induce a profound change in expression and function in multiple ion channels and transporters that results in enhanced bicarbonate transport ability. This change is required as an important mechanism to favor release and clearance of mucus.

  15. Population pharmacodynamic model of bicarbonate response to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acetazolamide is commonly given to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with metabolic alkalosis. Little is known of the pharmacodynamics of acetazolamide in the critically ill. We undertook the pharmacodynamic modeling of bicarbonate response to acetazolamide in COPD patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods This observational, retrospective study included 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients who received one or multiple doses of 250 or 500 mg of acetazolamide during the weaning period. Among the 68 investigated patients, 207 time-serum bicarbonate observations were available for analysis. Population pharmacodynamics was modeled using a nonlinear mixedeffect model. The main covariates of interest were baseline demographic data, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) at ICU admission, cause of respiratory failure, co-prescription of drugs interfering with the acid-base equilibrium, and serum concentrations of protein, creatinin, potassium and chloride. The effect of acetazolamide on serum bicarbonate levels at different doses and in different clinical conditions was subsequently simulated in silico. Results The main covariates interacting with acetazolamide pharmacodynamics were SAPS II at ICU admission (P = 0.01), serum chloride (P 500 mg twice daily is required to reduce serum bicarbonate concentrations > 5 mmol/L in the presence of high serum chloride levels or coadministration of systemic corticosteroids or furosemide. Conclusions This study identified several covariates that influenced acetazolamide pharmacodynamics and could allow a better individualization of acetazolamide dosing when treating COPD patients with metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21917139

  16. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zaishan; Lin Zhehang; Niu Hejingying; He Haiming; Ji Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH 4 HCO 3 ) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH 4 HCO 3 and zeolite could reduce SO 2 to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO x to nitrogen with the best NO x purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO x concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO 2 concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO 2 , NO x and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent

  17. Solubility of hydrogen in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  18. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois; Bosca, Bernard.

    1978-01-01

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium [fr

  19. Crack Cocaine-Induced Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities Are Reversed by Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Laskoski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg, with four sheep, submitted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

  1. Sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads as mechanically stable carriers for the covalent immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Marwa I

    2018-03-01

    The poor mechanical stability of chitosan has long impeded its industrial utilization as an immobilization carrier. In this study, the mechanical properties of chitosan beads were greatly improved through utilizing the slow rate of the sodium bicarbonate-induced chitosan gelation and combining it with the chemical cross-linking action of glutaraldehyde (GA). The GA-treated sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads exhibited much better mechanical properties and up to 2.45-fold higher observed activity of the immobilized enzyme (β-D-galactosidase (β-gal)) when compared to the GA-treated sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)-gelled chitosan beads. The differences between the sodium bicarbonate-gelled and the TPP-gelled chitosan beads were proven visually and also via scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Moreover, the optimum pH, the optimum temperature, the apparent K m , and the apparent V max of the β-gals immobilized onto the two aforementioned types of chitosan beads were determined and compared. A reusability study was also performed. This study proved the superiority of the sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads as they retained 72.22 ± 4.57% of their initial observed activity during the 13 th reusability cycle whereas the TPP-gelled beads lost their activity during the first four reusability cycles, owing to their fragmentation. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:347-361, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Dico C.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  3. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1176 Section 180.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176...

  4. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs. A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL. The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ming-Hsiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1 or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1 before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14 but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63, indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

  6. Impact of Sodium Bicarbonate-Buffered Lidocaine on Patient Pain During Image-Guided Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Alison; Baker, Jay A; Shelby, Rebecca A; Soo, Mary Scott C

    2017-09-01

    This randomized, double-blind controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate-buffered lidocaine on reducing pain during imaging-guided breast biopsies. This prospective, HIPAA-compliant study randomly assigned 85 women undergoing ultrasound- or stereotactic-guided core-needle breast biopsies to receive intradermally and intraparenchymally either 1% lidocaine buffered with sodium bicarbonate (9:1 ratio) (bicarbonate study group) or 1% lidocaine alone (control group). Pain was evaluated using a 0-to-10 Likert pain scale during both intradermal and intraparenchymal anesthesia injections and during tissue sampling. Prebiopsy breast pain, anxiety, medical history, demographics, biopsy type, radiologist level of training, breast density, and lesion histology were recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. Unadjusted mean pain scores were 1.47 and 2.07 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .15) during intradermal injections, and 1.84 and 2.98 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .03) during intraparenchymal injections. Tissue sampling mean pain scores were .81 and 1.71 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .07). Moderator analyses found (1) among patients with preprocedural pain, those in the bicarbonate group experienced less intradermal injection pain (0.85 ± 1.23) than patients in the control group (2.50 ± 2.09); (2) among patients with fatty or scattered fibroglandular tissue, those in the bicarbonate group (1.35 ± 1.95) experienced less intraparenchymal injection pain than the control group (3.52 ± 3.13); and (3) during ultrasound-guided biopsies, patients in the bicarbonate group experienced less tissue-sampling pain (0.23 ± 0.63) than the control group (1.79 ± 3.05). Overall, buffering lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate significantly reduced pain during intraparenchymal injections, and additional pain reduction was found in certain patient subgroups during intradermal

  7. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  8. Infrared Spectroscopy of Discrete Uranyl Anion Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, G. S.; Gianotto, Anita K.; McIIwain, Michael E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Kullman, Michael; Moore, David T.; Polfer, Nick; Oomens, Jos; Infante, Ivan A.; Visscher, Lucas; Siboulet, Bertrand; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2008-01-01

    The Free-Electron Laser for Infrared Experiments (FELIX) w 1 as used to study the wavelength-resolved multiple photon photodissociation of discrete, gas phase uranyl (UO2 2 2+) complexes containing a single anionic ligand (A), with or without ligated solvent molecules (S). The uranyl antisymmetric and symmetric stretching frequencies were measured for complexes with general formula [UO2A(S)n]+, where A was either hydroxide, methoxide, or acetate; S was water, ammonia, acetone, or acetonitrile; and n = 0-3. The values for the antisymmetric stretching frequency for uranyl ligated with only an anion ([UO2A]+) were as low or lower than measurements for [UO2]2+ ligated with as many as five strong neutral donor ligands, and are comparable to solution phase values. This result was surprising because initial DFT calculations predicted values that were 30-40 cm-1 higher, consistent with intuition but not with the data. Modification of the basis sets and use of alternative functionals improved computational accuracy for the methoxide and acetate complexes, but calculated values for the hydroxide were greater than the measurement regardless of the computational method used. Attachment of a neutral donor ligand S to [UO2A]+ produced [UO2AS]+, which produced only very modest changes to the uranyl antisymmetric stretch frequency, and did not universally shift the frequency to lower values. DFT calculations for [UO2AS]+ were in accord with trends in the data, and showed that attachment of the solvent was accommodated by weakening of the U-anion bond as well as the uranyl. When uranyl frequencies were compared for [UO2AS]+ species having different solvent neutrals, values decreased with increasing neutral nucleophilicity

  9. Bicarbonate sensing in mouse cortical astrocytes during extracellular acid/base disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoshin, Zinnia; Defren, Sabrina; Schmaelzle, Jana; Weber, Tobias; Schneider, Hans‐Peter

    2017-01-01

    Key points The present study suggests that the electrogenic sodium–bicarbonate cotransporter, NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II, CAII, provides an efficient mechanism of bicarbonate sensing in cortical astrocytes. This mechanism is proposed to play a major role in setting the pHi responses to extracellular acid/base challenges in astrocytes.A decrease in extracellular [HCO3 −] during isocapnic acidosis and isohydric hypocapnia, or an increase in intracellular [HCO3 −] during hypercapnic acidosis, was effectively sensed by NBCe1, which carried bicarbonate out of the cells under these conditions, and caused an acidification and sodium fall in WT astrocytes, but not in NBCe1‐knockout astrocytes.Isocapnic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis and isohydric hypocapnia evoked inward currents in NBCe1‐ and CAII‐expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, but not in native oocytes, suggesting that NBCe1 operates in the outwardly directed mode under these conditions consistent with our findings in astrocytes.We propose that bicarbonate sensing of astrocytes may have functional significance during extracellular acid/base disturbances in the brain, as it not only alters intracellular pH/[HCO3 −]‐dependent functions of astrocytes, but also modulates the extracellular pH/[HCO3 −] in brain tissue. Abstract Extracellular acid/base status of the mammalian brain undergoes dynamic changes during many physiological and pathological events. Although intracellular pH (pHi) of astrocytes responds to extracellular acid/base changes, the mechanisms mediating these changes have remained unresolved. We have previously shown that the electrogenic sodium–bicarbonate cotransporter, NBCe1, is a high‐affinity bicarbonate carrier in cortical astrocytes. In the present study, we investigated whether NBCe1 plays a role in bicarbonate sensing in astrocytes, and in determining the pHi responses to extracellular acid/base challenges. We measured changes in intracellular H+ and Na+ in

  10. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  11. A 44-year-old woman with metabolic acidosis, high anion gap, and delayed neurologic deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Abhay; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Sherani, Khalid; Cervellione, Kelly; Trepeta, Scott; Patel, Mahendra C

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was brought to the ED from John F. Kennedy International Airport. The patient was returning with her son from a 3-month visit to Bangladesh. Her journey started with a 4-h flight from Dhaka, Bangladesh to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. She consumed 240 mL of whiskey during the flight. This was followed by a 14-h flight from Dubai to New York. According to the patient's son, she did not consume any alcohol during the second flight. The patient was in her usual state of health with normal mentation throughout her journey. Upon landing, she started complaining of shortness of breath. After disembarking, she was witnessed to have seizure-like activity with involuntary passage of urine, following which she collapsed. The patient was intubated by emergency medical services in the field.

  12. Regulation of anterior chamber drainage by bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase in the ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2011-12-02

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (C(t)). Modulation of "inflow" and "outflow" pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in C(t) with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and C(t) is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or C(t) in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate C(t) and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure.

  13. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Gonçalves da; Silva, Nelson Gonçalves da; Lucchesi, Fabiano; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate administration during ongoing resuscitation is associated with increased return of spontaneous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonghee; Kim, Kyuseok; Park, Jongdae; Jo, You Hwan; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Hwang, Ji Eun; Ha, Chulmin; Ko, Young-Sang; Jung, Euigi

    2016-02-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is frequently used for patients unresponsive to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Its use may be associated with longer resuscitation duration as well as more severe metabolic acidosis. We applied a new analytical method based on a matched case-control study design to control for the potential confounders. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients resuscitated in an emergency department for at least 20 minutes, unless there was any return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) within the time frame, were analyzed. Patients without ROSC for 20 minutes of CPR were matched to those with ROSC based on initial bicarbonate level categorized using cutoff points of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mEq/L, and their observation durations were trimmed to match their pairs. The association between sodium bicarbonate and ROSC was examined using conditional logistic regression analysis. Two matched groups, one with ROSC and the other without (both n = 258), were generated. Sodium bicarbonate administration and its total cumulative dose were significantly associated with an increased ROSC, with odds ratios for ROSC of 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.16; P = .022) and 1.18 (per 20 mEq; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33; P = .008), respectively. The positive associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment, with odds ratios for ROSC of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.33-4.65; P = .004) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.11-1.47; P = .001), respectively. Sodium bicarbonate administration during CPR in emergency department was associated with increased ROSC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Bicarbonate, Sulfate, and Electron Donors on Biological reduction of Uranium and Microbial Community Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL; Wu, Weimin [ORNL; Yan, Tingfen [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A microcosm study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and acetate on uranium(VI) biological reduction and microbial community changes under various geochemical conditions. Each microcosm contained an uranium-contaminated sediment (up to 2.8 g U/kg) suspended in buffer with bicarbonate at concentrations of either 1 mM or 40 mM and sulfate at either 1.1 or 3.2 mM. Ethanol or acetate was used as an electron donor. Results indicate that ethanol yielded in significantly higher U(VI) reduction rates than acetate. A low bicarbonate concentration (1 mM) was favored for U(VI) bioreduction to occur in sediments, but high concentrations of bicarbonate (40 mM) and sulfate (3.2 mM) decreased the reduction rates of U(VI). Microbial communities were dominated by species from the Geothrix genus and Proteobacteria phylum in all microcosms. However, species in the Geobacteraceae family capable of reducing U(VI) were significantly enriched by ethanol and acetate in low bicarbonate buffer. Ethanol increased the population of unclassified Desulfuromonales, while acetate increased the population of Desulfovibrio. Additionally, species in the Geobacteraceae family were not enriched in high bicarbonate buffer, but the Geothrix and the unclassified Betaproteobacteria species were enriched. This study concludes that ethanol could be a better electron donor than acetate for reducing U(VI) under given experimental conditions, and electron donor and geoundwater geochemistry alter microbial communities responsible for U(VI) reduction.

  17. Influence of bicarbonate, sulfate, and electron donors on biological reduction of uranium and microbial community composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Wensui [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Wu Wei-Min; Criddle, C.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Yan Tingfen [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Jardine, P.M.; Gu Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Zhou Jizhong [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology

    2007-12-15

    A microcosm study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and acetate on uranium(VI) biological reduction and microbial community changes under various geochemical conditions. Each microcosm contained an uranium-contaminated sediment (up to 2.8 g U/kg) suspended in buffer with bicarbonate at concentrations of either 1 or 40 mM and sulfate at either 1.1 or 3.2 mM. Ethanol or acetate was used as an electron donor. Results indicate that ethanol yielded in significantly higher U(VI) reduction rates than acetate. A low bicarbonate concentration (1 mM) was favored for U(VI) bioreduction to occur in sediments, but high concentrations of bicarbonate (40 mM) and sulfate (3.2 mM) decreased the reduction rates of U(VI). Microbial communities were dominated by species from the Geothrix genus and Proteobacteria phylum in all microcosms. However, species in the Geobacteraceae family capable of reducing U(VI) were significantly enriched by ethanol and acetate in low-bicarbonate buffer. Ethanol increased the population of unclassified Desulfuromonales, while acetate increased the population of Desulfovibrio. Additionally, species in the Geobacteraceae family were not enriched in high-bicarbonate buffer, but the Geothrix and the unclassified Betaproteobacteria species were enriched. This study concludes that ethanol could be a better electron donor than acetate for reducing U(VI) under given experimental conditions, and electron donor and groundwater geochemistry alter microbial communities responsible for U(VI) reduction. (orig.)

  18. A low serum bicarbonate concentration as a risk factor for mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ik Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metabolic acidosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, this relationship has not yet been determined in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study included a total of 441 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. Using time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic levels, we aimed to investigate whether a low serum bicarbonate concentration can predict mortality in these patients. RESULTS: Among the baseline parameters, serum bicarbonate level was positively associated with hemoglobin level and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR, while it was negatively associated with albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, peritoneal Kt/V urea, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR in a multivariable linear regression analysis. During a median follow-up of 34.8 months, 149 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, diabetes, coronary artery disease, serum albumin, ferritin, CRP, residual GFR, peritoneal Kt/V urea, nPCR, and percentage of lean body mass, TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (HR per 1 mEq/L increase, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; p < 0.001. In addition, compared to patients with a TA-Bic level of 24-26 mEq/L, those with a TA-Bic level < 22 and between 22-24 mEq/L conferred a 13.10- and 2.13-fold increased risk of death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a low serum bicarbonate concentration is an independent risk factor for mortality in PD patients. This relationship between low bicarbonate levels and adverse outcome could be related to enhanced inflammation and a more rapid loss of RRF associated with metabolic acidosis. Large randomized clinical trials to correct acidosis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  19. Reduced time for urinary alkalinization before high-dose methotrexate with preadmission oral bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Campbell, Alan D; Yost, Kathleen J; Brinker, Brett T; Arradaza, Nicole V; Frobish, Daniel; Wehr, Alison M; O'Rourke, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Hydration and urinary alkalinization are essential for reducing renal dysfunction with high dose methotrexate (HDMTX). This report presents an analysis of institutional methods used to achieve adequate urinary alkalinization and output for patients receiving single agent HDMTX. Renal and metabolic parameters of tolerance were examined. Medical records of adult patients receiving HDMTX during the calendar years of 2008-2009 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the time to achieve urine pH > 7. Number of hospital days, bicarbonate dose, ordered hydration rate, urine output, and urine pH were assessed. A survival analysis model was run for time to urine pH > 7 using preadmission oral bicarbonate as a predictor variable and including a frailty term. Observational statistics were performed for other parameters. The analysis included 79 encounters for ten patients. Urine pH > 7 was achieved more rapidly in patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (P = 0.012). The number of patients receiving HDMTX on the same day as admission was greater for those receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (47%) in comparison to those who did not (2%), and they spent less time in the hospital. A standard regimen for hydration and urinary alkalinization based on this project is reported. The nature and frequency of adverse events were as expected for this treatment. At our institution, the time to achieve urinary alkalinization was reduced for patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate which facilitated chemotherapy infusion on the same day as admission and decreased the number of calendar days that patients stayed in the hospital.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate infusion in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation: a single center randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Laurence; Broad, Jeremy; Pillai, Param; Chen, Guangjun; Nguyen, Micheline; Eastwood, Glenn M; Scurrah, Nick; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Story, David; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) carries significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate would reduce the incidence and/or severity of liver transplantation-associated AKI. In this double-blinded pilot RCT, adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were randomized to an infusion of either 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg/h for the first hour; 0.15 mEq/kg/h until completion of surgery); (n = 30) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n = 30). AKI within the first 48 h post-operatively. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to baseline characteristics, model for end-stage liver disease and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, and pre-transplantation renal function. Intra-operative factors were similar for duration of surgery, blood product requirements, crystalloid and colloid volumes infused and requirements for vasoactive therapy. Eleven patients (37%) in the bicarbonate group and 10 patients (33%) in the sodium chloride group developed a post-operative AKI (p = 0.79). Bicarbonate infusion attenuated the degree of immediate post-operative metabolic acidosis; however, this effect dissipated by 48 h. There were no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality. The intra-operative infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the incidence of AKI in patients following orthotopic liver transplantation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamhane Umesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

  2. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, A; Patel, S; Wang, N; Kakar, K; Kakar, A; Bosma, M L

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, toothpastes with high levels of sodium bicarbonate (>50%) have reduced gingival inflammation and oral malodour. This study compared the effects of brushing for 6 weeks with 67% (test group) or 0% (control group) sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingival health. This was a single-centre, single examiner-blind, randomized, controlled, two-treatment, parallel-group study. Eligible subjects (≥18 years) had ≥20 gradable teeth, mild-to-moderate gingivitis, a positive response to bleeding on brushing and ≥20 bleeding sites. The primary objective was to compare the number of bleeding sites following twice-daily use of 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste or 0% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste after 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints included Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Bleeding Index (BI) and volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), assessed after 6 weeks. Safety was assessed by treatment-emergent oral soft tissue abnormalities and adverse events. Of 148 patients randomized (74 to each treatment), 66 (89.2%) completed the study in the test group, compared with 69 (93.2%) in the control group. Compared with the control group, the test group had a significant reduction in the number of bleeding sites at Week 6 (absolute difference - 11.0 [-14.0, -8.0], P < 0.0001; relative difference - 25.4%), together with significant reductions in MGI and BI (both P < 0.0001). Although the median reductions from baseline for VSC were numerically greater in the test group, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.9701). This 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste provided statistically significant improvements in gingival health and bleeding after 6 weeks of use. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES

  4. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  5. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  6. Understanding the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Claudia

    1985-01-01

    Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…

  7. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  8. Zero-point energy effects in anion solvation shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott

    2014-05-21

    By comparing classical and quantum-mechanical (path-integral-based) molecular simulations of solvated halide anions X(-) [X = F, Cl, Br and I], we identify an ion-specific quantum contribution to anion-water hydrogen-bond dynamics; this effect has not been identified in previous simulation studies. For anions such as fluoride, which strongly bind water molecules in the first solvation shell, quantum simulations exhibit hydrogen-bond dynamics nearly 40% faster than the corresponding classical results, whereas those anions which form a weakly bound solvation shell, such as iodide, exhibit a quantum effect of around 10%. This observation can be rationalized by considering the different zero-point energy (ZPE) of the water vibrational modes in the first solvation shell; for strongly binding anions, the ZPE of bound water molecules is larger, giving rise to faster dynamics in quantum simulations. These results are consistent with experimental investigations of anion-bound water vibrational and reorientational motion.

  9. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  10. The chemistry of molecular anions in circumstellar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, Marcelino [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Cernicharo, José [Departamento de Astrofísica, CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Guélin, Michel [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Héres (France)

    2015-01-22

    The detection of negatively charged molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium in the past four years has been one of the most impacting surprises in the area of molecular astrophysics. It has motivated the interest of astronomers, physicists, and chemists on the study of the spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and prevalence of molecular anions in the different astronomical regions. Up to six different molecular anions have been discovered in space to date, the last one being the small ion CN{sup −}, which has been observed in the envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216 and which contrary to the other larger anions is not formed by electron attachment to CN, but through reactions of large carbon anions with nitrogen atoms. Here we briefly review the current status of our knowledge of the chemistry of molecular anions in space, with particular emphasis on the circumstellar source IRC +10216, which to date is the astronomical source harboring the largest variety of anions.

  11. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2009-01-01

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO 2 and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO 2 , (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO 2 , and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO 2 showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO 3 - -N/L and 9.09 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO 3 - -N/L

  12. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: mk_aroua@um.edu.my

    2009-03-15

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO{sub 2} and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO{sub 2} showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L and 9.09 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L.

  13. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of radicals and clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Taylor R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study free radicals and clusters. The low-lying 2Σ and 2π states of C2nH (n = 1--4) have been studied. The anion photoelectron spectra yielded electron affinities, term values, and vibrational frequencies for these combustion and astrophysically relevant species. Photoelectron angular distributions allowed the author to correctly assign the electronic symmetry of the ground and first excited states and to assess the degree of vibronic coupling in C2H and C4H. Other radicals studied include NCN and I3. The author was able to observe the low-lying singlet and triplet states of NCN for the first time. Measurement of the electron affinity of I3 revealed that it has a bound ground state and attachment of an argon atom to this moiety enabled him to resolve the symmetric stretching progression.

  14. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Natasha K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. Methods We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA, a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB therapies chronically. Results Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment.

  15. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. Methods We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA), a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB) therapies chronically. Results Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21663677

  16. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and Beta-alanine on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the separate and combined effects of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprints during simulated match play performed in hypoxia. Study A: 20 recreationally active participants performed two trials following acute supplementation with either sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g·kg-1BM) or placebo (maltodextrin). Study B: 16 recreationally active participants were supplemented with either a placebo or beta-alanine for 5 weeks (6.4 g·day-1 for 4 weeks, 3.2 g·day-1 for 1 week), and performed one trial before supplementation (with maltodextrin) and two following supplementation (with sodium bicarbonate and maltodextrin). Trials consisted of 3 sets of 5 × 6 s repeated sprints performed during a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol performed in hypoxia (15.5% O2). Mean (MPO) and peak (PPO) power output were recorded as the performance measures. Study A: Overall MPO was lower with sodium bicarbonate than placebo (p = .02, 539.4 ± 84.5 vs. 554.0 ± 84.6 W), although there was no effect across sets (all p > .05). Study B: There was no effect of beta-alanine, or cosupplementation with sodium bicarbonate, on either parameter, although there was a trend toward higher MPO with sodium bicarbonate (p = .07). The effect of sodium bicarbonate on repeated sprints was equivocal, although there was no effect of beta-alanine or cosupplementation with sodium bicarbonate. Individual variation may have contributed to differences in results with sodium bicarbonate, although the lack of an effect with beta-alanine suggests this type of exercise may not be influenced by increased buffering capacity.

  17. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, Ian F; Martin, Natasha K

    2011-01-01

    The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA), a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB) therapies chronically. Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment

  18. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 /day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45 Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO 3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

  19. Anion concurrence and anion selectivity in the sorption of radionuclides by organotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnsen, Julia G.

    2007-01-01

    Some long-lived and radiologically important nuclear fission products, such as I-129 (half-life t 1/2 = 1,6 . 10 7 a), Tc-99 (t 1/2 = 2,1 . 10 5 a), and Se-79 (t 1/2 = 6,5 . 10 4 a) are anionic in aqueous environments. This study focuses on the adsorption of such anions to organoclays and the understanding of the selectivity of the process. The organoclays used in this study were prepared from a bentonite (MX-80) and a vermiculite clay, and the cationic surfactants hexadcylpyridium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, and benzethonium. Surfactant adsorption to the bentonite exceeds the cation exchange capacity of the clay, with the surplus positive charge being balanced by the co-adsorption of chloride. The interlayer distance of the bentonites is increased sufficiently to contain bi- and pseudotrimolecular structures of the surfactants. Adsorption experiments were carried out using the batch technique. Anion adsorption of iodide, perrhenate, selenite, nitrate, and sulphate is mainly due to ion exchange with chloride. As an additional adsorption mechanism, the incorporation of inorganic ion pairs into the interlayer space of the clay is proposed as a result of experiments showing differences in the adsorption levels of sodium and potassium iodide. Anion adsorption results show a clear selectivity of the organoclays, with the affinity sequence being: ReO - 4 > I - > NO - 3 > Cl - > SO 2- 4 > SeO 2- 3 . This sequence corresponds to the sequence of increasing hydration energies of the anions, thus selectivity could be due to the process of minimization of free energy of the system. (orig.)

  20. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congdon, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans, supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions, however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The absorption spectra of Pu(VI), -(V) and -(IV) produced electrochemically in carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption spectra in carbonate and bicarbonate media have been measured for various oxidation states of plutonium. The oxidation state of plutonium was adjusted electrochemically (Pu(VI)-V), Esub(f)=+0.11 V vs. SCE) to avoid contamination by redox reagents. In carbonate medium the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) showed marked differences from the spectra of the same oxidation state in acidic solutions. In bicarbonate the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(IV) also differed from the corresponding spectra in acidic media. Reduction to Pu(III) resulted in a precipitate in both carbonate and bicarbonate media. (author)

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoridated Mouthwash and Sodium Bicarbonate in Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity: An In Vitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikame, Vasundhara; Doshi, Yogesh; Horowitz, Robert A; Kevadia-Shah, Vidhi; Shah, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (ie, baking soda) can be used as an adjunct to surgical periodontal therapy to reduce dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash has numerous appealing attributes, including high availability, low cost, low abrasivity, water solubility, buffering capability, and, in high concentrations, antimicrobial properties. It is also safe to use. The primary underlying cause of DH is open dentinal tubules from loss of either cementum or enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, through scanning electron microscopic examination, the effect of sodium bicarbonate on dentinal tubule occlusion and compare it with that of fluoridated mouthwash.

  3. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK...... markets. Firstly, there was a decline in the transatlantic price gap but it was not sharp and the gap remained substantial. Secondly, the fall in the transatlantic price differential had more to do with improved market and marketing efficiency than with falling transport costs. Thirdly, spurious price...

  4. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate solution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113 or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107 before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865. The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12% in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.1% in the saline group (RR: 1.68, CI 95%: 0.72 to 3.94. Conclusion: Our investigation showed that there were no differences between normal saline solution (extended infusion vs. bicarbonate solution for nephroprotection.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate treatment during transient or sustained lactic acidemia in normoxic and normotensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Valenza

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. METHODOLOGY: Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+ lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group: S sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05, pH (P<0.05 and strong ion difference (P<0.05 drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.36 ± 0.04, P<0.05 while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24 ± 0.01 to 7.53 ± 0.03, P<0.05. When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05 so that blood lactate was higher (2.9 ± 1 mmol/l vs. 1.0 ± 0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively. The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load.

  6. Dose-Response of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Highlights Individuality in Time Course of Blood Analyte Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig

    2016-10-01

    To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) ingestion is commonplace. The individualized dose-response relationship between NaHCO 3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO 3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 2 years; 78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three randomized order-balanced, nonblinded sessions, ingesting a single dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of NaHCO 3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 hr, then every 15 min for a further 2 hr. There was a significant main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (p ≤ .001). Blood analyte responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g·kg -1 BM compared with 0.2 g·kg -1 BM; bicarbonate concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM (p ≤ .01). Bicarbonate concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the greater the increase. Large interindividual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L -1 for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalization to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO 3 supplementation and clearly show the need for athletes to individualize their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages before competition.

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Tsuyoshi; Kamihata, Hiroshi; Seno, Takeshi; Manabe, Kenichi; Moriguchi, Akira; Yurugi, Takatomi; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Motohiro, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long

  8. Fluorescence anisotropy of tyrosinate anion using one-, two- and three-photon excitation: tyrosinate anion fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdaszuk, Borys

    2013-03-01

    We examined the emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy of tyrosinate anion fluorescence with one-photon (250-310 nm), two-photon (570-620 nm) and three-photon (750-930 nm) excitation. Similar emission spectra of the neutral (pH 7.2) and anionic (pH 13) forms of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATyrA) (pKa 10.6) were observed for all modes of excitation, with the maxima at 302 and 352 nm, respectively. Two-photon excitation (2PE) and three-photon excitation (3PE) spectra of the anionic form were the same as that for one-photon excitation (1PE). In contrast, 2PE spectrum from the neutral form showed ~30-nm shift to shorter wavelengths relative to 1PE spectrum (λmax 275 nm) at two-photon energy (550 nm), the latter being overlapped with 3PE spectrum, both at two-photon energy (550 nm). Two-photon cross-sections for NATyrA anion at 565-580 nm were 10 % of that for N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATrpA), and increased to 90 % at 610 nm, while for the neutral form of NATyrA decreased from 2 % of that for NATrpA at 570 nm to near zero at 585 nm. Surprisingly, the fundamental anisotropy of NATyrA anion in vitrified solution at -60 °C was ~0.05 for 2PE at 610 nm as compared to near 0.3 for 1PE at 305 nm, and wavelength-dependence appears to be a basic feature of its anisotropy. In contrast, the 3PE anisotropy at 900 nm was about 0.5, and 3PE and 1PE anisotropy values appear to be related by the cos(6) θ to cos(2) θ photoselection factor (approx. 10/6) independently of excitation wavelength. Attention is drawn to the possible effect of tyrosinate anions in proteins on their multi-photon induced fluorescence emission and excitation spectra as well as excitation anisotropy spectra.

  9. Once upon Anion: A Tale of Photodetachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberger, W. Carl

    2013-04-01

    This contribution is very much a personal history of a journey through the wonderful world of anion chemistry, and a tale of how advances in laser technologies, theoretical methods, and computational capabilities continuously enabled advances in our understanding. It is a story of the excitement and joy that come from the opportunity to add to the fabric of science, and to do so by working as a group of excited explorers with common goals. The participants in this journey include me, my students and postdoctoral associates, my collaborators, and our many generous colleagues. It all happened, in the words of the Beatles, “with a little help from my friends.” Actually, it was so much more than a little help!

  10. Adsorption of an anionic dispersant on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2001-12-01

    Since coal is not a homogeneous substance but a mixture of carbonaceous materials and mineral matter, it has a variety of surface properties. Therefore, it is not easy to control the properties of coal suspensions by simply adjusting variables, such as pH and/or electrolyte. A chemical agent needs to be added to control the properties of the coal suspensions. The adsorption behavior of an anionic dispersant in the presence of a wetting agent using some Turkish lignite samples was investigated. The effects of dispersant concentration, temperature and pH on the dispersant adsorption were studied systematically, and the experimental results are presented. Pellupur B69 as a dispersant, commercial mixture of formaldehyde condensate sodium salt of naphthalene sulphonic acid, and Texapon N{sub 2}5 as a wetting agent, a sodium lauryl ether sulfate, have been used.

  11. Structures and properties of anionic clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Chr. Bender

    1998-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra of pyroaurite-sjoegrenite-type compounds (PTC) (layered anion exchangers) are discussed with reference to the crystal structure, cation order, and crystallite morphology. It is shown that cation-ordered layers are produced in the synthesis of carbonate and sulphate types of green rust. In contrast, synthetic and natural pyroaurite only occurs as disordered types. The redox chemistry of Fe(III) within the metal hydroxide layer is illustrated with examples of electrochemical oxidation and reversible reduction by boiling glycerol. The chemistry of iron in the interlayer is exemplified by the intercalation of Fe-cyanide complexes in hydrotalcite. This reaction may be used as a probe for the charge distribution in the interlayer

  12. Advanced polymer chemistry of organometallic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, R.M.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.; Fino, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to prepare and characterize new polymers incorporating cobalt dicarbollide. Specific goals were to prepare polymerizable cobalt dicarbollide monomers using the nucleophilic substitution route discovered in laboratories and to establish the reaction conditions required to form polymers from these complexes. This one-year project resulted in two publications (in press), and provided the foundation for further investigations into polymer synthesis and characterization using cobalt dicarbollide and other metallocarboranes. Interest in synthesizing organometallic polymers containing the cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anion is motivated by their possible application as cation exchange materials for the remediation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from nuclear wastes

  13. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  14. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  15. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  16. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  17. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The effect of VIP and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands was investigated in the rat. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide infused in doses of 10 and 100 ng/kg/h significantly increased epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate output......, but the concentrations did not change. Somatostatin infused at doses of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/kg/h against a background of VIP 100 ng/kg/h inhibited in dose-dependent fashion the stimulated epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate outputs from rat Brunner's gland pouches. Also basal secretion was inhibited...... growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands, an effect which is inhibited by somatostatin. A possible role for somatostatin in the control of Brunner's gland secretion is suggested....

  18. Anion binding by biotin[6]uril in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke; Nielsen, Bjarne Enrico; Milhøj, Birgitte Olai

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we show that the newly discovered 6 + 6 biotin-formaldehyde macrocycle Biotin[6]uril binds a variety of anionic guest molecules in water. We discuss how and why the anions are bound based on data obtained using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, isothermal titration...

  19. A colorimetric tetrathiafulvalene-calix 4 pyrrole anion sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and colorimetric sensing properties of a tetrathiafulvalene substituted calix[4]pyrrole sensor with anions were investigated using H-1 NMR and absorption spectroscopic techniques. Visual color changes were observed upon addition of different anions (Cl-, Br-, CN-, and Ac......O-) to a solution of the sensor. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Diffuse neutron scattering from anion-excess strontium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Clausen, K.N.; Fåk, B.

    1992-01-01

    The defect structure and diffusional processes have been studied in the anion-excess fluorite (Sr, Y)Cl2.03 by diffuse neutron scattering techniques. Static cuboctahedral clusters found at ambient temperature break up at temperatures below 1050 K, where the anion disorder is highly dynamic. The a...

  1. Protonation Reaction of Benzonitrile Radical Anion and Absorption of Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, Jerzy; Sehested, Knud

    1975-01-01

    The rate constant for the protonation of benzonitrile radical anions formed in pulse radiolysis of aqueous benzonitrile solutions is (3.5 ± 0.5)× 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1. A new 270 nm absorption band is attributed to the protonated benzonitrile anion. The pK of the protonation reaction is determined t...

  2. A study on the localized corrosion of cobalt in bicarbonate solutions containing halide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Sciences de la Sante, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Que., G5L 3A1 (Canada); Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada); Simard, Stephan [Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Sciences de la Sante, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Que., G5L 3A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephan_simard@uqar.qc.ca

    2005-07-01

    The localized attack of cobalt in bicarbonate aqueous solutions containing halide ions was investigated using electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrodes were used to determine the effect of bicarbonate concentration, solution pH, nature and concentration of the halide ions, convection and potential sweep rate on the corrosion processes. These parameters were found to play a key role on the localized attack induced by halide ions by influencing the production of a Co(HCO{sub 3}){sub 2} precipitate on the pit surface. Potentiostatically generated cobalt oxide films (CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were found to be efficient to reduce pitting corrosion of cobalt.

  3. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Vujosevic, S.I.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO 3 - ↔ HCOO - +CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO - + CO 3 - is particularly significant. (author)

  4. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  6. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan eWang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  7. Propafenone Overdose-induced Arrhythmia and Subsequent Correction After Administration of Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bruss, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 71-year old woman presented to the emergency department with near-syncope, chest pain, and shortness of breath. She has a history of hypertension, congestive heart failure and an “irregular heartbeat.” She cannot remember what medications she takes. She recently saw her cardiologist and had some of her medications adjusted, but she can’t remember what specific changes were made. An electrocardiogram was performed, one ampule of sodium bicarbonate was administered and a repeat ECG obtained; patient felt improvement of her symptoms after administration of sodium bicarbonate. Significant findings: The first ECG in this case showed sinus tachycardia with a widened QRS (black arrow, a rightward axis, prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc, and terminal R wave in AVR (white arrow. There are several potential causes for these ECG findings, but put together with the patient’s history, we were suspicious of sodium channel blockers being the most likely cause. The second ECG, after sodium bicarbonate was administered, demonstrated a normal QRS (black arrow and no rightward axis deviation, reduction of the QTC and resolution of the terminal R wave (white arrow. We later learned that the patient’s cardiologist recently increased her propafenone dose. Discussion: Propafenone is a class 1C anti-arrhythmic that slows influx of sodium ions into the cells. It slows the rate of increase of the action potential thereby prolonging conduction and refractoriness in all areas of the myocardium.1 The mortality from acute Class 1C toxicity has been reported as high as 22.5%.1 The degree of propafenone toxicity is directly correlated to the QRS interval,1 so monitoring said interval is very helpful in determining resolution of the drug’s cardiotoxic effects. The electrocardiac effect of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs is a well-known and often tested finding. These effects include prolongation of the QRS and QTc, right axis deviation

  8. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  9. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts...... to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-)

  10. The clearance of uranium after deposition of the nitrate and bicarbonate in different regions of the rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellender, M.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the tissue distribution and excretion of uranium after its deposition as either the nitrate or bicarbonate in the three regions of the respiratory system of the rat. Results confirm the recommendations of ICRP that uranyl nitrate and bicarbonate should be treated as class D compounds; but imply that some of the parameters used in the ICRP lung model are not applicable to soluble uranium compounds. (author)

  11. Effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on fibroblast growth factor-23 in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Hostetter, Thomas H; Bauer, Carolyn; Raff, Amanda C; Almudevar, Anthony L; Lalonde, Amy; Messing, Susan; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2016-08-05

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) secretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incompletely understood. An in vitro study showed that metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 in mouse bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on circulating FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. This was a single-blind pilot study. Twenty adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15-45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and serum bicarbonate between 20-24 mEq/L were treated with placebo for 2 weeks, followed by increasing doses of oral sodium bicarbonate (0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mEq/kg/day) in 2 week intervals for a total of 6 weeks. C-terminal FGF23 levels were measured at the initial visit, after 2 weeks of placebo and after 6 weeks of bicarbonate therapy. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to compare FGF23 before and after sodium bicarbonate. After 6 weeks of oral sodium bicarbonate, the median FGF23 increased significantly from 150.9 RU/mL (IQR 107.7-267.43) to 191.4 RU/mL (IQR 132.6-316.9) (p = 0.048) and this persisted after excluding participants who received activated vitamin D. FGF23 increased after short-term oral sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients with CKD and mild metabolic acidosis. It is unclear whether this was due to the alkalinizing effect of sodium bicarbonate or other factors. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00888290 ) on April 23, 2009.

  12. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce a.; Bostick, Debra A.; Fowler, Christopher J.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Ruas, Alexandre; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Llinares, Jose M.; Hossain, Alamgir; Kang, S. O.; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2005-01-01

    The major thrust of this project led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-Jones) entails the exploration of the principles of recognition and separation of sulfate by the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key science need for the cleanup of tank wastes at Hanford has been identified in developing methods to separate those bulk waste components that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Sulfate has been identified as a particularly difficult and expensive problem in that its concentration in the waste is relatively high, its solubility in glass is especially low, and it interferes with the performance of both vitrification equipment and the glass waste form. The new extractants will be synthesized by the University of Kansas and the University of Texas, Austin. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is subjecting the new extractants to experiments that will determine their properties and effectiveness in separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate. Such experiments will entail primarily liquid-liquid extraction. Current efforts focus on exciting new systems in which the anion receptors act as synergists for anion exchange

  13. AT Base Pair Anions vs. (9-methyl-A)(1-methyl-T) Base Pair Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H.; Dabkowska, Iwona; Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2005-01-01

    The anionic base pairs of adenine and thymine, (AT)-, and 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine, (MAMT)-, have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in a complementary, synergistic study. Calculations on (AT)- found that it had undergone a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) similar to that seen in other dimer anion systems and that its structural configuration that was neither Watson-Crick (WC) nor Hoogsteen (HS). The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of (AT)- was determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with the VDE value predicted by theory for the BFPT mechanism. An AT pair in DNA is structurally immobilized into the WC configuration, in part, by being bonded to the sugars of the double helix. This circumstance was mimicked by methylating the sites on both A and T where these sugars would have been tied, viz., 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine. Calculations found no BFPT in (MAMT)- and a resulting (MAMT)- configuration that wa s either HS or WC, with the configurations differing in stability by ca. 2 kcal/mol. The photoelectron spectrum of (MAMT)- occurred at a completely different electron binding energy than had (AT)-. Moreover, the VDE value of (MAMT)- was in agreement with that predicted by theory. The configuration of (MAMT)- and its lack of electron-induced proton transfer are inter-related. While there may be other pathways for electron-induced damage, BFPT in the WC/HS configurations of (AT)- is not feasible

  14. AT base pair anions versus (9-methyl-A)(1-methyl-T) base pair anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H; Dabkowska, Iwona; Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej

    2005-05-04

    The anionic base pairs of adenine and thymine, (AT)(-), and 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine, (MAMT)(-), have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally in a complementary, synergistic study. Calculations on (AT)(-) found that it had undergone a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) similar to that seen in other dimer anion systems and that its structural configuration was neither Watson-Crick (WC) nor Hoogsteen (HS). The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of (AT)(-) was determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with the VDE value predicted by theory for the BFPT mechanism. An AT pair in DNA is structurally immobilized into the WC configuration, in part, by being bonded to the sugars of the double helix. This circumstance was mimicked by methylating the sites on both A and T where these sugars would have been tied, viz., 9-methyladenine and 1-methylthymine. Calculations found no BFPT in (MAMT)(-) and a resulting (MAMT)(-) configuration that was either HS or WC, with the configurations differing in stability by ca. 2 kcal/mol. The photoelectron spectrum of (MAMT)(-) occurred at a completely different electron binding energy than had (AT)(-). Moreover, the VDE value of (MAMT)(-) was in agreement with that predicted by theory. The configuration of (MAMT)(-) and its lack of electron-induced proton transfer are inter-related. While there may be other pathways for electron-induced DNA alterations, BFPT in the WC/HS configurations of (AT)(-) is not feasible.

  15. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  16. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianqian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Liu, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China); Cao, Duxia, E-mail: duxiacao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Guan, Ruifang, E-mail: mse_guanrf@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-01

    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin.

  17. The Thermodynamics of Anion Complexation to Nonpolar Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Matthew R; Yao, Wei; Tang, Du; Ashbaugh, Henry S; Gibb, Bruce C

    2018-02-08

    The interactions between nonpolar surfaces and polarizable anions lie in a gray area between the hydrophobic and Hofmeister effects. To assess the affinity of these interactions, NMR and ITC were used to probe the thermodynamics of eight anions binding to four different hosts whose pockets each consist primarily of hydrocarbon. Two classes of host were examined: cavitands and cyclodextrins. For all hosts, anion affinity was found to follow the Hofmeister series, with associations ranging from 1.6-5.7 kcal mol -1 . Despite the fact that cavitand hosts 1 and 2 possess intrinsic negative electrostatic fields, it was determined that these more enveloping hosts generally bound anions more strongly. The observation that the four hosts each possess specific anion affinities that cannot be readily explained by their structures, points to the importance of counter cations and the solvation of the "empty" hosts, free guests, and host-guest complexes, in defining the affinity.

  18. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  19. Influence of sodium bicarbonate on performance and hydration in lightweight rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcis, Peter D; Slater, Gary J; Pruscino, Cathryn L; Kemp, Justin G

    2012-03-01

    The effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on prerace hydration status and on 2000 m ergometer performance in elite lightweight rowers was examined using a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded design. To simulate body mass (BM) management strategies common to lightweight rowing, oarsmen reduced BM by approx. 4% in the 24 h preceding the trials, and, in the 2 h before performance, undertook nutritional recovery consisting of mean 43.2 kJ/kg, 2.2 g of CHO per kilogram, 31.8 mg of Na+ per kilogram, 24.3 mL of H2O per kilogram, and NaHCO3 (0.3 g of NaHCO3 per kilogram BM) or placebo (PL; 0.15 g of corn flour per kilogram BM) at 70 to 90 min before racing. At 25 min before performance, NaHCO3 had increased blood pH (7.48 ± 0.02 vs PL: 7.41 ± 0.03, P = .005) and bicarbonate concentrations (29.1 ± 1.8 vs PL: 23.9 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P < .001), whereas BM, urine specific gravity, and plasma volume changes were similar between trials. Rowing ergometer times were similar between trials (NaHCO3: 397.8 ± 12.6; PL: 398.6 ± 13.8 s, P = .417), whereas posttest bicarbonate (11.6 ± 2.3 vs 9.4 ± 1.8 mmol/L, P = .003) and lactate concentration increases (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 11.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P = .001) were greater with NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate and high-intensity-cycling capacity: variability in responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalemia or other metabolic responses is different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not. Twenty-one men completed 2 cycling-capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output. Participants were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg body mass of either placebo (maltodextrin) or sodium bicarbonate (SB). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were determined at baseline, preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. SB supplementation did not significantly increase total work done (TWD; P = .16, 46.8 ± 9.1 vs 45.6 ± 8.4 kJ, d = 0.14), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 63% likelihood of a positive effect. When data were analyzed without 4 participants who experienced GI discomfort, TWD (P = .01) was significantly improved with SB. Immediately postexercise blood lactate was higher in SB for the individuals who improved but not for those who did not. There were also differences in the preexercise-to-postexercise change in blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess between individuals who improved and those who did not. SB improved high-intensity-cycling capacity but only with the exclusion of participants experiencing GI discomfort. Differences in blood responses suggest that SB may not be beneficial to all individuals. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that the exercise effects are unlikely to be negative; therefore, individuals should determine whether they respond well to SB supplementation before competition.

  1. Bicarbonate buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid upregulates angiopoietin-1 and promotes vessel maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Eich

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration decline is a progressive issue for patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD and can be caused by peritoneal angiogenesis induced by PD fluids. A recent pediatric trial suggests better preservation of ultrafiltration with bicarbonate versus lactate buffered fluid; underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown.Angiogenic cytokine profile, tube formation capacity and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase translocation were assessed in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells following incubation with bicarbonate (BPDF and lactate buffered (LPDF, pH neutral PD fluid with low glucose degradation product content and lactate buffered, acidic PD fluid with high glucose degradation product content (CPDF. Peritoneal biopsies from age-, PD-vintage- and dialytic glucose exposure matched, peritonitis-free children on chronic PD underwent automated histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry.In endothelial cells angiopoietin-1 mRNA and protein abundance increased 200% upon incubation with BPDF, but decreased by 70% with LPDF as compared to medium control; angiopoietin-2 remained unchanged. Angiopoietin-1/Angiopoietin-2 protein ratio was 15 and 3-fold increased with BPDF compared to LPDF and medium. Time-lapse microscopy with automated network analysis demonstrated less endothelial cell tube formation with BPDF compared to LPDF and CPDF incubation. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase translocated to the cell membrane in BPDF but not in LPDF or CPDF incubated endothelial cells. In children dialyzed with BPDF peritoneal vessels were larger and angiopoietin-1 abundance in CD31 positive endothelium higher compared to children treated with LPDF.Bicarbonate buffered PD fluid promotes vessel maturation via upregulation of angiopoietin-1 in vitro and in children on dialysis. Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the observed superior preservation of ultrafiltration capacity with bicarbonate buffered PD fluid with low glucose degradation product content.

  2. Application of probiotics and different size of sodium bicarbonate powders for feedlot sheep fattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman, Hery; Ramdani, Diky; Kuswaryan, Sondy; Budinuryanto, Dwi Cipto; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the use of probiotic and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of feedlot sheep. Probiotics from Heriyaki powder can function as forge preservative and sodium bicarbonate as an artificial rumen buffer that helps to stabilize pH levels in sheep's stomach. The objectives of this formulation is to improve the rumen function, feed efficiency and reduce the risk of acidosis leading to a significant increase of average daily gain (ADG, gram/head/day) of feedlot sheep. Heriyaki probiotic liquid was prepared by fermenting beans mixed with sugarcane molasses while Heriyaki powder was obtained by mixing the Heriyaki probiotic liquid with rice hull powder and additional molasses sugarcane in anaerobic condition for 5 days. The powder was then applied for preparing whole maize silage 0.5 wt% in anaerobic condition for 7 days before feeding. Meanwhile, the feed concentrate contained acid buffer of sodium bicarbonate powder at different doses and sizes [0.35 wt% commercial size (T1), 0.18 wt% mesh -400 (T2) and 0.35 wt% mesh -400 (T3)]. The diet treatment was a total mixed ratio containing 1 kg silage and 700 g concentrate. The experiment was conducted to compare the effect of 3 different treatments (T1, T2 and T3) on dry matter intake (DMI, g/day), ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of feedlot sheep for 2 months fattening, where each treatment was applied into a flock colony for 6 heads of sheep with three flock replications involving 54 heads of sheep in total for all the treatments. The results showed no difference (P>0.05) in DMI, ADG and FCR of feedlot sheep confirming the use of low-dose and finer sodium bicarbonate powder in T2 yield a targeted ADG of > 110 g but being more efficient than other treatments.

  3. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized 13C‐bicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A.; Köllisch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral‐spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction...... and interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. Magn Reson Med 73:2274–2282, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  4. Recovery of [CO2]T from Aqueous Bicarbonate using a Gas Permeable Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-25

    coulometer. For the potentiometric titrations , the entire 150 mL of the water/bicarbonate solution sample was collected and titrated with 0.2 M HCl...High Precision Determination of Titration Alkalinity and Total Carbon Dioxide Content of Sea Water by Potentiometric Titration . Deep-Sea Res. 1970...IL 60436) [8] or by strong acid titration [18,19]. All solutions for the coulometer were of reagent grade and purchased from UIC Inc. The lower

  5. Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balali-Mood, M.; Afshari, R.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

  6. Metabolic Communication between Astrocytes and Neurons via Bicarbonate-Responsive Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyun B.; Gordon, Grant R.J.; Zhou, Ning; Tai, Chao; Rungta, Ravi L.; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A.; Ryu, Jae K.; McLarnon, James G.; Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; MacVicar, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO3−) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response t...

  7. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Specific and efficient targeting of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eUehara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Installation of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane (IEM of chloroplasts in C3 plants has been thought to improve photosynthetic performance. However, the method to deliver cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM remains to be established. In this study, we provide evidence that the cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters, BicA and SbtA, can be specifically installed into the chloroplast IEM using the chloroplast IEM targeting signal in conjunction with the transit peptide. We fused the transit peptide and the mature portion of Cor413im1, whose targeting mechanism to the IEM has been characterized in detail, to either BicA or SbtA isolated from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Among the seven chimeric constructs tested, we confirmed that four chimeric bicarbonate transporters, designated as BicAI, BicAII, SbtAII, and SbtAIII, were expressed in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, these chimeric transporters were specifically targeted to the chloroplast IEM. They were also resistant to alkaline extraction but can be solubilized by Triton X-100, indicating that they are integral membrane proteins in the chloroplast IEM. One of the transporters, BicA, could reside in the chloroplast IEM even after removal of the IEM targeting signal. Taken together, our results indicate that the addition of IEM targeting signal, as well as the transit peptide, to bicarbonate transporters allows us to efficiently target nuclear-encoded chimeric bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM.

  9. Oral sodium bicarbonate on the nutritional status of patients on chronic dialysis program: A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Enríquez-Zarama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of oral sodium bicarbonate in improving the nutritional status of patients with chronic renal failure on chronic dialysis therapy (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Design: Randomized double blind placebo clinical trial. Setting: RTS Renal Units of Popayan, Colombia. Patients and Methods: 162 patients on chronic dialysis (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were randomized to either placebo or bicarbonate. Patients received oral sodium bicarbonate, 1.0 g three times daily or placebo. Both groups received treatment for a 4-month period. Results: The study groups were comparable at the beginning of the study (study baseline and no significant differences were observed in any baseline parameters. At 4 months, the levels of albumin and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA improved with bicarbonate (p = 0.000, the malnutrition inflammation score and the score of malnutrition in dialysis with bicarbonate decreased significantly (p = 0.000. The PCR remained unchanged in both groups (p = 0,306. An increase of 20% or more from baseline serum albumin was observed in 6 (7.41% patients who received bicarbonate and 1 (1.23% of those receiving placebo (p = 0.02. At baseline albumin levels

  10. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

  11. Effects of microsolvation on uracil and its radical anion: Uracil.(H2O)n (n=1-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2006-10-01

    Microsolvation effects on the stabilities of uracil and its anion have been investigated by explicitly considering the structures of complexes of uracil with up to five water molecules at the B3LYP /DZP++ level of theory. For all five systems, the global minimum of the neutral cluster has a different equilibrium geometry from that of the radical anion. Both the vertical detachment energy (VDE) and adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of uracil are predicted to increase gradually with the number of hydrating molecules, qualitatively consistent with experimental results from a photodetachment-photoelectron spectroscopy study [J. Schiedt et al., Chem. Phys. 239, 511 (1998)]. The trend in the AEAs implies that while the conventional valence radical anion of uracil is only marginally bound in the gas phase, it will form a stable anion in aqueous solution. The gas-phase AEA of uracil (0.24eV) was higher than that of thymine by 0.04eV and this gap was not significantly affected by microsolvation. The largest AEA is that predicted for uracil•(H2O)5, namely, 0.96eV. The VDEs range from 0.76to1.78eV.

  12. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC; carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO; placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE; placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE. Blood lactate (BLa, blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138±9, 124±6, and 121±6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3- values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3- was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  13. Interleukin-17A induces bicarbonate secretion in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, James L.; Bertrand, Carol A.; Lee, Robert J.; Karasic, Thomas; Aujla, Shean; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune functions of human airways include mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial peptide activity. Both functions may be affected by changes in epithelial ion transport. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which has a receptor at the basolateral membrane of airway epithelia, is a T cell cytokine that has been shown to increase mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production by human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Furthermore, IL-17A levels are increased in sputum from patients during pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-17A on basal, amiloride-sensitive, and forskolin-stimulated ion transport in mature, well-differentiated HBE cells. Exposure of HBE monolayers to IL-17A for 48 h induced a novel forskolin-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in addition to forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion and resulted in alkalinization of liquid on the mucosal surface of polarized cells. IL-17A-induced bicarbonate secretion was cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent, mucosal chloride-dependent, partially Na+-dependent, and sensitive to serosal, but not mucosal, stilbene inhibition. These data suggest that IL-17A modulates epithelial bicarbonate secretion and implicate a mechanism by which airway surface liquid pH changes may be abnormal in cystic fibrosis. PMID:19074559

  14. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO 3 ) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10 -6 M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO 3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar 1 , Ile 8 )-Angiotensin II(10 -6 M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

  15. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-05

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo predictive dissolution: transport analysis of the CO2 , bicarbonate in vivo buffer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Takeo; Yamada, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14 C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Evaluation of Ankistrodesmus falcatus for Bicarbonate-Based Integrated Carbon Capture System (BICCAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltran Arnel B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of alkaliphilic microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus in the Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System (BICCAPS. The system utilized bicarbonate as carbon source for microalgae production. BICCAPS parameters such as pH, algal biomass productivity and CO2 utilization (inorganic carbon conversion, Ci were observed at different sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 loading concentration and type of culture media. The highest productivity was observed at 10 g/L of NaHCO3 loading in BRSP medium at 3.5539 mg/L/day. This value is 30% lower compared to the control experiment (continuously aerated bioreactor. The Ci values of the different system ranges from 1.17 x 10-4 to 1.51 x 10-4 moles/L/day. Both the pH of the BRSP and NPK media at 10 g/L and 30g/L loading of NaHCO3 increased through time. The result shows that A. falcatus has a potential in BICCAPS utilization.

  19. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Regina Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed acute kidney injury (AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 hours after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24% who received sodium chloride (SC and 17 patients (27% who received sodium bicarbonate (SB were observed to develop AKI post surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value=0.68 for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC . The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

  20. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on intracellular pH using 31P-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kazuya; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Ito, Haruhide; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kitahara, Tetsuhiro; Nakayama, Naoto; Saito, Kennichi

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the intracellular pH of the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF); five normal volunteers were studied. Intracellular pH and CBF were measured by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) and stable xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT), respectively. Each individual received 7% sodium bicarbonate (3.5 ml/kg body weight), infused intravenously over a 15-min period. Intracellular pH, CBF, and physiological parameters were determined before and after the injection. Intracellular pH was significantly decreased and CBF was increased. Among the physiological parameters, the hematocrit was significantly decreased and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ), increased. These results suggest that increasing CO 2 contributes to the decrease in intracellular pH. In conclusion, three factors increase CBF during the administration of sodium bicarbonate to humans: arterial dilatation in response to carbon dioxide; decrease of the hematocrit, and intracellular cerebral acidosis. (author)

  1. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  2. Acid-base profile and predictors of metabolic acidosis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis with lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtounas, Costas; Savidaki, Eirini; Roumelioti, Marilena; Dousdampanis, Periklis; Hardalias, Andreas; Kalliakmani, Pantelitsa; Papachristou, Evangelos; Drakopoulos, Anastasios; Goumenos, Dimitrios S; Vlachojannis, Jannis G

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis correction is one of the goals of renal replacement therapy. Correction of acidosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) may be affected by PD modalities such as automated PD (APD) or by new solutions containing a combination of bicarbonate and lactate as a buffer [bicarbonate continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD)]. The aim of the present study was to examine the acid-base status of our PD population and to compare the effects of APD, lactate CAPD, and bicarbonate CAPD on serum bicarbonate levels. We studied 35 stable patients undergoing APD (n = 15), lactate-buffered (35 mEq/L) CAPD (n = 14), and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered CAPD (n = 6) for 48.5 +/- 38.1 months. Most of our patients had serum bicarbonate levels in the normal range. In 3 patients (8%), HCO3 was below 22 mEq/L, and in 8 patients (22%; APD = 2, lactate CAPD = 2, bicarbonate CAPD = 4), HCO3 was above 28 mEq/L. We found no statistically significant correlations between HCO3 serum levels and PD prescription, peritoneal membrane characteristics, or intake of calcium carbonate and sevelamer hydrochloride. Patients on bicarbonate CAPD had higher HCO3 serum levels, but this difference disappeared when corrections for duration of dialysis, residual urine volume, and PD adequacy indices were applied. In the studied PD population, adequate correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved, as reflected in serum bicarbonate levels. We observed no difference in serum bicarbonate levels between APD and lactate CAPD patients. The new bicarbonate-buffered PD solutions are more biocompatible and can result in higher serum bicarbonate levels. However, a significant number of PD patients on bicarbonate-buffered solutions may become alkalotic. The clinical significance of these results needs further examination in prospective studies.

  3. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  4. Anodic behavior of alloy 22 in bicarbonate containing media: Effect of alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N S; Giordano, C M; Rebak, R B; Ares, A E; Carranza, R M

    2012-01-01

    Alloy 22 is one of the candidates for the manufacture of high level nuclear waste containers. These containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions.It is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is necessary to produce cracking, . It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media at potentials below transpassivity. The aim of this work is to study the effect of alloying elements on the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions at different concentrations and temperatures. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-22% Cr-13% Mo), Ni-Mo (Ni-28, 5% Mo) and Ni-Cr (Ni-20% Cr) in the following solutions: 1 mol/L NaCl at 90 o C, and 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 ; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl, at 90 o C, 75 o C, 60 o C and 25 o C. It was found that alloy 22 has a anodic current density peak at potentials below transpassivity, only in the presence of bicarbonate ions. Curves performed in 1 mol/L NaCl did not show any anodic peak, in any of the tested alloys. The curves made on alloys Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr in the presence of bicarbonate ions, allowed to determine that Cr, is responsible for the appearance of the anodic peak in alloy 22. The curves of alloy Ni-Mo showed no anodic peak in the studied conditions. The potential at which the anodic peak appears in alloy 22 and Ni-Cr alloy, increases with decreasing temperature. The anodic peak was also affected by solution composition. When chloride ion is added to bicarbonate solutions, the anodic peak is shifted to higher potential and current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions (author)

  5. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalini- zation medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 60 mL/min/1.73 m2or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was −0.60 ± 1.58 versus −0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39. Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of

  6. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  7. Cesium platinide hydride 4Cs{sub 2}Pt.CsH: an intermetallic double salt featuring metal anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, Volodymyr [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3020 (United States); Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3111 (United States)

    2016-11-14

    With Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs{sup +} cations, Pt{sup 2-} and H{sup -} anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the ''alloy'' cesium-platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs{sub 2}Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H≡4 Cs{sub 2}Pt.CsH. (copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Electronic relaxations of radiative defects of the anion sublattice in cesium bromide crystals and exoemission of electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Galyij, P V

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of thermostimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) from CsBr crystal, excited by moderate doses (D <= 10 sup 4 Gy) of ultraviolet (h nu <= 7 eV) that selectively creates anion excitons and radiative defects in the anion sublattice. Having used the previously established connection between thermoactivated processes such as thermostimulated exoemission, electroconductivity, and luminescence in the irradiated crystal lattice, the concentrations of exoemission-active centers (EAC) and kinetics parameters of TSEE are calculated. The EAC concentration calculated on a base of the bulk, thermoactivated-recombinational, and band-gap Auger-like exoemission mechanisms, are in satisfactory agreement with the concentration of electron color centers in the irradiated crystals.

  9. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF α mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5–200 μM). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO 3 . We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O 2 − ). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNFα and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O 2 − may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O 2 − may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNFα route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium‐related diseases. -- Highlights: ► Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ► At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ► At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNFα. ► Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  10. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  11. Unusual structures of MgF5- superhalogen anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    The vertical electron detachment energies (VDE) of three MgF5- anions were calculated at the outer valence Green function level with the 6-311 + G(3df) basis sets. This species was found to form unusual geometrical structures each of which corresponds to an anionic state exhibiting superhalogen nature. The global minimum structure was described as a system in which two central magnesium atoms are linked via symmetrical triangle formed by three fluorine atoms. Extremely large electron binding energies of these anions (exceeding 8.5 eV in all cases) were predicted and discussed.

  12. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  13. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

  14. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  15. Association between Low Serum Bicarbonate Concentrations and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients in the End-Stage of Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaia D. Raikou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic acidosis, a common condition particularly in the end-stage of renal disease patients, results in malnutrition, inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we focused on the association between low serum bicarbonate and cardiovascular disease in patients on intermittent dialysis. Methods: We studied 52 on-line-pre-dilution hemodiafiltration (on-l HDF patients, 32 males and 20 females, with a mean age of 58.01 ± 15.4 years old. Metabolic acidosis was determined by serum bicarbonate concentrations less than 22 mmol/L. Residual renal function (RRF was defined by interdialytic urine volume. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression models were performed to predict coronary artery disease (CAD, defined by ejection fraction <50%, or diastolic dysfunction congestive heart failure (CHF and peripheral vascular disease (PVD. Results: Kaplan–Meier analyses showed that a lower or higher than 22 mmol/L serum bicarbonate metabolic acidosis status was significantly associated with both PVD and diastolic dysfunction (log-rank = 5.07, p = 0.02 and log-rank = 5.84, p = 0.01, respectively. A similar prevalence of serum bicarbonate on CAD or CHF by low ejection fraction was not shown. The RRF was associated with PVD event and serum bicarbonate less than 22 mmol/L (log-rank = 5.49, p = 0.01 and log-rank = 3.9, p = 0.04, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that serum bicarbonate and RRF were significant risk factors for PVD after adjustment for confounders. Furthermore, RRF adjusted for covariates was shown to be a significant risk factor for diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion: Low serum bicarbonate was associated with peripheral vascular disease and diastolic dysfunction in intermittent dialysis. The residual renal function may impact patients’ outcomes through its relationship with metabolic acidosis status, particularly for peripheral vascular disease manifestation.

  16. Stability of sodium bicarbonate injection 8.4% in syringes over a six-week period in refrigerated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Jack T; Wang, Tian Q; Yip, Paul M; Mazzulli, Tony; Minden, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Background Dysfunctional central venous catheter prohibits the administration of potential life-saving chemotherapy and the delivery of essential supportive care needs to patients. Sodium bicarbonate injection has been shown to impede against fibrin clot formation and prolong prothrombin time and thrombin clotting time. Sodium bicarbonate injection has been tried as a second-line agent with good results in a small number of patients (internal data not published) when alteplase failed. We assessed whether the pre-filled sodium bicarbonate injection in 5 mL syringes would not only preserve sterility and retain its pH and concentration but also amount to the potential cost savings for future use when stored in a refrigerated environment. Methodology Twelve pre-filled 5 mL syringes were prepared aseptically, of which four each were tested for pH, sodium bicarbonate injection concentration and sterility when stored in refrigerated temperature over a six-week period. A standard pH meter, enzymatic carbon dioxide analyzer, and a 14-day incubation for microbial detection were employed for this study. Results Sodium bicarbonate concentration measured in the form of carbon dioxide ranged from 923 mmol/L or (1846 mosol/L) to 1006 mmol/L or (2012 mosmol/L), and pH ranged from (7.88 to 8.05) were reported over the duration of the study period. The 14-day incubation period resulted in no microbial growth. Conclusion Our study results have indicated that the pH and sodium bicarbonate injection concentration values were stable and within range, comparable to those reported by the manufacturer within the study period. The contents of the subdivided sodium bicarbonate injection 5 mL syringes retained sterility over a 14-day incubation period.

  17. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  18. Determining the ’Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Army training doctrine, and by adjusting the curriculum of the officer core in order to close the knowledge gap . The author closes by concluding...fight. The research to find these gaps begins with a process trace of doctrine from 1976 to the present, starting with the advent of Active Defense...discovering the one gap , three were found. Upon further examination below, even these initially perceived gaps dissipate under close scrutiny. Gap

  19. [Impact of a simultaneous application of anionic salts and rumen buffer on acid-base-balance and mineral metabolism in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Hauser, Simone; Löptien, Antje; Montag, Nicole; Passmann, Mareike; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of simultaneous application of anionic salts (AS) and rumen buffer (RB) on the metabolism of dairy cows was examined. Eleven rumen fistulated, non-pregnant and non-lactating dairy cows received equal amounts of one AS (CaCl2 or CaSO4) and one RB (NaHCO3 or KHCO3) via rumen cannula during feeding time over a period of eight days. Before the first application of AS and RB and on day eight of the treatment period, blood, urine and rumen fluid samples were taken. The following parameters were measured: whole blood: pH, base excess, bicarbonate; serum: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; urine: pH, net acid base excretion, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; rumen fluid: pH. The changes of each parameter were compared via ANOVA. The changes in acid-base balance on day eight were very small, although significant. But p-values showed that the statistical evidence was low. The most changes occurred when NaHCO3 was fed in combination with one of the AS used. In this case a small acidogenic load was seen in blood (p buffer must not be fed, if anionic salts are given for prevention of parturient paresis.

  20. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  1. Dehydroabiethylamine acetate as metal-containing anion precipitant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Borisov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation is studied of vanadate, tungstate-, molybdate- and chromate-ions by dehydroabiethylamine acetate. The degree of precipitation of metal-bearing anions is a function of the anion and of pH of the treated solutions. There exists a predetermined value of pH for each anion, at which the content of metal-bearing anion in the ultra-filtrate is at a minimum. For vanadate-ions, this pH is 5.0; for tungstate-ions, 3.0; for molybdate-ions, 4.0; for chrommate-ions, 8.0. The heats of solution of methavanadate, paratungstate, paramolybdate and dehydroabiethylamine chromate, calculated in accordance with the Vant-Hoff equation, range between 3.5 and 8.3 kJ/mole; free energy varies between 45.8 and 137.5 kJ/mole; and entropy varies between 110 and 371 J/degree mole

  2. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN"- selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation

  3. Electronic spectra of anions intercalated in layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups of the layers and interlayer water through the termi- nal atom symmetry ... results in a reaction with the metal hydroxide layers lead- ing to the ..... List of band positions observed for potassium salts of anion and LDH samples. Salts.

  4. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju [Dept. of Chemistry, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN{sup -} selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation.

  5. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  6. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Repair by caffeic acid; repair of adenosine radicals; oxidation by sulphate radical anions. ... known that hydroxycinnamic acids are natural anti- oxidants ... acid. 2. Experimental ..... ously and independently under kinetic conditions at.

  7. New anion-exchange polymers for improved separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Objective is to improve the understanding of how the structure of a new class of anion-exchange polymers controls the binding of anionic actinide complexes from solution. This is needed to develop practical separation systems that will reduce the cost of actinide processing operations within the DOE complex. In addition anion exchange is widely used in industry. Several new series of bifunctional anion- exchange polymers have been designed, synthesized, and tested for removing Pu(IV), Am(III), and U(VI) from nitric acid. The polymers contain a pyridinium site derived from the host poly(4-vinylpyridine) and a second cationic site attached through a chain of 2 to 6 methylene groups. The new polymers removed Pu four to ten times more efficiently than the best commercial materials

  8. Intestinal transporters for endogenic and pharmaceutical organic anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandvuinet, Anne Sophie; Vestergaard, Henrik Tang; Rapin, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of intestinal human transporters for organic anions and stresses the need for standardization of the various in-vitro methods presently employed in drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigations....

  9. Expanding frontiers in materials chemistry and physics with multiple anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Attfield, J Paul; Hiroi, Zenji; Rondinelli, James M; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2018-02-22

    During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials. We devote attention to the crucial roles that multiple anions play during synthesis, characterization, and in the physical properties of these materials. We discuss the opportunities enabled by recent advances in synthetic approaches for design of both local and overall structure, state-of-the-art characterization techniques to distinguish unique structural and chemical states, and chemical/physical properties emerging from the synergy of multiple anions for catalysis, energy conversion, and electronic materials.

  10. Adsorption and desorption dynamics of citric acid anions in soil

    KAUST Repository

    Oburger, E.; Leitner, D.; Jones, D. L.; Zygalakis, K. C.; Schnepf, A.; Roose, T.

    2011-01-01

    The functional role of organic acid anions in soil has been intensively investigated, with special focus on (i) microbial respiration and soil carbon dynamics, (ii) nutrient solubilization or (iii) metal detoxification and reduction of plant metal

  11. Synthesis and anion binding properties of porphyrins and related compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Figueira, Flá vio; Rodrigues, Joã o M M; Farinha, Andreia; Cavaleiro, José A S; Tomé , Joã o P C

    2016-01-01

    promising. In this review, we summarize the most recent developments in anion binding studies while outlining the strategies that may be used to synthesize and functionalize these type of macrocycles. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  12. Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on blood chemistry, milk ... Increased blood pH and serum HCO3 were noticed in buffaloes fed with LC ... Serum calcium and chloride increased with decreased DCAD level while ...

  13. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  14. (100) faceted anion voids in electron irradiated fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1979-01-01

    High fluence electron irradiation of fluorite crystals in the temperature range 150 to 320 K results in formation of a simple cubic anion void superlattice. Above 320 K the damage structure changes to a random distribution of large [001] faceted anion voids. This voidage behaviour, similar to that observed in a range of irradiated metals, is discussed in terms points defect rather than conventional colour centre terminology. (Auth.)

  15. Determination of nitrate by anion exchange with ultraviolet detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    A weak base anion exchange resin is synthesized by surface bonding 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to silica gel. This silylated silica gel is used to separate nitrate from interferences. The nitrate is then determined by measuring its absorbance at 220 nm. An interference study was performed and no anions commonly found in potable water interferes. A comparison of this method was made with the brucine method on real samples and satisfactory agreement was obtained between the two methods.

  16. Gas-Grain Models for Interstellar Anion Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnely, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain hydrocarbon anions C(sub n) H(-) (n = 4, 6, 8) have recently been found to be abundant in a variety of interstellar clouds. In order to explain their large abundances in the denser (prestellar/protostellar) environments, new chemical models are constructed that include gas-grain interactions. Models including accretion of gas-phase species onto dust grains and cosmic-ray-induced desorption of atoms are able to reproduce the observed anion-to-neutral ratios, as well as the absolute abundances of anionic and neutral carbon chains, with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Due to their destructive effects, the depletion of oxygen atoms onto dust results in substantially greater polyyne and anion abundances in high-density gas (with n(sub H2) approx > / cubic cm). The large abundances of carbon-chain-bearing species observed in the envelopes of protostars such as L1527 can thus be explained without the need for warm carbon-chain chemistry. The C6H(-) anion-to-neutral ratio is found to be most sensitive to the atomic O and H abundances and the electron density. Therefore, as a core evolves, falling atomic abundances and rising electron densities are found to result in increasing anion-to-neutral ratios. Inclusion of cosmic-ray desorption of atoms in high-density models delays freeze-out, which results in a more temporally stable anion-to-neutral ratio, in better agreement with observations. Our models include reactions between oxygen atoms and carbon-chain anions to produce carbon-chain-oxide species C6O, C7O, HC6O, and HC7O, the abundances of which depend on the assumed branching ratios for associative electron detachment

  17. Oxidation and dissolution of UO{sub 2} in bicarbonate media: Implications for the spent nuclear fuel oxidative dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: francisco.javier.gimenez@upc.edu; Clarens, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rovira, M. [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1. 08240 Manresa (Spain); Pablo, J. de [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bruno, J. [Enresa-Enviros Environmental Science and Waste Management Chair, UPC, Jordi Girona 1-3 B2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The objective of this work is to study the UO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2} and dissolution in bicarbonate media and to extrapolate the results obtained to improve the knowledge of the oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. The results obtained show that in the studied range the oxygen consumption rate is independent on the bicarbonate concentration while the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate does depend on. Besides, at 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} bicarbonate concentration, the oxygen consumption rate is almost two orders of magnitude higher than the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate. These results suggest that at low bicarbonate concentration (<10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}) the alteration of the spent nuclear fuel cannot be directly derived from the measured uranium concentrations in solution. On the other hand, the study at low bicarbonate concentrations of the evolution of the UO{sub 2} surface at nanometric scale by means of the SFM technique shows that the difference between oxidation and dissolution rates is not due to the precipitation of a secondary solid phase on UO{sub 2}.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy : a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Chica, Carlos Andres; Bello Marquez, Diana; Serna-Higuita, Lina Maria; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Casas-Arroyave, Fabian David; Donado-Gómez, Jorge Hernando

    2015-09-30

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury and increased hospital-acquired morbidity and mortality. The use of sodium bicarbonate for nephroprotection has emerged as a preventative strategy; however, its efficacy is controversial compared to other strategies, such as hydration using 0.9% saline solution. To compare the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate vs. hydration using 0.9% saline solution to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. A systematic review of studies registered in the COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and EMBASE databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies that evaluated the use of 0.9% saline solution vs. sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy were included. A total of 22 studies (5,686 patients) were included. Sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.02 to 0.03; p= 0.83; I(2)= 0%). No significant differences were found in the demand for renal replacement therapy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0-01; I(2)= 0%; p= 0.99) or in mortality (RD= -0.00; 95% CI= -0.001 to 0.001; I(2)= 0%; p= 0.51). Sodium bicarbonate administration is not superior to the use of 0.9% saline solution for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with risk factors, nor is it better at reducing mortality or the need for renal replacement therapy.

  19. The association of emergency department administration of sodium bicarbonate after out of hospital cardiac arrest with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Hung, Ming-Szu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Hsiao, Cheng-Ting; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2018-03-05

    Sodium bicarbonate administration is mostly restricted to in-hospital use in Taiwan. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate on outcomes among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This population-based study used a 16-year database to analyze the association between sodium bicarbonate administration for resuscitation in the emergency department (ED) and outcomes. All adult patients with OHCA were identified through diagnostic and procedure codes. The primary outcome was survival to hospital admission and secondary outcome was the rate of death within the first 30days of incidence of cardiac arrest. Cox proportional-hazards regression, logistic regression, and propensity analyses were conducted. Among 5589 total OHCA patients, 15.1% (844) had survival to hospital admission. For all patients, a positive association was noted between sodium bicarbonate administration during resuscitation in the ED and survival to hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.82-5.22, p<0.001). In propensity-matched patients, a positive association was also noted (adjusted OR, 4.61; 95% CI: 3.90-5.46, p<0.001). Among patients with OHCA in Taiwan, administration of sodium bicarbonate during ED resuscitation was significantly associated with an increased rate of survival to hospital admission. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. New Ru(II)N'NN'-type pincer complexes: synthesis, characterization and the catalytic hydrogenation of CO_2 or bicarbonates to formate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengjin Dai; Qi Luo; Hengjiang Cong; Jing Zhang; Tianyou Peng

    2017-01-01

    [RuCl(L1)(MeCN)_2]Cl (1) and [RuCl(L2)(MeCN)_2]Cl (2) complexes were prepared through the reaction of [RuCl2(p-cymene)]_2 with 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-pyridine (L1) or 2,6-bis(benzimidazole- 2-yl) pyridine (L2) in acetonitrile, respectively. The treatment of [Ru(OTf)(L2)(MeCN)_2]OTf (3) with 1 equivalent of PPh_3 in ethanol resulted in the formation of [Ru(L2"-"1)(MeCN)(PPh_3)_2]OTf (4), in which one of the N-H moieties of L2 is deprotonated to give an anionic ligand (L2"-"1). It was found that complex 1 can catalyze the hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts, producing sodium formate in 34.0% yield with a turnover number (TON) of 407 under the optimized conditions. Further investigations revealed that complexes 1-4 can efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate, and the catalytic activity follows the order 4 ≥ 1 ≥ 2 ≅ 3. In particular, sodium formate was obtained in good yield (77%) with a high TON (1530) when complex 4 was used as the catalyst. The present results illustrate a new example of Ru(II) complexes bearing a rigid N'NN' framework for the efficient hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts in a homogeneous system. (authors)

  1. Colorless to purple-red switching electrochromic anthraquinone imides with broad visible/near-IR absorptions in the radical anion state: simulation-aided molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengkun; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Hong; Wan, Xinhua

    2013-07-01

    The large redshift of near-infrared (NIR) absorptions of nitro-substituted anthraquinone imide (Nitro-AQI) radical anions, relative to other AQI derivatives, is rationalized based on quantum chemical calculations. Calculations reveal that the delocalization effects of electronegative substitution in the radical anion states is dramatically enhanced, thus leading to a significant decrease in the HOMO-LUMO band gap in the radical anion states. Based on this understanding, an AQI derivative with an even stronger electron-withdrawing dicyanovinyl (di-CN) substituent was designed and prepared. The resulting molecule, di-CN-AQI, displays no absorption in the Vis/NIR region in the neutral state, but absorbs intensively in the range of λ=700-1000 (λmax ≈860 nm) and λ=1100-1800 nm (λmax ≈1400 nm) upon one-electron reduction; this is accompanied by a transition from a highly transmissive colorless solution to one that is purple-red. The relationship between calculated radical anionic HOMO-LUMO gaps and the electron-withdrawing capacity of the substituents is also determined by employing Hammett parameter, which could serve as a theoretical tool for further molecular design. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Adams

    Full Text Available The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A, which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4 as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease.

  3. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. A case of near-fatal flecainide overdose in a neonate successfully treated with sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2013-04-01

    Flecainide is a class IC antidysrhythmic primarily indicated for ventricular dysrhythmias and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Class IC antidysrhythmic overdose has a reported mortality of 22%, and death results from dysrhythmias and cardiovascular collapse. We report a near-fatal flecainide overdose in an 18-day-old treated successfully with sodium bicarbonate. An 18-day-old, 2 weeks premature, 4-kg boy developed persistently high heart rates (220-240 beats/min) and electrocardiographic changes consistent with SVT. There was minimal response to vagal maneuvers, adenosine, and esmolol, and a transthoracic echocardiogram showed no underlying structural abnormality. The patient was then started on flecainide 4 mg orally every 8 h (Q8h). After the fourth dose he developed lethargy, cold clammy skin, and a heart rate of 40 beats/min with no palpable pulse. The patient was given 0.1 mg of atropine intravenously, with an increase of the heart rate to 160 beats/min. The child's cardiac monitor revealed a wide-complex tachycardia with left bundle branch morphology, with associated pallor and poor capillary refill. Sodium bicarbonate was administered intravenously due to suspected flecainide toxicity. Approximately 5 min after intravenous administration of 10 mEq of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate twice, his rhythm converted to a narrow-complex tachycardia. A serum flecainide concentration was 1360 μg/L (therapeutic, 200-1000 μg/L) drawn 1 h before the cardiac arrest. It was later discovered that a twofold dosing error occurred: the patient received 8 mg Q8h instead of 4 mg Q8h for four doses. Flecainide toxicity in children is rare, especially in neonates. It is important for clinicians to be able to identify and treat this uncommon poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between sodium bicarbonate and insulin on acute propafenone toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hwa Yeon; Lee, Jang Young; Lee, Won Suk; Sung, Won Young; Seo, Sang Won

    2014-10-01

    Unlike other sodium-channel-blocking antiarrhythmic agents, propafenone has β-blocking effects and calcium-channel-blocking effects. Yi et al recently studied insulin's treatment effect on acute propafenone toxicity in rats. However, because the degree of effectiveness of insulin compared to the previously known antidote sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was not studied, the 2 treatment methods were compared for propafenone intoxication in rats. Rats received intravenous propafenone (36 mg/[kg h]) for 12 minutes. After the induction of toxicity, rats (n = 10 per group) received normal saline solution (NSS), NaHCO3, or insulin with glucose as treatment. Animals in the NSS, NaHCO3, and Insulin groups received an intravenous infusion of 36 mg/(kg h) propafenone until death occurred. For each animal, the mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, total hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, potential of hydrogen, bicarbonate, glucose, lactate, and central venous oxygen saturation (Scvo2) were measured and compared among the groups. Survival of the Insulin group was greater than that of the NSS group by log-rank test (P = .021). Sodium bicarbonate prevented the decline of MAP for 55 minutes. In comparison, insulin prevented the decline of MAP and heart rate, and the elongation of the PR interval and QRS duration for 55 minutes (P < .05). Propafenone toxicity led to decreased Ca(2+), potential of hydrogen, and Scvo2 and increased lactate levels. Insulin prevented the decrease of Ca(2+) and Scvo2, whereas NaHCO3 prevented the increase in lactate. Insulin treatment was more effective than NaHCO3 on acute propafenone toxicity in rat. Therefore, when propafenone-induced cardiotoxicity occurs, which is unresponsive to current treatment methods, glucose-insulin infusion may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium balance in pediatric online hemodiafiltration: Beware of sodium and bicarbonate in the dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Sellier-Leclerc, Anne-Laure; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Cartier, Régine; Cochat, Pierre; Ranchin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (oHDF) is increasingly used in children; we treated 28 children since 2009, adapting this technique to pediatric patients. In this service evaluation audit, we assessed plasma electrolytes to evaluate the evolution of total (tCa) and ionized (iCa) during a session, as well as dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations. Using a 1.25 mmol Ca/L-dialysate, both tCa and iCa decreased during the session, with iCa falling below 1.1 mmol/L in 4/5 patients. In contrast, using a 1.5 mmol Ca/L-dialysate, iCa remained normal in all patients. Major discrepancies were observed between the expected and the measured dCa: 1.25 vs. 1.01 (0.83-1.04), and 1.5 vs. 1.47 (0.85-1.75) mmol/L, respectively (results presented as median [range]). These differences were explained by the modality of reconstituting dialysate: increasing bicarbonates and/or decreasing sodium requested in the dialysate decreases calcium extraction from the acid preparation. Proof of concept was given when requesting in an "ex-vivo" setting modifications in the requested sodium and bicarbonate in dialysate directly on the Fresenius machine. Nephrologists should be aware that "high bicarbonate and/or low sodium" requirements in oHDF decrease calcium in the dialysate. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Aerobic Respiration Produce Carbon Dioxide or Hydrogen Ion and Bicarbonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Erik R

    2018-05-01

    Maintenance of intracellular pH is critical for clinical homeostasis. The metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids yielding the generation of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria is accompanied by the production of acid in the Krebs cycle. Both the nature of this acidosis and the mechanism of its disposal have been argued by two investigators with a long-abiding interest in acid-base physiology. They offer different interpretations and views of the molecular mechanism of this intracellular pH regulation during normal metabolism. Dr. John Severinghaus has posited that hydrogen ion and bicarbonate are the direct end products in the Krebs cycle. In the late 1960s, he showed in brain and brain homogenate experiments that acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, reduces intracellular pH. This led him to conclude that hydrogen ion and bicarbonate are the end products, and the role of intracellular carbonic anhydrase is to rapidly generate diffusible carbon dioxide to minimize acidosis. Dr. Erik Swenson posits that carbon dioxide is a direct end product in the Krebs cycle, a more widely accepted view, and that acetazolamide prevents rapid intracellular bicarbonate formation, which can then codiffuse with carbon dioxide to the cell surface and there be reconverted for exit from the cell. Loss of this "facilitated diffusion of carbon dioxide" leads to intracellular acidosis as the still appreciable uncatalyzed rate of carbon dioxide hydration generates more protons. This review summarizes the available evidence and determines that resolution of this question will require more sophisticated measurements of intracellular pH with faster temporal resolution.

  8. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The gecko visual pigment: the anion hypsochromic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1991-01-01

    The 521-pigment in the retina of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) readily responds to particular physical and chemical changes in its environment. When solubilized in chloride deficient state the addition of Class I anions (Cl-, Br-) induces a bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum. Class II anions (NO3-, IO3-, N3-, OCN-, SCN-, SeCN-, N(CN)2-), which exhibit ambidental properties, cause an hypsochromic shift. Class III anions (F-, I-, NO2-, CN-, AsO3-, SO2(4-), S2O2(3-) have no spectral effect on the 521-pigment. Cations appear to have no influence on the pigment absorption and Class I anions prevent or reverse the hypsochromic shift caused by Class II anions. It is suggested that the spectral displacements reflect specific changes in the opsin conformation, which alter the immediate (dipolar) environment of the retinal chromophore. The protein conformation seems to promote excited-state processes most in the native 521-pigment state and least in the presence of Class II anions. This in turn suggests that the photosensitivity of the 521-pigment is controlled by the excited rather than by the ground-state properties of the pigment.

  10. Bicarbonate catalysis of exchange synthesis of [51Cr]Cr(III)-EDTA and other chromium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Strashun, A.M.; Lopez, C.; Steigman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Exchange syntheses of trivalent chromium complexes often require heating, thus limiting tagging of heat-sensitive biological compounds with 51 Cr. Bicarbonate at pH 6, accelerates the formation of mM Cr-EDTA. Accordingly, room temperature catalysis with [ 51 Cr]Cr(III) at 10 -7 -10 -8 M was investigated. Complexes were successfully formed with EDTA and iminodiacetic acid (electrophoretic analysis) and acetylacetone and tropolone (analyzed by chloroform extraction). The formation of these complexes normally requires extensive heating. (author)

  11. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  12. Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, C.M.; Leitao, R.A.; Fonseca, I.T.

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication. (author)

  13. Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Craig; Saunders, Bryan; Hudson, Sean; Wise, John A; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline D

    2011-10-01

    We examined the effect of β-alanine supplementation plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Twenty males (age = 25 ± 5 yr, height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass = 80.0 ± 10.3 kg) were assigned to either a placebo (P) or a β-alanine (BA; 6.4 g·d(-1) for 4 wk) group based on power max, completing four cycling capacity tests at 110% of power max (CCT110%) to determine time to exhaustion (TTE) and total work done. A CCT(110%) was performed twice (habituation and baseline) before supplementation (with maltodextrin [MD]) and twice after supplementation (with MD and with sodium bicarbonate [SB]), using a crossover design with 2 d of rest between trials, creating four study conditions (PMD, PSB, BAMD, and BASB). Blood pH, Lactate, bicarbonate and base excess were determined at baseline, before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 5 min after exercise. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. TTE was increased in all conditions after supplementation (+1.6% PMD, +6.5% PSB, +12.1% BAMD, and +16.2% BASB). Both BAMD and BASB resulted in significantly improved TTE compared with that before supplementation (P ≤ 0.01). Although further increases in TTE (4.1%) were shown in BASB compared with BAMD, these differences were not significant (P = 0.74). Differences in total work done were similar to those of TTE. Blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly (P ≤ 0.001) elevated before exercise in PSB and BASB but not in PMD or BAMD. Blood lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after exercise, remaining elevated after 5 min of recovery (P ≤ 0.001) and were highest in PSB and BASB. Results show that BA improved high-intensity cycling capacity. However, despite a 6-s (∼4%) increase in TTE with the addition of SB, this did not reach statistical significance, but magnitude-based inferences suggested a ∼70% probability of a meaningful positive difference.

  14. Metabolism of [14C]bicarbonate by Streptococcus lactis: identification and distribution of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.J.; Jago, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis C10, grown in tryptone-yeast extract-lactose broth containing [ 14 C] bicarbonate, incorporated radioactivity into the protein and nucleic acid fractions of the cell as well as into compounds which were excreted by the organism into the growth medium. Aspartic acid was the first compound to be labelled and was the only amino acid labelled in the cell protein. All 4 bases were labelled in the cell RNA. Aspartic, succunuc and lactic acids were the radioactive compounds excreted into the growth medium. (U.K.)

  15. The acid-base effects of continuous hemofiltration with lactate or bicarbonate buffered replacement fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H K; Uchino, S; Bellomo, R

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate, quantify and compare the effects of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with lactate or bicarbonate-buffered replacement fluids on acid-base balance. Randomized double crossover study. Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary Medical Center. Eight patients with severe acute renal failure. Random allocation to either 2 hours of isovolemic lactate-buffered (treatment A) CVVH or 2 hours of bicarbonate-buffered (treatment B) CVVH with cross over and with same procedure repeated the following day (double cross over). Timed collections of arterial blood and ultrafiltrate (UF), measurement of blood and UF gases and lactate concentrations and calculation of buffer-base mass balance. At baseline, both groups of patients had a similar, slight metabolic alkalosis (pH: 7.45 vs. 7.45; BE 3.9 mEq/L for treatment A and 4.0 for treatment B) and a serum bicarbonate of 28.1 mmol/L for treatment A vs. 28.3 mmol/L for treatment B; all NS. This alkalosis was present despite slight hyperlactatemia in both groups (A: 2.4 mmol/L vs. B 2.8 mmol/; NS). Within 60 minutes of treatment, however, treatment A led to a significantly higher lactate concentration (3.9 vs 2.5 mmol/L; p = 0.0011), a significantly lower BE (2.3 vs 4.1 mEq/L; p = 0.0019) and a significantly lower bicarbonate concentration (26.7 vs. 28.3 mmol/L; p = 0.0038) in the presence of an unchanged PaCO2. These differences persisted during the study period. The UF of patients receiving treatment A contained more lactate (10.2 vs 2.9 mmol/L; p buffer-base balance of +20.4 mEq/h compared to -2.6 mEq/h for treatment B; p buffered replacement fluids induces iatrogenic hyperlactatemia. Such hyperlactatemia is associated with an acidifying effect despite a positive buffer-base balance.

  16. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abdi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  17. Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANZA Célia Regina Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.

  18. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  19. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  20. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.