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Sample records for anion exchange resin

  1. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  2. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  3. Separation of boron isotopes using NMG type anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Takaharu; Kosuge, Masao; Fukuda, Junji; Fujii, Yasuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Ion exchange separation of boron isotopes (B-10 and B-11) has been studied by using a special boron selective ion exchange resin; NMG (n-methyl glucamine)-type anion exchange resin. The resin has shown a large isotope separation coefficient of 1.02 at the experimental conditions of temperature, 80degC, and boric acid concentration, 0.2 M (mole/dm 3 ). Enriched B-10 (92%) was obtained after the migration of 1149 m by a recyclic operation of ion exchange columns in a merry-go-round method. (author)

  4. Organic resin anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; McGinnes, D.F.

    1988-07-01

    Organic anion exchange resins are evaluated for 99-TcO 4 - (pertechnate) removed from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal and radiation stabilities were studied. Selected resins were examined in detail for their selectivities in the presence of I - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , CO 3 = , Cl - and OH - . Ion exchange equilibria and kinetic mechanisms were determined. Preliminary investigations of cement encapsulation in polymer modified form were made and some leach studies carried out. (author)

  5. Uranium extraction from sulfuric acid solution using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheta, M. E.; Abdel Aal, M. M.; Kandil, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium is currently recovered from sulfuric acid leach liquor using anion exchange resin as Amberlite IRA 402 (CT). This technology is based on fact that, uranium exists as anionic complexes. This takes place by controlling the pH of the solution, agitation time, temperature and resin to solution ratio (R/S). In this work, batch stirrer tank used for uranium extraction from sulfate medium and after extraction, elution process was done using 1M NaCl solution. After extraction and elution process, the resin was separated from the system and uranium was determined in the solution. (Author)

  6. Uranium isotopic effect studies on cation and anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarpal, S.K.; Gupta, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium isotope effects in exchange reactions involving hexavalent and tetravalent uranium, on ion exchange resins, have been re-examined. The earlier work on uranium isotope effects in electron exchange reactions involving hexavalent and tetravalent uranium, has been critically reviewed. New experimental data on these systems in hydrochloric acid medium, has been obtained, using break-through technique on anion-exchange columns. The isotope effects in these break-through experiments have been reinterpreted in a way which is consistent with the anion exchange behaviour of the various uranium species in these systems. (author)

  7. Evaluation of indigenous anion exchange resins for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, R.; Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Thite, B.S.; Ajithlal, R.T.; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dharampurikar, G.R.; Janardhanan, C.; Michael, K.M.; Vijayan, K.; Jambunathan, U.; Dey, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary data with pure plutonium nitrate solution indicate that indigenous anion exchange resin can be used for the purification and concentration of plutonium. However, further studies are required to be conducted on larger scale with actual plant feed solutions before arriving to final conclusions. This includes repeated loading and elution cycles studies with the same bed and evaluation of the performance after each cycle

  8. The assessment of pellicular anion-exchange resins for the determination of anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1981-01-01

    Because pellicular anion-exchange resins suitable for the determination, by ion chromatography, of anions with alkaline eluents were unavailable in South Africa at the inception of this work, an attempt was made to prepare such resins. In this study it is shown that the pellicular resins produced are more efficient than the surface-aminated resins used previously. The simultaneous separation and determination of five common anions is demonstrated. The method was applied to the analysis of uranium leach liquors, effluent samples, and a solid sample of ferric oxide (goethite)

  9. Fixation of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on an anionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahuzac, S.

    1969-06-01

    Since sulfosalicylate ions have acid-base properties, sulfosalicylate complexes have an apparent stability which varies with the ph. As a result, the fixation of sulfo-salicylates on an anionic exchange resin depends on the ph of the solution in equilibrium with the resin. This research has been aimed at studying the influence of the ph on the fixation on an anionic exchange resin (Dowex 1 x 4) of sulfosalicylate anions on the one hand, and of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on the other hand. In the first part of this work, a determination has been made, by frontal analysis of the distribution of sulfosalicylate ions in the resin according to the total sulfosalicylate I concentration in the aqueous solution in equilibrium with the resin. The exchange constants of these ions between the resin and the solution have been calculated. In the second part, a study has been made of the fixation of anionic sulfosalicylate complexes of Fe(III), Al(III), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Fe(II) and UO 2 2+ . By measuring the partition coefficients of these different elements between the resin and the solution it has been possible to give interpretation for the modes of fixation of the metallic ions, and to calculate their exchange constant between the resin and the solution. The relationship has been established for each metallic element studied, between its partition coefficient, the ph and the total concentration of the complexing agent in solution. Such a relationship makes it possible to predict, for given conditions, the nature of the species in solution and in the resin, as well as the partition coefficient of a metallic, element. Finally, in the third part of the work, use has been made of results obtained previously, to carry out some separations (Ni 2+ - Co 2+ ; Ni 2+ - Co 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Fe 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cr 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Ni 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Co 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Mn 2+ and UO 2 2+ - Cd 2+ ), as well as the purification

  10. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The immobilization of anion exchange resins in polymer modified cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; Morgan, P.D.

    1991-09-01

    Organic anion exchange resins, loaded with 99-Tc as the pertechnate ion, were incorporated into polymer modified cements (Flexocrete Ltd, Preston). BFS/OPC (9:1 mix) also was modified by three polymers from the same source (styrene acrylic (2) styrene butadiene) and loaded with anion exchanger containing the pertechnate. Composites were tested for initial compressive strengths, under water and radiation stability and leach rate. IAEA standard leach testing was with simulated sea and ground waters. Ground water leaching also was carried out on composites subjected to 1.10 9 rads (γ). Leach testing correlated well with compressive strength. Modified composites performed better than the BFS/OPC mix under all conditions studied and were able to encapsulate higher resin loadings. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced decomposition of anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidak, Aliaksandr; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced degradation of the strongly basic anion exchange resin Amberlite TM IRA400 in NO 3 - , Cl - and OH - forms has been studied. The research focused on the formation of molecular hydrogen in the gamma-radiolysis of water slurries of these quaternary ammonium resins with varying water content. Extended studies with various electron scavengers (NO 3 - , N 2 O and O 2 ) prove an important role of e solv - in the formation of H 2 from these resins. An excess production of H 2 in these systems at about 85% water weight fraction was found to be due to trimethylamine, dimethylamine and other compounds that leach from the resin to the aqueous phase. Irradiations with 5 MeV 4 He ions were performed to simulate the effects of α-particles.

  13. Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traboulsi, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LCFI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); E.A. LISA – METICA, Aix Marseille Université, Pôle de l’Etoile, case 451, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Labed, V., E-mail: veronique.labed@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LCFI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Dauvois, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C. [E.A. LISA – METICA, Aix Marseille Université, Pôle de l’Etoile, case 451, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2g}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2g}). TMA and H{sub 2g} are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMA{sub aq} was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMA{sub aq}), monomethylamine (MMA{sub aq}) and ammonia (NH{sub 4}{sup +}{sub aq}). CO{sub 2g} is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMA{sub g}.

  14. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  15. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs+ ions and their regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Chung, Won Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs + ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs + ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs + ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs + ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe 2+ ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K + ion

  16. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  17. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  18. Reducing nitrogen crossover in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells by using adjacent anion exchange membranes and anion exchange resin

    KAUST Repository

    Wallack, Maxwell J.; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial reverse electrodialysis cells (MRECs) combine power generation from salinity gradient energy using reverse electrodialysis (RED), with power generation from organic matter using a microbial fuel cell. Waste heat can be used to distill ammonium bicarbonate into high (HC) and low salt concentration (LC) solutions for use in the RED stack, but nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber must be minimized to avoid ammonia loses, and foster a healthy microbial community. To reduce nitrogen crossover, an additional low concentration (LC) chamber was inserted before the anode using an additional anion exchange membrane (AEM) next to another AEM, and filled with different amounts of anion or cation ion exchange resins. Addition of the extra AEM increased the ohmic resistance of the test RED stack from 103 Ω cm2 (1 AEM) to 295 Ω cm2 (2 AEMs). However, the use of the anion exchange resin decreased the solution resistance of the LC chamber by 74% (637 Ω cm2, no resin; 166 Ω cm2 with resin). Nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber was reduced by up to 97% using 50% of the chamber filled with an anion exchange resin compared to the control (no additional chamber). The added resistance contributed by the use of the additional LC chamber could be compensated for by using additional LC and HC membrane pairs in the RED stack.

  19. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  20. Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Elshani, S.; Zhao, W.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of K d values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins

  1. Preparation of nuclear grade strongly basic anion exchange resin in hydroxide from

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1989-01-01

    The two-step transformation method was used to prepare 90 kg nuclear grade strongly basic anion exchange resins by using the industrial grade baking soda and caustic soda manufacutred by mercury-cathode electrolysis. The chloride and biscarbonate fraction on resin is 0.8% and 1.25% respectively, when the baking soda and caustic soda consumption is 8.6 and 13.7 times the total exchange capacity of the strongly basic resin

  2. Treatment of Simulated Soil Decontamination Waste Solution by Ferrocyanide-Anion Exchange Resin Beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Park, Jin Ho; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Preparation of ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin and adsorption test of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion were performed. Adsorption capability of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion in the simulated citric acid based soil decontamination waste solution was 4 times greater than that of the commercial cation exchange resin. Adsorption equilibrium of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion reached within 360 minutes. Adsorption capability on the Cs{sup -} ion became to decrease above the necessary Co{sup 2-} ion concentration in the experimental range. Recycling test of the spent ion exchange resin by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine was also performed. It was found that desorption of Cs{sup -} ion from the resin occurred to satisfy the electroneutrality condition without any degradation of the resin.

  3. Studies concerning the anion ex-change resins catalyzed esterification of epichlorohydrin with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Muresan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the esterification of carboxylic acids with epichlorohydrin over two macroporous strong base anion exchange resins with different polymer matrix. For both resins, the influence of reaction parameters (temperature, catalyst loading, molar ratio on the reaction rate and the yields of the two isomeric esters were investigated.

  4. Radiation stability of anion-exchange resins based on epichlorohydrin and vinylpyridines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainutdinov, S.S.; Dzhalilov, A.T.; Askarov, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The vigorous development of nuclear technology and atomic energy and the hydrometallurgy of the rare and radioactive metals has made it necessary to create and use ion-exchange materials possessing a high resistance to the action of ionizing radiations and the temperature. In view of this, the necessity has arisen for obtaining ion-exchange materials possessing adequate radiation stability. The results of an investigation of the radiation stability of anion-exchange resins based on the products of spontaneous polymerization in the interaction of epichlorohydrin with vinylpyridines show that they possess higher radiation resistance than the industrial anion-exchange resin AN-31 used at the present time

  5. The reactivity of anion-exchange resins by applying OT-for-OH exchange reaction in the equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Naoki; Nihei, Makoto; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    In order to reveal the behavior of hydroxyl group in isotope exchange reaction, OT-for-OH exchange reaction between each anion-exchange resin (OH - form) and tritiated water (abbreviated as HTO water below) was observed at 80degC under the equilibrium. Anion-exchange resins used were Amberlite IRA-400, IRA-410 (both strongly basic), and IRA-94S (weakly basic). It can be thought that an HTO molecule dissociates into H + +OT - (or T + +OH - ). The activity of each resin based on OT-for-OH exchange reaction was measured with a liquid scintillation counter. From the above-mentioned, the following five were found. Isotope exchange reaction as 'atomic group' occurred between the OH group in each anion-exchange resin and the OT group in HTO water. The reactivity of strongly basic anion-exchange resin is larger than that of weakly basic one. The ratio of the reactivity of these resins can roughly be expressed as follows: (IRA-410): (IRA-400): (IRA-94S)=42: 7: 1. The degree of OT-for-OH exchange reaction may be smaller than that of T-for-H exchange reaction. The method used and results obtained in this work may be helpful to obtain the data for the prevention of T-contamination, especially to obtain the data from certain atomic groups including T. (author)

  6. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  7. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies on regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography where the hydroxyl form of an anion exchange resin is equilibrated with boric acid solution containing mannitol as a complexing reagent. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. (author)

  8. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  9. Studies on resin degradation products encountered during purification of plutonium by anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Among the methods available for the purification of plutonium in Purex process, anion exchange method offers several advantages. However, on repeated use, the resin gets degraded due to thermal, radiolytic and chemical attacks resulting in chemical as well as physical damage. Frequently, plutonium product eluted from such resin contains significant quantities of white precipitates. A few anion exchange resins were leached with 8 M HNO 3 at 60-80degC and the resin degradation products (RDP) in the leach-extract were found to give similar precipitates with tetravalent metal ions like Pu(IV), Th(IV) etc. Tetra propyl ammonium hydroxide in 8 M HNO 3 (TPAN) also gave a white precipitate with plutonium similar to the one found in the elution streams. The results indicate that delinked quaternary ammonium functional groups might be responsible for the formation of precipitate. The characteristics of precipitates Th-RDP, Th-TPAN and that isolated from elution stream have been investigated. In a separate study a tentative formula for Th-RDP compound is proposed. The influence of RDP on the extraction of plutonium and other components in Purex process was studied and it was found that RDP complexes metal ions thus marginally affecting the kd values. A spectrophotometric method has been standardised to monitor the extent of degradation of anion exchange resins which is based on the ability of RDP to reduce the colour intensity of Th-thoron complex. This technique can be used to study the stability of the anion exchange resins. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.,

  10. Boron isotope separation by ion exchange chromatography using weakly basic anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Aida, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1980-01-01

    Isotopic plateau displacement chromatography, a useful method for isotope separation is presented. The boric acid band formed in a column of weakly basic anion exchange resin Diaion WA21 can be eluted with pure water. In order to obtain good accumulation of the isotope effect, a series of experiments with different migration length were carried out. The boron-10 enriched part of the boric acid absorbed band was always preceded by the isotopic plateau part, in which the atomic fraction of boron-10 was maintained at its original value. The atomic fraction of boron-10 at the end of the chromatogram increased with migration length, and in the case of 256-m migration, boron-10 was enriched from its original atomic fraction of 19.84 to 91.00%, the separation factor S being constant irrespective of migration length: S = 1.0100 +- 0.0005. (author)

  11. Carbonylation of 1-hexene in the presence of palladium-anion-exchange resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Pirozhkov, S.D.; Buiya, M.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Karapetyan, L.P.; Saldadze, K.M.

    1986-06-20

    Activated charcoal, silica gel, and zeolites containing palladium are active in the carbonylation of lower olefins by carbon monoxide. In the present work, they studied the carbonylation of 1-hexene in the presence of a series of palladium catalysts containing An-221, An-251, and AN-511 anion-exchange catalysts produced in the USSR as the supports. A catalyst obtained by the deposition of palladium(II) on weakly basic anion-exchange resins displays high efficiency in the carbonylation of 1-hexene with the formation of a nixture of enanthoic and 2-methylcaproic acids.

  12. Application of a weak base anion exchange resin for recovery of uranium at Uravan, Colorado, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, N.E.; Kunin, R.

    1976-01-01

    Resin ion-exchange technology has been used to recover uranium at the Uravan, Colorado plant for over 18 years; however, since the end of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission purchase of U 3 O 8 concentrate in 1970, it has become necessary to develop techniques for upgrading the product to meet the more stringent specifications of private sales. The standard gel type quaternary ammonium anion exchange resin had been used previously. The development of the tertiary amine anion exchange resin, Amberlite XE-299, led to an experimental program of laboratory and pilot plant work to evaluate the resin on actual plant solutions. General information on ion-exchange resin structure and chemistry is discussed. Summary data of specific test work on loading the resin, various elution schemes, resin regeneration and product purity from the pilot plant tests and comments on actual plant operation using Amberlite XE-299 resin are presented. (author)

  13. Effect of pore structure on the removal of clofibric acid by magnetic anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Yunshu; Wang, Jun; Su, Yihong; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of pore structure of resin on clofibric acid (CA) adsorption behavior was investigated by using magnetic anion exchange resins (ND-1, ND-2, ND-3) with increasing pore diameter by 11.68, 15.37, 24.94 nm. Resin with larger pores showed faster adsorption rates and a higher adsorption capacity because the more opened tunnels provided by larger pores benefit the CA diffusion into the resin matrix. The ion exchange by the electrostatic interactions between Cl-type resin and CA resulted in chloride releasing to the solution, and the ratio of released chloride to CA adsorption amount decreased from 0.90 to 0.65 for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, indicating that non-electrostatic interactions obtain a larger proportional part of the adsorption into the pores. Co-existing inorganic anions and organic acids reduced the CA adsorption amounts by the competition effect of electrostatic interaction, whereas resins with more opened pore structures weakened the negative influence on CA adsorption because of the existence of non-electrostatic interactions. 85.2% and 65.1% adsorption amounts decrease are calculated for resin ND-1 and ND-3 by the negative influence of 1 mmol L -1 NaCl. This weaken effect of organic acid is generally depends on its hydrophobicity (Log Kow) for carboxylic acid and its ionization degree (pKb) for sulfonic acid. The resins could be reused with the slightly decreases by 1.9%, 3.2% and 5.4% after 7 cycles of regeneration, respectively for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, suggesting the ion exchange resin with larger pores are against its reuse by the brine solution regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perchlorate adsorption and desorption on activated carbon and anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Meng, Xiaoguang; Wang, Chao; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Bang, Sunbaek; Choe, Eunyoung; Lippincott, Lee

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms of perchlorate adsorption on activated carbon (AC) and anion exchange resin (SR-7 resin) were investigated using Raman, FTIR, and zeta potential analyses. Batch adsorption and desorption results demonstrated that the adsorption of perchlorate by AC and SR-7 resin was reversible. The reversibility of perchlorate adsorption by the resin was also proved by column regeneration test. Solution pH significantly affected perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of AC, while it did not influence perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of resin. Zeta potential measurements showed that perchlorate was adsorbed on the negatively charged AC surface. Raman spectra indicated the adsorption resulted in an obvious position shift of the perchlorate peak, suggesting that perchlorate was associated with functional groups on AC at neutral pH through interactions stronger than electrostatic interaction. The adsorbed perchlorate on the resin exhibited a Raman peak at similar position as the aqueous perchlorate, indicating that perchlorate was adsorbed on the resin through electrostatic attraction between the anion and positively charged surface sites.

  15. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  16. Effect of the chemical structure of anion exchange resin on the adsorption of humic acid: behavior and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Jun; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrenic (PS) anion-exchange resin and polyacrylic (PA) anion-exchange resin were used to investigate the effect of resin chemical structure on the adsorption of humic acid (HA). Due to the rearrangement of HA to form layers that function as barricades to further HA diffusion, PS resin exhibited 12.4 times slower kinetics for the initial adsorption rate and 8.4 times for the diffusion constant in comparison to that of the PA resin. An HA layer and a spherical cluster of HA can be observed on the surface of the PS and PA resins after adsorption, respectively. The considerable difference in HA adsorption between the PS and PA resins was due to the difference in molecule shape for interaction with different resin structures, which can essentially be explained by the hydrophobicity and various interactions of the PS resin. A given amount of HA occupies more positively charged sites and hydrophobic sites on the PS resin than were occupied by the same amount of HA on the PA resin. Increased pH resulted in an increase of HA adsorption onto the PA resin but a decrease in adsorption onto PS resin, as the non-electrostatic adsorption led to electrostatic repulsion between the HA attached to the resin and the HA dissolved in solution. These results suggest higher rates of adsorption and higher regeneration efficiency for interaction of HA with more hydrophilic anion exchange materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Anion Exchange Resins for One-Step Processing of Algae from Harvest to Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Poenie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Some microalgae are particularly attractive as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production due to their rapid growth, high content of triacylglycerols, and ability to be grown on non-arable land. Unfortunately, obtaining oil from algae is currently cost prohibitive in part due to the need to pump and process large volumes of dilute algal suspensions. In an effort to circumvent this problem, we have explored the use of anion exchange resins for simplifying the processing of algae to biofuel. Anion exchange resins can bind and accumulate the algal cells out of suspension to form a dewatered concentrate. Treatment of the resin-bound algae with sulfuric acid/methanol elutes the algae and regenerates the resin while converting algal lipids to biodiesel. Hydrophobic polymers can remove biodiesel from the sulfuric acid/methanol, allowing the transesterification reagent to be reused. We show that in situ transesterification of algal lipids can efficiently convert algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters while allowing the resin and transesterification reagent to be recycled numerous times without loss of effectiveness.

  18. Adsorption Equilibrium Equation of Carboxylic Acids on Anion-Exchange Resins in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Urano, Kohei; Kokado, Naohiro; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni

    2001-06-01

    The adsorption of propionic acid and benzoic acid on anion-exchange resins was analyzed, and an adsorption equilibrium equation of carboxylic acids was proposed. The adsorption of carboxylic acids on the anion-exchange resins was considered to be the sum of the physical adsorption of the molecule and the ion-exchange adsorption of the ion, which were independent of each other. For the physical adsorption of carboxylic acids, it was conformed to the Freundlich equation. For the ion-exchange adsorption of carboxylate ions, the equilibrium equation corresponded well with the experimental results for wide ranges of concentration and pH. The equation contains a selectivity coefficient S(A)(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the carboxylate ion, which was considered essentially a constant. The influent of the bicarbonate ion from carbon dioxide in air could also be expressed by the additional equilibrium equation with the selectivity coefficient S(HCO(3))(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the bicarbonate ion. Consequently, an adsorption equilibrium equation can estimate the equilibrium adsorption amounts. Even the effect of a coexisting bicarbonate ion is inconsequential when the parameters of the Freundlich isotherm equation and the selectivity coefficients of the carboxylate ion and the bicarbonate ion in each resin are determined in advance. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. New anion-exchange resins for improved separations of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, M.E.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall objective of this research is to develop a predictive capability which allows the facile design and implementation of multi-functionalized anion-exchange materials which selectively sorb metal complexes of interest from targeted process, waste, and environmental streams. The basic scientific issues addressed are actinide complex speciation along with modeling of the metal complex/functional-site interactions in order to determine optimal binding-site characteristics. The new ion-exchange resins interface the rapidly developing field of ion-specific chelating ligands with robust, commercial ion-exchange technology. Various Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have described needs that would be favorably impacted by the new materials: Efficient Separations and Processing; Plutonium; Plumes; Mixed Waste; High-Level Tank Waste. Sites within the DOE complex which would benefit from the improved anion-exchange technology include Hanford, INEL, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. As of April 1998, this report summarizes work after 1.6 years of a 3-year project. The authors technical approach combines empirical testing with theoretical modeling (applied in an iterative mode) in order to determine optimal binding-site characteristics. They determine actinide-complex speciation in specific media, then develop models for the metal complex/functional-site interactions Synthesis and evaluation of multi-functionalized extractants and ion-exchange materials that implement key features of the optimized binding site provide feedback to the modeling and design activities. Resin materials which actively facilitate the uptake of actinide complexes from solution should display both improved selectivity and kinetic properties. The implementation of the bifunctionality concept involves N-derivatization of pyridinium units from a base poly(4-vinylpyridine) resin with a second cationic site such that the two anion-exchange sites are linked by spacer arms of varying

  20. A basic study for the boron thermal regeneration system using anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantiesek, P.; Kotaka, Masahiro; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1979-01-01

    For the boron thermal regeneration system (BTRS), the basic characteristics of commercial anion exchange resin have been investigated on the swelling characteristics, absorption, desorption and temperature coefficient of exchange capacity for boric acid. The equilibrium capacity increases as decrease of temperature and depends strongly on the degrees of cross linking having a maximum point at about 7% of DVB. The temperature coefficient of equilibrium capacity of boric acid is also a function of the concentration of external solution and of the cross linking having a maximum point around 7% of DVB. (author)

  1. New Anion-Exchange Resins for Improved Separations of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, Richard A.; Barr, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    Improved separations of nuclear materials will have a significant impact upon a broad range of DOE activities. DOE-EM Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have identified improved methods for the extraction and recovery of radioactive metal ions from process, waste, and environmental waters as critical needs for the coming years. We propose to develop multifunctional anion-exchange resins that facilitate anion uptake by carefully controlling the structure of the anion receptor site. Our new ion-exchange resins interface the field of ion-specific chelating ligands with robust, commercial ion-exchange technology to provide materials which exhibit superior selectivity and kinetics of sorption and desorption. The following Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have described needs that would be favorably impacted by the new material: Efficient Separations and Processing - radionuclide removal from aqueous phases; Plutonium - Pu, Am or total alpha removal to meet regulatory requirement s before discharge to the environment; Plumes - U and Tc in groundwater, U, Pu, Am, and Tc in soils; Mixed Waste - radionuclide partitioning; High-Level Tank Waste - actinide and Tc removal from supernatants and/or sludges. The basic scientific issues which need to be addressed are actinide complex speciation along with modeling of metal complex/functional site interactions in order to determine optimal binding-site characteristics. Synthesis of multifunctionalized extractants and ion-exchange materials that implement key features of the optimized binding site, and testing of these materials, will provide feedback to the modeling and design activities. Resin materials which actively facilitate the uptake of actinide complexes from solution should display both improved selectivity and kinetic properties. The long-range implications of this research, however, go far beyond the nuclear complex. This new methodology of ''facilitated uptake'' could revolutionize ion-exchange technology

  2. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs{sup +} ions and their regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Yang [Kangwon University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs{sup +} ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs{sup +} ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs{sup +} ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs{sup +} ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe{sup 2+} ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K{sup +} ion.

  3. The properties of anion-exchange resines in mixtures of organic solvents and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveh, J.

    1978-02-01

    The behaviour of anion-exchange resins in water and mixtures of organic solvents and water was studied with special reference to the swelling of the polymer and to the density and enthalpy changes accompanying the swelling. A linear dependence was found between the swelling of dry resin and 1/X (X being the nominal cross-linking percent of the polymer). This dependence is interpreted theoretically. The nominal cross-linking percent,defined by the quantity ratio of the components, is corrected for real cross-linking percent. For the swelling of the resin in dilute aqueous alcohols, a preference for the alcohol was found which is enhanced as the molecular weight of the alcohol increases. Moreover, for certain mole fractions, the preference of the perchlorate form of the resin is greater than that of the chloride form. The temperature dependence of the swelling was measured and the invasion of an electrolyte (LiCl), dissolved in the aqueous-organic phase, into the resine phase was determined. Contrary to what usually happens in pure aqueous phase, where the electrolyte is rejected in accordance with the Donnan law, an almost total invasion of the electrolyte into the resin phase occurs. (author)

  4. Adsorption of Monobutyl Phthalate from Aqueous Phase onto Two Macroporous Anion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As new emerging pollutants, phthalic acid monoesters (PAMs pose potential ecological and human health risks. In the present study, adsorption performance of monobutyl phthalate (MBP onto two macroporous base anion-exchange resins (D-201 and D-301 was discussed. It was found that the adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Langmuir equation while the adsorption kinetics were well described by pseudo-first-order model. Analyses of sorption isotherms and thermodynamics proved that the adsorption mechanisms for DBP onto D-201 were ion exchange. However, the obtained enthalpy values indicate that the sorption process of MBP onto D-301 is physical adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacities and adsorption rates of DBP on two different resins increased with the increasing temperature of the solution. D-301 exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of MBP than D-201. These results proved that D-301, as an effective sorbent, can be used to remove phthalic acid monoesters from aqueous solution.

  5. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, Matthew D.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β - particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway 185 Re(n,γ) 186g Re produces low specific activity 186g Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity 186g Re from targets of enriched 186 W. To optimize the chemical 186g Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO 3 ) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO 4 2- strength of up to 1.9 mol kg -1 does not significantly compromise ReO 4 - retention on the resin. (orig.)

  6. Selection of magnetic anion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongjie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Jinnan; Shuang, Chengdong

    2012-01-01

    Four magnetic anion exchange resins (MAERs) were used as adsorbents to purify drinking water. The effect of water quality (pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc.) on the performance of MAER for the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was also investigated. Among the four studied MAERs, the strong base resin named NDMP-1 with high water content and enhanced exchange capacity exhibited the highest removal rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (48.9% removal rate) and UV-absorbing substances (82.4% removal rate) with a resin dose of 10 mL/L after 30 min of contact time. The MAERs could also effectively remove inorganic matter such as sulfate, nitrate and fluoride. Because of the higher specific UV absorbance (SUVA) value, the DOM in the raw water was found to be removed more effectively than that in the clarified water by NDMP resin. The temperature showed a weak influence on the removal of DOC from 6 to 26 degrees C, while a relatively strong one at 36 degrees C. The removal of DOM by NDMP was also affected to some extent by the pH value. Moreover, increasing the sulfate concentration in the raw water could decrease the removal rates of DOC and UV-absorbing substances.

  7. Separation of rare earth elements in monazite sand by anion exchange resin (pt. II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K.W.; Lee, J.H.; Yoon, S.H.; Ha, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    An anion exchange method for separating Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd element in monazaites and into enriched fractions has been developed. The complexed rare earth ions with EDTA at pH 8.4 passed through the resin column of the various size and eluted with 0.0301 M EDTA as eluent at flow rate of 1 ml/min and 2 ml/min. The result of separation is good in the high column length rather than the low on using the resin of the same amount and the volume of eluent required in eluting all the rare earths at 2 ml/min flow rare is larger than that at 1 ml/min and the result of separation obtained here is unsatisfactory. (author)

  8. The fluoride content of an anion exchange resin in the fluoride form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de; Zanten, B. van

    1977-01-01

    The fluoride content of an anion exchange resin in the F - -form depends on the material of the equipment used for the preparation. If a glass equipment is used too much fluorine is introduced. The experimental results are explained by taking into account a competition of F - and SiF 6 2- for the hydroxyl positions of the resin (OH - ). Because SiF 6 2- is bivalent and has a lower hydration energy than F - , the resin has a much larger affinity for this species than for F - . If a higher concentration of SiF 6 2- is generated by an intensive contact of the HF solution with glass, two OH-groups may be replaced by one SiF 6 2- . This results in a resin with 3 times as much fluorine as calculated from the chloride capacity. If the formation of SiF 6 2- is impossible as for example in teflon equipment, the same capacity is obtained for chloride and fluoride. (T.G.)

  9. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of triclosan using a new class of anion-exchange-resin supported palladium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Wen; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Dongye; Xu, Rui; Lin, Zhang

    2017-09-01

    We prepared a new class of anion-exchange-resin supported Pd catalysts for efficient hydrodechlorination of triclosan in water. The catalysts were prepared through an initial ion-exchange uptake of PdCl 4 2- and subsequent reduction of Pd(II) to Pd(0) nanoparticles at ambient temperature. Two standard strong-base anion exchange resins (IRA-900 and IRA-958) with different matrices (polystyrene and polyacrylic) were chosen as the supports. SEM and TEM images showed that Pd(0) nanoparticles were evenly attached on the resin surface with a mean size of 3-5 nm. The resin supported Pd catalysts (Pd@IRA-900 and Pd@IRA-958) were able to facilitate rapid and complete hydrodechlorination of triclosan. At a Pd loading of 2.0 wt.%, the observed pseudo first-order rate constant (k obs ) was 1.25 ± 0.06 and 1.6 ± 0.1 L/g/min for Pd@IRA-900 and Pd@IRA-958, respectively. The catalysts were more resistant to Cl - poisoning and natural organic matter fouling than other supported-Pd catalysts. The presence of 10 mM NaCl suppressed the k obs value by 31% and 23% for Pd@IRA-900 and Pd@IRA-958, whereas the presence of humic acid at 30 mg/L as TOC lowered the rates by 28% and 27%, respectively. The better performance of Pd@IRA-958 was attributed to the polymeric matrix properties (i.e., hydrophobicity, pore size, and surface area) as well as Pd particle size. GC/MS analyses indicated that very low concentrations of chlorinated intermediates were detected in the early stage of the hydrodechlorination process, with 2-phenoxyphenol being the main byproduct. The catalysts can be repeatedly used in multiple operations without significant bleeding. The catalysts eliminate the need for calcination in preparing conventional supported catalysts, and the resin supports conveniently facilitate control of Pd loading and material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gott, Matthew D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; and others

    2014-07-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β{sup -} particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186g}Re produces low specific activity {sup 186g}Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity {sup 186g}Re from targets of enriched {sup 186}W. To optimize the chemical {sup 186g}Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO{sub 3}) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} strength of up to 1.9 mol kg{sup -1} does not significantly compromise ReO{sub 4}{sup -} retention on the resin. (orig.)

  11. Radiotracer application for characterization of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2015-01-01

    Radio isotopic tracer technique as one of the versatile nondestructive technique is employed to evaluate the performance of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC. The evaluation was made on the basis of ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by using 131 I and 82 Br radioactive tracer isotopes. It was observed that for both the resins, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) were calculated to be lower for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions of 30.0 C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.377, 0.212, 0.080 and 15.5 respectively for Dowex SBR LC resin, which was higher than 0.215, 0.144, 0.031 and 14.1 respectively as that obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 84.75 % to 90.20 % for Dowex SBR LC resins which was higher than increases from 57.66 % to 62.38 % obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate superior performance of Dowex SBR LC over Tulsion A23 resins under identical experimental conditions.

  12. The influence of plutonium concentration and solution flow rate on the effective capacity of macroporous anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The principal aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. Previous studies with gel-type anion exchange resin have shown an inverse relationship between plutonium concentration in the feed solution and the optimum flow rate for this process. Because gel-type resin has been replaced with macroporous resin at Los Alamos, the relationship between plutonium concentration and solution flow rate was reexamined with the selected Lewatit MP-500-FK resin using solutions of plutonium in nitric acid and in nitric acid with high levels of added nitrate salts. Our results with this resin differ significantly from previous data obtained with gel-type resin. Flow-rate variation from 10 to 80 liters per hour had essentially no effect on the measured quantities of plutonium sorbed by the macroporous resin. However, the effect of plutonium concentration in the feed solutions was pronounced, as feed solutions that contained the highest concentrations of plutonium also produced the highest resin loadings. The most notable effect of high concentrations of dissolved nitrate salts in these solutions was an increased resin capacity for plutonium at low flow rates. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Radio-iodide uptake by modified poly (glycidyl methacrylate) as anion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Sameh H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center; Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Second Research Reactor; Elbarbary, Ahmed M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Research of Polymer Chemistry Dept.; Rashad, Ghada; Fasih, T.W. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center

    2017-03-01

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were prepared by radiation induced polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer. The factors affecting the degree of polymerization and yield (%) of PGMA such as type of solvent, monomer concentration, and irradiation dose were investigated. It was found that the PGMA yield (%) increases with increasing monomer concentration up to 50% and absorbed dose of 5 kGy. The resulting PGMA containing the epoxy group was chemically modified by hydroxyl amine to act as anion-exchange resin for uptake of {sup 131}I{sup -} ions. The modified PGMA (MPGMA) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). I-131 is produced from the fission of U-235 with low-enrichment uranium (LEU) targets in the Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). Separation of iodide from the radioactive solution by batchwise and column techniques was employed to determine the adsorption capacity of the MPGMA. Quality control of {sup 131}I product solution and radiochemical purity was examined by using the ascending paper chromatography method. The uptake behavior of MPGMA towards {sup 131}I{sup -} ions were studied at different experimental conditions and achieved by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The synthesized MPGMA showed good results as anion-exchange and an effective adsorbent for uptaking {sup 131}I{sup -} ions.

  14. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin; Fixation d'acetates metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etude Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc{sub 3}{sup -} complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les principes theoriques de la fixation des complexes anioniques des elements metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions, nous avons etudie tout particulierement le cas de l'acetate d'uranyle. Le trace des courbes de partage nous a permis de calculer les constantes d'echange dans la resine. L'etude des variations du logarithme du coefficient limite de partage avec le logarithme de la concentration des ions acetate libres nous a conduits aux calculs des constantes de dissociation des complexes en solution. La fixation d

  15. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  16. Fixation and separation of the elements thorium and uranium using anion exchange resins in nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korgaonkar, V.

    1967-10-01

    The exchange of thorium and uranium between a strong base anion resin and a mixed water + ethanol solvent containing nitrate ions is studied. It is assumed that in the resin the thorium and uranium are fixed in the form of the complexes Th(NO 3 ) 6 2- and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 2- in solution these elements are present in the form of complexes having the general formula: Th(NO 3 ) 6-n n-2 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4-n n-2 It has been possible to deduce a law for the changes in the partition functions of thorium and uranium as a function of the concentrations of the various species in solution and of the complexing ion NO 3 . From this has been deduced the optimum operational conditions for separating a mixture of these two elements. Finally, in these conditions, the influence of a few interfering ions has been studied: Ba, Bi, Ce, La, Mo, Pb, Zr. The method proposed can be used either as a preparation, or for the dosage of thorium by a quantitative separation. (author) [fr

  17. Separation of 99Tc from low level radioactive liquid waste using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonar, N.L.; Mittal, V.K.; Dhara, Amrita; Thakur, D.A.; Valsala, T.P.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2016-01-01

    Technetium-99 is one of the fission products with very high yield (∼6%) in thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. 99 Tc exists as pertechnate ( 99 TcO 4 ) ion in reprocessing streams. The high solubility in water and high mobility of pertechnate ions, coupled with very high half life of 99 Tc (t1/2 = 2 × 105 y, âmax = 290 KeV) makes it a potential candidate for long term hazard to the environment. Major radionuclides present in the intermediate level waste (ILW) generated at reprocessing plant is conventionally treated by ion exchange method for removal of 137 Cs. The Low level effluent waste (LLW) from the IX column contains 99 Tc as a major isotope. Though the concentration of 99 Tc in the waste is in ppm level, the presence of molar level of competing nitrates makes its separation very difficult. Many efforts have been reported on selective separation of 99 Tc from various waste streams. In this paper, separation of 99 Tc from ion exchange column effluent waste stream using selected commercially available anion exchange resins has been detailed

  18. Study of plutonium IV elution from macromolecular anion exchange resin by 0.5 M nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary studies indicated that macroreticular resins possess more or less the same capacities and absorption characteristics for thorium, uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solutions as the conventional resins. Detailed studies were, then, conducted. It was found that Pu(IV) can be loaded on the macroreticular anion exchange resin, Amberlyst A-26 from 7.2 M nitric acid in much the same way as Dowex 1x4. It was also observed that the elution of Pu(IV) from Amberlyst A-26 by 0.5 M nitric acid is much more rapid and quantitative than from Dowex 1x4. (author)

  19. Behavior of copper (II )and uranium ( VI) in precipitation chromatography in the system anion exchange resin - hexacyanoferrate (II )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneda, Jose Antonio

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is shown the efficiency of precipitation chromatography for separation and concentration of metallic elements by using a strong anionic-exchange resin saturated with hexacyanoferrate (II). Metallic cations, like Cu (II) and U (VI), are retained from highly diluted solutions and enriched into the resin, in the form of the correspondent insoluble hexacyanoferrate (II), precipitated inside the resin, which permitted the visual observation of a chromatographic zone on the top of the column. It will be discussed the conditions of sorption and elution of the cations uptake by the resin. This system permits the enrichment of the above mentioned cations onto the resin and offers the possibility of interesting separations as well. (author)

  20. Chloride Ion Adsorption Capacity of Anion Exchange Resin in Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsu Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of anion exchange resin (AER on the adsorption of chloride ions in cement mortar. The kinetic and equilibrium behaviors of AER were investigated in distilled water and Ca(OH2 saturated solutions, and then the adsorption of chloride ions by the AER in the mortar specimen was determined. The AER was used as a partial replacement for sand in the mortar specimen. The mortar specimen was coated with epoxy, except for an exposed surface, and then immersed in a NaCl solution for 140 days. The chloride content in the mortar specimen was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe microanalysis. The results showed that the AER could adsorb the chloride ions from the solution rapidly but had a relatively low performance when the pH of its surrounding environment increased. When the AER was mixed in the cement mortar, its chloride content was higher than that of the cement matrix around it, which confirms the chloride ion adsorption capacity of the AER.

  1. The determination of Plutonium content in urine using anion exchange resin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukh-Syaifudin

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of internal contamination by plutonium is usually determined through urine analysis. The technique involved the co-precipitation of plutonium with rhodizonic acid by the addition of sodium hydroxide, the re-extraction of Pu into concentrated HCl, dissolution of Pu in 8 N HCI + Cl 2 solution, and the purification of plutonium through AGI-X8 anion exchange resin in columns with a diameter of 4 and 7 mm. The eluent was evaporated and the residu was dissolved in 8 N HCI and then deposited directly onto a Lexan slide or electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc and the alpha emission of Pu was counted by using alpha spectrometry. The results showed that the recoveries of Pu-242 tracer by using column 7 mm and direct deposition and electrodeposition methods were 28.783% and 16.444%, respectively. The recoveries of Pu-242 by using column 4 mm and direct deposition and electrodeposition methods were 64.834% and 55.661%, respectively. From the percentage of recovery, it can be concluded that the direct deposition method was relatively better than the electrodeposition method. The recovery of Pu-242 by using column of 4 mm in diameter was higher than that of column 7 mm

  2. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  3. Dynamic separation of Szilard-Chalmers reaction products applied to the trioxalatochromium ion adsorbed on anionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of dynamic elution of recoiled 51 Cr +3 , formed by the Szilard-Chalmers reaction during the irradiation of trioxalatochromium ion adsorbed on anionic exchange resin is presented. The influence of some factors on the separation yield of chromium-51, such as: composition, concentration and flow rate of eluent, mesh size of the resin and irradiation time are studied. The results are compardd with those obtained by the static method, in which the recoiled atom is separated from the target after irradiation. Because of the high separation yield of chromium-51, the method of dynamic separation is proposed for routine production of this elemnt, with high specific activities. (author) [pt

  4. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, pH, temperature, and contact time were determined for NO3- removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudofirst-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at pH 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at pH 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater NO3- removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m2/g, and high adsorption capacity.

  5. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Khan, Z.; Ashgar, A.; Danish, M. I.; Qazi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, ph, temperature, and contact time were determined for removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudo first-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at ph 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at ph 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m 2 /g), and high adsorption capacity.

  6. Novel simple process for tocopherols selective recovery from vegetable oils by adsorption and desorption with an anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromori, Kousuke; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    A novel and simple low-temperature process was used to recover tocopherols from a deodorizer distillate, which is a by-product of edible oil refining. The process consists of three operations: the esterification of free fatty acids with a cation-exchange resin catalyst, the adsorption of tocopherols onto an anion-exchange resin, and tocopherol desorption from the resin. No degradation of tocopherols occurred during these processes. In the tocopherol-rich fraction, no impurities such as sterols or glycerides were present. These impurities are commonly found in the product of the conventional process. This novel process improves the overall recovery ratio and the mass fraction of the product (75.9% and 51.0wt%) compared with those in the conventional process (50% and 35wt%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of competitive uptake between Microcystin-LR and natural organic matter (NOM) fractions using strongly basic anion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Fuhar; Barbeau, Benoit; Mohseni, Madjid

    2018-03-29

    Microcystins are the most commonly occurring cyanotoxins, and have been extensively studied across the globe. In the present study, a strongly basic anion exchange resin was employed to investigate the removal of Microcystin-LR (MCLR), one of the most toxic microcystin variants. Factors influencing the uptake behavior included the MCLR and resin concentrations, resin dosage, and natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics, specifically, the charge density and molecular weight distribution of source water NOM. Equivalent background concentration (EBC) was employed to evaluate the competitive uptake between NOM and MCLR. The experimental data were compared with different mathematical and physical models and pore diffusion was determined as the rate-limiting step. The resin dose/solute concentration ratio played a key role in the MCLR uptake process and MCLR removal was attributed primarily to electrostatic attractions. Charge density and molecular weight distribution of the background NOM fractions played a major role in MCLR removal at lower resin dosages (200 mg/L ∼ 1 mL/L and below), where a competitive uptake was observed due to the limited exchange sites. Further, evidences of pore blockage and site reduction were also observed in the presence of humics and larger molecular weight organic fractions, where a four-fold reduction in the MCLR uptake was observed. Comparable results were obtained for laboratory studies on synthetic laboratory water and surface water under similar conditions. Given their excellent performance and low cost, anion exchange resins are expected to present promising potentials for applications involving the removal of removal of algal toxins and NOM from surface waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adsorption behaviour of scandium, yttrium, cerium and uranium from xylenol orange solutions onto anion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Suzuki, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1981-04-01

    The effects of concentration, pH and anions on the adsorption behaviour of xylenol orange (XO) on the strong anion exchangers, Amberlite IRA-400 and Hitachi 2632 are described. The adsorption behaviour of the XO complexes of Ce(III), Y(III), Sc(III) and U(VI) on the Amberlite IRA-400 resin as a function of XO concentration and pH is reported. A continuous-flow radiometric detector is used to investigate the separations of the Ce(III)-Sc(III), Y(III)-Sc(III), and Ce(III)-Y(III) pairs on the XO-form Hitachi 2632 resin column by pH control. Satisfactory separations of the Ce(III)-Sc(III) and Y(III)-Sc(III) pairs are achieved.

  9. Behavior of cationic, anionic and colloidal species of titanium, zirconium and thorium in presence of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, G. de; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of titanium, zirconium and thorium is aqueous and resin phases has been studied using strong cationic resin in the R-NH 4 form. Solutions of the above elements in perchloric, nitric, hydrochloric and suphuric media were used. Each set of experiments was made by separately varying one of the five parameters - type of anion present, acidity of solution, temperature of percolation, age of solution and concentration of the element. It was found that, depending on the particular balance of these parameters, the elements investigated may be found in acidic solutions either as cationic, anionic or colloidal species. It is emphasized that the colloidal species of titanium, zirconium or thorium are not retained by the ion exchangers, and from this property a method for the separation and purification of the above elements has been outlined [pt

  10. Raman spectroscopic study of the aging and nitration of actinide processing anion-exchange resins in concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscher, C. T.; Donohoe, R. J.; Mecklenburg, S. L.; Berg, J. M.; Tait, C. D.; Huchton, K. M.; Morris, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of two types of anion exchange resins, Dowex 11 and Reillex HPQ, from the action of concentrated nitric acid (4 to 12 M) and radiolysis [from depleted uranium as UO 2 2+ nitrate species and 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species] was followed as a function of time with Raman vibrational spectroscopy. Elevated temperatures (∼50 degree sign C) were used in the absence of actinide metal loading to simulate longer exposures of the resin to a HNO 3 process stream and waste storage conditions. In the absence of actinide loading, only minor changes in the Dowex resin at acid concentrations ≤10 M were observed, while at 12 M acid concentration, the emergence of a Raman peak at 1345 cm-1 indicates the addition of nitro functional groups to the resin. Similar studies with the Reillex resin show it to be more resistant to nitric acid attack at all acid concentrations. Incorporation of weakly radioactive depleted uranium as the UO 2 2+ nitrate species to the ion-exchange sites of Dowex 11 under differing nitric acid concentrations (6 to 12 M) at room temperature showed no Raman evidence of resin degradation or nitration, even after several hundred days of contact. In contrast, Raman spectra for Dowex 11 in the presence of 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species reveal numerous changes indicating resin alterations, including a new mode at 1345 cm-1 consistent with a Pu(IV)-nitrate catalyzed addition of nitro groups to the resin backbone. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  11. Ion-Isotopic Exchange Reaction Kinetics using Anion Exchange Resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Singare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the characterization of ion exchange resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A based on kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reactions for which the short lived radioactive isotopes 131I and 82Br were used as a tracers. The study was performed for different concentration of ionic solution varying from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L and temperature in the range of 30.0 °C to 45.0 °C. The results indicate that as compared to bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, iodide exchange reaction take place at the faster rate. For both the ion-isotopic exchange reactions, under identical experimental conditions, the values of specific reaction rate increases with increase in the ionic concentration and decreases with rise in temperature. It was observed that at 35.00C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1, amount of ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were 0.270, 0.342, 0.092 and 11.8 respectively for Dowex 550A LC resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.156, 0.241, 0.038 and 7.4 as that obtained for Indion-930A resins. From the results, it appears that Dowex 550A LC resins show superior performance over Indion-930A resins under identical experimental conditions.

  12. Formation of Aqueous MgUO2(CO3)32- Complex and Uranium Anion Exchange Mechanism onto an Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Wenming; Brooks, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    The formation of and stability constants for aqueous Mg-UO2-CO3 complexes were determined using an anion exchange method. Magnesium concentration was varied (up to 20 mmol/L) at constant ionic strength (I = 0.101, 0.202, 0.304, 0.406, and 0.509 mol/kg NaNO3), pH = 8.1, total [U(VI)] = 10.4 mol/L under equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. The results indicate that only the MgUO2(CO3)32- complex is formed. The cumulative formation constant extrapolated to zero ionic strength is similar regardless of the activity correction convention used: log = 25.8 b 0.5 using Davies equation and = 25.02 b 0.08 using specific ion interaction theory (SIT). Uranium sorption onto the exchange resin decreased in the presence of Mg putatively due to the formation of MgUO2(CO3)32- that had a lower affinity for the resin than UO2(CO3)34-. Uranium sorption results are consistent with an equivalent anion exchange reaction between NO3- and UO2(CO3)34- species to retain charge neutrality regardless of Mg concentration. No Mg was associated with the anion exchange resin indicating that the MgUO2(CO3)32- complex did not sorb

  13. Removing uranium from drinking water by metal hydroxides and anion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of bench-scale testing on uranium removal from a natural water that was chosen as a good representative of uranium-bearing waters indicated that conventional coagulant and lime softening treatment removes more than 85 percent of dissolved uranium (83 μg U/L) when an optimum pH and dosage were provided. A strong base anion-exchange column is a recommended option for the treatment of private well waters containing uranium at higher than desirable levels

  14. Effects of pH and Competing Anions on the Solution Speciation of Arsenic by Ion Exchange Resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Ryan, JAmes A.; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Randall, Paul M.; Richardson, Collin A.

    2003-03-26

    Anion-exchange resins (AER) are used to differentiate As(V) and As(III) by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. AERs allow rapid speciation of As in the field which precludes the effects of sample preservation on As speciation. Aqueous environmental samples contain anions that may interfere with the speciation of As. This study compares the speciation of As by two commercially available AERs. A silica-based AER was selected for further study. As(V) and As(III) were passed through the AER in the presence of NO3 -, SO4 2-, HPO4 2-, Cl- and HCO3 - at pH 4, 6 and 8. Recoveries of As species in mixed systems range between 90 to 100%. Breakthrough curves for As(V) are presented which allow calculation of loading rates. HPO4 2- has the greatest effect on the speciation of As by AER.

  15. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lokhande

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems was observed to increase with rise in temperature, indicating the endothermic exchange reactions having enthalpy values of 13.7, 38.0, 23.9, 22.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  16. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher

  17. Comparative study on bromide and iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Dole, M.H.; Singare, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reaction was studied using industrial grade ion exchange resin Duolite A-113. The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 26.0degC to 43.0degC and the concentration of external ionic solution varying from 0.005 M to 0.100 M. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the calculated values of specific reaction rate, initial rate of bromide ion exchange, and amount of bromide ions exchanged were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (author)

  18. Removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions by strongly basic polystyrene anion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

    2009-05-30

    The removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions onto the strongly basic polystyrene anion exchangers of type 1 (Amberlite IRA-900) and type 2 (Amberlite IRA-910) was investigated. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/dm(3) initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (q(e,cal)) and the rate constant of the first order adsorption (k(1)) were determined. The pseudo-second order kinetic constants (k(2)) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/q(t) vs. t, 1/q(t) vs. 1/t, 1/t vs. 1/q(t) and q(t)/t vs. q(t) for type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 of the pseudo-second order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, solution pH and temperature on tartrazine removal was also discussed. The FTIR spectra of pure anion exchangers and those loaded with tartrazine were recorded, too.

  19. Studies on the absorption of uranium and plutonium on macroporous anion-exchange resins from mixed solvent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, K.V.; Mapara, P.M.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    The ion-exchange studies on uranium and plutonium using macroporous anion-exchange resins from an aqueous-organic solvent mixed media were carried out to develop a method for their separation. Out of the several water miscible organic solvents tried, methanol and acetone were found to be best suited. Distribution data for U(VI) and Pu(IV) for three macroporous resins Tulsion A-27(MP) (strong base), Amberlyst A-26(MP) (strong base) and Amberlite XE-270(MP) (weak base) as a function of (i) nitric acid concentration (ii) organic solvent concentration were obtained. Based on the data separation factors for Pu/U were calculated. Column experiments using Tulsion A-27(MP) from a synthetic feed (HNO 3 - methanol and HNO 3 - acetone) containing Pu and U in different ratios were carried out. Plutonium was recovered from the bulk of the actual solution generated during the dissolution of plutonium bearing fuels. The method has the advantage of loading plutonium from as low as 1M nitric acid in presence of methanol or acetone and could be used satisfactorily for its recovery from solutions containing plutonium and uranium. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  20. NON DESTRUCTIVE APPLICATION OF RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUE FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL GRADE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS INDION GS-300 AND INDION-860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. SINGARE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, 131I and 82Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min−1, amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 °C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins.

  1. Non Destructive Application of Radioactive Tracer Technique for Characterization of Industrial Grade Anion Exchange Resins Indio GS-300 and Indion-860

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P. U.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, 131 I and 82 Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 .deg. C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins

  2. Distribution of 14 elements from two solutions simulating Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY (acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate) on four cation exchange resins and five anion exchange resins having different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated a series of cation exchange and anion exchange resins for their ability to remove hazardous components from radioactive high-level waste (HLW). The anion exchangers were Reillex TM HPQ, a polyvinyl pyridine resin, and four strong-base polystyrene resins having trimethyl, tri ethyl, tri propyl, and tributyl amine as their respective functional groups. The cation exchange resins included Amberlyst TM 15 and Amberlyst tM XN-1010 with sulfonic acid functionality, Duolite TM C-467 with phosphonic acid functionality, and poly functional Diphonix TM with di phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, and carboxylic acid functionalities. We measured the distributions of 14 elements on these resins from solutions simulating acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6) and acidified supernate (pH 3.5) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, USA. To these simulants, we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of the 252 element/resin/solution combinations, distribution coefficients (Kds) were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to obtain information about sorption kinetics from these complex media. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate which unwanted elements are most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of special interest. On the basis of these 756 measured Kd values, we conclude that some of the tested resins appear suitable for partitioning hazardous components from Hanford HLW. (author). 10 refs., 11 tabs

  3. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Determination of 129I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Banba, Shigeru; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Kabuto, Shoji; Isogai, Keisuke; Amano, Hikaru

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of 129I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of 129I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan.

  5. Determination of 129I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Banba, Shigeru; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Kabuto, Shoji; Isogai, Keisuke; Amano, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of 129 I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of 129 I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan

  6. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  7. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  8. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  9. Efficient in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid by Bacillus coagulans using weak basic anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitong; Qian, Zijun; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2018-02-01

    To get rid of the dependence on lactic acid neutralizer, a simple and economical approach for efficient in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid was established by Bacillus coagulans using weak basic anion-exchange resin. During ten tested resins, the 335 weak basic anion-exchange resins demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity and selectivity for lactic acid recovery. The adsorption study of the 335 resins for lactic acid confirmed that it is an efficient adsorbent under fermentation condition. Langmuir models gave a good fit to the equilibrium data at 50 °C and the maximum adsorption capacity for lactic acid by 335 resins was about 402 mg/g. Adsorption kinetic experiments showed that pseudo-second-order kinetics model gave a good fit to the adsorption rate. When it was used for in situ fermentation, the yield of L-lactic acid by B. coagulans CC17 was close to traditional fermentation and still maintained at about 82% even after reuse by ten times. These results indicated that in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid using the 335 resins were efficient and feasible. This process could greatly reduce the dosage of neutralizing agent and potentially be used in industry.

  10. Performance evaluation of anion exchange resins Purolite NRW-5050 and Duolite A-611 by application of radioisotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    Radioanalytical techniques using 131 I and 82 Br as tracer isotopes were applied to study the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions taking place between the external labeled ionic solution and the resin surface. The results indicate low values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction as compared to that obtained for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction performed at 35.0 C, 1 000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were 0.340, 0.394, 0.134 and 20.2 respectively for Purolite NRW-5050 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.216, 0.290, 0.063 and 18.2 as that obtained by using Duolite A-611. The results of present investigation indicate that during the two ion-isotopic exchange reactions, for both the resins, there exists a strong positive linear correlation between amount of ions exchanged and concentration of ionic solution; and strong negative correlation between amount of ions exchanged and temperature of exchanging medium. From the results it appears that as compared to Duolite A-611 resins, Purolite NRW-5050 resins shows superior performance under identical experimental conditions.

  11. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball James W

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan. Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

  12. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschel, G.K.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstorm, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Xu, Y.; Cohn, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad??? AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad??? AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Division of Geochemistry of the American Chemical Society 2003.

  13. Formation of carbon nanosheets via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization of macroporous anion-exchange resin for supercapacitors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Ma, Guofu; Sun, Kanjun; Mu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-12-10

    Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization route using macroporous anion-exchange resin (AER) as carbon precursor and ZnCl2 and FeCl3 as activating agent and catalyst, respectively. The iron catalyst in the skeleton of the AER may lead to carburization to form a sheetlike structure during the carbonization process. The obtained CNSs have a large number of mesopores, a maximum specific surface area of 1764.9 m(2) g(-1), and large pore volume of 1.38 cm(3) g(-1). As an electrode material for supercapacitors application, the CNSs electrode possesses a large specific capacitance of 283 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability (64% retention ratio even at 50 A g(-1)) in 6 mol L(-1) KOH. Furthermore, CNSs symmetric supercapacitor exhibits specific energies of 17.2 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 224 W kg(-1) operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and outstanding cyclability (retains about 96% initial capacitance after 5000 cycles).

  14. Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, omega-3 fatty acids: which drugs for which patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz

    2009-12-01

    Classes of lipid lowering drugs differ strongly with respect to the types of lipids or lipoproteins they predominantly affect. Statins inhibit the de-novo synthesis of cholesterol. Consequently, the liver produces less VLDL, and the serum concentration primarily of LDL cholesterol (but, to a lesser extent, also of triglycerides) is lowered. Further, statins somewhat increase HDL cholesterol. There is abundant evidence that statins lower the rate of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk reduction is the better, the lower the LDL cholesterol values achieved with statin therapy are. Some evidence is available that anion exchange resins which also decrease LDL cholesterol decrease vascular risk, too. This is not the case for the ezetimibe, which strongly lowers LDL cholesterol: its potential to decrease vascular risk remains to be proven. In contrast evidence for cardiovascular risk reduction through the mainly triglyceride lowering fibrates as well as for niacin is available. Niacin is the most potent HDL increasing drug currently available and besides increasing HDL cholesterol efficaciously lowers triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Large ongoing trials address the decisive question whether treatment with fibrates and niacin provides additional cardiovascular risk reduction when given in addition to statin treatment.

  15. Enhancement of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone fermentation activity in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system by mixing anion-exchange resin microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinobu; Michihata, Sayumi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Horibe, Hideo; Kono, Akihiko; Ohashi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The addition of anion-exchange resin microparticles into a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ballooned microsphere layer drastically enhanced the fermentative activity of Trichoderma atroviride AG2755-5NM398 in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system. The production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP), a fungicidal secondary metabolite, was 1.92-fold higher than the control (PAN alone). Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic investigation of the immobilization of chromotropic acid derivatives onto anion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption kinetics of pyrazol- (РАСА and imidazol-azo-chromo-tropic acid (IACA onto Dowex 1-X8 resin, as a function of the dye concentration and temperature were investigated at pH 4.5. The pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the obtained kinetic data. The adsorption rate constants were found to be in the order of magnitude 10-2 min-1 for all of the used kinetics models. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial dye concentration. The study of adsorption kinetics at different temperatures (in the range from 5 to 25 °C reveals an increase in the rate of adsorption and adsorption capacity with increasing temperature. The activation energy (in the case of РАСА 16.6 kJ/mol, and for IACA 11.3 kJ/mol was determined using the Arrhenius dependence. Electrostatic interactions between the dye and resin beads were shown to be the adsorption mechanism.

  17. Fixation and separation of the elements thorium and uranium using anion exchange resins in nitrate solution; Fixation et separation des elements thorium et uranium par les resines echangeuses d'anions en milieu nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korgaonkar, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-01

    The exchange of thorium and uranium between a strong base anion resin and a mixed water + ethanol solvent containing nitrate ions is studied. It is assumed that in the resin the thorium and uranium are fixed in the form of the complexes Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2-} and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 2-} in solution these elements are present in the form of complexes having the general formula: Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6-n}{sup n-2} and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4-n}{sup n-2} It has been possible to deduce a law for the changes in the partition functions of thorium and uranium as a function of the concentrations of the various species in solution and of the complexing ion NO{sub 3}. From this has been deduced the optimum operational conditions for separating a mixture of these two elements. Finally, in these conditions, the influence of a few interfering ions has been studied: Ba, Bi, Ce, La, Mo, Pb, Zr. The method proposed can be used either as a preparation, or for the dosage of thorium by a quantitative separation. (author) [French] On etudie l'echange du thorium et de l'uranium entre une resine anion base forte et un solvant mixte eau + ethanol charge en ions nitrates. On a suppose que, dans la resine, le thorium et l'uranium sont fixes sous forme de complexes Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2-} et UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 2-} en solution, ces elements sont engages dans des complexes de formule generale: Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 6-n}{sup n-2} and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4-n}{sup n-2} On a pu degager une loi de variation des coefficients de partage du thorium et de l'uranium en fonction des concentrations des diverses especes en solution et de l'anion complexant NO{sub 3}{sup -}. On en a deduit les conditions operatoires optimales necessaires pour separer les deux elements a partir de leurs melanges. Enfin, dans ces conditions, on a etudie l'influence de quelques elements genants: Ba, Bi, Ce, La, Mo, Pb, Zr. La methode preconisee peut etre

  18. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  19. Improved recovery of trace amounts of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) from large amounts of associated base metals using anion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, I. [Lab. of Chemistry, Tokyo Women' s Medical Univ. (Japan); Takeda, Y.; Ishida, K. [Lab. of Chemistry, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) were surveyed in column chromatographic systems consisting of one of the conventional anion-exchange resins of large ion-exchange capacity and dilute thiourea solutions. The noble metals were strongly adsorbed on the anion-exchange resins from dilute hydrochloric acid, while most base metals did not show any marked adsorbability. These facts made it possible to separate the noble metals from a large quantity of base metals such as Ag (I), Al (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Fe (III), Mn (II), Ni (II), Pb (II), and Zn (II). Although it used to be very difficult to desorb the noble metals from the resins used, the difficulty was easily overcome by use of dilute thiourea solutions as an eluant. In the present study, as little as 1.00 {mu}g of the respective noble metals was quantitatively separated and recovered from as much as ca. 10 mg of a number of metals on a small column by elution with a small amount of dilute thiourea solution. The present systems should be applicable to the separation, concentration and recovery of traces of the noble metals from a number of base metals coexisting in a more extended range of amounts and ratios. (orig.)

  20. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective separation of uranium using alizarin red S (ARS)-modified anion-exchange resin or by flotation of U-ARS chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    An alizarin red S (ARS)-modified anion exchange resin was prepared by a simple reaction of ARS with the anion exchange Doulite A101 and used for the efficient sorption of uranium from aqueous media. The effect of various parameters on the sorption of U(VI) (pH effect, sorption kinetics, resin capacity and breakthrough curves) was investigated. The modified resin sorbs U(VI) over a wide range of pH (2.8--5) with a maximum sorption capacity of 0.68 mmol/g at pH 3.2 to 4.0. Iron(III), Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Cu(II), and Th(IV) ions are also sorbed to different extents, but Be(II), Bi(III), Ca(II), Mg(II), Pb(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Al(III), Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) are not sorbed; thus, conditions for separating U(VI) from these metal ions have been identified. For eluting U(VI) from the resin, 0.2 mol/L HCl was used and the recovery recorded was as high as 99.9%. The use of ARS is extended to float uranium quantitatively and selectively from aqueous media at pH ∼ 4 by using oleic acid as a surfactant. The different parameters affecting the flotation process have also been investigated. Uranium(VI) has been effectively separated from natural water samples and certified uranium ores using both procedures

  2. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  3. Ion chromatography for the analysis of salt splitting capacities of cation and anion resin in premixed resin sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Kumar, Rakesh; Tripathy, M.K.; Dhole, K.; Sharma, R.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed bed ion exchange resin is commonly used in various plants including nuclear reactors for the purpose of fine polishing. The analysis of ion exchange capacities of cation and anion resin in resin mixture is therefore an agenda in the context of purchasing of premixed resin from the manufacturer. An ion chromatographic method for assaying ion exchange capacities of pure as well as mixed resin has been optimized. The proposed method in contrast to the conventional ASTM method has been found to be quite encouraging to consider it as an alternate method for the analysis of premixed resin. (author)

  4. Rejuvenation of the anion exchanger used for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Espenscheid, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to improving the performance of strong base anionic exchange resins used in uranium recovery that exhibit an undesirable decrease in loading capacity and in total exchange capacity. The invention comprises treating an anionic exchange resin to remove physically adsorbed and occluded fouling agents and to remove poisons which may be chemically bound to active ion groups on the resin. The process involves treating the resin, after the uranium ion exchange stage, with an alkaline carbonate solution, preferably treating the resin with an acid eluant first. The acid treatment dissolves insoluble fouling agents which are physically occluded or adsorbed by the resin and that the weak base treatment augments that result and probably removes poisons which are physically or chemically bound to the resin

  5. A simple and reliable anion-exchange resin method for sulfate extraction and purification suitable for multiple O- and S-isotope measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gendre, Erwann; Martin, Erwan; Villemant, Benoit; Cartigny, Pierre; Assayag, Nelly

    2017-01-15

    The O- and S-isotope compositions of sulfates can be used as key tracers of the fate and sink of sulfate in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial environments. However, their application remains limited in those geological systems where sulfate occurs in low concentrations. Here we present a simple and reliable method to extract, purify and concentrate sulfate from natural samples. The method allows us to take into account the separation of nitrate, which is known to be an issue in O-isotope analysis. The separation and concentration of sulfate from other anions in any aqueous solution are performed within a few hours via anion-exchange resin. The possible O- (δ 18 O and Δ 17 O) and S- (δ 34 S, Δ 33 S and Δ 36 S) isotope exchanges, fractionations and/or contaminations are for the first time monitored during the whole procedure using initial O- and S-mass-dependent and mass-independent sulfate solutions. After elution in HCl, pure sulfate is fully retrieved and precipitated into BaSO 4 , which is suitable for O- and S-isotopic measurements using established techniques. The analysis of retrieved barite presents no variation within 2σ uncertainties: ±0.5‰ and ±0.1‰ in O- (δ 18 O, Δ 17 O) and ±0.2‰, ±0.02‰ and ±0.09‰ in S- (δ 34 S, Δ 33 S and Δ 36 S) isotope ratios, respectively. This study shows that the resin method for sulfate extraction and purification, in addition to being cheap, simple and quick, is applicable for the measurements of all O- and S-isotopic ratios in sulfates (including the Δ 17 O, Δ 33 S and Δ 36 S values). Therefore, this method can be easily used for a high range of natural samples in which sulfate occurs in low concentration including aerosols, ice cores, sediments, volcanic deposits, (paleo)soils and rainwater, and thus it can be a key to our understanding of the sulfur cycle on Earth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  7. Impact of ozonation, anion exchange resin and UV/H2O2 pre-treatments to control fouling of ultrafiltration membrane for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Suja, Fatihah

    2017-06-01

    The effects of ozonation, anion exchange resin (AER) and UV/H 2 O 2 were investigated as a pre-treatment to control organic fouling (OF) of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of drinking water. It was found that high molecular weight (MW) organics such as protein and polysaccharide substances were majorly responsible for reversible fouling which contributed to 90% of total fouling. The decline rate increased with successive filtration cycles due to deposition of protein content over time. All pre-treatment could reduce the foulants of a Ultrafiltration membrane which contributed to the improvement in flux, and there was a greater improvement of flux by UV/H 2 O 2 (61%) than ozonation (43%) which in turn was greater than AER (23%) treatment. This was likely due to the effective removal/breakdown of high MW organic content. AER gave greater removal of biofouling potential components (such as biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents) compared to UV/H 2 O 2 and ozonation treatment. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of pre-treatments for reducing OF of ultrafiltration for the treatment of drinking water.

  8. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)

  9. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.).

  10. Study of the separation of metallic compounds by means of an anion exchanger resin and of complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis de Trobriand, Anne

    1971-01-01

    In order to define better separation conditions of molybdenum and aluminium from uranium alloys, this research thesis first reports the study of the fixation of each of these elements on a Dowex resin in a carbonate medium. Results obtained by other studies in a hydrogen carbonate medium has leaded to the use of mixing of CO 3 2- and HCO 3 - . In a last part, the author reports the analysis of two samples (uranium-molybdenum and uranium-aluminium): after an attack of these alloys in a melt carbonate medium, components are separated by elution in one of the studied media

  11. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  13. Method of pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Masami; Kawamura, Fumio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of noxious sulfur oxide and ammonia on the pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins discharged from nuclear power plants. Method: In the case where the pyrolysis is made for the cationic exchange resins having sulfonic acids as the ion-exchange group, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals capable of reacting with sulfonic acid groups to form solid sulfates are previously deposited by way of ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. In another case of the anionic exchange resins having quarternary ammonium groups as the ion-exchange groups, halogenic elements capable of reacting with the ammonium groups to form solid ammonium salts are deposited to the ion-exchange resins through ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. As a result, the amount of the binders used can be reduced, and this method can be used in a relatively simple processing facility. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Dessouki, A.; El-Assay, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of using various types of ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters, by analysis of the decrease in exchange capacity with absorbed dose. The resins studied are Sojuzchim-export-Moscow Cation Exchanger KU-2 and Anion Exchanger AV-17 and Merck Cation Exchanger I, and Merck Anion Exchangers II and III. Over the dose range 1 to 100 kGy, the systems show linearity between log absorbed dose and decrease in resin ion exchange capacity. The slope of this response function differs for the different resins, depending on their ionic form and degree of cross-linking. The radiation sensitivity increases in the order KU-2; Exchanger I; AV-17; Exchanger II; Exchanger III. Merck resins with moisture content of 21% showed considerably higher radiation sensitivity than those with 2 to 3% moisture content. The mechanism of radiation-induced denaturing of the ion exchanger resins involves cleavage and decomposition of functional substituents, with crosslinking playing a stabilizing role, with water and its radiolytic products serving to inhibit radical recombination and interfering with the protection cage effect of crosslinking. (author)

  15. Determination of nitrate by anion exchange with ultraviolet detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    A weak base anion exchange resin is synthesized by surface bonding 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to silica gel. This silylated silica gel is used to separate nitrate from interferences. The nitrate is then determined by measuring its absorbance at 220 nm. An interference study was performed and no anions commonly found in potable water interferes. A comparison of this method was made with the brucine method on real samples and satisfactory agreement was obtained between the two methods.

  16. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, B.; Tsuzuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) removal by an anion exchange resin and comparison with Dubinin-Astakhov isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Julien; Dodi, Alain

    2011-03-15

    The removal of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions from wastewaters by a macroporous ion-exchange resin is studied through the experimental results obtained for six ion exchange systems, OH(-)/Cl(-), OH(-)/NO3(-), OH(-)/SO4(2-), and HCO3(-)/Cl(-), Cl(-)/NO3(-), Cl(-)/SO4(2-). The results are described through thermodynamic modeling, considering either an ideal or a nonideal behavior of the ionic species in the liquid and solid phases. The nonidealities are determined by the Davies equation and Wilson equations in the liquid and solid phases, respectively. The results show that the resin has a strong affinity for all the target ions, and the order of affinity obtained is OH(-) < HCO3(-) < Cl(-) < NO3(-) < SO4(2-). The calculation of the changes in standard Gibbs free energies (ΔG(0)) shows that even though HCO3(-) has a lower affinity to the resin, it may affect the removal of Cl(-), and in the same way that Cl(-) may affect the removal of NO3(-) and SO4(2-). The application of nonidealities in the thermodynamic model leads to an improved fit of the model to the experimental data with average relative deviations below 1.5% except for the OH(-)/SO4(2-) system. On the other hand, considering ideal or nonideal behaviors has no significant impact on the determination of the selectivity coefficients. The thermodynamic modeling is also compared with the Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption isotherms obtained for the same ion exchange systems. Surprisingly, the latter performs significantly better than the ideal thermodynamic model and nearly as well as the nonideal thermodynamic model.

  18. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  19. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  20. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  1. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  2. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  3. Development of a new generation of ion exchange resin for nuclear and fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Shintaro; Tagawa, Hidemi; Yamashita, Futoshi; Okamoto, Ryutaro

    2008-01-01

    It is required to maintain water quality supplied to steam generator to the water designed based on its water chemistry in order to keep the sound operation of nuclear power plants or fossil power plants. Condensate Polishing Plant (CPP) is installed for removing ions in the water which uses a mixed bed of cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin. We have developed new generation of CPP resin. The product is a unique combination of super high exchange capacity cation exchange resin and high fouling resistant anion exchange resin. The CPP resin has been used in many power plants. Amberjet 1006 was developed as a cation exchange resin with high oxidative stability, high operational capacity and New IRA900CP was developed as an anion exchange resin with high fouling resistant to leachables released out of cation exchange resin by oxidative degradation over the service period. The novel CPP resin was first used in 2000 and has now been used in many power plants in Japan. The CPP resin has been giving excellent quality of water. (author)

  4. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium models for the study of CL-, NO3- and SO4(2-) removal from aqueous solutions by an anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Julien; Dodi, Alain

    2011-06-15

    The removal of chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions from aqueous solutions by a macroporous resin is studied through the ion exchange systems OH(-)/Cl(-), OH(-)/NO(3)(-), OH(-)/SO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-), Cl(-)/NO(3)(-), Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-). They are investigated by means of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) single-component adsorption isotherms. The sorption parameters and the fitting of the models are determined by nonlinear regression and discussed. The Langmuir model provides a fair estimation of the sorption capacity whatever the system under study, on the contrary to Freundlich and D-R models. The adsorption energies deduced from Dubinin and Langmuir isotherms are in good agreement, and the surface parameter of the D-A isotherm appears consistent. All models agree on the order of affinity OH(-)exchange processes under study among other adsorption isotherms. The nonlinear regression results are also compared with linear regressions. While the parameter values are not affected, the evaluation of the best fitting model is biased by linearization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of model systems in anionic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, R.; Boeyens, J.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the preparation and characterization of anionic sulphate and chloride complexes of UO 2+ 2 and iron(III), benzyl-trimethylammonium cation being used as a model substance for the simulation of positive sites in an anionic-exchange resin. The structure of (BTMA) 4 [UO 2 CL 3 -O 2 -CL 3 UO 2 ], a binuclear uranyl-peroxocomplex that has not been reported in the literature, was elucidated by single-crystal x-ray examination, and is described and discussed [af

  6. Method for immobilizing invertase by adsorption on Dowex® anionic exchange resin Método para a imobilização da invertase por adsorção em resinas trocadoras de ânions (DOWEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Junko Tomotani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes a method for adsorbing the invertase (EC.3.2.1.26 on DOWEX® anion exchange resin. Among the types of DOWEX® resins studied (1x8:50-400; 1x4:50-400 and 1x2:100-400, 1X4-200 was the most suitable, because it adsorbed the invertase molecules completely and the complex 1X4-200/invertase retained 100% of the catalytic activity. Moreover, no leakage of enzyme from the support was noted at the end of the sucrose hydrolysis.O presente trabalho descreve um método de adsorção da invertase (EC. 3.2.1.26 na resina de troca aniônica do tipo Dowex®. Entre os tipos de resinas Dowex® estudados (1x8:50-400; 1x4:50-400 e 1x2:100-400, 1x4-200 foi a mais apropriada devido à completa adsorção das moléculas de invertase e a sua retenção de atividade catalítica de 100% do complexo 1x4-200/invertase. Salienta-se ainda a ausência do desprendimento da enzima do suporte após o término da hidrólise da sacarose.

  7. System for processing ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaka, Noriyuki; Tanno, Kazuo; Shoji, Saburo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the quantity of radioactive waste to be solidified by recovering and repeatedly using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide which constitute the ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid. Structure: Cation exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to an anion exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sulfuric acid through separation from impurity cations, while at the same time anion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to a cation exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sodium hydroxide through separation from impurity anions. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide thus recovered are condensed by a thermal condenser and then, after density adjustment, repeatedly used for the regeneration of the ion exchange resin. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. The recovery of gold from the aqua regia leachate of electronic parts using a core–shell type anion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cyganowski

    2017-09-01

    The investigated resins revealed great selectivity towards gold. Despite the fact that the obtained solutions contained only 1.5% (CPU or 0.1% (PIN of Au, its removal reached 86% and the logarithms of partition coefficients indicate that affinity of the applied resins to gold is almost ten times greater than the very competitive nickel present in the obtained solutions. Finally, the gold-containing core–shell polymers were effectively eluted, recovering 100% of the taken from the solutions gold.

  9. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  10. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  11. Selection of anion exchangers for detoxification of dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Zagorodni, Andrei; Jönsson, Leif J

    2004-01-01

    Six anion-exchange resins with different properties were compared with respect to detoxification of a dilute-acid hydrolysate of spruce prior to ethanolic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The six resins encompassed strong and weak functional groups as well as styrene-, phenol-, and acrylic-based matrices. In an analytical experimental series, fractions from columns packed with the different resins were analyzed regarding pH, glucose, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, phenolic compounds, levulinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and sulfate. An initial adsorption of glucose occurred in the strong alkaline environment and led to glucose accumulation at a later stage. Acetic and levulinic acid passed through the column before formic acid, whereas sulfate had the strongest affinity. In a preparative experimental series, one fraction from each of six columns packed with the different resins was collected for assay of the fermentability and analysis of glucose, mannose, and fermentation inhibitors. The fractions collected from strong anion-exchange resins with styrene-based matrices displayed the best fermentability: a sevenfold enhancement of ethanol productivity compared with untreated hydrolysate. Fractions from a strong anion exchanger with acrylic-based matrix and a weak exchanger with phenol-based resin displayed an intermediate improvement in fermentability, a four- to fivefold increase in ethanol productivity. The fractions from two weak exchangers with styrene- and acrylic-based matrices displayed a twofold increase in ethanol productivity. Phenolic compounds were more efficiently removed by resins with styrene- and phenol-based matrices than by resins with acrylic-based matrices.

  12. Development of a High-Throughput Ion-Exchange Resin Characterization Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Dermody, Daniel; Harris, Keith; Boomgaard, Thomas; Sweeney, Jeff; Gisch, Daryl; Goltz, Bob

    2017-06-12

    A novel high-throughout (HTR) ion-exchange (IEX) resin workflow has been developed for characterizing ion exchange equilibrium of commercial and experimental IEX resins against a range of different applications where water environment differs from site to site. Because of its much higher throughput, design of experiment (DOE) methodology can be easily applied for studying the effects of multiple factors on resin performance. Two case studies will be presented to illustrate the efficacy of the combined HTR workflow and DOE method. In case study one, a series of anion exchange resins have been screened for selective removal of NO 3 - and NO 2 - in water environments consisting of multiple other anions, varied pH, and ionic strength. The response surface model (RSM) is developed to statistically correlate the resin performance with the water composition and predict the best resin candidate. In case study two, the same HTR workflow and DOE method have been applied for screening different cation exchange resins in terms of the selective removal of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ from high total dissolved salt (TDS) water. A master DOE model including all of the cation exchange resins is created to predict divalent cation removal by different IEX resins under specific conditions, from which the best resin candidates can be identified. The successful adoption of HTR workflow and DOE method for studying the ion exchange of IEX resins can significantly reduce the resources and time to address industry and application needs.

  13. Device for processing regenerative wastes of ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Osamu; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Sankichi

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the operation and maintenance of a processing device by dividing radioactive wastes produced in the regenerative process of ion exchange resin into a regenerated usable recovery liquid and wastes. Constitution: Sulfuric acid is recovered by a diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing sulfuric acid that are generated in the regenerative process of cation-exchange resin and also caustic soda is recovered by the diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing caustic soda that are generated in the regenerative process of anion-exchange resin. The sulfuric acid and caustic soda thus recovered are used for the regeneration of ion-exchange resin. A concentrator is provided for concentrating the sulfuric acid and caustic soda water solution to concentration suitable for the regeneration of these ion-exchange resins. Also provided is a recovery device for recovering water generated from the concentrator. This device is of so simple a constitution that its operation and maintenance can be performed very easily, thereby greatly reducing the quantity of waste liquid required to be stored in drums. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. The efficiency of Amberjet 4200 resin in removing nitrate in the presence of competitive anions from Shiraz drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M; Haghighi, A Binaee; Zamanian, Z

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research is to study the feasibility of removing nitrates from water by means of anion exchange. In the purposed work an attempt was made to utilize strong basic anion resin to remove nitrate in the presence of competitive anion. Amberjet Cl- 4200 ion exchange resin was used in a batch scale. The fixation rate of nitrate without the presences of any competitive anion was almost constant (94.60-96.43) when the nitrate concentrations are in the range of 100-150 mg L(-1). The fixation rate of nitrate in the presences of two competitive anions (sulphate and chloride) was reduced to 82% when the concentration of nitrate was 100 mg L(-1).

  15. Ion exchange resin fouling of molybdenum in recovery uranium processess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Zhao Guirong

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between anion exchange resin fouling and molybdic acid polymerization was studied. By using potentiometer titration and laser-Raman spectroscopy the relationship of molybdic acid polymerization and the pH value of solution or the molybdenum concentration was determined. It was shown that as the concentration of initial molybdenum in solution decreases from 0.2 mol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, the pH value of starting polymerization decreased from 6.5 to 4.5. The experimental results show that the fouling of 201 x 7 resin in the acidic solution is mainly caused by the adsorbing of Mo 3 O 26 4- ion and occupying the exchange radical site of the resin. Under the leaching conditions the molybdenum and phosphate existing in the leaching liquor can form 12-molybdo-phosphate ion. It also leads to resin fouling. The molybdenum on the fouled resin can synergically be desorbed by mixed desorbents containing ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate. The desorbed resin can be used for uranium adsorption and the desorbed molybdenum can be recovered by ion exchange method

  16. Ontario Hydro Research Division's program for treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.; Dodd, D.J.R.

    1981-09-01

    A brief review of the evolution of work programmes for chemical treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in Ontario Hydro's Research Division is presented. Attention has been focussed on pre-treatment processes for the treatment of the spent resins prior to encapsulation of the products in solid matrices. Spent Resin Regeneration and Acid Stripping processes were considered in some detail. Particular attention was paid to carbon-14 on spent resins, its determination in and removal from the spent resins (with the acid stripping technique). The use of separate cation and anion resin beds instead of mixed bed resins was examined with a view to reducing the volume of resin usage and consequently the volume of waste radioactive ion-exchange resin generated. (author)

  17. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  18. Test procedure for anion exchange testing with Argonne 10-L solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four anion exchange resins will be tested to confirm that they will sorb and release plutonium from/to the appropriate solutions in the presence of other cations. Certain cations need to be removed from the test solutions to minimize adverse behavior in other processing equipment. The ion exchange resins will be tested using old laboratory solutions from Argonne National Laboratory; results will be compared to results from other similar processes for application to all plutonium solutions stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  19. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  20. Separation of metal ions by anion exchange in mixtures of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, J.P.

    1978-12-01

    Distribution coefficients were determined for the adsorption of more than 40 elements on anion-exchange resins from mixtures of HCl (0.1 to 12M) and HF (0.1-8M). Two resins, Dowex 1 x 10, 200 to 400 mesh and Dowex 1 x 4, 100 to 200 mesh, were used. Distribution coefficients were also determined for the adsorption of many elements on both resins from 0.1 to 12M HCl and 0.1 to 12M HF. Anion exchange in the presence of HF was found useful for separating impurities from various materials for their subsequent determination, and specific procedures used in our spectrochemical laboratory for this purpose are outlined. The results of a literature search on the use of anion exchange in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride-containing media are presented in an extensive bibliography. 404 references, 9 tables

  1. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  2. Anion exchange of 58 elements in hydrobromic acid and in hydriodic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Alarid, J.E.; Hammond, C.F.; McLeod, M.J.; Roensch, F.R.; Rein, J.E.

    1978-02-01

    Anion exchange distributions of 58 elements have been measured from 0.1-8.7M HBr and from 0.1-7.4M HI onto three strong-base resins, 8 and 4% cross-linked and macroporous. Data were obtained by 16- to 18-h dynamic batch contacts. Anion exchange in these media is compared to that in HCl. The effect of resin cross-linkage is considerably greater in HI media than in HBr and HCl media. Examples are presented of potentially useful separations using HBr and HI media alone and in combination with HCl

  3. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  4. On the swelling of ion exchange resins used in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Hoegfeldt, E.; Muhammed, M.

    1988-03-01

    Ion exchange resins are used in nuclear power plants for purification and decontamination of water. In some of the cases, the spent resins are solidified by drying at elevated temperatures and then molded together with bitumen before final disposal. The objective of the present work is to study the swelling behavior of such resins and describe it with a model that permits calculation of the water uptake into the bituminized resins and the external swelling pressure that might develop by the swelling resins under repository conditions. The experimental part of the study comprises the swelling of ion exchange resins upon their exposure to water vapour before and after thermal treatment under conditions simulating those used in the various solidification processes. Seven different resins were studied in different chemical forms; H + , N + and OH - , So 4 2- for the cation an anion exchangers respectively. For each resin, water uptake, density and volume were measured at different water activities at 25 degrees C. The swelling pressure for all resins studied was calculated. A slight increase in swelling pressure after thermal treatment could be observed, especially for anion exchangers. The apparent molar volume of water in the resin phase has been determined and the swelling free energies of swelling has been calculated from experimental data at 25 degrees C and estimated at 0 degrees C. (authors)

  5. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  6. Water permeation through anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Wright, Andrew; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

  7. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ung Kyung

    1997-01-01

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  8. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ung Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Insititute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Formulation study on immobilization of spent ion exchange resins in polymer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lili; Lin Meiqiong; Bao Liangjin; Fan Xianhua

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a formulation of cement-solidified spent radioactive ion exchange resin form. The solidified form consists of a sort of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion, and spent ion exchange resins. The composite cement is made up of quick-setting sulphoaluminate cement, silica powder, zeolite, and fly ash in the proportion 1:0.05:0.10:0.05. Sixteen combinations of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion and mixed anion-cation exchange resins are selected according to a three-factors-four-levels normal design table with the compression strength as the evaluation criterion. The resulted formulation is as follows: the mass ratio of polymer emulsion to composite cement is 0.55:1, the loading of mixed anion-cation exchange resins is 0.3, and the anionic-to-cationic exchange resins ratio is 2:1. The polymer cement solidified forms were tested after 28 d curing for Cs + and Sr 2+ leaching rates, pH and conductivity of the leaching water, and radiation-resistant property in addition to their compressive strength. The measurement results indicate that the performance of thus prepared solidified forms can meet the requirements of the National Standard GB14569.1-93 for near earth's surface disposal of low radioactive waste. (authors)

  10. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  11. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  12. Supercritical water oxidation of ion exchange resins: Degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DTCD SPDE LFSM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Guichardon, P. [Ecole Cent Marseille, F-13451 Marseille 20 (France); Boutin, O. [Aix Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS 6181, F-13545 Aix En Provence 4 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Spent ion exchange resins are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins and contain radioactivity. IER degradation experiments were carried out in a continuous supercritical water reactor. Total organic carbon degradation rates in the range of 95-98% were obtained depending on operating conditions. GC-MS chromatography analyses were carried out to determine intermediate products formed during the reaction. Around 50 species were identified for cationic and anionic resins. Degradation of poly-styrenic structure leads to the formation of low molecular weight compounds. Benzoic acid, phenol and acetic acid are the main compounds. However, other products are detected in appreciable yields such as phenolic species or heterocycles, for anionic IERs degradation. Intermediates produced by intramolecular rearrangements are also obtained. A radical degradation mechanism is proposed for each resin. In this overall mechanism, several hypotheses are foreseen, according to HOO center dot radical attack sites. (authors)

  13. Solidification of ion-exchange resins by hydrothermal hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.

    1993-01-01

    The solidification reaction which easily occurs while continuously keeping the mixture of cation and anion exchange resins compressed under hydrothermal conditions has been demonstrated. Dehydration was considered to occur between sulphonic acid (-SO 3 H) from the cation exchange resin and quaternary ammonium [-CH 2 -N(CH 3 ) 3 OH] from anion-exchange resin-on terminal groups. The cation-and anion-exchange resins were mixed in a 1:1 weight ratio, put in a hot-pressing autoclave and compressed between pistons from the top and bottom at 600 kg cm -2 pressure. The material was continuously compressed during hydrothermal treatment at 200 kg cm -2 by a hydraulic jack and heated to a desired temperature with an induction heater. This system could be used for rapid temperature increasing up to 30 o c min -1 . The pressure and temperature were kept constant for 10 min. The autoclave was cooled to room temperature after the hydrothermal treatment. After the specimen was taken out, the ion-exchange radical reactions were estimated and the product structures were examined. The cation- and anion-exchange resin mixture was solidified. The resultant solidified body at a 300 o C reaction condition for 10 min had a 1.0 g cm -3 density and 700 kg cm -2 compressive strength, and the weight loss did not change in distilled water for 2 weeks. On the other hand, a solidification reaction did not occur at below 250 o C when only the cation or anion was solidified, but they were decomposed. These results suggest that a mixture of cation- and anion-exchange resins causes a solidification reaction under hydrothermal hot-pressing conditions at 300 o C. (author)

  14. Radiation effects on ion-exchange resins. Part II. Gamma irradiation of Dowex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Horrell, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were determined of gamma radiation on the anion exchange resin, Dowex 1. Part I on Dowex 50W was reported May 10, 1974. The exchange capacity (both strong and weak base), moisture content, radiolysis products, and physical deterioration of the resin were analyzed after irradiation with doses up to 6.9 x 10 8 rads. The resin capacity decreased approximately 50 percent after a radiation dose of 4 x 10 8 rads. Resin irradiated, when air dried in the nitrate form, showed more stability than resin irradiated in 7N nitric acid (HNO 3 ), which in turn showed more stability than resin irradiated when air dried in the chloride form. Radiation decreased the strong base capacity to a greater extent than the total capacity. The result indicates that some of the quarternary ammonium groups were transformed to secondary and tertiary amine groups that have weak base ion-exchange capability. (U.S.)

  15. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  16. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  17. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  18. Anion-exchange Studies of Radioactive Trace Elements in Sulphuric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1963-01-15

    As part of a chemical group separation procedure used as a pretreatment in gamma spectrometric analysis, a study has been made of the adsorption from sulphuric acid solutions on strongly basic anion exchange resins, prepared in the hydroxide and the sulphate forms, of trace activities of Na, P, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ag, Cd, In, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pa and Np. Besides adsorbing some of the trace elements in the solution, the anion exchange resin in the hydroxide form will neutralize the bulk of the sulphuric acid. This makes possible the subsequent sequential separation of chloride complexes on short anion-exchange columns by a stepwise increasing of the HCl concentration of the solution. On the basis of the results obtained in the present and earlier experiments, a new improved chemical group-separation procedure for mixtures of radioactive trace elements is outlined.

  19. Analysis of Ion-Exchange Resin Capability of the RSG-GAS Demineralized Water System (GCA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diyah Erlina Lestari; Setyo Budi Utomo; Harsono

    2012-01-01

    The Demineralized water system (GCA01) is a system which is function to process raw water to be demineralized water using ion exchange resin unit consisting of a column of cation exchange resins, anion exchange resin column and the column resin mix bed. After certain time the ion exchange resins to be saturated so that is needed regeneration. The RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) not operated continuously and indication of when does an ion exchange resin regeneration on The RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) is the water conductivity from anion exchange resin column output indicates ≥ 5μS/cm. Analysis of capability of the ion exchange resin demineralized water system (GCA01) line I has been performed. The analysis was done by comparing the time required in the system operating cycle of regeneration to the next regeneration during the period 2011 and 2012. From the results of the analysis showed the cycle regeneration time is varies. This shows that ion exchange resin capability of the RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) is varies depending on the raw water quality and success of the regeneration ion exchange resin. (author)

  20. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  1. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity

  2. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  3. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  4. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  5. Method of processing spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhide; Tamada, Shin; Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of radioactive spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants, etc and process them into stable inorganic compounds through heat decomposition. Method: Spent ion exchange resins are heat-decomposed in an inert atmosphere to selectively decompose only ion exchange groups in the preceeding step while high molecular skeltons are completely heat-decomposed in an oxidizing atmosphere in the succeeding step. In this way, gaseous sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are generated in the preceeding step, while gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen requiring no discharge gas procession are generated in the succeeding step. Accordingly, the amount of discharged gases requiring procession can significantly be reduced, as well as the residues can be converted into stable inorganic compounds. Further, if transition metals are ionically adsorbed as the catalyst to the ion exchange resins, the ion exchange groups are decomposed at 130 - 300 0 C, while the high molecular skeltons are thermally decomposed at 240 - 300 0 C. Thus, the temperature for the heat decomposition can be lowered to prevent the degradation of the reactor materials. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  7. Determination of traces of silver in waters by anion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Fishman, M. J.; Ball, J.W.

    1969-01-01

    A method has been developed for the accurate determination of 0.1-1 ??g of silver per liter of water. The method permits stabilization of silver in water without loss to container walls. Optimum conditions have been established for the complete recovery of silver from water with an anion-exchange column, for quantitative elution of silver from the resin, and for measurement of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extraction of the chelate with MIBK. Silver in the 1-10 ??g 1 range can be determined by extraction without pre-concentration on an ion-exchange resin. ?? 1969.

  8. Sulfur isotope separation by anion exchange chromatography: 34 S isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar O.; Carneiro Junior, Francisco

    1995-01-01

    The 34 S isotope separation was carried out by isotopic exchange reactions between sulphurous acid in solution and bisulphite anions adsorbed on an ammonium quaternary (Dowex 1 x 8 and Dowex 2 x 8, 100-200 mesh) anion exchange resin packed in columns. Each resin column had 130 cm length and 2.2 cm diameter. The columns were connected in series during displacement of bisulphite bands. For the experiments, a band of bisulphite was fixed to the anion resin, initially in the hydroxyl ion form, and subsequently eluted with 0.2 0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 mol L -1 HCL solution. The hydrochloric acid solution was kept under a nitrogen atmosphere at 245 KPa of pressure, in order to prevent the evolution of gases and also the oxidation of the bisulphite. The experiments showed that the best results were obtained with the elution of bisulphite with 0.2 mol.L -1 HCL, with the Dowex 1 x 8 resin. Enrichments in 34 S of 17.33 atoms% were obtained using Dowex 1 x 8 resin, 0.2 mol.L -1 HCL solution and band displacement of 50 m. Replacing the depleted portion of the band with natural bisulphite, for each 10 m of band displacement, produced 6.79 mmol of sulphurous acid enriched with approximately 17% of 34 S, after 14 m of band dislocation. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  10. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  12. Method for removing cesium from aqueous liquid, method for purifying the reactor coolant in boiling water and pressurized water reactors and a mixed ion exchanged resin bed, useful in said purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, J.N.A.; Liebmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for removing cesium from an aqueous liquid, and to a resin bed containing a mixture of an anion exchange resin and cation exchange resin useful in said purification. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is a method for purifying the reactor coolant of a presurized water or boiling water reactor. Said method, which is particularly advantageously employed in purifying the reactor coolant in the primary circuit of a pressurized reactor, comprises contacting at least a portion of the reactor coolant with a strong base anion exchange resin and the strong acid cation exchange resin derived from a highly cross-linked, macroporous copolymer of a monovinylidene aromatic and a cross-linking monomer copolymerizable therewith. Although the reactor coolant can sequentially be contacted with one resin type and thereafter with the second resin type, the contact is preferably conducted using a resin bed comprising a mixture of the cation and anion exchange resins. 1 fig., refs

  13. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: Column sorption-elution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koese, T. Ennil; Oztuerk, Nese

    2008-01-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well

  14. Wet oxidative destruction of spent ion-exchange resins using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Spent organic ion exchange resins are generated in large quantities during the operation of nuclear facilities. Wet oxidation as a mode of treatment of these gel-type ion exchange resins was investigated using H 2 O 2 as oxidant in the presence of CuSO 4 as catalyst. Experiments using commercial samples were conducted at 95-100 deg C under reflux conditions at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the reaction of cation resin with H 2 O 2 was instantaneous whereas with anion resin, there was a lag time. For efficient utilization of the oxidant, low rate of addition of H 2 O 2 , 0.01M concentration of CuSO 4 and neutral pH in mixed resin reactions, were found to be useful. Foaming was noted during reactions involving anion resins. This could be controlled by silicone-based agents. The residual solution left after resin oxidation is aqueous in nature and is expected to contain all the radioactivity originally present in the resin. Preliminary experiments showed that it could be efficiently trapped using available inorganic sorbents. Wet oxidation system offers a simple method of converting organic waste into environmentally acceptable inorganic products. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Cement matrix for immobilisation of spent anionic resins in borate form arising from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    In water cooled reactors boron is added as boric acid to control nuclear reactor power levels. The boric acid concentration in coolant/moderator water, is controlled by using strongly basic anionic resins in borate (H 2 BO 3 - ) form. The spent anionic resins in borate form contain 131 Iodine, 99 Technitium and 137 Cesium activities. Direct immobilisation of anionic resins in borate form in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Slag Cement was investigated using vermiculite, bentonite, calcium oxide and silica as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cesium leached and 137 Cesium leach rate for slag cement matrix were 0.029 and 0.00064 g.cm 2 .d -1 respectively for 95 days of leaching. The volume reduction factor achieved by direct immobilisation of anionic resins in borate form was 0.48. Immobilisation of pyrolysis residues from these resins in OPC matrix was also studied. Leaching of matrix blocks was carried out for 180 days in DM water to optimise the matrix formulation. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cesium leached and 137 Cesium leach rate were 0.076 and 0.00054 respectively for 180 days leaching. The volume reduction factor achieved by immobilisation of pyrolysis residues was 2.4. OPC is non compatible to cationic resins loaded with alkali in absence of specific admixtures. Hence cationic resins loaded with alkali and anionic resins in borate form can not be immobilised together. (author)

  16. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu; Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.)

  17. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro

    1995-11-07

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.).

  18. Determination of Pb-210 and actinides by extraction chromatography and anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, St.N.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to the determination of Pb-210 and actinides (Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, U-235, U-238, Th-232) by means of highly selective chromatographic resins and anion exchangers. The special interest was paid to the analysis of large quantities of samples with high concentration of competitive ions like ocean sediments, bone ash and others.The commercially available TRU-Spec chromatographic resins was used for separation of actinides from the matrix. Then U, Th, Am, and Pu were separated from other using anion exchange chromatography with AG-1X4 anionite in Cl - form, electro-deposed and α-counted.Pb-21- and Bi-210 were determined by liquid scintillation counting. The developed procedure is rather express, effective and could be adopted for the determination of radionuclides like Ba-133, Ra, Np-239

  19. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compression strength of the final solid products shows that with the increasing water content the compression strength of the final products decreases sharply. Hardness of the final products follows nearly the same trend of compression strength. Increasing gamma irradiation doses, up to 7.77x10 7 rad, PMMA shows increase in compression strength and hardness for small doses and then decreases with increasing irradiation dose due to the increase in polymerization process and the degradation of the incorporation medium

  20. Anion exchange purification of plutonium at lower acidities (Preprint No. CT-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Ravi, S.; Achuthan, P.V.; Das, S.K.; Madhusudan, A.; Janardhanan, C.; Rao, K.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    During concentration and purification of plutonium by anion exchange, 7.2 M HNO 3 is used as loading acidity for absorbing Pu(IV). In this study, the feasibility of utilizing lower acidities like 5.2 and 6.2 M has been investigated. The results indicate that lower acidities can be used in this step if reduced resin capacities are acceptable. (author)

  1. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs{sup +} Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs{sup +} ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin.

  2. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-09-15

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  4. Update on Anion Resin Kinetic Impairment in PWR Polishers Using ETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, William

    2012-09-01

    The paper is an update on the investigation of experiences with impaired anion kinetics in PWRs using ETA. 17 years worth of circumstantial evidence has led to the development of a new resin to mitigate the anion kinetic impairment issue with PWRs using ETA. A test bed was installed at Diablo Canyon Unit 1. After 1.5 years of service, the SO 4 MTC of the anion resin in the test bed is still >2.0 x10 -4 m/s (like new resin). Other resin beds operating under parallel conditions in the same unit have experienced kinetic impairment which follows the classic pattern seen in plants where ETA is used. Although the exact pathway of the ETA fouling mechanism is still not proven, the circumstantial evidence collected over many years, and a new theory on the fouling mechanism will also be presented and discussed. (authors)

  5. Americium Separations from High-Salt Solutions Using Anion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues due to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the β-decay of 241 Pu. We investigated parameters that affect the sorption of Am onto anion-exchange resins from concentrated effluents derived from nitric acid processing of plutonium residues. These postevaporator wastes are nearly saturated solutions of acidic nitrate salts, and americium removal is complicated by physical factors, such as solution viscosity and particulates, as well as by the presence of large quantities of competing metals and acid. Single- and double-contact batch distribution coefficients for americium and neodymium from simple and complex surrogate solutions are presented. Varied parameters include the nitrate salt concentration and composition and the nitric acid concentration. We find that under these extremely concentrated conditions, Am(III) removal efficiencies can surpass 50% per contact. Distribution coefficients for both neodymium and americium are insensitive to solution acidity and appear to be driven primarily by low water activities of the solutions

  6. Treatment method for stabilization of radioactive exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo, Oni; Takashi, Miyake; Hitoshi, Miyamoto; Toshio, Funakoshi; Yuzo, Inagaki.

    1988-01-01

    This is a method for eluting radioactive nuclides from a radioactive ion exchange resin in which it has been absorbed. First, the Cs in this resin is extracted using a neutral salt solution which contains Na + . The Cs that has been transferred to the neutral salt solution is absorbed and expelled by inorganic ion exchangers. Then the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr in said resin are eluted using an acidic solution; the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr that have been transferred to the acidic solution are separated from that solution by means of a diffusion dialysis vat. This process is a unique characteristic of this ion exchange resin treatment method. 1 fig

  7. Composite anion-exchangers modified with nanoparticles of hydrated oxides of multivalent metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, T. V.; Kolomiets, E. O.; Dzyazko, Yu. S.; Scherbakov, S.

    2018-02-01

    Organic-inorganic composite ion-exchangers based on anion exchange resins have been obtained. Particles of one-component and two-component modifier were embedded using the approach, which allows us to realize purposeful control of a size of the embedded particles. The approach is based on Ostwald-Freundlich equation, which was adapted to deposition in ion exchange matrix. The equation was obtained experimentally. Hydrated oxides of zirconium and iron were applied to modification, concentration of the reagents were varied. The embedded particles accelerate sorption, the rate of which is fitted by the model equation of chemical reactions of pseudo-second order. When sorption of arsenate ions from very diluted solution (50 µg dm-3) occurs, the composites show higher distribution coefficients comparing with the pristine resin.

  8. New anion-exchange polymers for improved separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Objective is to improve the understanding of how the structure of a new class of anion-exchange polymers controls the binding of anionic actinide complexes from solution. This is needed to develop practical separation systems that will reduce the cost of actinide processing operations within the DOE complex. In addition anion exchange is widely used in industry. Several new series of bifunctional anion- exchange polymers have been designed, synthesized, and tested for removing Pu(IV), Am(III), and U(VI) from nitric acid. The polymers contain a pyridinium site derived from the host poly(4-vinylpyridine) and a second cationic site attached through a chain of 2 to 6 methylene groups. The new polymers removed Pu four to ten times more efficiently than the best commercial materials

  9. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  10. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-01-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480±11μg-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V a gua. V r es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V a gua .V r es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 μg.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs

  11. Separation of transfer ribonucleic acids on polystyrene anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.P.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.

    1976-11-16

    The transfer RNA separation by chromatography on strong-base-polystyrene exchange materials is examined and compared with the widely used reversed-phase chromatography. Results indicate important differences in some transfer RNA (tRNA) elution patterns by the anion-exchange chromatography, as compared with the reversed-phase chromatography. Transfer RNAs containing hydrophobic groups are adsorbed more strongly. The anion exchanger has twice the number of theoretical plates. Single peaks of tRNA/sub 2//sup Glu/ and tRNA/sub 1//sup Phe/ obtained from the reversed-phase column give multiple peaks on polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography. All six leucine tRNAs (Escherichia coli) and differences in tRNA populations synthesized during early and late stages of the dividing lymphocytes from normal human blood can be characterized by the anion-exchange chromatography. Different separation profiles are obtained by two separation systems for tyrosine tRNAs from mouse liver and mouse-plasma-cell tumor. The results indicate that, in contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, strong-base-polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography is capable of separating tRNAs with minor structural differences.

  12. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  13. Evaluation of leachable behavior from ion exchange resins effects of organic impurities on BWR water chemistry. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Matsui, Tsuneo

    1999-01-01

    The elution rate of leachables from ion exchange resin, which is used in condensate demineralizers and is one of several major sources of organic compounds in BWR cooling water, was measured. Properties of the leachables and elution rate depended on the kind of ion exchange resin and the years of use. The organic compounds elution rate of cation exchange resin was constant for 5 years and the molecular weight of these leachables was low. After 5 years, the elution rate increased and leachables consisted of organic compounds of high molecular weights of several thousand. The elution rate of anion exchange resin decreased yearly. The difference in the elution behavior was attributed to a dependence on oxidation degradation promoted by transition metal catalysis. The cation exchange resin included absorbed transition metal, while the anion exchange resin did not. An empirical formula showing the time dependence of the elution rate of organic compounds was derived. The formula was judged to be appropriate based on simulations of an actual BWR plant and comparisons of impurity concentrations with actual reactor water data. (author)

  14. Hydration effect on ion exchange resin irradiated by swift heavy ions and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, I.; Labed, V.; Gerenton, A.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Dannoux-Papin, A.

    2018-06-01

    Gamma radiolysis of ion exchange resins (IER) is widely studied since the sixties, as a function of different parameters (resin type, dose, atmosphere, water content …). However, to our knowledge, there are very few data concerning hydrogen emission from anionic and cationic resins irradiated at high Linear Energy Transfers (LET). In the present work, we focus on the influence of hydration on hydrogen emission, in anionic and cationic resins irradiated under inert atmosphere using Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) and gamma irradiations. The radiation chemical yield of molecular hydrogen is nonlinear with water content for both resins. The molecular hydrogen production depends first on the water form in IER (free or linked) and second on the solubility of degradation products. Three steps have been observed: at lower water content where G(H2) is stable, at 50%, G(H2) increases due to reactions between water radiolytic species and the resin functional groups and at high water content, G(H2) decreases probably due to its accumulation in water and its consumption by hydroxyl radicals in the supernatant.

  15. Speciation and surface interactions of actinides on aged ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Buscher, C.T.; Donohoe, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is presently faced with the stabilization and safe disposition of hundreds of metric tons of residue materials resulting from 50+ years of nuclear weapons production activities. These residues encompass a broad range of substrates and radionuclides and include both solid and liquid materials. Combustible residues constitute a significant fraction of the total residue inventory, and an important constituent within the combustible category is spent anion ion-exchange resins. These resins are typically utilized for the separation of plutonium from other radionuclides under strongly acidic nitric or hydrochloric acid solution conditions which favor the formation and partitioning of anionic Pu(IV) nitrato or chloride species. The spent resins are usually rinsed prior to storage as residues to reduce both acid and radionuclide concentrations, but significant radionuclide concentrations remain in these resins, and the long-term effects of concentrated acid and radiolysis on the resin integrity are relatively unexplored. Thus, new research is needed to assess the stability of these resin residues and address the need for further treatment to ensure stability prior to long-term disposal

  16. Ion exchange resins destruction in a stirred supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Guichardon, P.; Boutin, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IERs) are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation offers a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins, used to remove radioactivity. Up to now, studies carried out in supercritical water for IER destruction showed that degradation rates higher than 99% are difficult to obtain even using a catalyst or a large oxidant excess. In this study, a co-fuel, isopropanol, has been used in order to improve degradation rates by initiating the oxidation reaction and increasing temperature of the reaction medium. Concentrations up to 20 wt% were tested for anionic and cationic resins. Total organic carbon reduction rates higher than 99% were obtained from this process, without the use of a catalyst. The influence of operating parameters such as IERs feed concentration, nature and counterions of exchanged IERs were also studied. (authors)

  17. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  18. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  19. Kinetics of destruction of KU-2 x 8 and AV-17 x 8 ion-exchange resins by the joint action of heating and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulupov, P.E.; Butenko, T.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data indicates a decrease of the exchange capacity of AV-17 x 8 (OH) resin in ion-exchange beds at various temperatures. Losses of exchange of the resin in hydroxyl form after 10,000h of continuous heating at 60, 70, and 80 0 C are 24, 44, and 78% respectively. Partial replacement of the hydroxyl by the salt form is accomplished by appreciable lowering of capacity losses. The trimethlyamine evolved during deamination of AV-17 x 8 anion exchange resin, and only methanol, enters the coolant. Under the influence of ionizing radiation in the active zone the methanol will be converted successively into formaldehyde, formic acid and CO 2 . Thus the maximum temperature of use of the hydroxyl form of te anion-exchange resin AV-17 x 8 (OH) in nuclear power plants can be raised to 70-75 0 C. Brief changes of temperature at 100 0 C do not cause any appreciable losses of exchange capacity either. Physicochemical properties of ion-exchange resins after use in nuclear power plants leads to excessive and unjustified restriction of their service life in the course of a single cycle. Joint action of heating and irradiation on AV-17 anion-exchange resin was studied. It was found that rate constants of the processes of thermal radiation decreases the exchange capacities of the resins in the temperature ranges of interest with relation to nuclear power plants. Calculation of the stability of KU-2 x 8 cation-exchange resin shows that even after a year of use at 100 0 C the loss of its exchange capacity is less than 0.1%. Therefore, under the conditions of use in a nuclear power plant KU-2 x 8 resin can be regarded as absolutely stable. The loss of exchange capacity of AV-17 x 8 resin in C1 form at 100 0 C is of similar magnitude

  20. Rejuvenation processes applied to 'poisoned' anion exchangers in uranium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, A.J.

    1979-11-01

    The removal of 'poisons' from anion exchangers in uranium processing of Canadian radioactive ores is commonly called rejuvenation or regeneration. The cost of the ion exchange recovery of uranium is adversely affected by a decrease in the capacity and efficiency of the anion exchangers, due to their being 'poisoned' by silica, elemental sulphur, molybdenum and tetrathionates. These 'poisons' have a high affinity for the anion exchangers, are adsorbed in preference to the uranyl complex, and do not desorb with the reagents used normally in the uranyl desorption phase. The frequency of rejuvenation and the reagents required for rejuvenation are determined by the severity of the 'poisoning' accumulated by the exchanger in contact with the uranium leach liquor. Caustic soda (NaOH) at approximately equal to 18 cents/lb is commonly used to remove uranium anion exchangers of tetrathionate ((S 4 0 6 )/-/-) 'poisons'. A potential saving in operating cost would be of consequence if other reagents, e.g. sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) at approximately equal to 3.6 cents/lb or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) at approximately equal to 1.9 cents/lb, were effective in removing (S 4 0 6 )/-/-) from a 'poisoned' exchanger. A rejuvenation process for a test program was adopted after a perusal of the literature

  1. Inorganic anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; Jamil, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic anion exchangers are evaluated for Tc, I and S isotope removal from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities were examined. Selected exchangers were examined in detail for their selectivities, kinetics and mechanism of the sorption process (especially in NO 3 - , OH - and BO 3 - environments). Cement encapsulation and leaching experiments were made on the exchangers showing most promise for 'radwaste' treatment. (author)

  2. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  3. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  4. Overview of technologies to reprocess ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Chernikova, N.P.; Ivanets, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with overview of technologies for reprocessing of ion-exchange resins and determining the most optimal solutions for Ukraine. The technologies for cementations, thermal reprocessing, bituminization and deep decontamination are considered.

  5. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  6. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  7. Anion-exchange enrichment and spectrophotometric determination of uranium in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Rokuro; Oguma, Koichi; Mukai, Noriko; Iwamoto, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of uranium in sea-water. The uranium is strongly sorbed on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin (Cl - form) from acidified sea-water containing sodium azide (0.3M) and is easily eluted with 1M hydrochloric acid. Uranium in the effluent can be determined spectrophotometrically with Arsenazo III. The combined method allows easy and selective determination of uranium in sea-water without using a sophisticated adsorbent. The overall recovery and precision are satisfactory at the 3 μg/1. level. (author)

  8. The effects of fouled anion resin on condensate polishing plant performance at Dungeness B power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The return to power, after an outage, at Dungeness B Power Station was delayed because of problems in achieving an in-specification feedwater acid conductivity. Dungeness B has a full flow cation/mixed bed condensate polishing plant (CPP). Investigations showed that the acid conductivity was produced by carbon dioxide and organic impurities both by-passing the CPP and slipping through it. Resin analysis showed that the anion resin had severely impaired sulfate removal kinetics. The paper covers the work done to try and identify the nature and source of the organics and their effect on the anion resin. One significant finding was that the carbonate removal kinetics were as impaired as those for sulfate removal; this had not been previously experienced in the CPP at any British Energy plant. (orig.)

  9. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  10. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Anion Exchangers Derived from Chloromethyl Styrene Co divinylbenzene and Their Use in Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzeldin, H.A.; Apblett, A.; Foutch, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Amination of vinylbenzyl chloride-divinylbenzene (VBC-DVB) copolymers is an effective method for preparation of ion-exchange resins. Conventionally, the starting polymer is produced by chloromethylation of a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer that utilizes chloromethyl methyl ether, a known carcinogen. An alterative approach is to co polymerize vinylbenzyl chloride with divinylbenzene to generate the necessary Vb-Dvb. This method provides precise control over the density of the ion-exchange groups. The regiochemistry of the vinylbenzyl chloride methods was realized using solvent-ion exchange groups. In this investigation, an improved solvent system was found for the preparation of anion exchange resins by the vinylbenzyl chloride route. The effectiveness of amination of the intermediate VBC-DVB polymers with a variety of trimethylamine reagents was investigated, and ethanolic trimethylamine produced the highest degree of amination. These resulting ion-exchange polymers were characterized by a variety of techniques such as analytical titrations, nitrogen analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Testing of these copolymers for breakthrough was performed. The results indicate that these anion exchangers have a meaningful increase in thermal stability over commercial anionic exchange beads

  12. Synthesis and Properties of Anion Exchangers Derived from Chloromethyl Styrene Codivinylbenzene and Their Use in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Ezzeldin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amination of vinylbenzyl chloride-divinylbenzene (VBC-DVB copolymers is an effective method for preparation of ion-exchange resins. Conventionally, the starting polymer is produced by chloromethylation of a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer that utilizes chloromethyl methyl ether, a known carcinogen. An alterative approach is to copolymerize vinylbenzyl chloride with divinylbenzene to generate the necessary VBC-DVB. This method provides precise control over the density of the ion-exchange groups. The regiochemistry of the vinylbenzyl chloride methods was realized using solvent-ion exchange groups. In this investigation, an improved solvent system was found for the preparation of anion exchange resins by the vinylbenzyl chloride route. The effectiveness of amination of the intermediate VBC-DVB polymers with a variety of trimethylamine reagents was investigated, and ethanolic trimethylamine produced the highest degree of amination. These resulting ion-exchange polymers were characterized by a variety of techniques such as analytical titrations, nitrogen analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Testing of these copolymers for breakthrough was performed. The results indicate that these anion exchangers have a meaningful increase in thermal stability over commercial anionic exchange beads.

  13. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  14. Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcoe, J.R.; Atanassov, P.; Dekel, D.R.; Herring, A.M.; Hickner, M.A.; Kohl, P.A.; Kucernak, A. R.; Mustain, W.E.; Nijmeijer, K.; Scott, Keith; Xu, Tongwen; Zhuang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date perspective on the use of anion-exchange membranes in fuel cells, electrolysers, redox flow batteries, reverse electrodialysis cells, and bioelectrochemical systems (e.g. microbial fuel cells). The aim is to highlight key concepts, misconceptions, the current

  15. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-01-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO 4 /l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U 3 O 8 ) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  16. Study on the process variables in the anion exchange plutonium separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, D T

    1957-11-15

    This report discusses the study of the process variables in the Anion Exchange Process Pilot Plant for the separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium. Variables associated with the feed, wash and elution cycles were studied with the aim of improving the quality of the final plutonium product, reduce cycling time and reagent requirements, and also to obtain data for prediction of resin column behaviour under various feed conditions. A cation resin column and a silica gel column were installed in the system and these were studied for plutonium recovery and product quality. The product obtained from the plant was acceptable in all the impurities except the associated gamma activity which was too high for easy product handling. (author)

  17. Determination of degradation conditions of exchange resins containing technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.

    2014-10-01

    The quantification of Tc-99 in spent exchange resins, coming from nuclear power plants, is indispensable to define their administration. The Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter of 210000 years of half-life, volatile and of a high mobility in water and soil. For this reason, the objective of this work is to establish a digestion method of ionic exchange resins containing technetium that retains more than 95% of this radioisotope. Mineralization tests were carried out of a resin Amberlite IRN-150 by means of an oxidation heat, in acid medium, varying the resin mass, the medium volume, the media type, the temperature and the digestion time. The digested samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to estimate the grade of their degradation. The 99m Tc was used as tracer to determine the technetium percentage recovered after mineralizing the resin. The digestion process depends on the temperature and the resin mass. At higher temperature better mineralization of samples and to greater resin mass to a constant temperature, less degradation of the resin. The spectra beta of the 99m Tc and 99 Tc are presented. (Author)

  18. An investigation of the sorption/desorption of organics from natural waters by solid adsorbents and anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, B.M.; Sedlov, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The results of laboratory and operational tests at thermal and nuclear power stations on anion exchangers and solid adsorbents of makeup water treatment plants with regard to the sorption/desorption of organic substances in natural water and condensate are presented. The resins Amberlite trademark IRA-67, IRA-900, IRA-958Cl, Purolite registered 2 A-500P, Dowex TM3 Marathon, and others were tested. Retention of up to 60-80% of the ''organic'' material on the anion exchangers and organic absorbers installed at different places in the technological scheme of the water processing unit was attained. The possibility of a partial ''poisoning'' of the resins and the degradation of the working characteristics over the first year of operation are discussed. (orig.)

  19. An Anion-Exchange Method for the Separation of P-32 Activity in Neutron-Irradiated Biological Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1964-06-15

    Strong hydrochloric-acid solutions containing small amounts of orthophosphoric and citric acid and radioactive tracers of the elements Na, P, K, Ca, Se, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, La, and Ce were titrated with a water suspension of strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the hydroxide form. The titration was carried out to pH = 3.0. It was followed by filtration of the mixture on the top of a small anion-exchange column in the chloride form and a final washing with water. Phosphorus was quantitatively adsorbed by the resin and the scandium retention was better than 96 per cent. The remaining elements passed quantitatively into the effluent, with the exception of nickel, which was adsorbed to a very small extent.

  20. An Anion-Exchange Method for the Separation of P-32 Activity in Neutron-Irradiated Biological Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1964-06-01

    Strong hydrochloric-acid solutions containing small amounts of orthophosphoric and citric acid and radioactive tracers of the elements Na, P, K, Ca, Se, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, La, and Ce were titrated with a water suspension of strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the hydroxide form. The titration was carried out to pH = 3.0. It was followed by filtration of the mixture on the top of a small anion-exchange column in the chloride form and a final washing with water. Phosphorus was quantitatively adsorbed by the resin and the scandium retention was better than 96 per cent. The remaining elements passed quantitatively into the effluent, with the exception of nickel, which was adsorbed to a very small extent

  1. Application of Resin in Pulp Technique for Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Alkaline Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Resin-in-pulp technique was applied for purification and enrichment of uranium values from a finely ground uranium ore leach slurry of alkaline nature using strong base anion exchange resin (size 500 - 675μm). • The chemical composition of the solution phase of the alkaline leach slurry (pH 9.5) was consisting of about 40 g/L of total dissolved solutes (TDS) predominantly with Na_2CO_3 and NaHCO_3 and minor levels of Na_2SO_4. The uranium content was only 730 mg/L and d50 of solids was 34μm. • Amongst the various commercially available resins studied PFA 4740 and 4783 having quaternary ammonium ion on polystyrene crosslink with divibyl benzez (DVB) gave best performance. The maximum loading capacity achieved in the RIP studies was about 60-65 g of U_3O_8/L of wet settled resin amounting to 98% of loading. This has necessitated 4 stages of counter-current extraction with overall contact time of 100 minutes at a resin to leach slurry volume ratio of about 1:50. Practically the entire uranium values loaded on the resin were eluted using NaCl. • The RIP process was found quite efficient for uranium bearing alkaline leach slurries.

  2. Thermochemical treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.; Petrov, G.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Trusov, B.G.; Semenov, K.N.; Klimov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IER) is a principal type of radioactive waste constantly generated by nuclear plants of various functions. The reduction of volume of this waste and its treatment to the forms suitable for long-term disposal is an urgent problem facing the present-day atomic energetics. Nowadays the technological process THOR (Studsvik, Sweden) based on the thermodestruction of IER is the best developed and realized on the industrial scale. Unfortunately, this process requires expensive equipment and great energy consumption for the moisture to be evaporated and thereafter IER to be destroyed by heat. Meanwhile the capability of some elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ti etc.) has long been known and practical use found for active interaction with water in combustion regime. This property of the metals has been used in the development of new technology of treatment of IERs in SIA ''Radon''. Wet IER is mixed with powder metal fuel (PMF) which represents a mixture of metal powder, a quantity of burning activator and some technological additives. On initiation, the mixture of IER with PMF burns without extra energy supply to generate enough heat for the moisture to be evaporated and products of IER decomposition to be destroyed and evaporated. To burn out the products of IER evaporation the air is used. The thermodynamic simulation data and the results of experiments using a pilot plant show that radionuclides contained in IER are chemically bound in ash residue consisting of metal oxides, spinel, silicates, etc. According to the experimental data, radionuclides in amounts of 90% or more of Cs-137 and up to 95% of Sr-90 and Co-60 are fixed in the ash residue. The residue volume is several times less than the initial volume of IER. Concentrations of hazard gases in off-gases do not exceed maximum permissible ones accepted in different countries. The technological process is easy to perform, it does not require sophisticated equipment and great energy consumption which

  3. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) anion exchange membrane for fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available less than proton exchange membrane systems using alcohol as fuel. Many anion exchange membranes based on quaternised polymers have been developed and studied for AMFC3-5. The quaternary ammonium functional groups are the anion conductors...

  4. Sustainable nitrate-contaminated water treatment using multi cycle ion-exchange/bioregeneration of nitrate selective resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-11-15

    The sustainability of ion-exchange treatment processes using high capacity single use resins to remove nitrate from contaminated drinking water can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin and reusing it multiple times. In this study, multi cycle loading and bioregeneration of tributylamine strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin was studied. After each cycle of exhaustion, biological regeneration of the resin was performed using a salt-tolerant, nitrate-perchlorate-reducing culture for 48 h. The resin was enclosed in a membrane to avoid direct contact of the resin with the culture. The results show that the culture was capable of regenerating the resin and allowing the resin to be used in multiple cycles. The concentrations of nitrate in the samples reached a peak in first 0.5-1h after placing the resin in medium because of desorption of nitrate from resin with desorption rate of 0.099 ± 0.003 hr(-1). After this time, since microorganisms began to degrade the nitrate in the aqueous phase, the nitrate concentration was generally non-detectable after 10h. The average of calculated specific degradation rate of nitrate was -0.015 mg NO3(-)/mg VSS h. Applying 6 cycles of resin exhaustion/regeneration shows resin can be used for 4 cycles without a loss of capacity, after 6 cycles only 6% of the capacity was lost. This is the first published research to examine the direct regeneration of a resin enclosed in a membrane, to allow reuse without any disinfection or cleaning procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  6. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  7. Immobilization of ion-exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions, can be achieved using organic ion-exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilized in cement-based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres, giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. 26 tabs., 22 figs., 29 refs

  8. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% Ordinary Portland Cement 84% gg Blast Furnace Slag, 6% Microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This information was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  9. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.; Lee, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    The aim of the programme is to show that ion exchange resins used to remove activity from decontaminating agents used in water reactors can be successfully immobilised in cement. To achieve this, blends of Ordinary Portland Cement and ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (ratio 9:1) have been used. Improvements in the properties of the product and the waste loading of 50 w/o damp resin can be achieved using microsilica, a finely divided form of silicon dioxide, as an additive to the blended cement. This report contains data on the effects of anion resins, and mixed anion/cation resins, on the performance of the cemented product. The effects of organic acids, especially picolinic and formic acids, bound to anion resins have also been investigated. In addition, formulations developed have been assessed at commercial scale (200 litres of cemented product) for their process and product characteristics. The final part of the report deals with the long-term product performance of samples prepared from cation resins which are now nearly one year old. (author)

  10. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  11. Investigation of Electrochemical and Morphological Properties of Mixed Matrix Polysulfone-Silica Anion Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed matrix anion exchange membranes (AEMs were synthesized using dry-wet phase inversion. The casting solutions were prepared by dispersing finely ground anion-exchange resin particles in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc solutions of polysulfone (PSf. Subsequently, nanosilica particles were introduced into the membranes. The results show that evaporation time (tev and solution composition contributed to membrane properties formation. A longer tev produces membranes with reduced void fraction inside the membranes, thus the amount of water adsorbed and membrane conductivity are reduced. Meanwhile, the permselectivity was improved by increasing tev, since a longer tev produces membranes with a narrower channel for ion migration and more effective Donnan exclusion. The incorporation of 0.5 %-wt nanosilica particles into the polymer matrix led to conductivity improvement (from 2.27 to 3.41 mS.cm-1. This may be associated with additional pathway formation by hydroxyl groups on the silica surface that entraps water and assists ion migration. However, at further silica loading (1.0 and 1.5 %-wt, these properties decreased (to 1.9 and 1.4 mS.cm-1 respectively, which attributed to inaccessibility of ion-exchange functional groups due to membrane compactness. It was found from the results that nanosilica contributes to membrane formation (increases casting solution viscosity then reduces void fraction and membrane functional group addition (provides hydroxyl groups.

  12. Anion exchange removal of Al3+ from Li+-Al3+ aqueous solution (originating from lithium recovery from brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Somrani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to separate aluminum(III ion from an aqueous solution containing Li+ at 25°C. Al3+ was transferred into [Al(C2O43]3- by means of complexation and removed by an anion exchange resin. This resin was anionic type Amberlite IRA 402 regenerated by sodium chloride. Hence, a theoretical study based on speciation diagrams was carried out to determine the best pH domain for separation. The complexation of aluminum ions by ammonium oxalate was studied. The motar ratio of Ox/Al and pH was investigated. Optimum values of these factors were found to be 3 and 4 respectively. In this case, the remaining lithium is 98.5%.

  13. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Many samples of bitumen mixed with ion exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared to study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms. The resins used in tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/aniocic bead resins. Different bitumen types were assayed: two distilled and two oxidized bitumens. Leached fractions were collected accordingly to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli beckers were used to improve counting efficiency in a Ge(Li) detector. The diffusion coefficients for samples prepared with distilled and oxidized bitumens were obtained. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry was employed to fit experimental data aiming to explain leaching mechanism and predict the long time behavior of immobilized radionuclides. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Loading ion exchange resins with uranium for HTGR fuel kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Greene, C.W.

    1976-12-01

    Uranium-loaded ion exchange beads provide an excellent starting material in the production of uranium carbide microspheres for nuclear fuel applications. Both strong-acid (sulfonate) and weak-acid (carboxylate) resins can be fully loaded with uranium from a uranyl nitrate solution utilizing either a batch method or a continuous column technique

  16. Influence of concentration and hydrodynamic factors in sorption of iodine by anion-exchangers of the mass-transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Smirnov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the joint influence of hydrodynamic and concentration factors in sorption of iodine by AV-17-8 and anion exchange resins on the mass-transfer coefficient is the subject of this report. The method of central composite rotatable experimental design was used for quantitative assessment and derivation of the appropriate equations. The investigation yielded the necessary regression equations satisfactorily describing the influence of all the factors in the mass-transfer coefficient. the optimal mass-transfer conditions were determined. On the basis of the values obtained, recommendations are made on the optimal hydrodynamic conditions of operation of equipment with pneumatic circulation of the ion-exchanger

  17. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-01-01

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit

  18. Mechanical Characterization of Anion Exchange Membranes Under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-11

    little market penetration has been achieved. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFC ) have struggled primarily due to high cost, driven by the use...and requirements for Pt, Pt-alloy, and non-Pt oxygen reduction catalysts for PEMFCs , Appl. Catal. B Environ. 56 (2005) 9–35. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb...resins for PEMFCs , Electrochim. Acta. 50 (2004) 571–575. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2004.01.133. [89] S. Bhadra, N.H. Kim, J.S. Choi, K.Y. Rhee, J.H. Lee

  19. Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Junshu; Mu Tao; Zhang Wei; Yang Shengya

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO 3 2- , HCO 3 - , SO 3 2- , Cl - in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 μg/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

  20. The efficiency of macroporous polystyrene ion-exchange resins in natural organic matter removal from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural water sources used for water treatment contains various organic and inorganic compounds. Surface waters are commonly contaminated with natural organic matter (NOM. NOM removal from water is important e.g. due to lowering the risk of disinfection by-product formation during chlorination. Ion exchange with the use of synthetic ion-exchange resins is an alternative process to typical NOM removal approach (e.g. coagulation, adsorption or oxidation as most NOM compounds have anionic character. Moreover, neutral fraction could be removed from water due to its adsorption on resin surface. In this study, applicability of two macroporous, polystyrene ion exchange resins (BD400FD and A100 in NOM removal from water was assessed including comparison of treatment efficiency in various process set-ups and conditions. Moreover, resin regeneration effectivity was determined. Obtained results shown that examined resins could be applied in NOM removal and it should be noticed that column set-up yielded better results (contrary to batch set-up. Among the examined resins A100 one possessed better properties. It was determined that increase of solution pH resulted in a slight decrease in treatment efficiency while higher temperature improved it. It was also observed that regeneration efficiency was comparable in both tested methods but batch set-up required less reagents.

  1. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  2. Treatment of spent ion exchange resins IAEA research coordination programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.; Wattal, P.K.; Chanana, N.

    1981-09-01

    Spent ion-exchange resins arising from steam condensate systems, reactor coolant clean-up systems and rad-waste procession, are considered as a specific solid waste management problem. This is the second report on the product characterisation with respect to thermal properties, flammability, bio-organic degradation and leaching behaviours. All these studies are based on polyester-styrene polymer as a matrix for fixation of these spent Ix-resins. Choice of this matrix was dealt with in the first report. (author)

  3. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Nureddin Ben [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, Belgrade (Serbia); Marinkovic, Aleksandar D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic, Ljubinka V., E-mail: ljubinka@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of arsenic species. {yields} A new hybrid resin HY-AgCl is effective for iAs and oAs analytical separation. {yields} SBAE resin was convenient for the separation of As(III) from As(V) and oAs species. {yields} HY-Fe resin was convenient for the separation of DMAs(V). - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough

  4. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, L.

    2016-01-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. - Highlights: • The method allows cost-effective determination of U isotopes. • High amounts of environmental samples can be analyzed. • High chemical yields, energy resolution and decontamination factors were achieved. • Uranium isotope concentrations in mineral waters from Bulgaria are presented.

  5. Removal of both N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethanes precursors in a single treatment using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-11-01

    Drinking water utilities are relying more than ever on water sources impacted by wastewater effluents. Disinfection/oxidation of these waters during water treatment may lead to the formation of several disinfection by-products, including the probable human carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, the potential of ion exchange resins to control both NDMA and THMs precursors in a single treatment is presented. Two ion exchange resins were examined, a cation exchange resin (Plus) to target NDMA precursors and an anion exchange resin (MIEX) for THMs precursors control. We applied the resins, individually and combined, in the treatment of surface and wastewater effluent samples. The treatment with both resins removed simultaneously NDMA (43-85%) and THMs (39-65%) precursors. However, no removal of NDMA precursors was observed in the surface water with low initial NDMA FP (14 ng/L). The removals of NDMA FP and THMs FP with Plus and MIEX resins applied alone were (49-90%) and (41-69%), respectively. These results suggest no interaction between the resins, and thus the feasibility of effectively controlling NDMA and THMs precursors concomitantly. Additionally, the effects of the wastewater impact and the natural attenuation of precursors were studied. The results showed that neither the wastewater content nor the attenuation of the precursor affected the removals of NDMA and THMs precursors. Finally, experiments using a wastewater effluent sample showed that an increase in the calcium concentration resulted in a reduction in the removal of NDMA precursors of about 50%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  7. Advances in the disposal of radioactive ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the last several years, more stringent regulations have been imposed on the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, the disposal of high-activity ion exchange resins has been affected by the recent requirements intended to enhance waste stability. High-activity resins must now be either solidified or placed in a ''high-integrity'' container. The allowable levels of free liquids in the containers have also been reduced. Solidification of resins has long been applied at nuclear power stations, but new designs in high-integrity containers and dewatering techniques to enhance the waste stability and ensure regulatory compliance have been developed and are being introduced for use at power stations

  8. Approach to the surface characteristics of the H+ and H+-La3+ forms of cation-exchange resins by measurement of the heat of immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Uematsu, T.

    1985-01-01

    Surface characteristics of H + and its multivalent cation-exchanged resins, which have been used as catalysts, were probed by measurement of the heats of immersion in 1-nitropropane, n-hexane, and water. It was found that the electrostatic field strengths (F) calculated from the heats of immersion in 1-nitropropane and n-hexane increased with increasing ratios of the exchanged multivalent cation (La 3+ ) in the univalent form (H + ) cation-exchange resin. This tendency was also observed in the differences in F between the La 3+ exchanged resins and H + form of the resin by using the calorimetric data obtained from the heats of immersion in water. These results suggest that the exchanged La 3 μ ion does not homogeneously interact with three univalent anionic sites (SO 3 - ) of the cation-exchange resin, but interacts with only two SO 3 - ions, that is, the La 3+ ion is localized on the surface of the resin. The difference in F obtained from the heats of immersion into water was found to be useful as a simple and rapid criterion of the surface characteristics of the cation-exchange resins. 18 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  9. Study on removing nitrate from uranium solution by ion-exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Genmao

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate of low concentration can interfere with adsorption of uranyl sulfate anion on anion-exchange resins because the anion-exchange resins have a stronger affinity for nitrate in uranium solution. Nitrate can be adsorbed with a high efficiency resin, then desorbed by sodium hydroxide. The nitrate concentration is about 60 g/L in eluate. The research results show that nitrate can be recovered from uranium solution with N-3 anion-exchange resin

  10. Method of removing alkyl iodides or mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides from a gas phase and an aqueous solution phase by utilizing ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Mizuuchi, Noboru; Yokoyama, Fumio.

    1967-01-01

    Alkyl iodides and mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides are removed from a gas phase and an aquous solution phase by using solely an anion exchange resin containing a tertiary amine or together with an anion exchange resin containing quarternary ammonium compound. The resin containing the quarternary ammonium compound is employed mainly to remove iodine, and the resin containing the tertiary amine serves mainly to remove alkyl iodides. The method can be applied to collecting a majority of the methyl iodide as well as the radioactive iodine produced in the atmosphere of a reactor in case of a fuel accident. In embodiments, it is desirable to maintain the sufficient moisture content of the anion exchange resins at a sufficient moisture level so as not to reduce the migration speed of the iodine and alkyl iodides. The iodine and alkyl iodide can be produced with high efficiency and stability independently of the relative humidity of the gas phase. In examples, a solution which consists of 20.5 mg/l of iodine and 42.2mg/l of methyl iodide flew through a column of Amberite IRA-93 alone or blended with IRA-900 at a speed of 15 /hr. respectively. The resins were able to treat 400 times their equivalent in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Pilot Plant for treating of spent exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria del C.; Varani, Jose L.

    2004-01-01

    Spent exchange resins that have been accumulating during the last operational 30 years in Atucha I nuclear power plant (NPP) are a 'problematic' waste. These spent resins conform an intermediate level waste due to the total content of alpha, beta and gamma emitters (some samples of spent resins were analyzed in 2003). For this reason its treatment is more expensive since it is necessary to add more safety barriers for its final disposition and also for the radioprotection actions that are involved. Using sulfuric acid solutions it is possible to elute from the spent resins the ions that are retained. In the same operation are eluted Cobalt, Cesium and alpha emitters since that all these elements react as cations in aqueous solution. Decontamination by electrochemical methods was analyzed as an interesting method to apply after elution operation to these spent resins since that with the decontamination process it is possible to obtain a solid without activity and concentrate the activity in cells that are small in volume and its manipulation doesn't present any extra complication. Experiments made with active samples taken from the deposit were successful. Because of these results it was built a small plant to treat a batch of 100 dm 3 of wet spent exchange resins. Some problems with the material that was in the deposit together with spent resins caused that we had to plan a more complex strategy to obtain a complete decontamination of the spent resins (in this stage we used the cobalt retention cell that was described in other paper to retain Cobalt and alpha emitters and a sample of zeolites from Argentina ores to retain Cesium). Due to alpha emitters act electrochemically like cations it was possible to retain altogether with ionic Cobalt on the copper amalgam electrode. Working in the non-active lab with alcoholic solutions it was possible to retain ionic Cesium on a copper electrode (copper is covered by mercury fine film which forms a solid amalgam) with a

  12. Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have recently received increasing attention since in principle they allow for the use of non-precious metal catalysts, which dramatically reduces the cost per kilowatt of power in fuel cell devices. Until not long ago, the main barrier in the development of AEMFCs was the availability of highly conductive anion exchange membranes (AEMs); however, improvements on this front in the past decade show that newly developed AEMs have already reached high levels of conductivity, leading to satisfactory cell performance. In recent years, a growing number of research studies have reported AEMFC performance results. In the last three years, new records in performance were achieved. Most of the literature reporting cell performance is based on hydrogen-AEMFCs, although an increasing number of studies have also reported the use of fuels others than hydrogen - such as alcohols, non-alcohol C-based fuels, as well as N-based fuels. This article reviews the cell performance and performance stability achieved in AEMFCs through the years since the first reports in the early 2000s.

  13. Gamma radiolysis and post-irradiation leaching of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traboulsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of the behavior under irradiation and in presence of water of Ion Exchange Resins (IER) is very necessary to predict their impact on the environment during the storage phase and in a possible deep geological disposal. The IER studied are the MB400 mixed bed resin and its 'pure' anionic and cationic components. The experimental strategy used in this work was based on the use of chemometric tools permitting to estimate the effect of the irradiation atmosphere, the dose rate, the absorbed dose and the leaching temperature. The gaseous and water-soluble radiolysis products were analyzed by gas Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC). The IER generated principally H 2 g, CO 2 g and amines for which quantities depended of the resin nature and the irradiation conditions. The analysis of solid irradiated resins was investigated by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C NMR) techniques. The last ones revealed structural modifications of the IER solid matrix in function of the experimental conditions. Their behavior in presence of water was studied during 143 days by characterization of the organic matter released after their post-irradiation leaching. The kinetics showed that all the water-soluble components were releasing at the first contact with water. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) quantity released depends, according to the resin nature, either on the dose, either on the irradiation atmosphere. The dose rate has no effect on the degradation and the leaching of the MB400 resin, which behaved differently than its pure components. (author) [fr

  14. Application of resin in pulp technique for ion exchange separation of uranium from alkaline leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.; Chakravorty, J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of uranium from different ores uses ion exchange (IX) technique for the separation of dissolved uranium values. Conventionally, the IX process is carried out on leach solution obtained after the filtration or counter-current decantation of the leach slurries. Amongst the two types of leach pulps generated in uranium ore processing, viz acidic and alkaline, the latter one consists of predominantly fine-size pulps of higher viscosity, thus making the solid-liquid separation an arduous task. Sustained research for improvising the efficiency of various unit operations in the uranium process flowsheet have resulted in advent of new generation resins which are mechanically re-silent, posses higher exchange capacity thereby enabling separation of dissolved uranium ions from the leach pulps directly. Some of the prominent low-grade uranium ore deposits in India are hosted in acid consuming gangue matrix. These ore deposits necessitate fine grinding as well as application of alkaline leaching for the dissolution of uranium values. The leach pulps analyse 500 – 600 mg/l of U3O8 and contain total dissolved solutes (TDS) to the extent of about 50 g/l. Analysis of the characteristics of the leach pulp indicated suitability of resin-in-pulp technique for the separation of uranyl carbonate anions from the leachate. This paper describes the results of the RIP test work on alkaline leach slurry using various commercially available strong base anionic exchange resins. Parametric variation studies were conducted to establish the adsorption isotherm and sorption kinetics followed by elution of loaded uranium. Based on these results semi-continuous experiments on “carousel” mode were carried out. The results indicate superiority of gel type polystyrene based resins grafted with quaternary ammonium ion in comparison to the macro-porous resins. Semi-continuous counter-current extraction and elution tests indicated that about 98% of

  15. Laboratory studies on enhancing the throughput of demineraliser units by proper selection of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S V; Unny, V K.P.; Shetiya, R S [Reactor Services and Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    In water treatment plants of nuclear reactors, type I strong base anion resins are extensively used in anion units along with strong acid cation resins in cation units for demineralisation of water. There is another kind of strong base anion resin called type II resin which is chemically slightly different from type I resin. Type II resins differ from the type I in that one of the methyl groups in the quaternary ammonium functional group of the latter, is replaced by an ethanol group. This results in lower basicity of the resin and hence, higher regeneration efficiency. However, the resin is not like a weak base resin in its properties since it is capable of removing silica from water, though not with the same efficiency as that of the type I strong base resin. Studies were carried out to compare the performance of presently used type I resins with that of type II resins supplied by local manufacturers to assess the suitability of the latter for use in the DM plants of Trombay reactors. This paper discusses the results of the studies. (author). 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Inclusion of radioactive ion-exchange resins into inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to inclusion of the radioactive ion-exchange resins into the portland, slag-portland and alumina cements. The degree of filling the solidified products achieves 7-10, 12 and 18.9-19.7% correspondingly under conservation of sufficient strength (not less 5 MPa). The coefficient of waste volume increasing during solidification does not exceed 1.5 under consideration of addition of 10 mass % of clay into aluminia cement [ru

  17. Removal of 125I from radioactive experimental waste with an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kagoshima, Mayumi

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive iodide and chloride ions through an anion exchange paper membrane to remove 125 I from radioactive experimental waste has been studied with nonequilibrium thermodynamic analyses. Anion exchange paper membrane was found to be electroconductively more permeable to iodide ion than to chloride ion. The iodide ion bound more strongly to the anion exchange site within a membrane phase than the chloride ion by more than twice. The results suggested that an anion exchange paper membrane was appropriate for the filtration removal system

  18. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.

    1983-07-01

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m 3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  19. An investigation of the applicability of the new ion exchange resin, Reillex{trademark}-HPQ, in ATW separations. Milestone 4, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, K.R.; Ball, J.; Grissom, M.; Williamson, M.; Cobb, S.; Young, D.; Wu, Yen-Yuan J.

    1993-09-07

    The investigations with the anion exchange resin Reillex{trademark}-HPQ is continuing along several different paths. The topics of current investigations that are reported here are: The sorption behavior of chromium(VI) on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ from nitric acid solutions and from sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate solutions; sorption behavior of F{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; sorption behavior of Cl{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; sorption behavior of Br{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; and the Honors thesis by one of the students is attached as Appendix II (on ion exchange properties of a new macroperous resin using bromide as the model ion in aqueous nitrate solutions).

  20. Pyrolysis of spent ion-exchanger resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slametschka, Rainer; Braehler, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Initial tests have shown that ion exchangers (IEX) can be decomposed by pyrolysis with very good results, yielding an inert and chemically resistant product. No additives are necessary. The main constituent of the product, the pyrolysis residues or ash, is carbon. It has been discovered that the entire radioactive inventory remains in the pyrolysis residues during pyrolysis of the IEX. This is achieved by relatively low process temperatures that prevent highly volatile nuclides such as the caesium nuclides from passing into the gaseous phase. Sintered metal filters in pyrolysis plant ensure that even the radioactivity bonded to the dust remains in the pyrolysis residues. In addition to the radionuclides, the main constituents of the residue are carbon from the original polystyrene matrix and sulphur from the functional groups. The pyrolysis residues form a flowable solid material and not a melt. It is thus easy to handle and can be compacted or cemented, depending on the requirements for interim and permanent storage. Any further constituents such as inorganic filter materials or even other organic materials do not interfere with the process, they are dried, calcined or also pyrolysed. (orig.)

  1. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses

  2. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  3. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo L.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH 4 ) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 °C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200–600 °C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 °C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 °C reached a plateau or steady-state within the first 24 h increasing only

  4. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  5. Ion Exchange Resin and Clay Vitrification by Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, Laura V.; Pacheco S, Joel O.; Pacheco P, Marquidia; Monroy G, Fabiola; Emeterio H, Miguel; Ramos F, Fidel

    2006-01-01

    The lack of treatment of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) lead us to propose a vitrification process based on a plasma discharge; this technique incorporates LILRW into a matrix glass composed of ceramic clays material. The Mexican Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), uses an ion exchange resin IRN 150 (styrene-divinilbence copolymer) in the TRIGA MARK III nuclear reactor. The principal objective of this resin is to absorb particles containing heavy metals and low-level radioactive particles. Once the IRN 150 resin filter capacity has been exceeded, it should be replaced and treated as LILRW. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify this resin taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. In order to characterize the morphological structure of these clay samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment

  6. Application of ion exchange resin in floating drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Abhijeet A; Ambike, Anshuman A; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of low-density ion exchange resin (IER) Tulsion(R) 344, for floating drug delivery system (FDDS), and study the effect of its particle size on rate of complexation, water uptake, drug release, and in situ complex formation. Batch method was used for the preparation of complexes, which were characterized by physical methods. Tablet containing resin with high degree of crosslinking showed buoyancy lag time (BLT) of 5-8 min. Decreasing the particle size of resin showed decrease in water uptake and drug release, with no significant effect on the rate of complexation and in situ complex formation for both preformed complexes (PCs) and physical mixtures (PMs). Thus, low-density and high degree of crosslinking of resin and water uptake may be the governing factor for controlling the initial release of tablet containing PMs but not in situ complex formation. However, further sustained release may be due to in situ complex formation.

  7. Process for removing a mixture containing iodine and alkyl iodine compounds from a gas phase or aqueous solution with ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H; Mizuuchi, A; Yokoyama, F

    1968-10-04

    Iodine and alkyl iodine compounds are removed from a gas phase or aqueous solution containing salts, iodine and iodine compounds, such as the ambient gas in a reactor, if an accident should occur. The process comprises contacting the phase or solution: (a) with a hydrogen type strongly acidic cationic exchange resin, (b) with an anionic exchange resin containing quarternary ammonium and (c) with an anionic exchange resin containing free basic type tertiary amine, in this order or by reversing the order of the two anionic exchange resins. Although no problems arise in the liquid phase reaction, the ion-exchange resins in the gas phase reaction are desired in the moist state in order to stable maintain the migration speed of the materials to be removed regardless of the relative humidity of the amibent gas. In example I, Amberlite IRA-900 of 200 mm thickness as the lowermost bed, Amberlite IRA93 of 200 mm thickness as the middle bed and Amberlite 200 of 200 mm thickness as the uppermost bed were filled respectively, in a methacrylate resin cylinder with an inner diameter of 25 mm. A solution containing 15.9 mg/1 of iodine, 41.2 mg/1 of methyl iodide and 550 mg/1 of sodium carbonate flows at a rate of 15 liter/hr downward through the beds. As a result of testing, no iodine, iodine ions, iodic acid ions and methyl iodine were detected. The amount of water the beds could treat was 60 times the total quantity of the filled resins.

  8. Study of mechanical and physicochemical properties of cementated spent ion-exchange-resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.

    1981-09-01

    As first part of a study on the possibilities, to immobilize spent ion exchange resins, for final disposal, the dependence of compressive strength from the composition of cement - resin mixtures was detected. Powdered resins, bead resins and ashes from the incinerator plant and several cement brands were examinated. As result an area was defined in the three-phase diagram of cement, resins and water, in which the following leach tests will be performed. (author)

  9. Crud removal by ion exchange resin DIAION HPAN10 and its mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhara, Ryosuke; Goda, Takashi; Tokumaru, Izuru; Yano, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The metal corrosion products generated in the water systems of nuclear power plants (crud) should be efficiently removed from the water in order to maintain the safety and reliability of the plants' constituent materials and reduce radiation exposure to workers. Recently, we developed a new highly porous type of anion exchange resin product, 'DIAION HPAN10', which has a high crud removal capability. HPAN10 has a highly-developed porous structure, and it is considered that the structure contributes to the efficient capture of curd. Furthermore, HPAN10 was designed specially for the capture of crud, including physical properties such as proper macro pore size, particle size and strength. Therefore, the model crud removal capability of HPAN10 is ten times greater than that of conventional gel types. In regards to the mechanisms of curd removal by resin, it is generally considered that there are three factors which affect the capture of curd: they are filter effect, electric potential and curd penetration into resin particles by partially dissolution. On this report, new experimental data and the consideration about crud removal mechanisms are introduced. (author)

  10. Treatment by absorbers of oil contaminated process waters. Ion exchange resins and filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gamma, Ana M.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio; Ambrosioni, P.M.; Schoenbrod, B.

    2003-01-01

    Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D 2 O/H 2 O) activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pretreated in a train consisting on an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing mixed bed resin. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some compounds extracted by the aqueous phase are suspected to be responsible for the resins fouling or precursors of potentially aggressive agents inside the distillation column. In the present work, the identification, evaluation of alternatives for the retention like dead end and cross flow micro filtration, adsorption and ion exchange were tested and the results compared to the original products present in the water upgrading purification train. (author)

  11. Ion exchange resins for water purification : properties and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, A.S.; Mathur, P.K.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The report is divided into three sections. The first section contains a general introduction to ion exchange resins used in various processes, the second section describes characteristic properties of the polymer materials and the inter relation between them. This will, in turn, be useful to interpret the data obtained from the various tests carried out on the resins in the laboratory. In the third section of the report, are given the details of each method used for a particular test to be carried out on a routine basis. Each method describes the principle involved, the reagents and apparatus used in the experiment, the actual procedure and calculations and recording of the data. 3 refs. (author)

  12. Application of radioactive tracers in upgradation of industrial grade ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    1998-01-01

    The exchange rates of ion exchange are determined by application of 131 I as a tracer isotope. The exchange study carried out in this investigation deals with understanding the effectiveness of ion exchange resin (in iodide form) Amberlite IRA-400 at different concentrations of potassium iodide solution (electrolyte) with temperature of solution varying from 27-48 degC by keeping amount of ion exchange resin constant (1.0 g). The exchange study is also carried out by varying amount of ion exchange resins, for fixed temperature (27.0 degC) and for fixed concentration of potassium iodide solution (0.005 M). (author)

  13. Determination of arsenate in water by anion selective membrane electrode using polyurethane–silica gel fibrous anion exchanger composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Asif Ali, E-mail: asifkhan42003@yahoo.com; Shaheen, Shakeeba, E-mail: shakeebashaheen@ymail.com

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • PU–Si gel is new anion exchanger material synthesized and characterized. • This material used as anion exchange membrane is applied for electroanalytical studies. • The method for detection and determination of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in traces amounts discussed. • The results are also verified from arsenic analyzer. -- Abstract: Polyurethane (PU)–silica (Si gel) based fibrous anion exchanger composites were prepared by solid–gel polymerization of polyurethane in the presence of different amounts of silica gel. The formation of PU–Si gel fibrous anion exchanger composite was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. The membrane having a composition of 5:3 (PU:Si gel) shows best results for water content, porosity, thickness and swelling. Our studies show that the present ion selective membrane electrode is selective for arsenic, having detection limit (1 × 10{sup −8} M to 1 × 10{sup −1} M), response time (45 s) and working pH range (5–8). The selectivity coefficient values for interfering ions indicate good selectivity for arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) over interfering anions. The accuracy of the detection limit results was compared by PCA-Arsenomat.

  14. The role of polymer nanolayer architecture on the separation performance of anion-exchange membrane adsorbers: I. Protein separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhut, Bharat V; Weaver, Justin; Carter, Andrew R; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Husson, Scott M

    2011-11-01

    This contribution describes the preparation of strong anion-exchange membranes with higher protein binding capacities than the best commercial resins. Quaternary amine (Q-type) anion-exchange membranes were prepared by grafting polyelectrolyte nanolayers from the surfaces of macroporous membrane supports. A focus of this study was to better understand the role of polymer nanolayer architecture on protein binding. Membranes were prepared with different polymer chain graft densities using a newly developed surface-initiated polymerization protocol designed to provide uniform and variable chain spacing. Bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G were used to measure binding capacities of proteins with different size. Dynamic binding capacities of IgG were measured to evaluate the impact of polymer chain density on the accessibility of large size protein to binding sites within the polyelectrolyte nanolayer under flow conditions. The dynamic binding capacity of IgG increased nearly linearly with increasing polymer chain density, which suggests that the spacing between polymer chains is sufficient for IgG to access binding sites all along the grafted polymer chains. Furthermore, the high dynamic binding capacity of IgG (>130 mg/mL) was independent of linear flow velocity, which suggests that the mass transfer of IgG molecules to the binding sites occurs primarily via convection. Overall, this research provides clear evidence that the dynamic binding capacities of large biologics can be higher for well-designed macroporous membrane adsorbers than commercial membrane or resin ion-exchange products. Specifically, using controlled polymerization leads to anion-exchange membrane adsorbers with high binding capacities that are independent of flow rate, enabling high throughput. Results of this work should help to accelerate the broader implementation of membrane adsorbers in bioprocess purification steps. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chromatographic separation process with pellicular ion exchange resins that can be used for ion or isotope separation and resins used in this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, M.; Neige, R.; Niemann, C.; Michel, A.; Bert, M.; Bodrero, S.; Guyot, A.

    1989-01-01

    For separation of uranium, boron or nitrogen isotopes, an isotopic exchange is carried out betwen an isotope fixed on an ion exchange resin and another isotope of the same element in the liquid phase contacting the resin. Pellicular resins are used comprising composite particulates with an inert polymeric core and a surface layer with ion exchange groups [fr

  16. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrocyanides loaded on organic anion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)], E-mail: tpvalsala@yahoo.co.in; Joseph, Annie [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Shah, J.G. [Back End Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Raj, Kanwar [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Transition metal ferrocyanides have important applications in the selective removal of radioactive caesium from low level and intermediate level radioactive liquid waste streams. The microcrystalline nature of these materials renders them useless for application in column mode operations. Special preparation procedures have been developed to prepare granular solids by in situ precipitation of metal ferrocyanides on organic anion exchangers, which is suitable for column mode operations. The elemental compositions of the metal ferrocyanides precipitated inside the pores of anion exchanger were determined by analysing the dissolved samples using ICP-AES system and flame photometer. From the XRD and EDX analyses and the elemental composition of the synthesized materials, the nature of the compound formed inside the anion exchanger was found to be cobalt ferrocyanide. From SEM analysis of the samples, the particle size of the cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated inside the anion exchanger was found to be much less than that of cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated outside. The efficiency of these materials for removal of Cs was evaluated by measuring the distribution coefficient (Kd), ion exchange capacity and kinetics of Cs uptake. The Kd of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was found to be of the order of 10{sup 5} ml/g. The Cs uptake kinetics of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was slower than that of precipitated materials. The ion exchange capacity of the cobalt ferrocyanide loaded on anion exchanger was found to be much higher than that of the precipitated cobalt ferrocyanide.

  17. Synthesis of biodiesel from pongamia oil using heterogeneous ion-exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable substitute fuel for petroleum. Biodiesel could be effectively produced by transesterification reaction of triglycerides of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Conventionally, biodiesel manufacturing processes employ strong acids or bases as catalysts. But, separation of the catalyst and the by-product glycerol from the product ester is too expensive to justify the product use as an automobile fuel. Hence heterogeneous catalysts are preferred. In this study, transesterification of pongamia oil with ethanol was performed using a solid ion-exchange resin catalyst. It is a macro porous strongly basic anion exchange resin. The process parameters affecting the ethyl ester yield were investigated. The reaction conditions were optimized for the maximum yield of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) of pongamia oil. The properties of FAEE were compared with accepted standards of biodiesel. Engine performance was also studied with pongamia oil diesel blend and engine emission characteristics were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of iridium in the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean seawaters by anion exchange preconcentration-neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shihong; Mao Xueying; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    Anion exchange method is investigated to separate and enrich iridium in seawater by radiotracer 192 Ir. The adsorption of Ir in the resin increases with the decreasing acidity in the 0.05-1.2 mol/L HCl media, The recovery of iridium in pH=1.5 seawater reaches 89% by a single anion-exchange column. The polyethylene container of acidity of pH=1.5 are suitable for storing trace Ir in seawater. An anion exchange preconcentration-neutron activation analysis procedure is developed to determine iridium in seawaters sampled from the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean at different depth. The reagent blank value of the whole procedures is (0.18-0.20) x 10 -12 g Ir. The iridium concentrations in the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean seawater samples are (0.85-3.58) x 10 -12 g/L (0-3504 m) and (1.26-1.97) x 10 -12 g/L (25-1900 m), respectively

  19. Treatment of liquids of exchange resins washing from RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.L.; Menghini, J.; Rodriguez, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work nanometric magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrochemical co-precipitation method to achieve the adsorption and extraction of the contaminant species present in the water coming from the regeneration of exchange resins in Research Reactor RA6. It has been possible to obtain a mean nanoparticle size of 16 nm, necessary to increase the specific surface area of the material and thus, its adsorbent capability. The synthesis parameters and adsorption conditions made it possible to achieve a treatment efficiency superior to 80% for Cs-137 (author)

  20. Sorption of plutonium and curium on ion exchange resins in mixed aqueous organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidvogel, N.; Reitsamer, G.; Grass, F.

    1974-12-01

    The sorption of the sulfate and nitrate-complexes of the actinides Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Am(III) and Om(III) on the ion-exchange-resins Dowex 1X8 and Dowex 50 WX8 is investigated. The strong sorbability of these actinide ions in solvents with high content of alcohol is explained by the existence of anionic complexes like Pu(III) (SO 4 ) 2 - , Pu(IV) (SO 4 ) 3 2 - , Pu(VI)O 2 (SO 4 ) 2 2 - , Am(SO 4 ) 2 - respectively Am(NO 3 ) 4 - and Om(NO 3 ) 4 - . The taking of autoradiographs from the thin-layer chromatograms by the aid of a special device and the evaluation of the autoradiographs by a particular photodensitometer are described. The measurement of the radioactivity of the α-emitting nuclides Pu 239, Am 241 and Om 242 are done by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  1. Enhancement of uranium loading on ion exchange resin from carbonate leachate by lowering pH from 8 to 6.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses a laboratory study that shows the saturation ion-exchange loading of uranium from carbonate leachate can be doubled by lowering the pH of the leachate from 8 to 6.5. Small column and batch resin loading tests using Dowex 21K ion-exchange resin are described. The leachate contained 3,300 ppm chloride, 2,400 ppm carbonate, and 220 ppm U 3 O 8 , and had a pH of 8. Even at this rather mild salinity the saturation ion-exchange loading was found to be only about 3 to 4 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (48 to 64 g/dm 3 ) because of competition with the chloride ion for exchange sites on the anionic resin. Lowering the pH of the leachate to 6.5 by CO 2 gas addition, however, increased loading to about 8 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (128 g/dm 3 ). The pH-lowering effect worked especially well at relatively high salt concentration. The same leachate, with its chloride content increased to 12,000 ppm, loaded only 0.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (8 g/dm 3 ) at pH 8 but loaded 5.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (88 g/dm 3 ) at pH 6.5

  2. Isothermal curing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin by means of anionic homopolymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite with low content of clay displayed improved thermal properties. • The vitrification was observed in the isothermal curing. • Dielectric relaxations outside and inside of the clay galleries were detected. - Abstract: The use of an initiator, 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP), to promote an anionic homopolymerisation reaction for the isothermal cure of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites based on an epoxy resin, as well as the effect of the nanoclay content, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vitrification phenomenon was observed during the isothermal cure process, and it was found that the nanocomposite with a low clay content (2 wt%), denoted EDM2, shows improved thermal properties with respect to the unreinforced resin (denoted ED), while the nanocomposite with a higher clay content (5 wt%), denoted EDM5, displayed inferior properties. The cure kinetics were analysed by different methods, and it was observed that the activation energy and kinetic parameters of EDM2 were lower compared to the other two systems. Examination of the nanostructure of the cured EDM2 nanocomposite showed partial exfoliation, while the EDM5 system retains an intercalated nanostructure. In the DRS studies of the curing process of the EDM2 system, two dielectric relaxations were detected, which are associated with the molecular mobility in the curing reaction which takes place both outside and inside the clay galleries

  3. Adsorption behavior of 99Mo using AG1-X8 anionic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jacinete L. dos; Yamaura, Mitiko; Damasceno, Marcos O.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O.

    2013-01-01

    The significant growth in demand of 99 Mo in developed and developing countries, like Brazil, requires large production capacity and availability of this radioisotope. With the global crisis on its supply to Brazil rethought the need to become independent in their production and the solution was to start the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) project, which aims to meet the national demand of 99 Mo for the medical field. This work aims to study the 99 Mo adsorption in AG1-X8 strong anion resin, which is one of the intermediate steps of separation and purification, retaining it in the form of molybdate ions. In process evaluated the resin properties with respect to pH and concentration of 99 Mo in the solution. The adsorbed amount of 99 Mo was determined indirectly by the amount in the supernatant after adsorption and the data fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Among the models, the Langmuir showed a closer relationship with the experimentally obtained data. This suggests the occurrence of monolayer adsorption and heterogeneous conditions at the surface, where both phenomena can coexist in the experimental conditions tested. (author)

  4. Adsorption behavior of {sup 99}Mo using AG1-X8 anionic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jacinete L. dos; Yamaura, Mitiko; Damasceno, Marcos O.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O., E-mail: jlsantos@ipen.br, E-mail: myamaura@ipen.br, E-mail: marcos956@bol.com.br, E-mail: cforbici@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The significant growth in demand of {sup 99}Mo in developed and developing countries, like Brazil, requires large production capacity and availability of this radioisotope. With the global crisis on its supply to Brazil rethought the need to become independent in their production and the solution was to start the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) project, which aims to meet the national demand of {sup 99}Mo for the medical field. This work aims to study the {sup 99}Mo adsorption in AG1-X8 strong anion resin, which is one of the intermediate steps of separation and purification, retaining it in the form of molybdate ions. In process evaluated the resin properties with respect to pH and concentration of {sup 99}Mo in the solution. The adsorbed amount of {sup 99}Mo was determined indirectly by the amount in the supernatant after adsorption and the data fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Among the models, the Langmuir showed a closer relationship with the experimentally obtained data. This suggests the occurrence of monolayer adsorption and heterogeneous conditions at the surface, where both phenomena can coexist in the experimental conditions tested. (author)

  5. Preparation of anion exchange membrane using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for alkaline water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Bong, Soo-Yeon; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soo-Gon [Energy and Machinery Korea Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho-Sang [Kyungil University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    An anion exchange membrane was prepared by the chloromethylation and the amination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), as the base polymer. The membrane properties of the prepared anion exchange membrane, including ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity, and water content were measured. The ionic conductivity of the prepared anion exchange membrane was in the range of 0.098x10{sup -2} -7.0x10{sup -2}S cm{sup -1}. The ranges of ion exchange capacity and water content were 1.9-3.7meq./g-dry-membrane and 35.1-63.1%, respectively. The chemical stability of the prepared anion exchange membrane was tested by soaking in 30 wt% KOH solution to determine its availability as a separator in the alkaline water electrolysis. The ionic conductivity during the chemical stability test largely did not change.

  6. Effects of arginine on multimodal anion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Kameda, Tomoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of arginine on binding and elution properties of a multimodal anion exchanger, Capto adhere, were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8 (mAb-IL8). Negatively charged BSA was bound to the positively charged Capto adhere and was readily eluted from the column with a stepwise or gradient elution using 1M NaCl at pH 7.0. For heat-treated BSA, small oligomers and remaining monomers were also eluted using a NaCl gradient, whereas larger oligomers required arginine for effective elution. The positively charged mAb-IL8 was bound to Capto adhere at pH 7.0. Arginine was also more effective for elution of the bound mAb-IL8 than was NaCl. The results imply that arginine interacts with the positively charged Capto adhere. The mechanism underlying the interactions of arginine with Capto adhere was examined by calculating the binding free energy between an arginine molecule and a Capto adhere ligand in water through molecular dynamics simulations. The overall affinity of arginine for Capto adhere is attributed to the hydrophobic and π-π interactions between an arginine side chain and the aromatic moiety of the ligand as well as hydrogen bonding between arginine and the ligand hydroxyl group, which may account for the characteristics of protein elution using arginine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days.

  8. Purification of bacteriophage M13 by anion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, Razieh; Tey, Beng Ti; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Wen Siang

    2010-07-01

    M13 is a non-lytic filamentous bacteriophage (phage). It has been used widely in phage display technology for displaying foreign peptides, and also for studying macromolecule structures and interactions. Traditionally, this phage has been purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient ultracentrifugation which is highly laborious and time consuming. In the present study, a simple, rapid and efficient method for the purification of M13 based on anion exchange chromatography was established. A pre-packed SepFast Super Q column connected to a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system was employed to capture released phages in clarified Escherichia coli fermented broth. An average yield of 74% was obtained from a packed bed mode elution using citrate buffer (pH 4), containing 1.5 M NaCl at 1 ml/min flow rate. The purification process was shortened substantially to less than 2 h from 18 h in the conventional ultracentrifugation method. SDS-PAGE revealed that the purity of particles was comparable to that of CsCl gradient density ultracentrifugation method. Plaque forming assay showed that the purified phages were still infectious. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, C.A.; Toguri, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  10. Optimized anion exchange column isolation of zirconium-89 (89Zr) from yttrium cyclotron target: Method development and implementation on an automated fluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Matthew J; Murray, Nathaniel J; Carter, Jennifer C; Morrison, Samuel S

    2018-04-13

    Zirconium-89 ( 89 Zr), produced by the (p, n) reaction from naturally monoisotopic yttrium ( nat Y), is a promising positron emitting isotope for immunoPET imaging. Its long half-life of 78.4 h is sufficient for evaluating slow physiological processes. A prototype automated fluidic system, coupled to on-line and in-line detectors, has been constructed to facilitate development of new 89 Zr purification methodologies. The highly reproducible reagent delivery platform and near-real time monitoring of column effluents allows for efficient method optimization. The separation of Zr from dissolved Y metal targets was evaluated using several anion exchange resins. Each resin was evaluated against its ability to quantitatively capture Zr from a load solution high in dissolved Y. The most appropriate anion exchange resin for this application was identified, and the separation method was optimized. The method is capable of a high Y decontamination factor (>10 5 ) and has been shown to remove Fe, an abundant contaminant in Y foils, from the 89 Zr elution fraction. Finally, the method was evaluated using cyclotron bombarded Y foil targets; the method was shown to achieve >95% recovery of the 89 Zr present in the foils. The anion exchange column method described here is intended to be the first 89 Zr isolation stage in a dual-column purification process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced biocatalytic production of L-cysteine by Pseudomonas sp. B-3 with in situ product removal using ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; He, Jun-Yao; Yin, Jiang-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Bioconversion of DL-2-amino-Δ(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (DL-ATC) catalyzed by whole cells of Pseudomonas sp. was successfully applied for the production of L-cysteine. It was found, however, like most whole-cell biocatalytic processes, the accumulated L-cysteine produced obvious inhibition to the activity of biocatalyst and reduced the yield. To improve L-cysteine productivity, an anion exchange-based in situ product removal (ISPR) approach was developed. Several anion-exchange resins were tested to select a suitable adsorbent used in the bioconversion of DL-ATC for the in situ removal of L-cysteine. The strong basic anion-exchange resin 201 × 7 exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for L-cysteine and low adsorption for DL-ATC, which is a favorable option. With in situ addition of 60 g L(-1) resin 201 × 7, the product inhibition can be reduced significantly and 200 mmol L(-1) of DL-ATC was converted to L-cysteine with 90.4 % of yield and 28.6 mmol L(-1 )h(-1) of volumetric productivity. Compared to the bioconversion without the addition of resin, the volumetric productivity of L-cysteine was improved by 2.27-fold using ISPR method.

  12. Immobilisation Of Spent Ion Exchange Resins Using Portland Cement Blending With Organic Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Mohd Abdul Wahab; Nur Azna Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins (spent resins) using Portland cement blending with organic material for example bio char was investigated. The performance of cement-bio char matrix for immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins was evaluated based on their compression strength and leachability under different experimental conditions. The results showed that the amount of bio char and spent resins loading effect the compressive strength of the waste form. Several factors affecting the leaching behaviour of immobilised spent resins in cement-bio char matrix. (author)

  13. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.; Shirsat, A.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2005-08-01

    The spent IX resins from nuclear power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of these resins can lead to high volume reduction of these wastes. Low temperature pyrolysis of transition metal ion loaded IX resins in presence of nitrogen was carried out in order to optimize catalyst composition to achieve maximum weight reduction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis residues was carried out in presence of air in order to compare the oxidative characteristics of transition metal oxide catalysts. Copper along with iron, chromium and nickel present in the spent IX resins gave the most efficient catalyst combination for catalytic and oxidative pyrolysis of the residues. During low temperature catalytic pyrolysis, 137 Cesium volatility was estimated to be around 0.01% from cationic resins and around 0.1% from anionic resins. During oxidative pyrolysis at 700 degC, nearly 10 to 40% of 137 Cesium was found to be released to off gases depending upon type of resin and catalyst loaded on to it. The oxidation of pyrolytic residues at 700 degC gave weight reduction of 15% for cationic resins and 93% for anionic resins. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis is attractive for reducing weight and volume of spent cationic resins from PHWRs and VVERs. (author)

  14. Development of Preparation Methods for Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Sohn, Joon Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to contribute to the environmentally friendly fuel cell system by developing a radiation grafting method for the preparation of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell and finally to the radiation technology industry. In this project, the preparation methods for the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films using radiation have been developed and anion exchange membranes have been prepared via the reaction between the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films and amines. The prepared anion exchange membranes were characterized and the performance of the membranes were evaluated

  15. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  16. Inversion of the calcium isotope separation at an ion exchanger resin by variation of the LiCl electrolyte concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, K.G.; Kloeppel, H.; Sigl, G.

    1982-01-01

    The calcium isotope separation at a strongly acidic exchanger resin as a function of the concentration of a LiCl solution is investigated in column experiments. Whereas an enrichment of the heavier calcium isotopes in the solution phase is found with a 3 M LiCl solution, an inverse effect is obtained with 8 M and 12 M LiCl solutions. The separation effect epsilon for the 12 M solution is found to be the highest calcium enrichment in a system without a complexing agent. The results are compared with those for other electrolyte solutions and can be explained by the anion/cation interactions. (orig.)

  17. Removal of Chromium by Using of Adsorption onto Strong Base Anion Resin: Study of Equilibrium and Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shirzad Siboni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is one of the heavy metals that is found in industrial effluents and is very toxic for human and environment. In this work the removal of hexavalent chromium by using of adsorption onto strongly basic anion was investigated. Various parameters such as pH, initial hexavalent chromium concentration, contact time and resin dosage were studied. Experimental data were expressed by Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and modified Pseudo-first order kinetic models. The results showed chromium removal was increased by increase of contact time and resin dosage, while decreased by increase of pH and initial hexavalent chromium concentration. At contact time equal 120 min, resin dosage 0.2 g/100 ml and initial hexavalent chromium concentration of 30 mg/l, by increasing pH from 3 to 11, removal efficiency was decreased from 93.56 % to 69.12 %. In addition, by increasing contact time from 5 min to 120 min, removal efficiency was increased from 39.51 % to 94.41 %. The results also showed hexavalent chromium sorption follows Langmiur isotherm model. Pseudo second order models best describe chromium removal by using of adsorption onto strongly basic anion resin. The results revealed that removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by using of adsorption onto stringly basic onion resins can be done quick and effective.

  18. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins for storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the experience gained by different countries on storage of spent ion exchange resins, immobilization of them into various matrices and the development of new methods in decomposition and solidification of spent resins. The report contains all the results of the Coordinated Research Programme together with additional data available from countries not participating in this programme. A review of practical industrial experience in treating spent ion exchange resins is given in the annex

  19. Leaching of 60 Co and 137 Cs from spent ion exchange resins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cement; radioactive waste; composite; waste management. Abstract. The leaching rate of 60Co and 137Cs from the spent cation exchange resins in cement–bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, with or ...

  20. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai [Nuclear Engineering Department Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated.

  2. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai; Kim, Youngkyun; Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated

  3. Viscosity calculations of simulated ion-exchange resin waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon Woo; Park, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyung Ho; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae; BRUNELOT, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    An induction cold crucible melter (CCM) located in the NETEC-KEPCO has been used to vitrify simulated ion-exchange resin. During vitrification, the CCM operations were tightly constrained by glass viscosity as an important process parameter. Understanding the role of viscosity and quantifying viscosity is highly required in the determination of optimized feed formulations and in the selection of the processing temperature. Therefore, existing process models of glass viscosity based on a relationship between the glass composition, its structure polymerization, and the temperature were searched and adapted to our borosilicate glass systems. Calculated data using a viscosity model based on calculation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) were in good agreement with the measured viscosity data of benchmark glasses

  4. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Siekierka Anna; Bryjak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity an...

  5. Removal of radioactive caesium from low level radioactive waste (LLW) streams using cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated organic anion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P., E-mail: tpvalsala@yahoo.co.in [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Roy, S.C. [PREFRE Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India); Shah, J.G. [Back End Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Gabriel, J.; Raj, Kanwar [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)

    2009-07-30

    The volumes of low level waste (LLW) generated during the operation of nuclear reactor are very high and require a concentration step before suitable matrix fixation. The volume reduction (concentration) is achieved either by co-precipitating technique or by the use of highly selective sorbents and ion exchange materials. The present study details the preparation of cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated into anion exchange resin and its evaluation with respect to removal of Cs in LLW streams both in column mode and batch mode operations. The Kd values of the prepared exchanger materials were found to be very good in actual reactor LLW solutions also. It was observed that the exchanger performed very well in the pH range of 3-9. A batch size of 6 g l{sup -1} of the exchanger was enough to give satisfactory decontamination for Cs in actual reactor LLW streams. The lab scale and pilot plant scale performance of the exchanger material in both batch mode and column mode operations was very good.

  6. Sorption of vanillin on highly basic anion exchanger under static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholokhova, A. Yu.; Eliseeva, T. V.; Voronyuk, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of vanillin by a granulated anion exchanger is studied under static conditions. A comparison of the kinetic curves of the uptake of hydroxybenzaldehyde by gel and macroporous anion exchanger shows that macroporous sorbent has better kinetic characteristics. The effect temperature has on the capacity of an anion exchanger and the time needed to establish sorption equilibrium is found, and the activation energy of vanillin uptake is determined. Studying the effect experimental factors have on the rate of sorption and using the formal kinetics approach, it is established that in the investigated range of concentrations, the limiting stage of the uptake of vanillin by an anion exchanger with the functional groups of a quaternary ammonium base is that of external diffusion. Vanillin sorption by a highly basic anion exchanger in hydroxyl form is characterized by polymolecular uptake best described by a BET isotherm; at the same time, the uptake of sorbate by a chloride form is of a monomolecular character and can be described by a Freindlich isotherm. Structural changes in the anion exchanger sorbed hydroxybenzaldehyde are identified via FTIR spectroscopy.

  7. Modeling Breakthrough Curves of Citric Acid Adsorption onto Anionic Resins in an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrabali Ghorbanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakthrough curves for citric acid adsorption from aqueous solution onto ion-exchange resin at 20, 35, and 55°C have been investigated. To predict breakthrough curves, three mathematical models have been analyzed based on the values of the least square method parameters, Durbin-Watson test, and mean relative percent error and, finally, appropriate models have been achieved. Models are in good agreement with experimental data based on the results. To examine models reliabilities and accuracy, models have been compared by various breakthrough curve data obtained by other investigators. The results show appropriate agreement and in some cases regression errors have been reduced to less than 1.0 percent.

  8. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies with Duolite-162, a type-II resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The selection of resin plays an important role in the process of separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography. The determination of (i) ion exchange capacity of Duolite-162 resin for hydroxyl - chloride exchange, (ii) hydroxyl - borate exchange, (iii) isotopic exchange separation factor by batch method and (iv) effect of concentration of boric acid on isotopic exchange separation factor to test the suitability of the above resin for this process are discussed in this report. (author)

  9. Anion exchanger and the resistance against thermal haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I T; Zheleva, A; Zlatanov, I

    2011-01-01

    4,4'-Diiso-thiocyanato stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) is a membrane-impermeable, highly specific covalent inhibitor and powerful thermal stabiliser of the anion exchanger (AE1), the major integral protein of erythrocyte membrane (EM). Suspensions of control and DIDS-treated (15 µM, pH 8.2) human erythrocytes were heated from 20° to 70°C using various but constant heating rates (1-8°C/min). The cellular electrolyte leakage exhibited a sigmoidal response to temperature as detected by conductometry. The critical midpoint temperature of leakage, T(mo), extrapolated to low heating rate (0.5°C/min) was used as a measure for EM thermostability. T(mo) was greater for DIDS-treated erythrocytes, 63.2° ± 0.3°C, than for intact erythrocytes, 60.7° ± 0.2°C. The time, t(1/2), for 50% haemolysis of erythrocytes, exposed to 53°C was used as a measure for the resistance of erythrocytes against thermal haemolysis. The t(1/2) was also greater for DIDS-treated erythrocytes, 63 ± 3 min, than for intact erythrocytes, 38 ± 2 min. The fluorescent label N-(3-pyrenyl)maleimide and EPR spin label 3-maleimido-proxyl, covalently bound to sulphydryl groups of major EM proteins, were used to monitor the changes in molecular motions during transient heating. Both labels reported an intensification of the motional dynamics at the denaturation temperatures of spectrin (50°C) and AE1 (67°C), and, surprisingly, immobilisation of a major EM protein, presumably the AE1, at T(mo). The above results are interpreted in favour of the possible involvement of a predenaturational rearrangement of AE1 copies in the EM thermostability and the resistance against thermal haemolysis.

  10. Determination of trace level anions in reactor cooling water by ion chromatography using a resin of low capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, IC has been found to be one of the most versatile and efficient analytical technique because of its ability to provide a fast and sensitive analysis of anions. In this work, a separater column packed with a resin of very low capacity was used with a concentration column for the determination of low level of anions present as traces in reactor cooling water. The results of retention times and detection limits were determined using 2.4 mM Na2CO3 / 3mM NaHCO3 mixture as eluent. The interferences of cations and anions such as (Ca)2+, (UO2)2+, (SO4)2+, have been investigated

  11. Dynamics of anion exchange of lanthanides in aqueous-organic complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheveleva, I.V.; Bogatyrev, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on change in kinetic parameters of the anion exchange process (anion-exchange column chromatography) of r.e.e. (europium and gadolinium) in complexing nitric acid media has been studied. It is established that complex LnA 4 anion is the only sorbing form of europium and gadolinium on anionite. When the organic component content of the solution being the same, the dynamic parameters of lanthanide exchange have higher values in aqueous-acetonitrile and aqueous-acetone media in comparison with aqueous-enthanol solutions of nitric acid. Lesser mobility of complex lanthanide anions in aqueous-alcoholic solutions can be explained by stronger solvation in the presence of solvents with higher acceptor properties

  12. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  13. Fabrication of gadolinium hydroxide nanoparticles using ion-exchange resin and their MRI property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kobayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method to fabricate gadolinium hydroxide (Gd(OH3 nanoparticles. An opaque solution was prepared by adding basic anion exchange resin (BAER to a Gd(NO33 aqueous solution at room temperature and aging the solution for 12–24 h; the solution became basic because of the exchange of H2O with OH−. The particles in the opaque solution have a needle structure, and their crystal structure was hexagonal Gd(OH3. Their longitudinal and lateral average particle sizes tend to increase in the ranges of 175.0–222.1 and 33.9–52.3 nm when the aging time increases from 12 to 24 h, respectively. The relaxivity value for T1-weighted imaging was 0.79 mM−1 s−1 for the solution that was prepared at the aging time of 18 h, which was ca. 20% of that for a commercial Gd complex contrast agent.

  14. On the real performance of cation exchange resins in wastewater treatment under conditions of cation competition: the case of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelot, Benedicte; Ayed, Imen; Marchandeau, Franck; Zajac, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sorption performance of cation-exchange resins Amberlite® IRN77 and Amberlite™ IRN9652 toward Cs(I) and Sr(II) has been tested in single-component aqueous solutions and simulated waste effluents containing other monovalent (Effluent 1) or divalent (Effluent 2) metal cations, as well as nitrate, borate, or carbonate anions. The individual sorption isotherms of each main component were measured by the solution depletion method. The differential molar enthalpy changes accompanying the ion-exchange between Cs+ or Sr2+ ions and protons at the resin surface from single-component nitrate solutions were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and they showed a higher specificity of the two resins toward cesium. Compared to the retention limits of both resins under such idealized conditions, an important depression in the maximum adsorption capacity toward each main component was observed in multication systems. The overall effect of ion exchange process appeared to be an unpredictable outcome of the individual sorption capacities of the two resins toward various cations as a function of the cation charge, size, and concentration. The cesium retention capacity of the resins was diminished to about 25% of the "ideal" value in Effluent 1 and 50% in Effluent 2; a further decrease to about 15% was observed upon concomitant strontium addition. The uptake of strontium by the resins was found to be less sensitive to the addition of other metal components: the greatest decrease in the amount adsorbed was 60% of the ideal value in the two effluents for Amberlite® IRN77 and 75% for Amberlite™ IRN9652. It was therefore demonstrated that any performance tests carried out under idealized conditions should be exploited with much caution to predict the real performance of cation exchange resins under conditions of cation competition.

  15. ZEOLITE PERFORMANCE AS AN ANION EXCHANGER FOR ARSENIC SEQUESTRATION IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites are well known for their use in ion exchange and acid catalysis reactions. The use of zeolites in anion or ligand exchange reactions is less studied. The NH4+ form of zeolite Y (NY6, Faujasite) has been tested in this work to evaluate its performance for arsenic removal...

  16. The anion exchanger Ae2 is required for enamel maturation in mouse teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Mulder, L.; Mardones, P.; Medina, J.F.; Kellokumpu, S.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Everts, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate intracellular pH is exchanging bicarbonate for Cl-. We tested the hypothesis that in ameloblasts the anion exchanger-2 (Ae2) is involved in pH regulation during maturation stage amelogenesis. Quantitative X-ray microprobe mineral content

  17. The anion exchanger Ae2 is required for enamel maturation in mouse teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D. M.; Bronckers, A. L. J. J.; Mulder, L.; Mardones, P.; Medina, J. F.; Kellokumpu, S.; Oude Elferink, R. P. J.; Everts, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate intracellular pH is exchanging bicarbonate for Cl(-). We tested the hypothesis that in ameloblasts the anion exchanger-2 (Ae2) is involved in pH regulation during maturation stage amelogenesis. Quantitative X-ray microprobe mineral content

  18. Fundamental characteristics study of anion-exchange PVDF-SiO(2) membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xingtao; Shi, Wenxin; Yu, Shuili; He, Jiajie

    2012-01-01

    A new type of poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF)-SiO(2) hybrid anion-exchange membrane was prepared by blending method. The anion-exchange groups were introduced by the reaction of epoxy groups with trimethylamine (TMA). Contact angle between water and the membrane surface was measured to characterize the hydrophilicity change of the membrane surface. The effects of nano-sized SiO(2) particles in the membrane-forming materials on the membrane mechanical properties and conductivity were also investigated. The experimental results indicated that PVDF-SiO(2) anion-exchange membranes exhibited better water content, ion-exchange capacity, conductivity and mechanic properties, and so may find potential applications in alkaline membrane fuel cells and water treatment processes.

  19. Isolation of nitrosylruthenium nitrato complexes by ion exchange and extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Liu, L.

    TBP Levextrel and cation exchange resins were used to separate RuNO nitrato complexes of different nitric acid concentrations. 7402 quaternary ammonium salt Levextrel was used instead of an anionic exchange resin to separate anionic and neutral complex ions. The results indicated that D 3 and D 4 , which can easily be extracted by TBP, were anionic and neutral complex ions

  20. A summary of methods for conditioning and immobilizing ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.; Buckley, L.P.

    1983-02-01

    Ion-exchange resins are used in CANDU-PHW nuclear power stations to purify heavy water in the primary heat transport (PHT) and moderator systems. Two promising techniques for conditioning spent ion-exchange resins for disposal have been evaluated: direct immobilization and incineration combined with immobilization of the ash and scrubbed off-gases. When ion-exchange resins were immobilized directly, volumes of bitumen products were about 0.75 times the volumes of untreated resin, while the volumes of cement and polyester products were 2 to 3 times larger. While incinerating the resin is an extra processing step, much smaller volumes result from the latter option. Bitumen and glass product volumes were six and ten times smaller, respectively, than the volumes of untreated resin, while cement and polyester product volumes were about one-half the volume of untreated resin. Since the releases of Cs-136 by leaching were lowest for products made by immobilization in glass, PHT resins which have high concentrations of Cs-137 should be vitrified. Moderator resins which have high concentrations of C-14 should be incinerated and the ash and C-14-contaminated scrubbing solutions should be immobilized. By pretreating such resins with calcium chloride or carbon dioxide, the C-14 present on resin could be released at temperatures below the ignition temperature of the resin. The pretreatment technique reduces the amount of inactive carbon dioxide that must be scrubbed to trap the C-14. The releases of C-14 from immobilized barium hydroxide scrubbing solution were the same as releases from immobilized resin

  1. Behavior study of spend ion exchange resins immobilized in pyrolyzed polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, P.B; Fuentes, N.O; Luca, V.

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis of spent ion exchange resins contained in epoxy resins represents an attractive alternative to cementation as a confining method. In this sense, a significant reduction of volume can be achieved, as well as avoiding the dispersion of the exhausted ion exchange resin by the means of an epoxy resin used as a matrix, while potentially limiting the release of highly radioactive long life isotopes such us Cs-137, Sr-90 and Co-60 among others. Three types of monoliths were made: (i) epoxy resin, (ii) epoxy resin with carbon and (iii) a binder of epoxy resin and clay. In every case, the monolith contained the ion exchange resin. They were prepared by the mixing of resin pearl loaded with epoxy cations and a subsequent pyrolysis process with a temperature increase ratio of 2 o C /min reaching maximum values in the range between 200 o C - 800 o C, remaining in it for 1 hour. Monoliths obtained for each final temperature had been characterized to obtain data corresponding to the mass loss, volume reduction and lixiviation, as well as mechanical and microstructural properties (author)

  2. Separation of gold, palladium and platinum in chromite by anion exchange chromatography for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Park, Yeong Jae; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    2001-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the separation of gold, iridium, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and platinum in chromite samples and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The dissolution condition of the minerals by fusion with sodium peroxide was optimized and chromatographic elution behavior of the rare metals was investigated by anion exchange chromatography. Spectral interference of chromium, a matrix of the minerals, was investigated on determination of gold. Chromium interfered on determination of gold at the concentration of 500 mg/L and higher. Gold plus trace amounts of iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium, which must be preconcentrated before ICP-AES was separated by anion exchange chromatography after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by H 2 O 2 . AuCl - 4 retained on the resin column was selectively eluted with acetone- HNO 3 -H 2 O as an eluent. In addition, iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium remaining on the resin column were eluted as a group with concentrated HCl. However, platinum was eluted with concentrated HNO 3 . The recovery yield of gold with acetone-HNO 3 -H 2 O was 100.7 ± 2.0 % , and the yields of palladium and platinum with concentrated HCl and HNO 3 were 96.1 ± 1.8% and 96.6 ± 1.3%, respectively. The contents of gold and platinum in a Mongolian chromite sample were 32.6 ± 2.2 μg/g and 1.6 ± 0.14 μg/g, respectively. Palladium was not detected

  3. Immobilization in cement of ion exchange resins from Spanish nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebra, A.G. de la; Murillo, R.; Ortiz, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange materials used at nuclear power plants can be immobilized in cements less expensive than polymer matrices. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins shows swelling and cracking troubles (during setting time, or of storage). The objective of this study was to select the types of cement that produce the best quality on immobilization of three kinds of resins and to set up cement formulations containing the maximum possible loading of resin. Four cements were selected to carried out the study. After a study of hydration-dehydration phenomena of ion exchange resins, a systematic work has been carried out on immobilization. Tests were performed to study compressive strength and underwater stability by changing water/cement ratio and resin/cement ratio. Mixtures made with water, cement and resin only were loaded with 10% by weight dry resin. Mixtures with higher loadings show poor workability. Tests were carried out by adding organic plasticizers and silica products to improve waste loading. Plasticizers reduced water demand and silica products permit the use of more water. Leaching tests have been performed at 40 O C. In conclusion Blast Furnace Slag is the best cement for immobilization of ion exchange resin both bead and powdered form for mechanical strength, stability and leaching

  4. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-10-01

    We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included

  6. A conditioning process for ion exchanger resins contaminated with radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, R.; Wiegert, B.; Zeh, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchanger resins are embedded in a pre-polymer syrup prepared from acrylic monomers having high boiling point. A curing catalyst (a peroxide) and an activation agent (a tertiary amine) are added. 12 examples are given. 9 p

  7. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  9. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekierka Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  10. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka, Anna; Bryjak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  11. Bicarbonate adsorption band of the chromatography for carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Obanawa, Heiichiro; Hata, Masahisa; Sato, Katsuya

    1985-01-01

    The equilibria of bicarbonate ion between two phases were studied for the carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers. The condition of the formation of a bicarbonate adsorption band was quantitatively discussed. The formation of the adsorption band depends on the difference of S-potential which is the sum of the standard redection chemical potentials and L-potential which is the sum of the reduction chemical potential. The isotopic separation factor observed was about 1.012, independent of the concentrations of acid and alkali in the solutions. The isotopic separation factor was considered to be determined by the reaction of bicarbonate ion on anion exchangers and carbon dioxide dissolved in solutions. The enriched carbon isotope whose isotopic abundance ratio ( 13 C/ 12 C) was 1.258 was obtained with the column packed with anion exchangers. (author)

  12. Synthesis, characterization and applications of a new cation exchanger tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A V; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Rathore, Abhay S

    2012-01-01

    A new composite cation exchanger, tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin has been synthesized. The chemically modified TSA ion exchange resin has been used for the removal and preconcentration of Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution and effluent from the Laxmi steel plant in Jodhpur, India. This type of composite represents a new class of hybrid ion exchangers with good ion exchange capacity, stability, reproducibility and selectivity for toxic metal ions found in effluent from the steel industry. The characterization of the resin was carried out by determining the ion-exchange capacity, elemental analysis, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermal analysis. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) of toxic metal ions were determined in a reference aqueous solution and the steel plant effluent at different pH values; the absorbency of different metal ions on the TSA resin was studied for up to 10 cycles. The adsorption of different metal ions on TSA resin follows the order: Co2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Cd2+. The ion exchange capacity of TSA resin is 2.87%.

  13. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., distilled water and 10 percent ethanol, when, following washing and pretreatment of the resin in accordance... paragraph (a)(18) of this section is used to treat aqueous sugar solutions subject to the condition that the temperature of the sugar solution passing through the resin bed is maintained at 82 °C (179.6 °F) or less and...

  14. Management of spent ion-exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Information presented at the IAEA organized Technical Committee Meeting in December 1976 is given on the management of spent ion-exchange resins with respect to their treatment and conditioning. Currently available processes, methods and technologies such as volume reduction techniques, immobilization techniques, etc. for the treatment and conditioning are described on the basis of operating experiences. Economic aspects associated with the use, treatment, packaging and disposal of ion-exchange resins are dealt with the purpose to serve as an example of an appropriate economic evaluation. The current and prospective status of the resin disposal in USA, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and India is briefly discussed

  15. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Sampling technique. Use of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, H; Eriksson, E; Emanuelsson, A

    1947-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of atmospheric precipitations in Sweden, a technique using ion exchange resins has been developed. The possibilities of nitrate reduction, and ammonia losses, when the precipitation is collected in zinc gauges is stressed. Glass funnels are used, and they are effectively protected from bird droppings. The ion exchange resins so far available are quite serviceable but show some deficiencies as to stability, and activity in alkaline solutions. New resins, which are not yet available, seem to offer definite advantages.

  16. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors.

  17. Rapid anion exchange separation of fermium with mineral acid-methyl alcohol mixed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, S.; Shinohara, N.; Ichikawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-01-01

    Anion exchange separation of 250 Fm (30 m) synthesized by the 12 C+ 242 Pu and 16 O+ 238 U reactions was investigated with mineral acid-methyl alcohol mixed media at elevated temperature. Fermium was chromatographically separated from the other transplutonium elements, the target materials and an Al catcher foil by anion exchange with mixtures of nitric acid and methyl alcohol. By use of the mixed media of hydrochloric acid and methyl alcohol, Fm together with Cf was separated from Al, Am, Cm, Pu, U and from major fission products. The separation systems are suitable for rapid separation and immediate alpha-counting source preparation of Fm. (author) 22 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Treatment of radioactive ionic exchange resins by super- and sub-critical water oxidation (SCWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeongsook; Son, Soon Hwan; Kim, Kwang Sin; Han, Joo Hee; Han, Kee Do; Do, Seung Hoe

    2010-01-01

    As the usage of ion exchange resins increases the inventory of spent ion exchange resins increases in nuclear power plants. This study is to find an environmental-friendly process to treat theses spent resins. The test samples were prepared by diluting the slurry made by wet ball milling the spent cationic exchange resins for 24 h. The spent cationic exchange resins were separated from mixed ion exchange resins by a fluidized bed gravimetric separator. The decomposition of the samples was investigated with super-critical water oxidation (SCWO) equipment. A statistical test method - the central composite design as a statistical design of experiments - was adopted to find the optimum condition to decompose the spent exchange resins. The optimum condition was 60% of excess oxygen, 22.5 min of residence time, 0.615 wt% of NaOH, 358 of reaction temperature, and 3600 psi of reaction pressure, which is a sub-critical condition. The liquid product of the decomposition has the characteristics of 80-185 ppm of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), 4.0-6.0 of pH, and <1.0 ppm of corrosive components (Ni, Fe, Cr, and Mo). The exhaust gas from the SCWO equipment contained NOx of 0 ppm, SOx of 3 ppm (environment exhaust standard in Korea: NOx 200 ppm, SOx 300 ppm). Co-substituted mock samples were prepared to simulate spent cationic exchange resins from nuclear power plants which can contain radioactive Co isotopes. The conditions to obtain organic compound destruction ratio which conforms the effluent stand for the mock samples were found. The treated water filtered with 0.2-filter contained less than 1 ppm of Co. Thus Co recovery rate of more 99% was achieved.

  19. Complex ion kinetics. Reaction rates on ion-exchange resins compared to those in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, I.B.; Murmann, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the rates in water and on an ion-exchange resin for the aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ and for the 18 O isotopic exchange of water with [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ and ReO 4 - . The rate of water exchange on [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ was not changed by association with Dowex 50W resins. Aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and water exchange on ReO 4 - had modified pH dependencies when associated with a resin. With the cobalt complex the rates were faster on the resin in the acidic region and slower on the resin in the basic region. A new term in the rate equation was observed when ReO 4 - was on the resin, first order in H + , while the other terms appear to be unchanged. Aquation of [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ was much slower when it was absorbed on the resin. This was related to the known ionic strength effect of the reaction. (auth)

  20. Studies of characteristics of precoating for precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin as filter aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsuro; Sawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sindo, Toshikazu.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of precoating for a precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin as filter aid were investigated with 1.5 meters long filter elements. The characteristics of precoating (thickness and distribution of precoat layer) were evaluated at various operating conditions. The results showed that the factors controlling them were size of resin flock and ascending velocity of water in the filter vessel. The size of resin flock was affected by reflocculation of resin flock, and operating conditions causing reflocculation were investigated. Consequently, it seemed that reflocculation depended on the maximum value of resin concentration in the filter vessel. In addition, a relation between sedimentation rate of resin flock and ascending velocity in the filter vessel was noticed by simulation of distribution of ascending velocity and effects on characteristics of precoating were evaluated. (author)

  1. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl-/SO42- separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl-/SO42- permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  2. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  3. Optimized anion exchange column isolation of zirconium-89 ( 89 Zr) from yttrium cyclotron target: Method development and implementation on an automated fluidic platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Murray, Nathaniel J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Morrison, Samuel S.

    2018-04-01

    Zirconium-89 (89Zr), produced by the (p,n) reaction from naturally monoisotopic yttrium (natY), is a promising positron emitting isotope for immunoPET imaging. Its long half-life of 78.4 h is sufficient for evaluating slow physiological processes. A prototype automated fluidic system, coupled to on-line and in-line detectors, has been constructed to facilitate development of new 89Zr purification methodologies. The highly reproducible reagent delivery platform and near-real time monitoring of column effluents allows for efficient method optimization. The separation of Zr from dissolved Y metal targets was evaluated using several anion exchange resins. Each resin was evaluated against its ability to quantitatively capture Zr from a load solution that is high in dissolved Y. The most appropriate anion exchange resin for this application was identified, and the separation method was optimized. The method is capable of a high Y decontamination factor (>105) and has been shown to separate Fe, an abundant contaminant in Y foils, from the 89Zr elution fraction. Finally, the performance of the method was evaluated using cyclotron bombarded Y foil targets. The separation method was shown to achieve >95% recovery of the 89Zr present in the foils. The 89Zr eluent, however, was in a chemical matrix not immediately conducive to labeling onto proteins. The main intent of this study was to develop a tandem column 89Zr purification process, wherein the anion exchange column method described here is the first separation in a dual-column purification process.

  4. A novel anion exchange membrane from polystyrene (ethylene butylene) polystyrene: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodh, Rajangam; Ilakkiya, Arjunan; Elamathi, Swaminathan; Sangeetha, Dharmalingam

    2010-01-01

    We look forward for an eco-friendly hydrocarbon polymer with higher molecular weight for the preparation of an anion exchange membrane. Polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (PSEBS) was chosen as the polymer matrix. The anion exchange membrane was prepared from PSEBS tri-block co-polymer and then the properties were characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. The preparation of anion exchange polymer involved two steps namely chloromethylation and quaternization. The anion exchange membrane with high conductivity has been prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups in to the polymer. Finally, the membrane was prepared using solution casting method. The solution casting method yields highly hydrophilic membranes with uniform structure that were suitable for electrochemical applications. The efficiency of the entrapment was monitored by swelling ratio, chemical stability and ion exchange measurement. The characteristic structural properties of the membrane were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the membrane was characterized by TGA, DSC and DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis). The prepared uniform electrolyte membrane in this study has high thermal and chemical stability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the quaternized PSEBS was determined by SEM-EDXA techniques, respectively. The measured hydroxyl ion conductivity of the synthesized alkaline PSEBS polymer electrolyte membrane showed ionic conductivity in the range of 10 -3 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. It was found that the substitution provided a flexible, chemically and thermally stable membrane. Hence, the membrane will have potential application in the alkaline fuel cell.

  5. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  6. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  7. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  8. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  9. Anion exchange behavior of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta as homologues of Rf and Db in mixed HF-acetone solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, N.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Filosofov, D.V.; Jon Sun Jin; Radchenko, V.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Novgorodov, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    We studied in detail the sorption behavior of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta on AG 1 anion exchange resin in HF-acetone mixed solutions as a function of organic cosolvent and acid concentrations. Anion exchange behavior was found to be strongly acetone concentration dependent. The distribution coefficients of Ti, Zr, Hf and Nb increased and those of Ta decreased with increasing content of acetone in HF solutions. With increasing HF concentration, anion exchange equilibrium analysis indicated the formation of fluoride complexes of group-4 elements with charge -3 and Ta with charge -2. For Nb the slope of -2 increased up to -5. Optimal conditions for separation of the elements using AIX chromatography were found. Group-4 elements formed MF 7 3- (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) complexes whose sorption decreased Ti > Hf > Zr in reverse order of complex stability. This fact is of particular interest for studying ion exchange behavior of Rf compared to Ti. The advantages of studying chemical properties of Rf and Db in aqueous HF solutions mixed with organic solvents are briefly discussed

  10. Novel process combining anaerobic-aerobic digestion and ion exchange resin for full recycling of cassava stillage in ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2017-04-01

    A novel cleaner ethanol production process has been developed. Thin stillage is treated initially by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic digestion and then further treated by chloride anion exchange resin. This allows the fully-digested and resin-treated stillage to be completely recycled for use as process water in the next ethanol fermentation batch, which eliminates wastewater discharges and minimizes consumption of fresh water. The method was evaluated at the laboratory scale. Process parameters were very similar to those found using tap water. Maximal ethanol production rate in the fully-recycled stillage was 0.9g/L/h, which was similar to the 0.9g/L/h found with the tap water control. The consumption of fresh water was reduced from 4.1L/L (fresh water/ethanol) to zero. Compared with anaerobically-aerobically digested stillage which had not been treated with resin, the fermentation time was reduced by 28% (from 72h to 52h) and reached the level achieved with tap water. This novel process can assist in sustainable development of the ethanol industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing elution in anion exchange chromatography as a pretreatment of colorimetry of chromium(VI) and vanadium(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigetomi, Yasumasa; Hatamoto, Takeji; Nagoshi, Kimie; Yamashige, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    In order to increase the selectivity of the colorimetry of chromium and vanadium, the separation by means of anion exchange chromatography was tested. The column, phi 0.8x5.0 cm packing (50--100 mesh) Dowex 1x4 anion exchange resin was used for the separation of chromium. The solution containing chromium (VI), zinc(II), cadmium(II), iron(III) and reducing organic substances contained in industrial waste water was introduced into the column and then the substances other than chromium(VI) were removed by washing the column with distilled water. Finally chromium(VI) was reduced to chromium(III) by hydroxylamine in the eluent and eluted. The concentration of sulfuric acid and hydroxylamine in the eluent were 0.1 mol/l and 0.001 mol/l respectively. For analyzing chromium(III) in the mixture of chromium(VI) and chromium(III), after removal of chromium(VI) it should be oxidized to chromium(VI) anion with the oxidant, e.g., sodium peroxide or hydrogen peroxide, before introducing it into the column. In terms of the pretreatment by using the acetate form resin column, chromium (VI) and chromium(III) can be determined separately in the solution whose concentration ranges from 0.05 ppm to 0.5 ppm despite the presence of contaminants, which interfere with the colorimetric determination of chromium(VI) using diphenylcarbonohydrazide, in the original solution. The separation of vanadium(V) in the solution containing copper(II), cobalt(II) and etc. was made using the mixed solution of hydrochloric acid (2 mol/l) and hydroxylamine (0.2 mol/l) similarly to chromium(VI). In terms of the similar pretreatment vanadium could be determined precisely as far as 0.1 ppm by the colorimetry using 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol despite the presence of copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and etc in the original solution. (auth.)

  12. Flowsheet Validation For The Permanganate Digestion Of REILLEX(trademark) HPQ Anion Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.

    2009-01-01

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex(trademark) HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO 3 . Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex(trademark) HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount ( 2 ) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  13. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-01-01

    resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary

  14. Separation and determination of alditols and sugars by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Sørensen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Carbohydrates such as alditols (polyols or sugar alcohols), monosaccharides and disaccharides are separated as anions by anion-exchange chromatography with a sodium hydroxide eluent, MA1 CarboPac column and pulsed amperometric detection. We report a high-pH anion-exchange chromatographic-pulsed a......Carbohydrates such as alditols (polyols or sugar alcohols), monosaccharides and disaccharides are separated as anions by anion-exchange chromatography with a sodium hydroxide eluent, MA1 CarboPac column and pulsed amperometric detection. We report a high-pH anion-exchange chromatographic......-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method that determines all the polyols used as food additives in food products and the most commonly found mono- and disaccharides on a routine basis. The linearity, repeatability, internal reproducibility and accuracy are described. The applicability of the method has been...

  15. SuperLig Ion Exchange Resin Swelling and Buoyancy Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to achieve a fundamental understanding of SuperLig resin swelling and shrinking characteristics, which lead to channeling and early breakthrough during loading cycles. The density of salt solution that causes resin floating was also determined to establish a limit for operation. Specific tests performed include (a) pH dependence, (b) ionic strength dependence and (c) buoyancy effect vs. simulant composition

  16. Removal of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Anion Exchange Membrane (EBTAC): Adsorption Kinetics and Themodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Akhtar, Shahbaz; Zafar, Shagufta; Shaheen, Aqeela; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Luque, Rafael; ur Rehman, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of anionic dye congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions using an anion exchange membrane (EBTAC) has been investigated at room temperature. The effect of several factors including contact time, membrane dosage, ionic strength and temperature were studied. Kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order, liquid film diffusion and Elovich models as well as Bangham and modified freundlich Equations, were employed to evaluate the experimental results. Parameters such as adsorption capacities, rate constant and related correlation coefficients for every model were calculated and discussed. The adsorption of CR on anion exchange membranes followed pseudo-second-order Kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters, namely changes in Gibbs free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) were calculated for the adsorption of congo red, indicating an exothermic process. PMID:28793430

  17. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacuła, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2(OH) 3NO 3, Mg 2(OH) 3NO 3, Ni 2(OH) 3NO 3 and Zn 3(OH) 4(NO 3) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides.

  18. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W.

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu 3+ showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs

  19. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu{sup 3+} showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs.

  20. Biocompatibility Research of a Novel pH Sensitive Ion Exchange Resin Microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Shi, Shuangshuang; Pan, Weisan; Sun, Changshan; Zou, Xiaomian; Fu, Min; Feng, Yingshu; Ding, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and provide in-vivo pharmacological and toxicological evidence for further investigation of the possibility of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere for clinical utilizations. Acute toxicity study and general pharmacological studies were conducted on the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere we prepared. The general pharmacological studies consist of the effects of the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere on the nervous system of mice, the functional coordination of mice, the hypnosis of mice treated with nembutal at subliminal dose, the autonomic activities of tested mice, and the heart rate, blood pressure, ECG and breathing of the anesthetic cats. The LD50 of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere after oral administration was more than 18.84 g·Kg(-1). Mice were orally administered with 16 mg·Kg(-1), 32 mg·Kg(-1) and 64 mg·Kg(-1) of pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere and there was no significant influence on mice nervous system, general behavior, function coordination, hypnotic effect treated with nembutal at subliminal dose and frequency of autonomic activities. Within the 90 min after 5 mg·Kg(-1), 10 mg·Kg(-1), 20 mg·Kg(-1) pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere was injected to cat duodenum, the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and ECG of the cats didn't make significant changes in each experimental group compared with the control group. The desirable pharmacological and toxicological behaviors of the pH sensitive ion exchange resin microsphere exhibited that it has safe biocompatibility and is possible for clinical use.

  1. Chelating ion exchange with macroreticular hydroxamic acid resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis, reactions, and analytical applications of hydroxamic acids, including chelating resins with this functional group, are reviewed. A procedure for attaching N-phenyl hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 is described. The extraction of 20 metal ions from 2 M hydrochloric acid by this resin is discussed. Conditions for the quantitative extraction and back-extraction of 9 ions are reported. Results are compared with work on solvent extraction with N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid. Procedures for attaching N-methyl and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 are described. The N-phenyl, N-methyl, and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid resins are compared with respect to metal-ion complexation. The scope of applications for hydroxamic acid resins is investigated by studying the extraction of 19 metal ions as a function of pH. The resins are especially suitable for the extraction of zirconium(IV), titanium(IV), and uranium(IV) from strongly acidic solution. Aluminum(III) is separated from calcium and phosphate by extraction at pH 4. The use of the resins for the purification of reagents, concentration of trace constituents, and chromatographic separation is demonstrated

  2. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by the means of Ionic Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Ramiere, I.; Jobelin, I. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Process Department, Actinides Chemistry Laboratory, BP17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of our R and D work is the elaboration by the use of ionic exchange resin of minor actinide precursors for target or blanket dedicated to their transmutation in sodium fast reactor. From the beginning, the resin process called WAR (acronym of Weak Acid Resin) was developed in the 70's at the ORNL for the making of uranium carbide kernels for the high temperature gas reactor [1] [2]. By now, our aim is to extend this concept to the manufacturing of minor actinides oxide mixed with uranium oxides [3]. More precisely, this process can be divided in two major steps: the loading of the resin and the thermal treatment of the fully loaded resin driving either to oxide or carbide phases depending on the gas atmosphere. The difficulty stems from the preparation of the loading solutions which must fulfill precise conditions of pH in presence of actinides cations prone to hydrolysis. Furthermore, the proportions of uranium and minor actinides in solutions must be adjusted to fit the right ratio in the solid. The study presented here will then focus on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixing of minor actinides on ionic exchange resin and their carbonization in oxide. [1] G. W. Weber, R. L. Beatty et V. J. Tennery, Nuclear Technology, 35, 217-226, (1977), 'Processing and composition control of weak-acid-resin derived fuel microspheres'. [2] K. J. Notz, P. A. Haas, J. H. Shaffer, Radiochimica Acta, 25, 153-160, (1978). 'The preparation of HTGR Fissile Fuel Kernels by Uranium Loading of Ion Exchange Resin'. [3] S. Picart, H. Mokhtari, I. Ramiere, 'Plutonium Futures, The Science 2008', 7-11 july 2008, Dijon, France. 'Modelling of the ionic Exchange between a weak acid resin in its ammonium form and a minor actinide'. (authors)

  3. The importance of OH − transport through anion exchange membrane in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli; Logan, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    In two-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is typically used to avoid increases in catholyte pH as Nernst equation calculations indicate that high pHs adversely impact

  4. Determination of the ion-exchange capacity of anion-selective membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, F.; Hnát, J.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan; Bouzek, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 5054-5062 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange capacity * anion-selective membranes * titration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014

  5. Production and application of cation/anion exchange membranes of high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhili; Tan Chunhong; Yang Xiangmin

    1995-01-01

    A third affiliated factory of our university has been established for the production in batches of cation/anion exchange membranes of high performance, trade marks of which are HF-1 and HF-2. Membrane products have been applied in various fields (including industries and research institutions) with great success

  6. Synthesis and anion exchange reactions of a layered copper–zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    replaced by Zn2+. Keywords. Copper–zinc hydroxides; Cu–Zn hydroxysalts; anion exchange. ... be broadly separated into two structural types, based on the structure of ... thermogravimetry (a lab-built system, heating rate. 5°C per minute) and ...

  7. Electrodeionization 2: the migration of nickel ions adsorbed in a flexible ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of nickel ions from a low cross-linked ion-exchange resin using an applied electrical potential gradient was studied. The potential gradient across a bed of ion-exchange particles, in which nickel ions were absorbed, was varied by two methods. One involved a change of cell voltage across

  8. Exchange of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchangers, Amberlyst 15 (cationic) and Amberlyst A-26 (anionic) were studied in nitric acid solutions and the results were found comparable with those on their microreticular counter parts, Dowex 50x8 and Dowex IX4. With a view to evalute the efficiency of Amberlyst A-26 for the final purification of plutonium from the purex process stream, detailed studies conducted to determine the breakthrough capacity of Pu(IV) from 7.2 M nitric acid, elution by 0.5 M nitric acid and the decontamination factors for uranium and zirconium-95. Because of its faster kinetics, Amberlyst A-26 exhibited a much more efficient elution of Pu(IV) by 0.5 M nitric acid than Dowex IX4. (author)

  9. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe 2+ , or Fe 3+ , and 3 vol % H 2 O 2 in 0.1M HNO 3 is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99 0 C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90 0 C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH 4 OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly

  10. The effect of loading solution and dissolution media on release of Diclofenac from ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Atyabi F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drugs can be loaded on ion exchange resins in order to control their release. Loading of diclofenac sodium on the resin beads not only sustain its release but also reduce its gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this study the effect of loading solution and concentration of diclofenac in loading solution on total amount of drug loaded on the resin beads (Amberlite IRA-900 and the release characteristic of drug in different media were examined. Results showed that diclofenac resin complex did not release their drug content in simulated gastric fluid but released it in simulated intestinal fluid independent of exposure time in acidic conditions. The effect of a number of parameters such as ionic strength and pH on the release characteristic of drug - resin complexes were also examined. Results showed that although ionic strength is an important factor, drug release is more affected by the pH of the media. NO ABSTRACT

  11. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  12. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  13. Boron isotope separation by ion exchange chromatography using weakly basic anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.; Aida, M.; Okamoto, M.; Nomura, M.; Fujii, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Influences of operating temperatures and concentrations of feed boric acid solutions were examined on the above titled process over the ranges of 25 - 70 0 C and 0.1 - 1.6 mol/dm 3 (M), respectively. The ideal displacement chromatography with a very sharp-cut boundary of the boric acid adsorption band was realized at higher temperatures and lower boric acid concentrations within the experimental conditions. The isotope separation coefficient epsilon was found to decrease with increases in either temperature or the boric acid concentration. The observed values of epsilon at 25 0 C were 0.013, 0.012 and 0.011 corresponding to feed boric acid concentrations of 0.1 M, 0.4 M and 0.8 M, respectively. The epsilon's at 70 0 C were 0.0097 (0.1 M), 0.0086 (0.4 M), 0.0083 (0.8 M) and 0.0073 (1.6 M). A temperature of 40 0 C and 0.4 M of boric acid concentration was considered the optimum operating condition for the production of enriched 10 B. (author)

  14. ''Spray'' drying unit for spent ion-exchange resins sludges and radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raibaud, J.

    1985-01-01

    The procedure consisting in drying radwaste either in liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution for volume Reduction. Technicatome presents an experimental spray drying station for 50 kg/hr, using the LEAFLASH process, developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches. This process, used at full scale in a large number of branches in industry, is applicable to the drying of various materials: bead type ion-echange resins, powered ion exchange resins, centrifuge sludges, filter sludges, evaporator bottoms [fr

  15. Leach testing of simulated ion-exchange resin waste solidified in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.K.; Uotila, P.I.; Ovaskainen, R.M.

    Leach tests were carried out on ion-exchange resins solidified in cement. Three product mixtures, two isotopes and four leachants at two temperatures, were tested. The increase of resin content increased the leaching of Cs-137; the effect of silix admixture was negligible. The type of the leachant has a stronger influence on Co-60 than on Cs-137. The increase of temperature usually also increased leaching. (author)

  16. Design of Ion-Exchange Resins Through EDTA and DTPA Modified Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Catechol, resorcinol, and their admixtures with EDTA and DTPA moieties were converted into polymeric resins by alkaline polycondensation with formaldehyde. The resins were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ion-exchange capacity, and distribution coefficient (D for heavy metal and radionuclide such as Cs and Sr. 137Cs and 90Sr constitutes a major source of heat in nuclear waste streams and in regards to recent nuclear event their remediation in complex solution – sea water - represent an important issue.

  17. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, H.; Emeterio H, M.; Canizal S, C.

    1999-01-01

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  18. Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerstenberg, S; Beug, H; Introna, M

    1990-01-01

    into protein. Using the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene cloned into the vector as a test construct, expression of enzyme activity could be detected in 90 to 95% of transfected target cells and in 80 to 85% of subsequently infected cells. In addition, a cDNA encoding the avian erythrocyte band 3 anion...... exchange protein has been expressed from the vector in both chicken embryo fibroblasts and QT6 cells and appears to function as an active, plasma membrane-based anion transporter. The ectopic expression of band 3 protein provides a visual marker for vector function in these cells....

  19. Studies of Vitrification of Ion-Exchange Resins. A Joint USA-Argentina Collaborative Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Herman, C.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Sundaram, S.K.; Perez, J.M.; Hoeffner, S.L.; Russo, D.O.; Sterba, M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions.As part of the JCCRM, DOE has established a collaborative research agreement with the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea).The Cnea is investigating treatment and disposal options for organic ion exchange resins currently stored at two nuclear power plants in the Republic of Argentina.The major hazards of the ion exchange resins are their organic composition and the contaminants that are present on the resins after purification processes.The principal contaminants are usually the radioactive species that are removed.For these studies, actual non-radioactive resins from Argentina's Embalse and Atucha plants were tested.The glass produced during the runs was durable was measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT).The product had a predictable, mostly amorphous composition throughout the demonstrations; though there was some evidence of the formation of clinopyroxene crystals.The immobilized product represented an approximately 70% volume reduction from the simulated Argentine ion exchange resin (i.e., a reduction from the volume of as-stored wet resin to the volume of the ultimate borosilicate glass product).For all runs, the radioactive surrogate retention was near 100%

  20. Layered double hydroxides as the next generation inorganic anion exchangers: Synthetic methods versus applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Natalia; Gilmour, Robert; Gerda, Vasyl; Mičušík, Matej; Omastova, Maria; Heister, Katja; Man, Pascal; Fraissard, Jacques; Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    This work is the first report that critically reviews the properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on the level of speciation in the context of water treatment application and dynamic adsorption conditions, as well as the first report to associate these properties with the synthetic methods used for LDH preparation. Increasingly stronger maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of various contaminants in drinking water and liquid foodstuffs require regular upgrades of purification technologies, which might also be useful in the extraction of valuable substances for reuse in accordance with modern sustainability strategies. Adsorption is the main separation technology that allows the selective extraction of target substances from multicomponent solutions. Inorganic anion exchangers arrived in the water business relatively recently to achieve the newly approved standards for arsenic levels in drinking water. LDHs (or hydrotalcites, HTs) are theoretically the best anion exchangers due to their potential to host anions in their interlayer space, which increases their anion removal capacity considerably. This potential of the interlayer space to host additional amounts of target aqueous anions makes the LDHs superior to bulk anion exchanger. The other unique advantage of these layered materials is the flexibility of the chemical composition of the metal oxide-based layers and the interlayer anions. However, until now, this group of "classical" anion exchangers has not found its industrial application in adsorption and catalysis at the industrial scale. To accelerate application of LDHs in water treatment on the industrial scale, the authors critically reviewed recent scientific and technological knowledge on the properties and adsorptive removal of LDHs from water on the fundamental science level. This also includes review of the research tools useful to reveal the adsorption mechanism and the material properties beyond the nanoscale. Further, these properties are

  1. Casting granular ion exchange resins with medium-active waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, O.

    1980-01-01

    Medium active waste from nuclear power stations in Sweden is trapped in granular ion exchange resins. The resin is mixed with cement paste and cast in a concrete shell which is cubic and has an edge dimension of 1.2 m. In some cases the ion exchange cement mortar has cracked. The report presents laboratory sutdies of the properties of the ion exchange resin and the mortar. Also the leaching of the moulds has been investigated. It was shown that a mixture with a water cement ratio higher than about 0.5 swells considerably during the first weeks after casting. The diffusion constant for cesium 137 has been determined at 3.10 -4 cm 2 /24-hour period in conjunction with exposure of the mould and mortar to sea water. The Swedish language report has 400 pages with 90 figures and 30 tables. (author)

  2. Synthesis of ion-exchange resin for selective thorium and uranyl ions sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Konstantin; Sachkov, Victor

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the method of ion-exchange resin synthesis selective to radionuclides (uranium and thorium) is presented. The method includes synthesis of polymeric styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous matrix with size of 0.1-0.2 mm, and its subsequent transformation by nitration and then reduction by tin (II) chloride. For passivation of active primary amines partially oxidation by oxygen from air is used. Obtained ion-exchange resin has ratio of sorption sum U+Th to sorption sum of other total rare-earth elements as 1:1.88 at ratio of solid to liquid phase 1:200. The proposed method of ion-exchange resin synthesis is scaled-up for laboratory reactors with volume of 5 and 50 liters.

  3. Incineration of ion-exchange resins in fluidized bed. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkianinen, M.

    1980-10-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on the pilot plant scale. The test programme performed consisted of the testing of various bed materials and finding the optimal conditions of incineration of spent resins. Granular resins were incinerated in an ethanol-water mixture. Incinernation converts the organic resin into inert oxide material, which can be solidified for instance with cement. The weight of the ash was 1...20% and the volume 2...30% of the original resins, which contained 15...25% moisture. When solidified with cement the volume of the ash-concrete is 4...22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Water immersion and heat tests of solidified ash showed satisfactory results. The absorption of Cs and Co in various bed materials was studied by means of inactive tracer materials. Biotite and chamotte absorbed significantly, but this absorption does not drastically help on the off gas side. The sintering of the bed materials in the presence of sodium was studied. Corundum, chamotte and biotite have a safety limit of 5% sodium of the bed's weight at 850 0 C

  4. Design of Anion Exchange Membranes and Electrodialysis Studies for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange membranes are highly versatile and nowadays have many applications, ranging from water treatment to sensing materials. The preparation of anion exchange membranes (AEMs from brominated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,6-phenylene oxide (BPPO and methyl(diphenylphosphine (MDPP for electrodialysis was performed. The physiochemical properties and electrochemical performance of fabricated membranes can be measured by changing MDPP contents in the membrane matrix. The influence of a quaternary phosphonium group associated with the removal of NaCl from water is discussed. The prepared membranes have ion exchange capacities (IEC 1.09–1.52 mmol/g, water uptake (WR 17.14%–21.77%, linear expansion ratio (LER 7.96%–11.86%, tensile strength (TS 16.66–23.97 MPa and elongation at break (Eb 485.57%–647.98%. The prepared anion exchange membranes were employed for the electrodialytic removal of 0.1 M NaCl aqueous solution at a constant applied voltage. It is found that the reported membranes could be the promising candidate for NaCl removal via electrodialysis.

  5. Microsystems for anion exchange separation of radionuclides in nitric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losno, M.; Brennetot, R.; Mariet, C. [DEN/Service d' Etudes Analytiques et de Reactivite des Surfaces - SEARS, CEA, Centre de Saclay, Universite Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ferrante, I.; Descroix, S. [MMBM Group, Institut Curie Research Center, CNRS UMR 168, Paris (France)

    2016-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible photo-polymerized poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate methacrylate-co- allyl methacrylate) monolith was synthesized and a photo-grafting process based on the ene-thiol click-chemistry has been performed to give anion exchange properties to the monolith. Since their introduction in the early 1990's polymethacrylate monoliths have emerged as a powerful alternative for microscale separations or sample treatment. Their relatively simple implementation in columns with small internal diameters makes them particularly attractive for the new chromatographic challenges of complex matrices analysis and on-chip separations. Despite their relatively poor ion-exchange capacity due to their highly porous structure, their use as anion exchangers is of large interest for nuclear analysis as numerous separations are based on this process. This paper presents a systematic study of the synthesis of the polymeric porous monolith and the versatile and robust functionalization method developed for the specific strong acidic media used in radiochemical procedures. The robustness of the stationary phase was tested in concentrated nitric acid. It appears that the C-S bond formed via thiol-ene chemistry is strong enough to be used to graft function of interest for separation in strong nitric acid medium. The photo-grafted anion exchanger, a quaternary ammonium, presents sufficient resistance to be used for radionuclide separation in [HNO{sub 3}]=5 mol.L{sup -1}so the next step is its integration in the cyclo olefin copolymer (COC) micro-system.

  6. Importance of balancing membrane and electrode water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasta, T. J.; Wang, L.; Peng, X.; Lewis, C. A.; Varcoe, J. R.; Mustain, W. E.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) offer several potential advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), most notably to overcome the cost barrier that has slowed the growth and large scale implementation of fuel cells for transportation. However, limitations in performance have held back AEMFCs, specifically in the areas of stability, carbonation, and maximum achievable current and power densities. In order for AEMFCs to contend with PEMFCs for market viability, it is necessary to realize a competitive cell performance. This work demonstrates a new benchmark for a H2/O2 AEMFC with a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2 at 60 °C. This was accomplished by taking a more precise look at balancing necessary membrane hydration while preventing electrode flooding, which somewhat surprisingly can occur both at the anode and the cathode. Specifically, radiation-grafted ETFE-based anion exchange membranes and anion exchange ionomer powder, functionalized with benchmark benzyltrimethylammonium groups, were utilized to examine the effects of the following parameters on AEMFC performance: feed gas flow rate, the use of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic gas diffusion layers, and gas feed dew points.

  7. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Ion-Exchange Resin - Effects of Oxygen Uptake and Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2009-01-01

    An ion-exchange process, using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site in Washington State. The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS)in South Carolina. Testing at ORNL will determine the impact of radiation exposure and oxygen uptake by the RF resin on the hydraulic permeability of the resin. Samples of the resin will be removed periodically to measure physical properties (bead size and compressibility) and cesium capacity. The proposed full-scale treatment system at Hanford, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), will use an ion-exchange column containing nominally 680 gal of resin, which will treat 30 gpm of waste solution. The ion-exchange column is designed for a typical pressure drop of 6 psig, with a maximum of 9.7 psig. The lab-scale column is 3-in. clear PVC pipe and is prototypic of the proposed Hanford column. The fluid velocity in the lab-scale test will be much higher than for the full-scale column, in order to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in that column (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity will produce similar forces on the resin in the lab-scale column as would be expected at the bottom of the full-scale column. The chemical changes in the resin caused by radiation exposure and oxygen uptake are expected to cause physical changes in the resin that could reduce the bed porosity and reduce the hydraulic permeability of the resin bed. These changes will be monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and by measuring the physical properties of samples of the resin. The test loop with the lab-scale column is currently being fabricated, and operation will start by late May. Testing will be completed by the

  8. A novel anion exchange membrane from polystyrene (ethylene butylene) polystyrene: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodh, Rajangam; Ilakkiya, Arjunan; Elamathi, Swaminathan [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Sangeetha, Dharmalingam, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.ed [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-02-25

    We look forward for an eco-friendly hydrocarbon polymer with higher molecular weight for the preparation of an anion exchange membrane. Polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (PSEBS) was chosen as the polymer matrix. The anion exchange membrane was prepared from PSEBS tri-block co-polymer and then the properties were characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. The preparation of anion exchange polymer involved two steps namely chloromethylation and quaternization. The anion exchange membrane with high conductivity has been prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups in to the polymer. Finally, the membrane was prepared using solution casting method. The solution casting method yields highly hydrophilic membranes with uniform structure that were suitable for electrochemical applications. The efficiency of the entrapment was monitored by swelling ratio, chemical stability and ion exchange measurement. The characteristic structural properties of the membrane were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the membrane was characterized by TGA, DSC and DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis). The prepared uniform electrolyte membrane in this study has high thermal and chemical stability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the quaternized PSEBS was determined by SEM-EDXA techniques, respectively. The measured hydroxyl ion conductivity of the synthesized alkaline PSEBS polymer electrolyte membrane showed ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -3} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. It was found that the substitution provided a flexible, chemically and thermally stable membrane. Hence, the membrane will have potential application in the alkaline fuel cell.

  9. Strontium-90 in ion-exchange resin used in the Australian FIEFS network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    1977-10-01

    In order to determine monthly strontium-90 fallout deposited at the eight Australian monitoring stations, account must be taken of the level of strontium-90 contamination of the ion-exchange resin as prepared for use in the FIEFS. This procedure has always been important in monitoring strontium-90 fallout deposit in Australia because the level of strontium-90 contamination of ion-exchange resin, supplied by manufacturers in the Northern Hemisphere, has remained of the same order of magnitude as the monthly fallout deposit in the Southern Hemisphere

  10. Design and assembling of a moving bed column to operate with ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A new moving bed column specially designed to operate with ion exchange resins in such peculiar situations where there is gas evolution is reported. The second part reports the use of the column in the preparation of nuclear grade ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUTC), from crude uranyl nitrate solution. Uranium-VI is binded into a strong cationic ion exchanger and then eluted with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . The final product is crystallized from the eluate by simply cooling down the temperature to 5 0 or by addition of ethanol. Loading of resin with uranyl ion, its elution with ammonium carbonate and the crystallization of AUTC is described [pt

  11. Evaluating of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awual, M Rabiul; Hossain, M Amran; Shenashen, M A; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Jyo, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been called the largest mass poisoning calamity in human history and creates severe health problems. The effective adsorbents are imperative in response to the widespread removal of toxic arsenic exposure through drinking water. Evaluation of arsenic(V) removal from water by weak-base anion exchange adsorbents was studied in this paper, aiming at the determination of the effects of pH, competing anions, and feed flow rates to improvement on remediation. Two types of weak-base adsorbents were used to evaluate arsenic(V) removal efficiency both in batch and column approaches. Anion selectivity was determined by both adsorbents in batch method as equilibrium As(V) adsorption capacities. Column studies were performed in fixed-bed experiments using both adsorbent packed columns, and kinetic performance was dependent on the feed flow rate and competing anions. The weak-base adsorbents clarified that these are selective to arsenic(V) over competition of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate anions. The solution pH played an important role in arsenic(V) removal, and a higher pH can cause lower adsorption capacities. A low concentration level of arsenic(V) was also removed by these adsorbents even at a high flow rate of 250-350 h(-1). Adsorbed arsenic(V) was quantitatively eluted with 1 M HCl acid and regenerated into hydrochloride form simultaneously for the next adsorption operation after rinsing with water. The weak-base anion exchange adsorbents are to be an effective means to remove arsenic(V) from drinking water. The fast adsorption rate and the excellent adsorption capacity in the neutral pH range will render this removal technique attractive in practical use in chemical industry.

  12. Comparative study of the ionic exchange of Ca++, Sr++, and Ba++ cations on resins and inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Batanero, P.

    1969-03-01

    With a view to applying the results to certain problems related to chemical separations in activation analysis, a study has been made, of the possibilities of separating the alkaline-earth elements Ca, Sr and Ba on organic resins and inorganic exchangers using the radioactive indicator method. The partition coefficients of the cations Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ have been measured on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin in the presence of EDTA - NTA - EGTA and DCTA as complexing agents, and on zirconium phosphate, tungstate and molybdate in the presence of HCl and NH 4 Cl. Methods have been developed for separating mixtures of alkaline-earth elements using DCTA-NH 4 + followed by elution on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin columns and on zirconium phosphate. Amongst the complexing agents used on the ion-exchange resins the most promising appears to be DCTA which leads to partition coefficients Ca, Sr and Ba which are very different. The results of measurements of partition coefficients on zirconium phosphate (NH 4 + form) using DCTA-NH 4 + show the interesting possibilities of separations on columns. The separation of the alkaline-earth elements on zirconium phosphate seems to be less quantitative than on Dowex 50 resin; it is however much faster in the former case and this can be useful for treating short half-life radioisotopes in activation analysis. (author) [fr

  13. Dehydrating process experiment on spent ion-exchange resin sludge by Funda Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Ishino, Kazuyuki

    1977-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, Funda Filters are employed to dehydrate spent powdery ion-exchange resin sludge. The Funda Filter is very effective for eliminating small rust components contained in spent powdery resin slurry; however, in the drying process, the complete drying of spent powdery resin is very difficult because the filter cake of resin on the horizontal filter leaf is likely to crack and let out steam and hot air through the cracks. This paper deals with the results of experiments conducted to clarify the detailed phenomena of dehydration so the above problem could be solved. The above experiments were made on the precoating and drying of granular ion-exchange resin slurry that had not yet been put to practical use. The experiments were composed of one fundamental and one operational stage. In the fundamental experiment, the dehydration properties and dehydration mechanism of resins were made clear, and the most effective operational method was established through the operational experiments conducted using large-scale Funda Filter test equipment under various conditions. (auth.)

  14. Irradiation effects in the storage and disposal of radioactive ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Dodge, C.E.; Dayal, R.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Research is under way to characterize the effects of self-irradiation on radwastes which may be generated when organic ion-exchange media are used in water demineralization or decontamination operations at nuclear facilities. External factors affecting the relation between laboratory evaluations and field performance are emphasized. Initial experiments do not yet indicate substantial radiation dose-rate effects on radiolytic gas yields or acid product formation, when (fully swollen) sulfonic acid resins are irradiated in a sealed air environment. At the same time, oxygen gas is removed from the environment of irradiated resins. Interaction between mild steel coupons and acidic species produced in the irradiation induced decomposition of sulfonic acid resin results in irradiation enhanced corrosion. Corrosion rates depend on radiation dose rate, moisture content and resin chemical loading. In some cases, corrosion rates decrease with time, suggesting depletion of acidic species within the resin bed, or a synergistic interaction between resin and corrosion coupon. Implications of these and other results on evaluating field behavior of radwaste containing ion-exchange media are discussed. 4 figures, 2 tables

  15. Influence of glucose and urea on 125I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the influence of glucose and urea on the 125 I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane, the transmembrane potential, the fluxes, and the concentrations of 125 I, glucose and urea within the membrane were measured in the Na 125 I concentration-cell system containing glucose or urea. Glucose and urea increased the membrane/solution distribution of the iodide ion, but scarcely affected the diffusion process of iodide ion within the membrane

  16. Characterization and disposal of ion exchange resins used in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Olguin G, M.T.; Emeterio H, M.; Garcia M, H.

    2006-01-01

    To dispose of an appropriate way the used ion exchange resins so much in the pool water purification systems of the TRIGA Mark III reactor like in the JS6500 gamma irradiator, of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, were carried out a series of analytic nuclear techniques and complementary conventional to those recommended by the ASTM, with the object of to control and to manage 14 lots of worn out resins appropriately. For its were identified the radioactive isotopes, the resins type, the grade of chemical pollution and the physicochemical degradation of the same ones. The lots of resins that didn't contain radioactive isotopes its were regenerated in an usual way, as long as those that if they controlled them they selected options for its final disposition. The first selected option was the extraction method of ion radioactive isotopes, concentrating the elution product by evaporation. As second option it was carried out the resins stabilization damaged by micro-encapsulation by forged to ambient temperature, using an organic polymer. Previous to the immobilization the resins were pretreated by vacuum drying, pulverization and thermal drying, however before carrying out this last, it was carried out a thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the drying conditions of the resins avoiding its chemical decomposition. (Author)

  17. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  18. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  19. Estimation of tritium trapped in the used ion exchange column resins using water as scavenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, S.; Ramakrishna, V.; Nair, B.S.K.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Estimation of Tritium trapped in the used resins of Ion exchange (IX) columns apart from the gross beta activity in heavy water systems of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) is mandatory before their disposal as radioactive waste. The gross beta activity is estimated by Gieger- Muller (GM) counter and by using gamma spectrometer. Accurate estimation of tritium activity of the resin without compromising the counting efficiency is a challenging task because, if a fixed quantity of the resin is directly added to the scintillation solution and counted on a liquid scintillation analyser (LSA), it is prone to interfere with counting efficiency drastically and results in unquantifiable errors and other practical difficulties. In this study a standard technique using light water as scavenger medium to precisely quantify the total activity of tritium trapped in the resin by a systematic approach was carried out

  20. Experience with intermediate strong base anion resins at three mile island nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federick, K.H.; Reed, J.G.; Glass, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A-104 resin appears to have been an excellent replacement for upflow regenerated Stratabeds at Three Mile Island. It has resulted in a 50% increase in operating throughputs, lower maintenance and greater ease of operation for the makeup trains. It should be stressed that differences in raw water characteristics or equipment design might render this experience not applicable to any given specific installation. A thorough evaluation of all aspects of such a conversion is recommended before any changes are attempted. 1 ref

  1. 1-Butanol absorption in poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) ion exchange resins for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maciá, M A; Curcó, D; Bringué, R; Iborra, M; Rodríguez-Ropero, F; van der Vegt, N F A; Aleman, Carlos

    2015-12-21

    The swelling behaviour of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), P(S-DVB), ion exchange resins in 1-butanol (BuOH) has been studied by means of atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The topological characteristics reported for the resin in the dry state, which exhibited complex internal loops (macropores), were considered for the starting models used to examine the swelling induced by BuOH contents ranging from 10% to 50% w/w. Experimental measurements using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer indicate that swelling causes a volume variation with respect to the dry resin of 21%. According to MD simulations, such a volume increment corresponds to a BuOH absorption of 31-32% w/w, which is in excellent agreement with the indirect experimental estimation (i.e. 31% w/w). Simulations reveal that, independently of the content of BuOH, the density of the swelled resin is higher than that of the dry resin, evidencing that the alcohol provokes important structural changes in the polymeric matrix. Thus, BuOH molecules cause a collapse of the resin macropores when the content of alcohol is ≤20% w/w. In contrast, when the concentration of BuOH is close to the experimental value (∼30% w/w), P(S-DVB) chains remain separated by pores faciliting the access of the reactants to the reaction centers. On the other hand, evaluation of both bonding and non-bonding interactions indicates that the mixing energy is the most important contribution to the absorption of BuOH into the P(S-DVB) resin. Overall, the results displayed in this work represent a starting point for the theoretical study of the catalytic conversion of BuOH into di-n-butyl ether in P(S-DVB) ion exchange resins using sophisticated electronic methods.

  2. Separation of hemicellulose-derived saccharides from wood hydrolysate by lime and ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Zhuang, Jingshun; Fu, Yingjuan; Tian, Guoyu; Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua

    2016-04-01

    A combined process of lime treatment and mixed bed ion exchange was proposed to separate hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDS) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of lignocellulose as value added products. The optimization of lime treatment achieved up to 44.2% removal of non-saccharide organic compounds (NSOC), mainly colloidal substances, with negligible HDS degradation at 0.5% lime level and subsequent neutralization by phosphoric acid. The residual NSOC and calcium ions in lime-treated PHL were eliminated by mixed bed ion exchange. The breakthrough curves of HDS and NSOC showed selective retention toward NSOC, leading to 75% HDS recovery with 95% purity at 17 bed volumes of exchange capacity. In addition, macroporous resin showed higher exchange capacity than gel resin as indicated by the triple processing volume. The remarkable selectivity of the combined process suggested the feasibility for HDS separation from PHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE`s Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin.

  5. Use of an Italian pozzolanic cement for the solidification of bead ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.

    1988-05-01

    Granular ion-exchange resins represent a large portion of the medium-active wastes generated at nuclear power stations. The most common practice for their confinement is to mix them with cement paste and cast the mixture in a concrete shell. Such a procedure however does not prove successful in many cases, because of the extreme swelling to which the embedded resin can give rise. This phenomenon has been investigated carefully. In particular, measurements of the swelling pressure have been made together with evaluation of the volume changes of the resin beads due to ion exchange and of the weight increase as a function of relative humidity. The ion exchange capacity, which continues even after incorporation in the cement matrix has also been put into evidence. The conclusion was drawn that a three component diagram (water - dry resin- cement) has to be prepared every time in order to identify the region corresponding to the better formulations. With this in mind the optimum waste loading of 11.5 wt% of dry resin was chosen to incorporate a mixed bed resin (Amberlite IR 120 Na + and IRA 400 Cl - in the weight ratio of 1:1) into an Italian pozzolanic cement (425 type). Several properties of the final waste form have been investigated, ranging from mechanical (crushing strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, elastic modulus and Poisson ratio), to thermal stability, radiation stability, permeability, leachability and resistance to bacterial attack. Dimensional stability was also measured with the aim of examining the expansion phenomena which can take place in the presence of resin beads. The data obtained are encouraging for future application of the type 425 cement tested in the field of radwastes. An attempt to explain the performance of this binder, based on its intrinsic properties, was also made. (author)

  6. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Vigreux, B.

    1988-01-01

    Cement solidification technology has been applied to spent ion exchange resins for many years in countries throughout the world (at reactors, research centers and spent fuel reprocessing plants). Changing specifications for storage of radioactive waste have, however, confronted the operators of such facilities with a number of problems. Problems related both to the cement solidification process (water/cement/resin interactions and chemical interactions) and to its utilization (mixing, process control, variable feed composition, etc.) have often led waste producers to prefer other, polymer-based processes, which are very expensive and virtually incompatible with water. This paper discusses research on cement solidification of ion exchange resins since 1983 and the development of application technologies adapted to nuclear service conditions and stringent finished product quality requirements

  7. A review of the development of resins for use in hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial resins, including cation exchangers, anion exchangers, and complexing resins, that may be suitable for use in the extraction of metals are reviewed. Areas where further research is required are considered, and potential applications that are of particular interest to the Council for Mineral Technology (Mintek), involving the recovery of uranium, gold, and the base metals, are described. Commercial resins and experimental resins developed at Mintek are evaluated, and the results are reviewed

  8. Anion exchange membrane based on alkali doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available was prepared. The alkali doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) membrane is a promising candidate as anion exchange membrane for fuel cell application. The alkali doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) membrane reached an anion conductivity of 2.3×10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature...

  9. Bifunctional ion exchange resin with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups for the sorption of arsenate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Korostyatynets, V.; Beneš, Milan J.; Matějka, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 11 (2003), s. 2159-2170 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/1310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : ion exchange rs * functionalized resin s * polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  10. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel; Ramírez, E.; Tejero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, MAY (2014), s. 14-22 ISSN 1381-5148 Grant - others:SEURDO(ES) CTQ2010-16047 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : acidic ion - exchange resin * sulfonation degree * ISEC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014

  11. Metal Palladium Dispersed Inside Macroporous Ion-Exchange Resins: Textural Characterization and Accessibility to Gaseou Reactants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biffis, A.; Jeřábek, Karel; D'Archivio, A. A.; Galantini, L.; Corain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2000), s. 2327-2332 ISSN 0167-2991. [International Congress on Catalysis /12./. Granada, 09.07.2000-14.07.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : metal palladium * dispersed * ion-exchange resins Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2000

  12. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico; Estudio de eliminacion de arsenico con resinas de entercambio ionico en agua potable de Zimapan, Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-07-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480{+-}11{mu}g-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V{sub a}gua. V{sub r}es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V{sub a}gua .V{sub r}es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 {mu}g.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE - IMIDAZOLIUM FUNCTIONALIZED POLYSULFONE BLEND ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VELU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange membrane (AEM is one of the core components of an alkaline fuel cell influencing the fuel cell’s performance, durability and stability. Out of the many anion exchange membranes reported so far, imidazolium functionalized polysulfone (PSf-ImOH membrane has been identified to have high hydroxide ionic conductivity, reaching up to 50 mS cm-1 at 20oC. However, at high levels of ion exchange capacity, the membrane’s water uptake and swelling ratio increases significantly with temperature thus destabilizing it and making it unfit for potential use in high temperature alkaline fuel cells. This limitation of PSf-ImOH membranes has been overcome by blending it with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer, which is a thermally stable and highly hydrophobic polymer. PSf-ImOH membrane with a high degree of chloromethylation (180% was synthesized and blended with PVDF at different weight ratios (PVDF / PSf-ImOH: 30/70, 50/50 and 70/30 to create a series of novel anion exchange membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized to study their structure, water uptake, swelling ratio, solubility in low boiling water soluble solvents, thermal stability, ion exchange capacity (IEC and ionic conductivity (IC at different temperatures. The 70% PVDF blend membrane demonstrated the better performance in terms of IEC, IC and water uptake properties compared to other membranes. Comparative studies on the water uptake and IC variation between the 70% PVDF blend membrane and pure PSfImOH membrane (having the same IEC as that of the blend membrane, clearly indicated the superiority and the promising use of the blend membrane in alkaline fuel cell especially for high temperature working condition.

  14. Evidence for F-/SiO- anion exchange in the framework of As-synthesized all-silica zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiaolong; Ravon, Ugo; Tuel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Not everything changes: Charge-compensating anions can be exchanged in as-synthesized zeolite frameworks with changes in both the density of defect sites and of the hydrophobic character of the zeolite. The reversible transformation occurs without

  15. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  18. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  19. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  20. Improvement of incineration efficiency of spent ion exchange resins on the incinerator at nuclear power plants. Manufacturing the solids of the resins mixed with paraffin wax and their incinerating test results on actual incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Takashi; Inagawa, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Takashi; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Ino, Takao; Ishiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, ion exchange resins are used at water purification systems such as condensate demineralizers. After usage, used ion exchange resins are stored at plants as low level radioactive wastes. Ion exchange resins contain water and so, those are flame resistant materials. At present, ion exchange resins are incinerated with other inflammable materials at incinerators. Furthermore, ion exchange resins are fine particle beads and are easy to be scattered in all directions, so operators must pay attentions for treatment. Then, we have developed the new solidification system of ion exchange resins with paraffin wax. Ion exchange resins are mixed and extruded with paraffin wax and these solids are enabled to incinerate at existing incinerators. In order to demonstrate this new method, we made the large amount of solids and incinerated them at actual incinerator. From these results, we have estimated to be able to incinerate the solids only at actual incinerator. (author)

  1. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L

    2004-01-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility

  2. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2007-06-27

    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  3. The PILO process: zeolites and titanates in the treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.; Forberg, S.; Westermark, T.; Faelt, L.

    1981-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins from power reactor operation contain more than 95% of the total radioactivity of wet reactor wastes. Cementation and bituminization are the two methods applied in Sweden up to now for the immobilization of spent resins. Over the last years, however, research and development work has resulted in a proposed process (PILO), where > 99.9 % of cesium and strontium and around 90 % of other radioactive nuclides are eluted from the spent resins and sorbed in zeolites and titanates in a chromatographic process. The inorganic sorbents are dried after loading and sintered to yield long-term stable products, while the treated resins may be incinerated to give ash residues of fairly short-lived activity. The development work has included production, characterization and testing of different zeolites and titanates, bench-scale optimization of the chromatographic process using actual spent resins, heat treatment of the loaded inorganic sorbents, and resin incineration. Over-all system design studies including transport requirements, integrated process flowsheets, and cost estimates are now in progress. The aim is to have a sufficient basis during spring 1982 to decide on the merits of a PILO plant at the planned repository for low and medium level waste (SFR), to be commissioned in 1988. (Auth.)

  4. A green approach for preparing anion exchange membrane based on cardo polyetherketone powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chengxu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Lin; Meng, Yuedong; Wang, Xiangke

    2014-12-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) have attracted great attention due to their irreplaceable role in platinum-free fuel cell applications. The majority of AEM preparations have been performed in two steps: the grafting of functional groups and quaternization. Here, we adopted a simpler, more eco-friendly approach for the first time to prepare AEMs by atmospheric-pressure plasma-grafting. This approach enables the direct introduction of anion exchange groups (benzyltrimethylammonium groups) into the polymer matrix, overcoming the need for toxic chloromethyl ether and quaternization reagents. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy results demonstrate that benzyltrimethylammonium groups have been successfully grafted into the cardo polyetherketone (PEK-C) matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the plasma-grafting technique is a facile and non-destructive method able to improve the thermal stability of the polymer matrix due to the strong preservation of the PEK-C backbone structure and the cross-linking of the grafted side chains. The plasma-grafted PG-NOH membrane, which shows satisfactory alcohol resistance (ethanol permeability of 6.3 × 10-7 cm2 s-1), selectivity (1.2 × 104 S s cm-3), thermal stability (safely used below 130 °C), chemical stability, anion conductivity (7.7 mS cm-1 at 20 °C in deionized water) and mechanical properties is promising for the construction of high-performance fuel cells.

  5. Electron exchange reaction in anion exchangers as observed in uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obanawa, Heiichiro; Takeda, Kunihiko; Seko, Maomi

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of electron exchange in an ion exchanger, as occurring between U 4+ and UO 2 2+ in uranium isotope separation, was investigated. The height of the separation unit (H q ) in the presence of metal ion catalysts, as obtained from the separation experiments, was found to be almost coincident with the theoretical value of H q as calculated on the basis of the intrasolution acceleration mechanism of the metal ion, suggesting that the electron exchange mechanism in the ion-exchanger is essentially the same as that in the solution when metal ion catalysts are present. Separation experiments with no metal ion catalyst, on the other hand, showed the electron exchange reaction in the ion exchanger to be substantially higher than that in the solution, suggesting an acceleration of the electron exchange reaction by the ion-exchanger which is due to the close existence of higher order Cl - complexes of UO 2 2+ and U 4+ in the vicinity of the ion-exchange group. (author)

  6. Literature study of volatile radioiodine release from ion-exchange resins during transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.

    1991-02-01

    A transport package is currently being developed by Ontario Hydro to carry used filters and ion-exchange columns from the Pickering and Darlington Nuclear Generating Stations to the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station for disposal. The main reason that the transport package must be licensed is the possibility that volatile radionuclides being transported in the package might be released during transport accidents. Of particular concern is the iodine that might become volatile due to the degradation of the ion exchange resin. This report reviews the literature on the thermal and radiolytic degradation of ion exchange resins and provides calculations to estimate the fraction of volatile iodine as a function of time under postulated accident conditions

  7. Study of ion exchange equilibrium and determination of heat of ion exchange by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kailu; Yang Wenying

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography using pellicularia ion exchange resins and dilute solution can be devoted to the study of ion exchange thermodynamics and kinetics. Ion exchange equilibrium equation was obtained, and examined by the experiments. Based on ion exchange equilibrium, the influence of eluent concentration and resin capacity on adjusted retention volumes was examined. The effect of temperature on adjusted retention volumes was investigated and heats of ion exchange of seven anions were determined by ion chromatography. The interaction between anions and skeleton structure of resins were observed

  8. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmy, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  9. Separation of plutonium on the anion exchanger BIO-RAD 1-X2 and its application to radiochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, S.; Gann, C.; Eikenberg, J.; Wyer, L.; Beer, H.; Ruethi, M.; Jaeggi, M.; Zumsteg, I

    2007-12-15

    The element Pu (Z = 94) is a member of the actinide series of the elements (Z = 89 -103). The actinides have similar chemical properties and are also similar to the lanthanides (Z = 57 -71). Sixteen isotopes of Pu have been synthesized, all of which are radioactive. The Pu present in the environment originates from the atmospheric nuclear tests from 1950 to 1963, which produced the so-called 'global fallout'. As a result, 6.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 15} Bq {sup 239}Pu (2.8 tons), 4.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 15} Bq {sup 240}Pu (0.52 tons), and 3.7 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} Bq {sup 241}Pu (0.04 tons) were dispersed over the world. A contribution also to the global fallout was the ignition of the satellite SWAP 9A in the atmosphere in 1964, equipped with a battery powered by 6.3 {center_dot} 10{sup 14} Bq (1 kg) of {sup 238}Pu. In addition to these sources, nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities may contribute with their emissions to increase locally the Pu concentration in their environment. In the PSI laboratory, we are confronted with the determination of traces of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in environmental and biological materials. Because of the low quantity of Pu in the analyzed samples, which is usually below 100 mBq, it is mandatory to separate the Pu from all other accompanying elements. The separated Pu is then measured by alpha spectrometry. In this work, the anion exchanger BIO-RAD AG 1 is extensively used for the separation of Pu from different matrices. This exchanger is superior when only Pu is determined in the sample. In addition, it is also very suitable when other actinides, such as Am and Cm, are also determined. No preconcentration step is necessary for the Pu separation. The resins introduced by the company Eichrom Industries in the 90's, which allow the separation of the actinides from the major environmental elements and from each other, requires relatively small volumes of sample solution

  10. Separation of plutonium on the anion exchanger BIO-RAD 1-X2 and its application to radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Gann, C.; Eikenberg, J.; Wyer, L.; Beer, H.; Ruethi, M.; Jaeggi, M.; Zumsteg, I.

    2007-12-01

    The element Pu (Z = 94) is a member of the actinide series of the elements (Z = 89 -103). The actinides have similar chemical properties and are also similar to the lanthanides (Z = 57 -71). Sixteen isotopes of Pu have been synthesized, all of which are radioactive. The Pu present in the environment originates from the atmospheric nuclear tests from 1950 to 1963, which produced the so-called 'global fallout'. As a result, 6.5 · 10 15 Bq 239 Pu (2.8 tons), 4.4 · 10 15 Bq 240 Pu (0.52 tons), and 3.7 · 10 4 Bq 241 Pu (0.04 tons) were dispersed over the world. A contribution also to the global fallout was the ignition of the satellite SWAP 9A in the atmosphere in 1964, equipped with a battery powered by 6.3 · 10 14 Bq (1 kg) of 238 Pu. In addition to these sources, nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities may contribute with their emissions to increase locally the Pu concentration in their environment. In the PSI laboratory, we are confronted with the determination of traces of 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu in environmental and biological materials. Because of the low quantity of Pu in the analyzed samples, which is usually below 100 mBq, it is mandatory to separate the Pu from all other accompanying elements. The separated Pu is then measured by alpha spectrometry. In this work, the anion exchanger BIO-RAD AG 1 is extensively used for the separation of Pu from different matrices. This exchanger is superior when only Pu is determined in the sample. In addition, it is also very suitable when other actinides, such as Am and Cm, are also determined. No preconcentration step is necessary for the Pu separation. The resins introduced by the company Eichrom Industries in the 90's, which allow the separation of the actinides from the major environmental elements and from each other, requires relatively small volumes of sample solution. This report describes the extensive utilization of the classical anion exchanger BIO-RAD 1-X2 in 8 molar nitric

  11. Mathematical modelling for magnetite (crude removal from primary heat transfer loop by ion-exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Nawaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses to develop mathematical model for the removal of iron (magnetite by ion-exchange resin from primary heat transfer loop of process industries. This mathematical model is based on operating capacities (that’s provide more effective design as compared to loading capacity from static laboratory tests. Results showed non-steady state distribution of external Fe2+ and limitations imposed on operating conditions, these conditions includes; loading and elution cycle time, flow rate, concentration of both loading and removal, volume of resin required. Number of generalized assumptions was made under shortcut modeling techniques to overcome the gap of theoretical and actual process design.

  12. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-01-01

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  13. Development of Highly Nano-Dispersed NiO/GDC Catalysts from Ion Exchange Resin Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Caravaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel NiO/GDC (Gadolinium-doped Ceria cermet catalysts were developed by the Weak Acid Resin (WAR method using an ion exchange resin template. In addition, the specific surface area of these tunable materials was enhanced by NiO partial dissolution in aqueous acid solution. The whole procedure highly improved the micro-structural properties of these materials compared to previous studies. Catalysts with high metal loadings (≥10%, small Ni nanoparticles (<10 nm, and high specific surface areas (>70 m2/g were achieved. These properties are promising for catalytic applications such as methane steam reforming for H2 production.

  14. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELsourougy, M R; Zaki, A A; Aly, H F [Atomic energy authority, hot laboratory center, Cairo, (Egypt); Khalil, M Y [Nuclear engineering department, Alexandria university. Alexandria, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELsourougy, M.R.; Zaki, A.A.; Aly, H.F.; Khalil, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  17. Extraction of Co ions from ion-exchange resin by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Min Su; Koh, Moon Sung; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of liquid treatment processes for eliminating radioactive ionic contaminants in nuclear facilities. One of the most common treatment methods for aqueous streams is the use of ion exchange, which is a well-developed technique that has been employed for many years in the nuclear industry. More specifically speaking, systems that ion exchange method is applied to in nuclear power plants are liquid radioactive waste treatment system, chemical and volume control system, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and service water supply system. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive contaminants such as Co-60, Mn-54, Fe-59 and Cs-137 are contained in liquid radioactive wastes. And the wastes containing small amount of uranium are generated in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To treat the liquid radioactive waste, we usually install ion exchangers rather than evaporators due to their simplicity and effectiveness, and this trend is increasing. However, the ion exchange process produces large volume of spent organic resin, and has some problems of radiation damage and thermal instability. And the reuse of the resin is limited due to the degradation of ion-exchanging ability. For this reason, were should consider a better method to expand the lifetime of the resin or to reduce the volume of radioactive resin wastes by extracting radioactive contaminants located in the resin. Supercritical fluid CO 2 has many good points as a process solvent that include low viscosity, negligible surface tension, and variable selectivity. And supercritical fluids have physical properties of both liquid and gas such as good penetration with a high dissolution capability. Supercritical fluids have been widely used in extraction, purification, and recovery processes. A number of workers applied supercritical CO 2 solvent for cleaning of precision devices and waste treatments. Since supercritical CO 2 has its mild critical point at 31 and 73.8bar as .deg. C

  18. Ion-exchange equilibrium of Fe3+-Cl- and UO22+-Cl- systems in a porous anion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Kawakami, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Mitsunaga

    1985-01-01

    The ion-exchange equilibrium behavior of complex ions was investigatided in the systems of UO 2 2+ - Cl - and Fe 3+ - Cl - using an anion exchanger. It was performed by examining the dependency of adsorption distribution and selectivity of complexes on the micro structure of ion-exchangers, and temperature-dependency of selectivity. Changes in micropore structure of the ion-exchanger were found to have a significant effect on selectivity; the coefficient of selectivity and the average valence of the adsorbed species increased as the discrete pore ratio used as the index for pore structure decreased. In this study, equilibrium reactions were regarded as a sort of addition reaction for a easier analysis. This analysis based on the concept of addition chemical potential suggested that decreases in the discrete pore ratio were advantageous for the adsorption of complex ion species with higher valence, and average valence of the adsorbed species within the exchanger was shifted to the higher side. For this reason, it is assumed that the coefficient of selectivity became larger with a decrease in the discrete pore ratio. There is also a marked change in the coefficient of selectivity with temperature, and this becomes greater the higher the temperature. The ΔH of the present system accompanying the complex forming reaction is estimated to be 7 to 8 kcal/mol, and this value suggests that the temperature effect of the complex forming reaction contributes greatly to the change in selectivity with temperature. (author)

  19. Removal of chromium (VI) from electroplating wastewater using an anion exchanger derived from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Dang, Zhi; Yia, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Chen; Lu, Gui-Ning; Liu, Yun-Feng; Huang, Se-Yan; Zheng, Liu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    An anion exchanger from rice straw was used to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic wastewater and electroplating effluent. The exchanger was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that the quaternary amino group and hydroxyl group are the main functional groups on the fibrous surface of the exchanger. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and pH on the removal of Cr (VI), and adsorption isotherms at different temperature, was investigated. The results showed that the removal of Cr (VI) was very rapid and was significantly affected by the initial pH of the solution. Although acidic conditions (pH = 2-6) facilitated Cr (VI) adsorption, the exchanger was effective in neutral solution and even under weak base conditions. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacities at pH 6.4 were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.38 mmol/g for 15, 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The exchanger was finally tested with real electroplating wastewater, and at sorbent dosage of 10 g/L, the removal efficiencies for Cr (VI) and total Cr were 99.4% and 97.8%, respectively. In addition, the positive relationship between adsorbed Cr (VI) and desorbed Cl- suggested that Cr (VI) was mainly removed by ion exchange with chlorine.

  20. Preparation and performance evaluation of novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Bakangura, Erigene; Afsar, Noor Ul; Hossain, Md. Masem; Ran, Jin; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-07-01

    Novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes are prepared from various amounts of N-methyl dipicolylamine (MDPA) and brominated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO). The dipicolylamine and MDPA are synthesized through condensation reaction and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The morphologies of prepared membranes are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical and physical properties of AEMs are tested comprising water uptake (WU), ion exchange capacity (IEC), alkaline stability, linear expansion ratio (LER), thermal stability and mechanical stability. The obtained hydroxide conductivity of MDPA-4 is 66.5 mS/cm at 80 °C. The MDPA-4 membrane shows good alkaline stability, high hydroxide conductivity, low methanol permeability (3.43 × 10-7 cm2/s), higher selectivity (8.26 × 107 mS s/cm3), less water uptake (41.1%) and lower linear expansion (11.1%) despite of high IEC value (1.62 mmol/g). The results prove that MDPA membranes have great potential application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell.

  1. Yttrium and rare earths separation by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Ayres, M.J.G.; Ribeiro, S.; Silva, G.L.J.P.; Silva, M.L.C.P.; Martins, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of yttrium and rare earths separation from Brazilian xenotime are presented. The research consist in five stage: 1) Preparation of yttrium, erbium and lutetium standard solutions, from solubilization of pure oxides 2) yttrium and rare earths separation by ion exchange chromatrography 3) Separation and recovery of EDTA 4) Precipitation and calcination and 4) Analytical control of process. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by means of ionic exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Jobelin, I. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, RadioChem and Proc Dept, Actinides Chem and Convers, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    The conversion of minor actinides to fuel starting materials for transmutation in a closed nuclear cycle is a big challenge for the next decades and the development of Gen(IV) nuclear systems. Conversion routes are numerous, but one needs to prove that they can be adapted to handle minor actinides. One of them is called the resin process and is particularly attractive because it stands for a 'dustless' process as it produces microspheres of oxide or carbide after thermal treatment of the loaded resin. The study presented herein focuses on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixation of minor actinides onto ionic exchange resin and their carbonization into oxide type materials. (authors)

  3. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by means of ionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S; Mokhtari, H; Jobelin, I; Ramiere, I

    2010-01-01

    The conversion of minor actinides to fuel starting materials for transmutation in a closed nuclear cycle is a big challenge for the next decades and the development of Gen(IV) nuclear systems. Conversion routes are numerous, but one needs to prove that they can be adapted to handle minor actinides. One of them is called the resin process and is particularly attractive because it stands for a 'dustless' process as it produces microspheres of oxide or carbide after thermal treatment of the loaded resin. The study presented herein focuses on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixation of minor actinides onto ionic exchange resin and their carbonization into oxide type materials.

  4. Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by fixed bed procedure on cation exchange complexing resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Maria; Sturini, Michela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2010-02-19

    The efficiency of the metal ion recovery by solid phase extraction (SPE) in complexing resins columns is predicted by a simple model based on two parameters reflecting the sorption equilibria and kinetics of the metal ion on the considered resin. The parameter related to the adsorption equilibria was evaluated by the Gibbs-Donnan model, and that related to the kinetics by assuming that the ion exchange is the adsorption rate determining step. The predicted parameters make it possible to evaluate the breakthrough volume of the considered metal ion, Cu(II), from different kinds of complexing resins, and at different conditions, such as acidity and ionic composition. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The purification by ion exchange resins of the heavy water la the reactors EL1 and EL2. B - study of the general properties of the resins used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourre; Platzer

    1957-01-01

    Within the programme of the pile heavy water purification project, organized by the stable Isotopes Section, we have carried out a certain number of tests on ion exchange resins. The problem posed by the stable Isotopes Section was to determine the conditions of utilisation of ion exchange resins, knowing that they would be employed in a system branching off the heavy water circuit in the piles. These investigations were carried out in close collaboration with the stable Isotopes Section, and were guided chiefly by the extremely short delay permitted between the laboratory study and its application to the piles. The tests are divided into two groups: 1- General properties of the resins. 2- Utilisation of the resins, particularly in an apparatus similar to those mounted on the piles but of smaller dimensions. (author) [fr

  6. Fe electron transfer and atom exchange in goethite: influence of Al-substitution and anion sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Drew E; Bachman, Jonathan E; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-10-02

    The reaction of Fe(II) with Fe(III) oxides and hydroxides is complex and includes sorption of Fe(II) to the oxide, electron transfer between sorbed Fe(II) and structural Fe(III), reductive dissolution coupled to Fe atom exchange, and, in some cases mineral phase transformation. Much of the work investigating electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxides has been done under relatively simple aqueous conditions in organic buffers to control pH and background electrolytes to control ionic strength. Here, we investigate whether electron transfer is influenced by cation substitution of Al(III) in goethite and the presence of anions such as phosphate, carbonate, silicate, and natural organic matter. Results from (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate that both Al-substitution (up to 9%) and the presence of common anions (PO(4)(3-), CO(3)(2-), SiO(4)(4-), and humic acid) does not inhibit electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) in goethite under the conditions we studied. In contrast, sorption of a long-chain phospholipid completely shuts down electron transfer. Using an enriched isotope tracer method, we found that Al-substitution in goethite (10%), does, however, significantly decrease the extent of atom exchange between Fe(II) and goethite (from 43 to 12%) over a month's time. Phosphate, somewhat surprisingly, appears to have little effect on the rate and extent of atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and goethite. Our results show that electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and solid Fe(III) in goethite can occur under wide range of geochemical conditions, but that the extent of redox-driven Fe atom exchange may be dependent on the presence of substituting cations such as Al.

  7. Selective preconcentration of iodide in presence of iodate using a plasticized anion-exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, Preeti; Rajurkar, N.S.; Acharya, R.; Pandey, A.K.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the hydrophobic anion-exchange membranes were prepared by physical immobilization of Aliquat-336 (AL) in the cellulose triacetate (CTA) matrix plasticized with dioctyl phthalate (DOP). The uptake of I - in this membrane was examined in aqueous sample in the presence of IO 3 - ions in varying concentrations. In order to provide better discrimination between I - and IO 3 - ions, the uptake studies were carried out using three different counterions (CL - , Br - and NO 3 - ) in the membrane. The results of these studies are described in this paper

  8. Oxidative degradation of ion-exchange resins in acid medium. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Ghattas, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Volume reduction of spent ion-exchange resins used in nuclear facilities receive increasing importance due to the increase in storage cost, unstable physical and chemical properties and their relatively high specific activity (in some cases up to 1 Ci per liter). The present study is part of research program on the treatment and immobilization of radioactive spent ion-exchange resins simulate; hydrogen peroxide was used for the oxidative degradation of spent ion-exchange resins simulate in sulphuric acid medium. Five liters ring digester developed in Karlsruhe nuclear research center-(KFK)- in germany was the chosen option to perform the oxidation process. The work reported focused on the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process. Heating the organic resins in sulphuric acid results in its carbonization and partial oxidation of only 1.7% of the carbon added. Results show that the oxidation reaction is a relatively slow process of first order with K value in the order of 10 -4 min -1 , and the main oxidation product was carbon dioxide. The production of carbon oxide in the off gas stream increased sharply by the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the hot sulphuric acid-resin mixture. The results obtained show that more than 97% of the carbon added was oxidized to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The rate constant value (K) of this reaction was calculated to be (1.69±0.13) x 10 -2 min -1 . The results of gas chromatographic analysis indicate that no significant amounts of hazardous organic materials were detected in the off-gas streams. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture at Belgoprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    2003-01-01

    Up to 1998, spent ion exchange resins have been fed to the incinerator in combination with various other solid combustible wastes at Belgoprocess. However, thanks to sustained efforts to reduce radioactive waste production in all nuclear facilities in Belgium, the annual production of solid combustible waste is now much too small to allow this practice to be continued. Since the incinerator at Belgoprocess is not capable of treating spent ion exchange resins as such, it was decided to adopt the use of foam as a carrier to feed the resins to the incinerator. The mixture is a pseudohomogeneous charged foam, ensuring easy handling and allowing incineration in the existing furance, while a number of additives may be included, such as oil to increase the calorific value of the mixture and accelerate combustion. The first incineration campaign of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic foam mixture, in conjunction with other liquid and solid combustible wastes, will be started in January 2000. The foam, comprising 70% by weight of resins, 29% by weight of water and 1% by weight of surfactant will be pulverized in the incinerator through an injection lance, at a feed rate of 40 to 100 kg/h. The incinerator and associated off-gas treatment system can be operated at standard conditions. Belgoprocess is the subsidiary of the Belgian national agency for the management of radioactive waste, known by its Dutch and French acronyms, NIRAS and ONDRAF respectively. The company ensures the treatment, conditioning and interim storage of nearly all radioactive waste produced in Belgium. (orig.)

  10. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a part of a systematic study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with immobilized cemented exchange-resins with different types and contents of aggressive species and incineration ashes. To this purpose, a special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix are being monitored along time. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species present in nature) and sulphate ions (produced during the radiolysis process of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). Preliminary results show the strong effect of chloride on the corrosion susceptibility of the steel. Monitoring will continue for

  11. Anion Effects on the Ion Exchange Process and the Deformation Property of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoyagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC actuator composed of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane with electrodes plated on both surfaces undergoes a large bending motion when a low electric field is applied across its thickness. Such actuators are soft, lightweight, and able to operate in solutions and thus show promise with regard to a wide range of applications, including MEMS sensors, artificial muscles, biomimetic systems, and medical devices. However, the variations induced by changing the type of anion on the device deformation properties are not well understood; therefore, the present study investigated the effects of different anions on the ion exchange process and the deformation behavior of IPMC actuators with palladium electrodes. Ion exchange was carried out in solutions incorporating various anions and the actuator tip displacement in deionized water was subsequently measured while applying a step voltage. In the step voltage response measurements, larger anions such as nitrate or sulfate led to a more pronounced tip displacement compared to that obtained with smaller anions such as hydroxide or chloride. In AC impedance measurements, larger anions generated greater ion conductivity and a larger double-layer capacitance at the cathode. Based on these mechanical and electrochemical measurements, it is concluded that the presence of larger anions in the ion exchange solution induces a greater degree of double-layer capacitance at the cathode and results in enhanced tip deformation of the IPMC actuators.

  12. Biodiesel purification methodology produced in the RECOPE experimental plant, using ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    A methodology was proposed for the biodisel purification of crude palm oil produced in a plant located on the Refinadora Costarricense de Petroleo (RECOPE) campus in Alto de Ochomogo, using ion exchange resins. A comparison between two resins was carried out: the USF C-211H, which had been acquired together with the RECOPE experimental plant and the PD206 resin, which was in the process of being acquired at the time of starting the project. The biodisel was eluted by glass columns packed with each resin, to determine the saturation of the same. The percentage of free and bound glycerin and the presence of soaps were analyzed as response variables. With the results obtained, it was determined that the PD206 resin is more efficient in the removal of glycerin, soaps and methanol than the resin USF C-211H. However, neither of the two resins diminishes the acidity of the biodisel. A biodisel sample was eluted by the PD206 resin and the quality of the obtained product was analyzed. A flash point of 145 degrees was obtained. A total acid number of 0.82 mg KOH / G was shown, no presence of water or sediment was observed. The percentage value of carbon residue was 0.01% m / m, the cloud point was 12 degrees, the density at 15 degrees was 0.8713 g / cm 3 , the viscosity at 40 degrees was 2.75 mm 2 /s; the stability to oxidation was 14.5 h, the percentage of free glycerin was 0.01% m / m and the percentage of total glycerin was 0.06% m / m, finally a percentage of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME) of 98,6%. Of the analyzed parameters, all are within the limits established in the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano except the acidity value, which exceeds the maximum value of 0.05 mg KOH / g sample. An economic analysis was carried out to evaluate which resin provides the best option to complete the purification process of the biodisel produced. The PD206, despite being more expensive, purifies a larger volume of biodiesel, so for a better negotiation in the purchase price, this

  13. Review of disposal techniques for radioactively contaminated organic ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inman, J.R.; Mack, J.

    1993-03-01

    Organic ion-exchange resins are used in the UK nuclear industry to remove radioactive nuclides from dilute aqueous solution. Resins represent a significant proportion of the organic content of ILW and LLW, particularly ILW. Spent resins are destined to be disposed of in the UK deep repository. There are concerns regarding the potential effects of organic materials on long-term repository performance, and these effects have been the subject of much recent research work. The object of this study has been to conduct a worldwide review of treatment and conditioning techniques available for spent organic ion-exchange resins with the intention of recommending the best option for dealing with the waste in the UK. Data on available techniques have been gathered together, and are presented in tabular form at the back of the report. The techniques have been reviewed and compared considering safety, practicality and cost, and a best option selected on the basis of current knowledge. On balance it would appear that wet oxidation using hydrogen peroxide with residue encapsulation in BFS/OPC is the most appropriate technique, probably implemented using a mobile plant. This conclusion and recommendation is not however clear cut and further advice regarding the acceptability of organic material in the repository is necessary before a definite recommendation can be made. (Author)

  14. A series of poly(butylimidazolium) ionic liquid functionalized copolymers for anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, Amina; Xu, Hulin; Luo, Tianwei; Gao, Shuitao; Wang, Xing; Fang, Zhou; Jing, Chaojun; Zhu, Changjin

    2017-12-01

    A new series of ionic liquid functionalized copolymers for anion exchange membranes (AEM) is prepared. Poly(butylvinylimidazolium)(b-VIB) is copolymerized with para-methyl styrene (p-MS) by the radical polymerization formed block copolymers b-VIB/p-MS, which is crosslinked with poly(diphenylether bibenzimidazole) (DPEBI) providing the desired materials b-VIB/p-MS/DPEBI. Structures are characterized via H1NMR, FTIR spectra and elemental analysis. The b-VIB blocks offer the anion conduction function while DPEBI moieties contribute to enhancing other properties. The prepared membranes display chloride conductivity as high as 19.5 mS/cm at 25 °C and 69.2 mS/cm at 100 °C-higher than that of the commercial membrane tokuyuama A201-. Their hydroxide conductivity reaches 35.7 Scm-1 at 25 °C and 73.1 Scm-1 at 100 °C. The membranes showed a linear Arrhenius behavior in the anion conduction, low activation energies and distinguished nanophase separation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic regions by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Thermal investigations using TGA and DSC confirm that the membranes are stable up to 250 °C. Particularly, drastically alkaline stability due to no decrease in the hydroxide conductivity after 168 h of treatment with 2M KOH.

  15. Hydrothermal carbon nanosphere-based agglomerated anion exchanger for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Kai; Lou, Chaoyan; Zhang, Peiming; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-14

    This work reports the application of hydrothermal carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) as stationary phases in ion chromatography. HCNSs were facilely quaternized through polycondensation of methylamine and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The quaternization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to the electrostatic interaction, quaternized HCNSs were equably attached onto the surface of sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) beads to construct the anion exchangers. The aggregation was verified by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Common anions, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, polarizable anions, and aromatic acids were well separated on the stationary phases with good stability and symmetry. The prepared column was further applied to detect phosphate content in Cola drink samples. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.09mg/L, and the relative standard deviation (n=10) of retention time was 0.31%. The average recovery was 99.58%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranium recovery and uranium remove from acid mine waters by ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina com resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laborarorio; Fatibello Filho, Orlando [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of few processes capable of reducing contaminants in effluents to very low levels according to environmental legislation. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The presence of pyrite in the waste rock piles, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants. Including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by an anionic exchanger. Studies of uranium sorption without treatment, and with lime pretreatment of water to precipitate the iron and recovery uranium as commercial product, are presented. Uranium elution was done with NaCl solutions. Saline concentration and retention time were the parameters studied. the uranium decontaminations level in the effluents from acid mine water was 94%. (author) 10 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Ion Exchange Properties of a Terpolymer Resin Derived from 2, 4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, Oxamide and Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tarase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymer resins (2,4-DHBOF were synthesized by the condensation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oxamide with formaldehyde in the presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst, proved to be selective chelation ion exchange terpolymer resins for certain metals. Chelation ion exchange properties of these polymers were studied for Fe+3, Cu+2, Hg+2, Cd+2, Co+2, Zn+2, Ni+2 and Pb+2 ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of the distribution of a given metal ions between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in a media of various ionic strengths. The polymer showed a higher selectivity for Fe+3, Cd+2 and Co+2 ions than for Cu+2, Hg+2, Zn+2, Ni+2 and Pb+2 ions.

  18. Spectrophotometric flow injection catalytic determination of molybdenum in plant digest using ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.

    1987-03-01

    A spectrophotometric flow injection analytical method based on the catalytic action of molybdenum on the oxidation of iodide by hydrogen peroxide in acidic medium is proposed for the molybdenum determination in plant digests. A cation exchange resin column is incorporated into a flow injection system for removal of interferents. The following system variables were investigated and optimized: reagent concentrations, sample injection volume, mixing and reaction coil lengths, temperature, sampling time, pumping rate and concentration of eluting agents. The effects of interfering species and of the acidity of samples on the molybdenum retention by the ion exchange resin column were investigated. The proposed method is characterized by good precision (r.s.d. (2.0%), a sampling rate of about 40 samples per hour, and permits the determination of molybdenum in plant digests in the range 1.0 to 40.0 μg/l. The results compare well with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. (author) [pt

  19. Radiolytic preparation of ETFE and PFA based anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a versatile monomer, vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) was radiolytically grafted onto a partially fluorinated ETFE and perfluorinated polymer PFA films. The VBC grafted films were treated with trimethylamine to prepare the alkaline anion exchange membranes (AAEMs). No significant differences in the ion exchange capacities and water uptakes were observed between the ETFE and PFA based AAEMs with similar degree of grafting (DOG). However, the distribution patterns of the graft chains over the cross-section of the ETFE and PFA based AAEMs were found to be quite different; the even distribution was observed from the ETFE based AAEMs while the uneven distribution was observed from the PFA based AAEMs. It was also found that the PFA based AAEMs have the higher ionic conductivity and chemical stability, compared to the ETFE based AAEMs.

  20. Cobalt sulfide aerogel prepared by anion exchange method with enhanced pseudocapacitive and water oxidation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuyue; Shi, Zhenyu; Xue, Kaiming; Ye, Ziran; Hong, Zhanglian; Yu, Xinyao; Zhi, Mingjia

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces the anion exchange method into the sol-gel process for the first time to prepare a metal sulfide aerogel. A porous Co9S8 aerogel with a high surface area (274.2 m2 g‑1) and large pore volume (0.87 cm3 g‑1) has been successfully prepared by exchanging cobalt citrate wet gel in thioacetamide and subsequently drying in supercritical ethanol. Such a Co9S8 aerogel shows enhanced supercapacitive performance and catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to its oxide aerogel counterpart. High specific capacitance (950 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1), good rate capability (74.3% capacitance retention from 1 to 20 A g‑1) and low onset overpotential for OER (220 mV) were observed. The results demonstrated here have implications in preparing various sulfide chalcogels.

  1. The benefits of heavy resins in fluidized-bed ion-exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddey, T.B.S.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages to be gained from the use of a high-density ion-exchange resin in a uranium-recovery circuit are shown. It is concluded that, in existing fluidized-bed plants, the throughput of solution can be increased by up to 40 per cent at the same uranium recovery. Alternatively, the values in the barren solution can be improved at the same flow-rate of solution [af

  2. Study of plasma off-gas treatment from spent ion exchange resin pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hernán Ariel; Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo Luis

    2017-03-23

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including 14 C, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several treatment and conditioning techniques have been developed with a view toward reducing the spent resin volume and generating a stable waste product suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Between them, pyrolysis emerges as an attractive option. Previous work of our group suggests that the pyrolysis treatment of the resins at low temperatures between 300 and 350 °C resulted in a stable waste product with a significant volume reduction (>50%) and characteristics suitable for long-term storage and/or disposal. However, another important issue to take into account is the complexity of the off-gas generated during the process and the different technical alternatives for its conditioning. Ongoing work addresses the characterization of the ion exchange resin treatment's off-gas. Additionally, the application of plasma technology for the treatment of the off-gas current was studied as an alternative to more conventional processes utilizing oil- or gas-fired post-combustion chambers operating at temperatures in excess of 1000 °C. A laboratory-scale flow reactor, using inductively coupled plasma, operating under sub-atmospheric conditions was developed. Fundamental experiments using model compounds have been performed, demonstrating a high destruction and removal ratio (>99.99%) for different reaction media, at low reactor temperatures and moderate power consumption

  3. Plasma-polymerized alkaline anion-exchange membrane: Synthesis and structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jue; Meng Yuedong; Zhang Chengxu; Fang Shidong

    2011-01-01

    After-glow discharge plasma polymerization was developed for alkaline anion-exchange membranes synthesis using vinylbenzyl chloride as monomer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical structure properties of plasma-polymerized membranes. Ion-exchange capacities of quaternized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (QPVBC) membranes were measured to evaluate their capability of hydroxyl ion transport. A mechanism of plasma polymerization using VBC as monomer that accounts for the competitive effects of free radicals polymerization and plasma ablation in the plasma polymerization process was proposed. Our results indicate that plasma discharge power influences the contents of functional groups and the structure of the plasma polymer membranes, which attribute to the coactions of polymerization and ablation. The properties of uniform morphology, good adhesion to the substrate, high thermal stability and satisfying anion conduction level suggest the potential application of QPVBC membrane deposited at discharge power of 20 W in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Effects of Cationic Pendant Groups on Ionic Conductivity for Anion Exchange Membranes: Structure Conductivity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojeong; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Won Bo

    Anion exchange membranes(AEMs) have been widely studied due to their various applications, especially for Fuel cells. Previous proton exchange membranes(PEMs), such as Nafions® have better conductivity than AEMs so far. However, technical limitations such as slow electrode kinetics, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of metal catalysts, high methanol crossover and high cost of Pt-based catalyst detered further usages. AEMs have advantages to supplement its drawbacks. AEMs are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient. Based on the well-defined block copolymer, self-assembled morphology is expected to have some relationship with its ionic conductivity. Recently AEMs based on various cations, including ammonium, phosphonium, guanidinium, imidazolium, metal cation, and benzimidazolium cations have been developed and extensively studied with the aim to prepare high- performance AEMs. But more fundamental approach, such as relationships between nanostructure and conductivity is needed. We use well-defined block copolymer Poly(styrene-block-isoprene) as a backbone which is synthesized by anionic polymerization. Then we graft various cationic functional groups and analysis the relation between morphology and conductivity. Theoretical and computational soft matter lab.

  5. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Xiulian [College of Ocean, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Wei Qifeng, E-mail: weiqifeng163@163.com [College of Ocean, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Hu Surong; Wei Sijie [College of Ocean, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with {omega}{sup 1/2} ({omega}: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH{sub 4}Cl concentration was 53.46 g L{sup -1} and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min{sup -1}. Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  6. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng; Hu, Surong; Wei, Sijie

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with omega(1/2) (omega: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH(4)Cl concentration was 53.46 g L(-1) and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min(-1). Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiulian; Wei Qifeng; Hu Surong; Wei Sijie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with ω 1/2 (ω: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH 4 Cl concentration was 53.46 g L -1 and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min -1 . Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  8. Novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Jun; Wu, Yongbin; Xu, Hankun; Chi, Xianjun; Li, Wei; Yang, Yixu; Yan, Ge; Zhuang, Yongze

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes based on the copolymer of vinylbenzyl chloride, butyl methacrylate, and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate has been prepared. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques are used to study the chemical structure and chemical composition of the membranes. The water uptake, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, methanol permeability, and chemical stability of the membranes are also determined. The membranes exhibit high anionic conductivity in deionized water at 65 °C ranging from 3.86×10(-2) S cm(-1) to 4.36×10(-2) S cm(-1). The methanol permeability coefficients of the membranes are in the range of 4.21-5.80×10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) at 65 °C. The novel membranes also show good chemical and thermal stability. An open-circuit voltage of 0.7 V and a maximum power density of 53.2 mW cm(-2) of alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) with the membrane C, 1 M methanol, 1 M NaOH, and humidified oxygen are achieved at 65 °C. Therefore, these membranes have great potential for applications in fuel cell systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of the anion salt nature on the rate constants of the aqueous proton exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Jose M; Garzon, Andres; Crovetto, Luis; Orte, Angel; Lopez, Sergio G; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M

    2012-04-28

    The proton-transfer ground-state rate constants of the xanthenic dye 9-[1-(2-methyl-4-methoxyphenyl)]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (TG-II), recovered by Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS), have proven to be useful to quantitatively reflect specific cation effects in aqueous solutions (J. M. Paredes, L. Crovetto, A. Orte, J. M. Alvarez-Pez and E. M. Talavera, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 1685-1694). Since these phenomena are more sensitive to anions than to cations, in this paper we have accounted for the influence of salts with the sodium cation in common, and the anion classified according to the empirical Hofmeister series, on the proton transfer rate constants of TG-II. We demonstrate that the presence of ions accelerates the rate of the ground-state proton-exchange reaction in the same order than ions that affect ion solvation in water. The combination of FLCS with a fluorophore undergoing proton transfer reactions in the ground state, along with the desirable feature of a pseudo-dark state when the dye is protonated, allows one unique direct determination of kinetic rate constants of the proton exchange chemical reaction. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  10. The next generation fuel cells: anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauqir, A.; Zahoor, S.

    2013-01-01

    Many environmentally friendly alternatives (solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal power) can only be used in particular environments. In contrast, fuel cells can have near-zero emissions, are quiet and efficient, and can work in any environment where the temperature is lower than the cell's operating temperature. Among various types of fuel cells, the AEMFC is the most recent one and has advantages such as excellent performance compared to other candidate fuel cells due to its active O/sub 2/ electrode kinetics and flexibility to use a wide range of electro-catalysts such as silver and nickels contrary to expensive one (Platinum) required for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Anion exchange membrane (AEM) is a crucial part in AEMFC, determining durability and electrochemical performances of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The role of an AEM is to conduct hydroxyl ions from cathode to anode. If this conduction is not sufficiently high and selective, the corresponding fuel cell will not find any practical application. One of the major problems associated with AEMFC is much lower conductivities of anion compare to proton conductivity in PEMFCs, even upon similar working condition. Thus AEMs is only practical, if it is chemically and mechanically stable against severe basic operation conditions and highly hydroxyl ions conductive. The conventional AEMs based on animated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon or even fluorinated polymers tend to be attacked by hydroxyl ions, causing the degradation during operation is strongly basic conditions. (author)

  11. Engineering study for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin resulting from nuclear process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1990-09-01

    This document is an engineering study of spent ion exchange resin treatment processes with the purpose of identifying one or more suitable treatment technologies. Classifications of waste considered include all classes of low-level waste (LLW), mixed LLW, transuranic (TRU) waste, and mixed TRU waste. A total of 29 process alternatives have been evaluated. Evaluation parameters have included economic parameters (both total life-cycle costs and capital costs), demonstrated operability, environmental permitting, operational availability, waste volume reduction, programmatic consistency, and multiple utilization. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of alternative process configurations that are suitable for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin. The determinative evaluation parameters were economic variables (total life-cycle cost or capital cost) and waste volume reduction. Immobilization processes are generally poor in volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction processes tend to have high capital costs. There are immobilization processes and thermal volume reduction processes that can treat all classifications of spent ion exchange resin likely to be encountered. 40 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Molten salt oxidation of ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee-Chul; Cho, Yong-Jun; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Joon-Hyung; Eun, Hee-Chul

    2005-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates were test-burned in a bench-scale molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor system. The purposes of this study are to confirm the destruction performance of the two-stage MSO reactor system for the organic ion-exchange resin and to obtain an understanding of the behavior of the fixed toxic metals and the sulfur in the cationic exchange resins. The destruction of the organics is very efficient in the primary reactor. The primarily destroyed products such as carbon monoxide are completely oxidized in the secondary MSO reactor. The overall collection of the sulfur and metals in the two-stage MSO reactor system appeared to be very efficient. Over 99.5% of all the fixed toxic metals (lead and cadmium) and radioactive metal surrogates (cesium, cobalt, strontium) remained in the MSO reactor bottom. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and the XRD patterns of the spent salt samples revealed that the collected metals existed in the form of each of their carbonates or oxides, which are non-volatile species at the MSO system operating conditions. (author)

  13. Kinetics of ion exchange in the chelating resin Dowex A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of ion exchanges of Ag + , Zn 2+ and Cr 3+ at extremely low concentrations on the chelating resin Dowex A-1 has been studied by means of finite volume method. The rate of exchanges for both Ag + and Zn 2+ is dependent on the ionic strength, particle size of the resin and reaction temperature. At higher ionic strength (0.1 - 0.05) the kinetics is controlled by particle diffusion, whereas at lower ionic one (0.01 - 0.001) film diffusion is predominant. The apparent activation energy obtained is 3.84 kcal/mol for Ag + and 3.91 kcal/mol for Zn 2+ . The exchange rate of Cr 3+ obeys a first-order rate equation independent of the ionic strength and particle size of the resin. The apparent activation energy is 15.5 kcal/mol. These results support the view that the rate-determining step of this reaction is chelate formation reaction. (auth.)

  14. New technique for synthesizing AMP : precipitation inside an ion-exchange resin and its application to separation of cesium from fission-products and to A137sub(m) Ba generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.T.; Abrao, A.

    1980-06-01

    A new technique for synthesizing ammonium molybdophosphate, an inorganic ion exchanger which retains selectively cesium-137 from a mixture of fission products, is dealt with. Normally the use of this exchanger in column operation requires the use of asbestos, silica-gel or organic polymers as binder, due to its microcrystalline form. The new process employs a strong anionic resin, saturated with molybdate anions. This method enables the precipitation of ammonium molybdophosphate directly into the resinous structure by adding dihydrogen ammonium phosphate in 7,5M HNO 3 . The reactants maintened at 60 0 C for a period of four hours has been found to be the optimum condition for a maximum yield of this compound (anionic resin-ammonium molybdophosphate=R-AMP). The tests performed for characterizing this compound are: molybdenum-phosphorus ratio determination, electronic absorption spectra, infra-red absorption spectra, reflection microscopy observations, electron probe micro-analysis and X-ray powder patterns. The mentioned analysis confirmed the presence of the ammonium molybdophosphate in the resinous structure, permitting, thereby, its use as a cation exchanger. R-AMP showed a capacity of 0,48mE/g of dry material. The cesium retention studies were made using columns charged with R-AMP compound. The behavior of some polivalent fission products was also studied. The R-AMP columns was finally applied to separate cesium from irradiated uranium solutions. A method for the isolation of sup(137m)Ba by successive elutions from R-AMP ( 137 Cs) exchanger (generator) is described. (Author) [pt

  15. Treatment of groundwater for nitrate removal by portable ion exchange resin, OSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriburo, A.; Pessi, M.; Castagnino, G.; Garat, S.; Hackenbruch, R.; Laguardia, J.; Yelpo, L.; Amondarain, A.; Brunetto, C.

    2010-01-01

    The locations of Palmitas in the Province of Soriano is supplied with groundwater from a shallow and high nitrogen content in sedimentary aquifer (Asencio Formation). Due to lack of alternative sources, groundwater or surface water, it was decided to test the water treatment from a perforation whose tenors were of the order of 51-66 mg / L of nitrates. The methodology used for the removal of nitrate is ion exchange resins .The main issue raised in this case was the disposal of effluent from the washing of the resins, because there is no collective sanitation network Palmitas nor a sufficient stream flow for discharge . Several alternatives (installation of a transitional deposit, haulage trucks, dumping at distant points, etc.), which were ruled by their poor viability and / or high costs were studied. Finally it was decided to install a device that will have three cylinders with resins were transportable, for which should have a weight less than 75 kg and those which would be used alternately. Regeneration of the resins is carried out in the city of Mercedes, distant 40 km, where the necessary water for the discharge conditions exist with a high content of sodium chloride, resulting from ion exchange. This pilot project represents a first step in treatment for nitrate removal in groundwater using transportable resins which aims to supply the public . Due to the nature of the above location , the chosen methodology had to be adapted to fulfill their duties satisfactorily. The first results of this project to a year of commissioning implementation, which has been funded by SBI and developed by his staff, in order to be used in other places with similar problems are presented in this report

  16. Cation exchange resins labeled with holmium-166 for treatment of liver malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Renata F.; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is prompting investigators to utilize isotopes with more focused capabilities for treating various tumors, reducing the negative effects on neighboring healthy cells. Local radionuclide therapy using radioactive microspheres is a promising therapy for non-operable group of patients suffering from liver malignancies. Many publications have shown the success of this technique. The emphasis in the present work is the resin-based microspheres labeled with 166 Ho. The production of 166 Ho is feasible in the IEA-R1 Reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, because it does not need high power and high neutron fluxes. Samples of Ho 2 O 3 were irradiated in selected positions of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The neutron flux was 1.0 x10 13 n.s -1 .cm -2 for 1 hour. The dissolution of Ho 2 O 3 was studied with different volumes of 0.1M HCl and also varying the heating temperature. The AG50W-X8 200-400 mesh and CM Sephadex C-25 cation exchange resins were labeled with 166 Ho. The retention of 166 Ho in the resins was studied and also its stability. The results of the dissolution experiments of Ho 2 O 3 showed that there is a direct relation between the increasing volumes needed to dissolve higher masses, and also the positive effect of raising the temperature. The results show very good retention of 166 Ho in both columns, even when high volumes of 0.1M HCl are passed through the column containing the resins and its good stability towards saline solution, PBS solution and glucose.Although the resins employed in this work did not have the right particle size (20-50μm), the chemical behavior showed the very good labeling of the resins with 166 Ho, and its stability. (author)

  17. The impact of loading approach and biological activity on NOM removal by ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joerg; Wray, Heather E; Schulz, Martin; Vortisch, Roman; Barbeau, Benoit; Bérubé, Pierre R

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the impact of different loading approaches and microbial activity on the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) removal efficiency and capacity of ion exchange resins. Gaining further knowledge on the impact of loading approaches is of relevance because laboratory-scale multiple loading tests (MLTs) have been introduced as a simpler and faster alternative to column tests for predicting the performance of IEX, but only anecdotal evidence exists to support their ability to forecast contaminant removal and runtime until breakthrough of IEX systems. The overall trends observed for the removal and the time to breakthrough of organic material estimated using MLTs differed from those estimated using column tests. The results nonetheless suggest that MLTs could best be used as an effective tool to screen different ion exchange resins in terms of their ability to remove various contaminants of interest from different raw waters. The microbial activity was also observed to impact the removal and time to breakthrough. In the absence of regeneration, a microbial community rapidly established itself in ion exchange columns and contributed to the removal of organic material. Biological ion exchange (BIEX) removed more organic material and enabled operation beyond the point when the resin capacity would have otherwise been exhausted using conventional (i.e. in the absence of a microbial community) ion exchange. Furthermore, significantly greater removal of organic matter could be achieved with BIEX than biological activated carbon (BAC) (i.e. 56 ± 7% vs. 15 ± 5%, respectively) when operated at similar loading rates. The results suggest that for some raw waters, BIEX could replace BAC as the technology of choice for the removal of organic material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Removal of aluminum(III)-based turbidity in water using hydrous titanium oxide dispersed in ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.; Karweer, S.B.; Iyer, R.K.; Phatak, G.M.; Iyer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    An adsorber consisting of hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) dispersed in a Dowex-type ion-exchange resin matrix (designated RT resins) has been developed which is capable of removing Al(III)-based colloidal dispersions in the neutral pH condition. The effect of resin crosslinking, particle size, HTiO loading, turbidity level, and flow rate on the turbidity removal efficiency of RT resins has been studied. It is demonstrated that a train of columns comprising RT resin, H + , and OH - form of resins could be used for large-scale purification operations at high flow rates. These columns, apart from removing turbidity and associated radioactivity, can effectively remove dissolved uranium present in ppb levels when used for water purification in nuclear reactors

  1. Solidification of ion exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions: Comparison of matrices based on Portland and blast furnace slag cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, E.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Stefan, L.; Le Bescop, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the conditioning of ion exchange resins used to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Calcium silicate cements may have a good potential to encapsulate spent resins. However, certain combinations of cement and resins produce a strong expansion of the final product, possibly leading to its full disintegration. The focus is placed on the understanding of the behaviour of cationic resins in the Na+ form in Portland or blast furnace slag (CEM III/C) cement pastes. During hydration of the Portland cement paste, the pore solution exhibits a decrease in its osmotic pressure, which causes a transient expansion of small magnitude of the resins. At 20 °C, this expansion takes place just after setting in a poorly consolidated material and is sufficient to induce cracks. In the CEM III/C paste, swelling of the resins also occurs, but before the end of setting, and induces limited stress in the matrix which is still plastic.

  2. Alternative solidification techniques for radioactive ion exchange resins and liquid concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    Methods, that are used or are under development for solidification of radioactive ion exchange resins or liquid concentrates, utilize normally cement, bitumen or some polymere as matrix material. This report contains a review and a description of these solidification processes and their products, especially of relatively new techniques that are under development in different countries. It is possible that solidification in thermosetting resins will be more used in the future, especially when product quality requirements are high (for instance when solidifying medium level resins) or when special waste categories has to be solidified. However it is not probable that thermosetting resins will be extensively used in a broad application as matrix material. In that case the methods are to complicated and expensive compared to, for instance, solidification in concrete. Systems for incorporation in polyesteremulsions (Dow-process) have a potential as they are quite simple and can accept a large variation of liquid wastes. Some methods in an early stage of development (for instance Inert Carrier Radwaste Process) will have to be tested in active application before they can be further evaluated. (author)

  3. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Martinez, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 L ow level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  4. Chelation Ion Exchange Properties of 2, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone-Biuret-Formaldehyde Terpolymer Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiokumar S. Rahangdale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The terpolymer resin 2, 4-HABF has been synthesized by the condensation of 2, 4-dihydroxyacetophenone (2, 4-HA and biuret (B with formaldehyde (F in 1:1:2 molar ratios in presence of 2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. UV-Visible, IR and proton NMR spectral studies have been carried out to elucidate the structure of the resin. A terpolymer (2, 4-HABF proved to be a selective chelating ion exchange polymer for certain metals. Chelating ion-exchange properties of this polymer were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of metal ion uptake involving the measurement of the distribution of a given metal ion between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in media of various ionic strengths. The polymer showed highest selectivity for Fe3+, Cu2+ ions than for Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions. Study of distribution ratio as a formation of pH indicates that the amount of metal ion taken by resin is increases with the increasing pH of the medium.

  5. Correlation and prediction of ion exchange equilibria on weak-acid resins by means of the surface complex formation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, J.

    1988-11-01

    The present work summarizes investigations of the equilibrium of the exchange of protons, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on two weak-acid exchange resins in hydrochloric and carbonic acid bearing solutions at 25 0 C. The description of the state of equilibrium between resin and solution is based on the individual chemical equilibria which have to be adjusted simultaneously. The equilibrium in the liquid phase is described by the mass action law and the condition of electroneutrality using activity coefficients calculated according to the theory of Debye and Hueckel. The exchange equilibria are described by means of a surface complex formation model, which was developed by Davis, James and Leckie for activated aluminia and which has been applied to weak-acid resins. The model concept assumes the resin as a plane surface in which the functional groups are distributed uniformly. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qingjiang, Yu Yixuan; Nies, H.; Aarkorg, A.; Nielsen, S.P.; Dahlgaard, H.; Mandrup, K.

    1993-01-01

    The title method was successfully used for collecting 239,240 Pu from 200 litres of seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO 4 *7H 2 O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO 3 +HCl from the coprecipitate and solid particles. The precipitate is heated at 400 deg C and digested in aqua regia. Na 2 SO 3 and NaNO 2 have been applied to obtain Pu 4+ valence state in 0.5-1N HNO 3 for different samples. Plutonium and thorium are coadsorbed on anionic resin from 8N HNO 3 . The column is eluted with 8N HNO 3 containing fresh NaO 2 to keep the Pu 4 '+ state for uranium decontamination. The system of the column is changed from 8N HNO 3 to concentrated HCl with 50 ml concentrated HCl containing a few milligrams of NaNO 2 . Further decontamination of thorium was achieved by elution with concentrated HCl instead of 9N HCl. The plutonium is successfully stripped by H 2 O, NaOH, 2N HNO 3 and 0.5 N HNO 3 containing 0.01M NaNO 3 . The chemical yield of plutonium for a 200 l seawater sample is 60-80%. The resolution of the electroplated thin source is very good. (author) 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  7. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  8. Efficient Separation of Lanthanides Using Poly (Styrene-Divinyl Benzene) Aminated Anion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borai, E.H.; Hassan, R.S.; El- Dessouky, M.I.; Ghonem, A.

    2008-01-01

    New chromatographic method was developed for the determination and separation of lanthanides using AS4A anionic column. The behavior of the column towards lanthanides was studied through many parameters, From the data obtained it is found that, affinity of the column toward investigated ions increase by increasing eluent concentration and it decrease retention factors. With the two investigated eluent (oxalic and citric acids), elution order for lanthanide elements was obtained in their atomic number from La to Lu. Retention times and retention orders obtained at these conditions clearly show that, lanthanides in AS4A are displaced according to anion exchange mechanism. More over separation of lanthanides using AS4A was studied using isocratic and gradient elution programs. Light and the first intermediate lanthanide elements were separated successfully by applying a gradient program containing 70% oxalic acid (100 mM) and 30% water. The problem of separation for heavy and the last intermediate lanthanide elements was solved using 100 mM alpha hydroxy isobutyric acid (α-HIBA)

  9. Characterization and anion exchange removal of uranium from Hanford ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Weiss, R.L.; Kimura, R.T.; Law, A.G.; Routson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985, uranium concentrations increased abruptly to 0.1 kgU/m/sup 3/ in ground waters underlying a retired liquid waste disposal facility in the United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Hanford Site. Characterization tests showed the uranium was present as an anionic carbonate complex not sorbable by Hanford sediments. The uranium was mobilized by flow from a perched zone of water caused by recent nearby cooling water disposal above an impermeable sediment layer. In a unique demonstration of the concept of ''as low as reasonably achievable,'' efforts were immediately undertaken to minimize the spread of the plume and to reduce the amount of uranium in the ground water. An anion exchange-based uranium removal process flowsheet was rapidly developed and implemented. Operational for six months, the process has treated over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of ground water and collected 94% of the uranium while producing a treated effluent that meets criteria for discharge to the soil column

  10. Crosslinked anion exchange membranes with primary diamine-based crosslinkers for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Min Suc; Jeong, Hwan Yeop; Shin, Hee Young; Hong, Soo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Seong-Geun; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik

    2017-09-01

    A series of polysulfone-based crosslinked anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with primary diamine-based crosslinkers has been prepared via simple a crosslinking process as low-cost and durable membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Chloromethylated polysulfone is used as a precursor polymer for crosslinked AEMs (CAPSU-x) with different degrees of crosslinking. Among the developed AEMs, CAPSU-2.5 shows outstanding dimensional stability and anion (Cl-, SO42-, and OH-) conductivity. Moreover, CAPSU-2.5 exhibits much lower vanadium ion permeability (2.72 × 10-8 cm2 min-1) than Nafion 115 (2.88 × 10-6 cm2 min-1), which results in an excellent coulombic efficiency of 100%. The chemical and operational stabilities of the membranes have been investigated via ex situ soaking tests in 0.1 M VO2+ solution and in situ operation tests for 100 cycles, respectively. The excellent chemical, physical, and electrochemical properties of the CAPSU-2.5 membrane make it suitable for use in VRFBs.

  11. Lithium isotope separation on an ion exchange resin having azacrown ether as an anchor group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.; Jeong, Y.K.; Lee, J.K.; Hong, Ch.P.; Kim, Ch.S.; Jeon, Y.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    As study on the separation of lithium isotopes was carried out with an ion exchange resin having 1,7,13-trioxa-4,10,16-triazacyclooctadecane (N 3 O 3 ) as an anchor group. The lighter isotope, 6 Li concentrated in the resin phase, while the heavier isotope, 7 Li is enriched in the fluid phase. Upon column chromatography [0.6 cm (I. D.) x 20 cm (height) using 1.0M ammonium chloride solution as an eluent, single separation factor, α, 1.068 ( 6 Li/ 7 Li) r esin/( 6 Li/ 7 Li) s olution was obtained by the GLUECKAUF method from the elution curve and isotope ratios. (author)

  12. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils (WCO): Role of ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalan Ozbay; Nuray Oktar; N. Alper Tapan [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Although WCO plays a crucial role for the economical production of biodiesel, free fatty acid (FFA) level in the nature of WCO cause saponification problems during transesterification. Acidic ion-exchange resins can be used to decrease WCO free fatty acid level. In this study, activities of resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15), Amberlyst-35 (A-35), Amberlyst-16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) in direct FFA esterification were examined in the temperature range of 50-60{sup o}C and the effect of catalyst amount (1-2 wt%) on FFA conversion was also analyzed. FFA conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature and catalyst amount. Order of catalytic activities was found as A-15 > A-35 > A-16 > Dowex HCR-W2. This was related to the size of average pore diameters and magnitude of BET surface area. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Vitrification of ion-exchange (IEX) resins: Advantages and technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the commercial sector to convert low-level radioactive ion exchange (IEX) resin wastes from the nuclear utilities to solid stabilized waste forms for permanent disposal. One of the alternative waste stabilization technologies is vitrification of the resin into glass. Wastes can be vitrified at elevated temperatures by thermal treatment. One alternative thermal treatment is conventional Joule heated melting. Vitrification of wastes into glass is an attractive option because it atomistically bonds both hazardous and radioactive species in the glass structure, and volume reduces the wastes by 70-80%. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs

  14. Leachability of cesium from cemented evaporator concentrates and ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    1985-03-01

    Leachabilities of cesium from cemented evaporator concentrates and ion-exchange resins were measured. The standard draft of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 1979) for long-term leach testing was followed in the research. Three resin concretes and three concentrate concretes were tested. Deionized water and groundwater were used as leachants. The leaching temperature was 20-23 deg C. The incremental leach rate at the end of the three and a half year test varied between 5x10 -12 - 15x10 -12 m/s and the cumulative activity fraction leached between 1.5x10 -3 - 6x10 -3 m. The apparent diffusion coefficients in groundwater varied between 10 -9 - 10 -8 m/day. Because of the cracking the specimens cannot, however, be regarded as whole blocks, but the effects of cracking should be taken into account. (author)

  15. Spray-type drying unit for spent ion exchange resins, sludges and radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raibaud, J.

    1986-01-01

    The process for drying radwaste in the liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution from the standpoint of volume reduction. Most of the existing drying facilities are not well adapted for drying the varieties of aqueous waste produced by the nuclear research centres and nuclear power plants, such as: - ion exchange resins, bead type or powdered resins, - centrifuge sludges, - settling sludges, - evaporator bottoms. Technicatome has selected the LEAFLASH process developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches for drying the nuclear aqueous waste. This process has been well tried at full scale in a large number of industrial branches. The advantages of the process have been confirmed by the results obtained in operating a pilot facility. They include: - high flexibility in operation: - quick start-up and stoppage procedures, - adaptation to a wide spectrum of liquid waste without significant changes in the adjustment of the device. - compactness, - low power consumption, - complete drying of the waste for any initial concentration [fr

  16. Design of expanded bed supports for the recovery of plasmid DNA by anion exchange adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Søndergaard, M.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we detail the rational design of new chromatographic adsorbents tailored for the capture of plasmid DNA. Features present on current chromatographic supports that can significantly enhance plasmid binding capacity have been identified in packed bed chromatography experiments...... and blueprints for improved expanded bed adsorbents have been put forward. The characterisation and testing of small (20-40 mum) high density (>3.7 g cm(-3)) pellicular expanded bed materials functionalised with various anion exchange structures is presented. In studies with calf thymus DNA, dynamic binding...... capacities of 1.2 and 3.4 mg ml(-1) were recorded for prototype diethylaminoethyl-and polyethylene imine-linked adsorbents which were respectively 25 and 70 fold higher than those of equivalently derivatised commercial expanded bed materials. The prototype polyethylene imine-coupled material exhibited severe...

  17. Anion Exchange in II-VI Semiconducting Nanostructures via Atomic Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Krook, Nadia M; Ren, Ming-Liang; Tan, Liang Z; Liu, Wenjing; Rappe, Andrew M; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2018-03-14

    Controlled chemical transformation of nanostructures is a promising technique to obtain precisely designed novel materials, which are difficult to synthesize otherwise. We report high-temperature vapor-phase anion-exchange reactions to chemically transform II-VI semiconductor nanostructures (100-300 nm length scale) while retaining the single crystallinity, crystal structure, morphology, and even defect distribution of the parent material via atomic templating. The concept of atomic templating is employed to obtain kinetically controlled, thermodynamically metastable structural phases such as zincblende CdSe and CdS from zincblende CdTe upon complete chemical replacement of Te with Se or S. The underlying transformation mechanisms are explained through first-principles density functional theory calculations. Atomic templating is a unique path to independently tune materials' phase and composition at the nanoscale, allowing the synthesis of novel materials.

  18. Kinetics of boron ions sorption from solution by inorganic anion exchanger of MNH type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'eva, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of restricted volume in case of boron excess in solution kinetics of boron sorption by inorganic anion-exchanger of the composition (Mg 0.55 Ni 0.45 )(OH) 2 has been studied. The sorption was carried out from solution containing Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , HCO 3 at 283, 293, 303 and 313 K and pH 8.1, while the density of solution was 1225 kg/m 3 . The sorption mechanism was considered. It is shown that heterogeneity of the character of kinetic curves is caused by the change in the mechanism of limiting stages of the sorption

  19. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphol