Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.
Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.
Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...... of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).......Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...
Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.
The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this
Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon
A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation
Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.
de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon
A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.
The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing
Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko
Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.
Zhang, W; Shi, F
In the past few years, genetically modified (GM) crops aimed at producing food/feed that became part of the regular agriculture in many areas of the world. However, we are uncertain whether GM food and feed can exert potential adverse effects on humans or animals. Of importance, the reproductive toxicology of GM crops has been studied using a number of methods, and by feeding GM crops to a number species of animals to ensure the safety assessment of GM food and feed. It appears that there are no adverse effects of GM crops on many species of animals in acute and short-term feeding studies, but serious debates of effects of long-term and multigenerational feeding studies remain. The aims of this review are to focus on the latest (last 3 to 4 years) findings and debates on reproduction of male and female animals after feeding daily diets containing the GM crops, and to present the possible mechanism(s) to explain their influences.
Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.
Since the beginning of the large-scale commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-nineties, it has continuously increased. This has occurred in particular in non-European countries from which these crops may be exported as commodities to Europe and other markets. Before
Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.
Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.
Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif
EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.
van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin
An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.
Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-13 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington ´s disease * mitochondria * DNA damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology
Cheng, Guyue; Dong, Xiaobing; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui
Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 μg kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known.
Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.
Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from
Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve
There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514
Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate
There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable.
Vince, L; Kleter, G A; Kostov, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Guitian, J
A facultative post market monitoring of potential health impacts of genetically modified (GM) feedstuffs on livestock consuming these feeds after pre-market risk assessment is under ongoing consideration. Within the IPAFEED database, scientific studies on health effects beyond performance in livestock and the results of a systematic search for evidence of outcome effects due to GM feed are consolidated. These outcomes were reviewed and checked for consistency in order to identify plausible syndromes suitable for conducting surveillance. The 24 selected studies showed no consistent changes in any health parameter. There were no repeated studies in any species by GM crop type and animal species. As such, there is insufficient evidence to inform the design of surveillance systems for detecting known adverse effects. Animal health surveillance systems have been proposed for the post market monitoring of potential adverse effects in animals. Such systems were evaluated for their applicability to the detection of hypothetical adverse effects and their strengths and weaknesses to detect syndromes of concern are presented. For known adverse effects, applied controlled post-market studies may yield conclusive and high-quality evidence. For detecting unknown adverse effects, the use of existing surveillance systems may still be of interest. A simulation tool developed within the project can be adapted and applied to existing surveillance systems to explore their applicability to the detection of potential adverse effects of GM feed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F
2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.
Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.
Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 61-65 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington’s disease * grunting * transgenic pigs Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2015
Milošević Mirjana B.
Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.
Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław
Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.
Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.
Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia
Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064
Vries, R.B.M. de
The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not
Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo
Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.
Full Text Available To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the Green Revolution was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMOs might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 455-460
Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means
Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means
Rodica Pamfilie; Lavinia-Alexandra Cristescu
This paper aims to identify the perception that consumers have about GM products, also taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and production of products based on genetically modified organisms. Therefore, the paper presents both aspects to clarify the concept of genetically modified organism (GMO issues such as typology, national or international regulations regarding this area) and global market development of genetically modified organisms, evolution which is presented by st...
Hightower, Rylie M; Alexander, Matthew S
Muscular dystrophy is defined as the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles that is caused by inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations. Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved the accuracy and speed of diagnosis for different types of muscular dystrophy. Advancements in depth of coverage, convenience, and overall reduced cost have led to the identification of genetic modifiers that are responsible for phenotypic variability in affected patients. These genetic modifiers have been postulated to explain key differences in disease phenotypes, including age of loss of ambulation, steroid responsiveness, and the presence or absence of cardiac defects in patients with the same form of muscular dystrophy. This review highlights recent findings on genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies based on animal and clinical studies. These genetic modifiers hold great promise to be developed into novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 57: 6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.
The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.
Brandner, Diana L.
Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)
Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.
Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It
Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.Com base no debate gerado pelos alimentos geneticamente modificados (GM, tanto em países desenvolvidos como em países em desenvolvimento, a partir do uso da conjoint analysis, o objetivo foi avaliar a importância dos fatores determinantes na preferência de alimentos GM pelos consumidores das cidades de Temuco e Talca, zona Centro-Sul do Chile, e a existência de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante uma enquete a 800 pessoas. Utilizando conjoint analysis, se determinou, em geral, que a existência de modificação genética foi mais importante que a marca e o preço na decisão de compra de ambos os alimentos. Mediante análise cluster, se distinguiram três segmentos, o mais numeroso (51,4% deu leve maior importância à marca e preferiu leite e molho de tomate geneticamente modificado. O segundo grupo (41,0% deu
Dona, Artemis; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S
As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.
The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity .... and gene targeting in embryonic stem cells) has been a powerful tool in .... endonucleases that are designed to make a doublestrand.
Mulvihill, John J.
Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)
Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.
Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf
This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sep 30, 2011 ... education on the subject to the public. Modern ... published were on the progress of GMF technology followed by attitude studies (such as perceptions ..... Genetically Modified Corn: Environmental Benefits and. Risks.
Núñez Saurí, Ester; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària
Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.
... that genetically modified crops can contribute to food security in developing ... opponents maintain that their social and economic impacts are unknown and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.
Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…
Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola
Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398
New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)
Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse
The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…
Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa
In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.
Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale
Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.
Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso
Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.
Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.
This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods......, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased...
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.
Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.
The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The
But despite rapid diffusion of genetically modified (GM) cotton - and ... Argentina, South America, Brazil, Paraguay, North and Central America, China, India, Pakistan ... A Expansão Da Cultura Do Algodão Transgênico Na Região Do Norte De ...
Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.
Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.
Willems MI; van Benthem J; LEO
The strategy for assessing human health risks of chemicals consists of a large number of tests in different research disciplines. Tests include acute and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genotoxic properties of chemicals are assessed in short-term in vitro
Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K
Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.
Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive institutional framework, GM crops can contribute significantly to global food se...
Poverty and income equality have become to stand in the forefront of the world that globalised through neo-classical policies after 1980. Besides technological dependence, globalisation wave has also led to a commercial dependence of surrounding countries to the central countries as well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate globalisation process in the world through its results of technological development and poverty. Production of genetically modified products which were justified as a...
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...
Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...
Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M
Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.
Full Text Available Genetically modified trees are the result of modern plant breeding. Its introduction into the environment for experimental purposes or wider cultivation is defined differently from country to country. Public opinion is divided! Conducted research are part of the activities within the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees”, which aims to collect information and define the scientific attitude on genetically modified trees as a basis for future European Union (EU policy in this field. The collected information refer to eight countries: four EU member states (Italy, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria and four countries in the process of pre-accession (Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. A comparative analysis involved the state of forest resources (area of forest land and forest cover, forestry legislation, legislation relating to genetically modified organisms and the general public attitude on this issue. The collected information provide a good basis for understanding this issue in order to define a clear scientific attitude as a recommendation. [Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees” for assigned STSM and financial support, also special thanks to the Host institution (Tuscany Region - Directorate General in Florence for kind cooperation. The performed research was partially conducted within the Project „Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia“ TP 31041
Genetic diversity is the basis of agriculture. Adapting populations of domestic animals through breeding is impossible withot genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is part of the history of mankind and is essential for future improvements in agricultural production.
Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene
The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to examine the situation of genetically modified products. According to various stu...
Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny
The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...
Atherton, Keith T.
The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer
Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea
the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...... with risk assessment of these organisms in each Nordic country....
Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S
This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.
Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.
Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo
Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Over the recent years, genetically modified food in varieties of corn, soybeans, canola and cotton have been introduced to the global market. This study reviews the health and nutritional value of genetically modified foods in the past two decades.Results and Conclusions: Contrary to the present biotechnological claims, transgenic products did not prove to be so flawless, and actually failed to maintain social satisfaction. Genetically modified foods could not gain an increase in the yield potential. Planting natural products and genetically modified products in parallel lines will absolutely result in genetic infection from the side of genetically modified foods. One of the major anxieties of the anti- genetically modified foods activism is the claim that genetically modified crops would alter the consumable parts of the plant quality and safety. Genetically modified foods have shown to have inadequate efficiency and potential adverse effects in both fields of health and biodiversity. This review has presented studies of genetically modified foods performances in the past two decades, and concludes that the wide application and the over generalization of genetically modified foods are not fundamentally recommended.Conflict of interest: Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Full Text Available Aim: Recombinant DNA and with similar technical changes made on genes or transferred isolated gene the living organisms have been named genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Thanks to advances in genetic technology, the advancement of enzyme and fermentation techniques result obtained by the use of GMOs in food industry products of genetically modified (GM foods are named. In this study, GM foods about the possible harmful effects have information and community advice on this matter to be medical doctors on this issue perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors aimed to measure.Material and Method: The study was made on including 200 medical doctors aged 23-65, 118 men (59%, 82 women (41%. In the statistical analysis based on the responses of medical doctors, against GM food risk perception, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed. Results: 80.5% of the participants’ think that GM foods are harmful. 22% of the participants were expressed that their knowledge are ‘’good’’ and ‘’very good’’ about GM food. While 38% of the participants use internet and 23.5% of the participants use media, only 4.5% of the participants use medical schools as a source of sufficient information about GM foods. Discussion: While the risk perception of medical doctors about GM foods is high, the knowledge on this issue is observed low. Though the consumption and the prevelance of GM foods are increasing, medical doctors should have more information about this issue to enlighten and guide the community.
Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...
Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.
The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Application of genetically modified organisms in the agriculture sector and food industry began since last years of 20th century. Since then this technology has become a central part of the broader public controversy about the advantages and safety of these products. This article has tried to review aspects of these types of organisms and foods.Results and Conclusion: Genetically modified technology has potential to overcome agricultural problems, such as biotic and abiotic issues by enhancing pests and herbicides resistance, drought tolerance, fast ripening, and finally enhancing yield and nutritional quality. Besides these revolutionary advantages, during the last decades some potential human, animal and environmental risks have been taken in account for these organisms or foods. However, no scientific evidence exists adequately about their harmful human or animal effects, and also, some new scientific and management methodologies (new technologies and regulations have been developed to mitigate the environmental risks. Some challenges such as pest adaptation are being solved by refuge technology, gene pyramiding and insertion of best-coupled primers through the known conditions reducing unintended outcomes including silencing, activation or rearrangement of non-target genome pieces. However, it does not mean that no harmful effect will happen in the future. Therefore, it is required that before release of any genetically modified crop, all requested risk assessments be performed, and then post release monitoring be done to follow the possible gene flow and prevent any potential disastrous contaminations to the food chain. Finally, it could be concluded that the safe usage of this technology, by considering all nationally and internationally accepted environmental and health safety assessment protocols, can help us to use advantages of this technology in agriculture, medicine and industry. However, more safety
Magnusson, Maria K; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa
The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 addressees, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents and those with lower level of education. A majority of the consumers had moral and ethical doubts about eating GM foods and did not perceive attributes like better taste or lower price beneficial enough to persuade them to purchase GM foods. However, tangible benefits, like being better for the environment or healthier, seemed to increase willingness to purchase GM foods.
Justin Finch, MD
The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals.
A. Sh. Mannapova
Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.
Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150
Du, Li; Rachul, Christen
Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.
Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K
Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.
Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison
Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods are safe. On the other hand, intentions of consumers who decide not to buy ge...
Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.
Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna
Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.
Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.
Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.
The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of stakeholders’ attitudes in GM crops’ release decisions. This article analyzes farmers’ attitudes and perceptions toward GM maize based on a survey of large-area Greek farmers in Northeastern Greece. ...
Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal Mw
Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt 'health campaigns', the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly - through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production - but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.
Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.
Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.
Susana Herrero Olarte
Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."
Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.
We used the Allin 2.0 GMO screening system from Biosmart, Switzerland to screen for the presence of genetically modified food sequences in maize meal samples, fresh fruit and vegetables from some retailers around Gaborone, Botswana. The Allin 2.0 is a multiplex PCR system for the detection of genetically modified ...
Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.
The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998......The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998...
Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.
The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops is carried out according to the consensus approach of "substantial equivalence", in other words: the comparative safety assessment. Currently, the safety assessment of genetically modified foods is harmonized at the
Chen Zhangliang; Gu Hongya; Li Yi; Su Yilan; Wu Ping; Jiang Zhicheng; Ming Xiaotian; Tian Jinhua; Pan Naisui; Qu Lijia
The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products showed no genotoxicity either in vitro or in vivo by the micronucleus test, sperm aberration test and Ames test. Animal feeding studies showed no significant differences in growth, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights and histopathology between rats or mice of either sex fed with either GM sweet pepper or tomato diets compared with those with non-GM diets. These results demonstrate that the CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato are comparable to the non-GM counterparts in terms of food safety
Rollin, Bernard E
The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very
Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A
In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.
Full Text Available Abstrak Genetically modified organism (GMO merupakan organisme yang gen-gennya telah diubah dengan menggunakan teknik rekayasa genetika. Produk rekayasa genetika diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu generasi pertama: satu sifat; generasi kedua: kumpulan sifat; generasi ketiga dan keempat: near-intragenic, intragenic, dan cisgenic. Adapun produk rekayasa genetika pada tanaman di Indonesia di antaranya adalah padi, tomat, tebu, singkong, dan kentang. Regulasi tanaman hasil rekayasa genetika diatur oleh beberapa lembaga, di antaranya Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Pertanian, Komisi Keamanan Hayati, Tim Teknis Keamanan Hayati, dan Biosafety Clearing House, berdasarkan peraturan pemerintah No. 21 tahun 2005. Pengujian yang dilakukan pada produk rekayasa genetika meliputi analisis sumber gen penyebab alergi, sekuens homolog asam amino, resistensi pepsin, skrining serum, serta penggunaan hewan uji. Berbagai produk GMO di Indonesia sejauh ini merupakan produk yang dibutuhkan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari, yang perlu diawasi secara ketat dari segi dampaknya terhadap lingkungan melalui ketentuan hukum yang berlaku, yang diwakili oleh instansi-instansi terkait tersebut.Abstract Genetically modified organism (GMO is an organism whose genes that have been altered by using genetic engineering techniques. Genetic engineering products are classified into 4 types, which are the first generation: one trait; the second generation: a collection of properties; the third and fourth generation: near-intragenic, intragenic, and cisgenic. The genetic engineering products in plants in Indonesia include rice, tomatoes, sugar cane, cassava, and potatoes. The application of the genetically engineered crops is regulated by several institutions, including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Biosafety Commission, the Biosafety Technical Team and the Biosafety Clearing House, under government regulation No. 21 of the year
Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches.
Animal and Dairy Science Reseorch Instiute, Irene, 1675. In the process of abandoning ... genetic improvement of the industry on a national basis. Quantitatively the ..... rapidly developing, challenging and competitive world with its modern ...
Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A
The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.
Full Text Available Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer
Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L
Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting "phytometers" of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5-2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7-0.03% over the test distances of 0.5-2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and that gene
Eisman, J.A.; Bouillon, R.
The vitamin D endocrine system has clear beneficial effects on bone as demonstrated by prevention of rickets in children and by reducing the risk of osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults or elderly subjects. Depending on the design of the study of genetically modified animals, however, 1,25(OH)2D
AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...
The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...
Full Text Available The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.
The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.
Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China). Since 1990, China's ... Country(s). China, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open. In partnership ...
This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it [it
Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod
This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. © The Author(s) 2014.
This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample
Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann; Nielsen, Chantal Pohl
The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase producer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields, while the next generation of GM food research is focusing on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers. Golden Rice, for example, has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of po...
This article is focused on the problems of reduction of the risk associated with the deliberate release of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) into the environment. Special attention is given to overview the most probable physiological and genetic processes which could be induced in the released GMMs by adverse ...
Apr 13, 2016 ... Farmers have rapidly adopted genetically modified organism (GMO) technology including GM maize crops. (Lawson et al., 2009). GMO technology involves the incorporation of genetic engineering to improve crop productivity since over one billion people in the world face starvation and two billion people ...
Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a primary brain tumor found in the cerebellum of children. The tumor occurs in association with two inherited cancer syndromes: Turcot syndrome and Gorlin syndrome. Insights into the molecular biology of the tumor have come from looking at alterations in the genes altered in these syndromes, PTC and APC, respectively. Murine models of medulloblastoma have been constructed based on these alterations. Additional murine models that, while mimicking the appearance of the human tumor, seem unrelated to the human tumor's molecular alterations have been made. In this review, the clinical picture, origin, molecular biology, murine models of medulloblastoma are discussed. Although a great deal has been discovered about this tumor, the genetic alterations responsible for tumor development in a majority of patients have yet to be described.
Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on ...
Full Text Available Advances in food biotechnology and food science in the early 1990s have opened the gates of new markets for genetically modified foods. A broad dispute over the use of foods derived from genetically modified organisms and other uses of genetic engineering in food production in terms of key scientific researches, their impact on health and eco-systems, food safety and food security, labelling and regulations, traceability is still lasting. Beside the scientifically, technical, ethical and regulators arguments, the economical aspects of the genetically modified food market is influenced by the social acceptance of it. Consumers' perception and their attitudes are different and depending on many factors. A survey of youth as undergraduate students of Constantin Brancoveanu University from Romania revealed certain differences in attitudes regarding the genetically modified foods that may be partially explained by the consumers' information. Referring the consumer behaviour, this study showed rather a tacit attitude of acceptance of the genetically modified food goods than a vehement rejection.
Pöting, A; Schauzu, M
The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.
Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.
Roč. 28, - (2007), s. 29-37 ISSN 1870-4069. [NNAM 2007. International Conference on Neural Networks and Associative Memories /2./. Mexico City, 04.11.2007-09.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMDH neural network * genetic selection * cloning * Machine Learning Repository Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Stepwise regression analysis showed that the readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms as food or for the production of pharmaceuticals, the production of GM plants or animals on own farm, depends on an emotional-evaluative attitude towards GMOs, and the level of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications.
Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A
The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.
Aris, A; Paris, K
Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Herman, Eliot M
Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in GM crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, including soybean, have not been shown to add any additional allergenic risk beyond the intrinsic risks already present. Biotechnology can be used to characterize and eliminate allergens naturally present in crops. Biotechnology has been used to remove a major allergen in soybean demonstrating that genetic modification can be used to reduce allergenicity of food and feed. This provides a model for further use of GM approaches to eliminate allergens.
Alemu, Setegn Worku
This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...
Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda
risk evaluation. The scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) considers seven specific areas of concern to be addressed by applicants and risk assessors during the ERA (1) persistence and invasiveness of the GM plant , or its compatible......This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...... organisms (GMOs). This document provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM plants on the environment and the rationales for the data requirements for a comprehensive ERA of GM plants. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach...
Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.
Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... in the amendment to the directive. This report suggests a structured way to identify the type of data needed to perform a sound ecological risk assessment for genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). The identified data types are intended to support the evaluation of the following risks: risk of invasion...
Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents’ emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. Material and method. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a self-designed questionnaire form. Results. Knowledge concerning the possible health effects of consumption of food containing GMO among adolescents competing secondary schools is on a relatively low level; the adolescents examined ‘know rather little’ or ‘very little know’ about this problem. In respondents’ opinions the results of reliable studies pertaining to the health effects of consumption of GMO ‘rather do not exist’. The respondents are against the cultivation of GM plants and breeding of GM animals on own farm in the future. Secondary school adolescents considered that the production of genetically modified food means primarily the enrichment of biotechnological companies, higher income for food producers, and not the elimination of hunger in the world or elimination of many diseases haunting humans.
Jurkiewicz, Anna; Zagórski, Jerzy; Bujak, Franciszek; Lachowski, Stanisław; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena
The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents' emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a self-designed questionnaire form. Knowledge concerning the possible health effects of consumption of food containing GMO among adolescents competing secondary schools is on a relatively low level; the adolescents examined 'know rather little' or 'very little know' about this problem. In respondents' opinions the results of reliable studies pertaining to the health effects of consumption of GMO 'rather do not exist'. The respondents are against the cultivation of GM plants and breeding of GM animals on own farm in the future. Secondary school adolescents considered that the production of genetically modified food means primarily the enrichment of biotechnological companies, higher income for food producers, and not the elimination of hunger in the world or elimination of many diseases haunting humans.
van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G
The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.
García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro
The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
An animal model utilizes all relationships available in a given data set. Estimates for variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, maternal environmental and direct environmental effects, and their covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects for post weaning growth traits have been obtained with ...
This book is an advanced textbook covering the application of quantitative genetics theory to analysis of actual data (both trait and DNA marker information) for breeding populations of crops, trees, and animals. Chapter 1 is an introduction to basic software used for trait data analysis. Chapter 2 ...
Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Flynn, Dan F B; Schmid, Bernhard
Biodiversity research shows that diverse plant communities are more stable and productive than monocultures. Similarly, populations in which genotypes with different pathogen resistance are mixed may have lower pathogen levels and thus higher productivity than genetically uniform populations. We used genetically modified (GM) wheat as a model system to test this prediction, because it allowed us to use genotypes that differed only in the trait pathogen resistance but were otherwise identical....
Berry Donagh P
Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.
Full Text Available GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other nutrients more efficiently. Over the past 10 years, in addition supporting ecological approaches, the Rockefeller Foundation has funded the training of some 400 developing-country scientists in the techniques of biotechnology. Most of the new crop varieties are the result of tissue culture and marker-aided selection. The Foundation also supports the production of genetically engineered rices, including a new rice engineered for beta carotene (the precursor of Vitamin A in the grain. Some specific steps can be taken by Monsanto that would improve acceptance of plant biotechnology in both the developing and the industrialized worlds: label; disavow gene protection (terminator systems; phase out the use of antibiotic resistance markers; agree (with big seed companies to use the plant variety protection system, rather than patents, in developing countries; establish an independently administered fellowship program to train developing-country scientists in crop biotechnology, biosafety, and intellectual property; donate useful technologies to developing countries; agree to share financial rewards from intellectual property rights on varieties such as basmati or jasmine rice with the countries of origin; and
Linda S Kaltenbach
Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to
Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.
Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and
Lazebnik, Jenny; Dicke, Marcel; Braak, ter Cajo J.F.; Loon, van Joop J.A.
An environmental risk assessment for the introduction of genetically modified crops includes assessing the consequences for biodiversity. In this study arthropod biodiversity was measured using pitfall traps in potato agro-ecosystems in Ireland and The Netherlands over two years. We tested the
Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.
The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social
Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Phillips, P.W.B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.J.
Since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at impressive rates. In 2011, 180 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated by more than 15 million farmers in 29 countries. In the next decade, global adoption is expected
Genetically modified (GM) crops gained attention in southern Africa in the context of broader debates about the struggle for food security and poverty alleviation to achieve sustainable development. The prospects of GM crops as a technological innovation have provoked numerous debates and environmental concern ...
Since 1990, China's agricultural biotechnology sector has experienced tremendous growth. A recent survey shows that the country is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside North America. Public investment in the sector, as well as the number of genetically modified (GM) crops commercialized, ...
Maize is the second major cereal in Nepal; its food biosafety and ecological conservation is an important concern. To address this issue, it is necessary to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not have legal regulations or labeling directives ...
The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the ...
Pedersen, Jan W.; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted
One of the points in the discussion of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is the consumers’ right to choose between foods from GMO (GM-foods) and traditionally produced foods. This discussion has led to the EU regulation requiring labelling of GM food products made from GM plants. However, since...
Siti Hasnah Hassan
Full Text Available Consumers worldwide have reacted negatively to food products made from genetically modified (GM ingredients. This study strives to understand the importance placed by consumers on the features of a product when purchasing halal yogurt drinks with GM or non GM ingredient along with the level of antioxidants, price, flavor and Halal certification from JAKIM. In addition, their attitudes towards genetically modified foods, in general, and their purchase intention towards genetically modified yo- gurt drinks, in particular, were also determined. Experimental design using a convenience sampling was used; 120 eligible responses were received from the study using three types of yogurt drinks. The research findings showed that nutrition was deemed as being the most important product feature that influenced the decision in purchasing yogurt drinks, followed by freshness, price, flavor, variety, and origin. Furthermore, it was found that respondents presented a neutral attitude and purchase intention towards genetically modified yogurt drinks. The recommendations to market practitioners, research limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also discussed.
Kenya has a biosafety law and has tested genetically modified (GM) maize under confinement and containment, but has neither released nor commercialized any GM crop. This study assessed various maize food products from the Kenyan farms and markets for the inadvertent presence of GMOs. It assessed the possibility ...
There are claims that fear towards new technology has been caused by the lack of information and education on the subject to the public. Modern biotechnology and its applications have been receiving the same criticism. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the trends and coverage of genetically modified food ...
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries...
Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.
To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European
Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman
This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…
In April 2004, the European Union adopted a new legislative framework for genetically modified (GM) organisms. This framework regulates the placing on the market of GM products, and demands these products to be labeled as such. We present a duopoly model with vertical differentiation and mandatory
van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.
The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach
Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.
Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to
National Research Council Staff
... on Scientific Evaluation of the Introduction of Genetically Modified Microoganisms and Plants into the Environment Board on Biology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-s...
The first genetically modified plant (GMP) was a tobacco resistant to antibiotics in 1983. In 1996, the first genetically altered crop, a delayed-ripening tomato was commercially released. In the year 2003, the estimated global area of GM crops for was 67.7 million hectares. To produce such a plant a gene of interest has to be isolated from the donor. Together with a promoter, terminator sequence and marker gene it has to be introduced into the plant cell which is then stimulated to generate a whole GMP expressing new characteristics (herbicide/insect resistance, delayed ripening). The last few months have seen a strong public debate over genetically modified organisms which has raised scientific, economic, political, and ethical issues. Some questions concerning the safety of GMPs are still to be answered, and decisions about their future should be based on scientifically validated information.
Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart
This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…
Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti
Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods.
Full Text Available The overall aim of gene conservation is the preservation of animal genetic resources (AnGR. Since the well balanced, diverse and healthy supply of food is a major element of the national food sovereignty, hence successful animal production is not possible without preservation of AnGR. Moreover, local breeds are considered as part of national treasures, cultural values, and pre-requisit for a landscape-friendly, biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive agriculture. In thematic gene conservation, our primary concerns are economically important traits, adaptability and biological diversity of breeds. Beside these, aesthetic and ethical issues to be considered as well.
Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...
Lachowski, Stanisław; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Choina, Piotr; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Goździewska, Małgorzata
Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a negative emotional attitude towards what is unknown. The objective of the presented study was to discover to what extent knowledge and the emotional attitude of adolescents towards genetically modified organisms is related with acceptance of growing genetically modified plants or breeding GM animals on own farm or allotment garden, and the purchase and consumption of GM food, as well as the use of GMOs in medicine. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire designed by the author, which covered a group of 500 adolescents completing secondary school on the level of maturity examination. The collected material was subjected to statistical analysis. Research hypotheses were verified using chi-square test (χ 2 ), t-Student test, and stepwise regression analysis. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms as food or for the production of pharmaceuticals, the production of GM plants or animals on own farm, depends on an emotional-evaluative attitude towards GMOs, and the level of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications.
Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo
Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health.
Bogart, J P; Bi, K
Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex
This paper reports on one aspect of qualitative research on public understandings of food risks, focusing on lay understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK context. A range of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical literature on food, risk, and the public understanding of science are reviewed. The fieldwork methods are outlined and empirical data from a range of lay groups are presented. Major themes include: varying "technical" knowledge of science, the relationship between knowledge and acceptance of genetic modification, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge, genetic modification as inappropriate scientific intervention in "nature", the acceptability of animal and human applications of genetic modification, the appropriate boundaries of scientific innovation, the necessity for GM foods, the uncertainty of risks in GM food, fatalism about avoiding risks, and trust in "experts" to manage potential risks in GM food. Key discussion points relating to a sociological understanding of public attitudes to GM food are raised and some policy implications are highlighted.
Staudt, Michael; Trauth, Jürgen; Hindi, Iris El; Galuschka, Claudia; Sitek, Dagmar; Schenkel, Johannes
The number of genetically modified mice is increasing rapidly. Several limitations when working with these animals are to be considered: small colonies, the continued danger of loss, often a limited breeding-success, the need to keep those mutants in stock, difficult and costly import-procedures, and also a major (scientific) value of those mutants often available only with major restrictions. To gather relevant information about all active and archived genetically modified mouse lines available in-house (>1.500) and to deal with a unique resource for several, quite different purposes, a data base was developed enabling optimum knowledge management and easy access. The data base covers also legal restraints and is being linked with the institutional publication repository. To identify the lines available detailed information is provided for each line, as the international designation, a short name, the characterization/description, and the genetic modification including the technique used therefore. The origin of the mutation (gene-ID# and donor organism), the origin of regulatory elements and their donors are listed as well as the genetic background, back-cross generation, phenotype, possible publications, keywords, and some in-house information. Also aspects of animal welfare, obligations to record genetically modified organisms, and technology transfer are displayed; the latter to make licenses possible (if legally permitted). Material transfer agreements, patents, or legal restrictions are listed. This data base helps to avoid double-imports, saves animals and costs since a redundant generation or import can be omitted. However, this is a contribution to the 3R principles developed by Russell and Burch.
Moghissi, A Alan; Jaeger, Lisa M; Shafei, Dania; Bloom, Lindsey L
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others. Subsequently claims on health risk, ecological risk, consumer choice, and corporate greed are evaluated based on BARS/MERSC and BAPI. The paper concludes by suggesting that labeling of food containing GMO should consider the consumer's choice, such as the food used by those who desire kosher and halal food. Furthermore, the consumer choice is already met by the exclusion of GMO in organic food.
Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong
The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.
Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P
Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wang, Tian-Shu; Liu, Wei-Hua; Li, Ying-Min
In this paper, three phosphates were used as modifiers to modify animal glue binder. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of animal glue binder treated with phosphates were studied by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and derivative thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the modified animal glue binder had better sand tensile strength and lower viscosity than untreated animal glue binder. The best modification process was as follows: the optimal amount of sodium carbonate was 4 wt% to animal glue; the optimal weight ratio of the modifiers was sodium pyrophosphate : sodium tripolyphosphate : sodium hexametaphosphate : animal glue = 3 : 3 : 4 : 100, and the optimal reaction should be performed at 80°C for a reaction time of 120 min. A final tensile strength of approximately 3.20 MPa was achieved and the viscosity value was approximately 880 mPa s.
Hautea, Randy A.
Modern biotechnology-facilitated crop improvement is undoubtedly one of the most significant technological developments in agriculture. The first wave of genetically-modified (GM) or transgenic crops include cultivars with important input traits such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. Future products are expected to provide benefits that could include tolerance to environmental stresses and enhanced nutritional content, which can be particularly valuable in crops that are important...
George Frisvold; Jeanne Reeves
Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM) crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to) conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only thro...
Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen
This study examined behaviour towards genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behaviour (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioural influences in this domain. Here the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral no...
Derek Berwald; Colin A. Carter; Guillaume P. Gruère
Canada has stringent regulations covering the release of new wheat varieties, but the United States has virtually no regulations in this area. Monsanto Co. developed genetically modified (GM) spring wheat for North America, and made a commitment to the U.S. industry to release this new technology simultaneously in both Canada and the United States, or not at all. The Canadian regulatory bias against new varieties acted as a veto against GM wheat and caused Monsanto to shelve the technology in...
Lane, Andrew; Oreszczyn, Sue; Carr, Susan
Background\\ud \\ud Much of the debate around the science and technology of genetically modified (GM) crops has focussed on the policies and practices of national governments and international organisations or on the acceptability of GM products with consumers. Little work had been done with the primary users of such technologies – farmers. Further, the management of knowledge has become a significant issue for all sectors of the economy and yet little attention had again been given to farmers ...
Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.
Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura
Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.
Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.
Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Araujo, M.M.; Baldasso, J.G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.
Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000 Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found
Taylor, Ann T. S.
This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)
Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.
Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend
Full Text Available Abstract The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this review, the principles of gene targeting in somatic cells and the challenges of nuclear transfer using gene-targeted cells are discussed. The relevance of gene targeting in domestic animals for applications in bio-medicine and agriculture are also examined.
Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo
Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.
In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Black, H S [Photobiology Laboratory, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Houston, TX (USA); McCann, V [Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine; Thornby, J I [Biostatistics Section, Research Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Houston, TX (USA)
Studies were undertaken to examine the effects of animal age on the anticarcinogenic properties of antioxidants. Female hairless mice, 2.5, 4.5 and 9.5 months of age, were subjected to daily irradiation from Westinghouse BZS-WLG lamps for 19 weeks. Experimental groups of animals were maintained on a commercial rodent meal supplemented with a 2% (w/w) antioxidant mixture. Control groups received only the meal. Tumour latency, expressed as median time to tumor development, was significantly greater for all age groups receiving antioxidants than for their similarly aged controls. However, the response to antioxidants appeared to decrease with age and the antioxidant effect was significantly less in the 9.5 month-old group than in the 2.5 month-old group. Likewise, the two youngest groups receiving antioxidants demonstrated a significantly fewer number of tumors per animal. It is concluded that animal age influences the degree of photoprotection provided by antioxidants. Whether this effect is related to dietary intake, and thus dependent upon resident antioxidant levels, is unknown. Nevertheless, dietary antioxidants provide significant protection in young animals against carcinogenesis induced by radiation of predominantly UVB wavelengths.
Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Laurensse, E.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Gaballo, H.M.S.; Boleij, P.A.; Bak, A.; Kok, E.J.
Nowadays most animal feed products imported into Europe have a GMO (genetically modified organism) label. This means that they contain European Union (EU)-authorized GMOs. For enforcement of these labeling requirements, it is necessary, with the rising number of EU-authorized GMOs, to perform an
Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; N'Yeurt, Antoine D R; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J
We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians. In particular, Rotuman and Lau Islander NRY chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and Rotuman mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 region haplotypes more closely resemble those of Polynesians, while genetic markers of the other populations more closely resemble those of the Near Oceanic Melanesians. Our findings provide genetic evidence supportive of modifying regional boundaries relative to Fiji, as has been suggested by others based on a variety of nongenetic evidence. Specifically, for the traditional Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia scheme, our findings support moving the Melanesia-Polynesia boundary to include Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Polynesia. For the newer Near/Remote Oceania scheme, our findings support keeping Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Remote Oceania and locating the other Fijian island populations in an intermediate or "Central Oceania" region to better reflect the great diversity of Oceania.
Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong
It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.
This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.
Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi
A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.
Ladics, G.S.; Bartholomaeus, A.; Bregitzer, P.; Doerrer, N.G.; Gray, A.; Holzhauzer, T.; Jordan, M.; Keese, P.; Kok, E.J.; Macdonald, P.; Parrott, W.; Privalle, L.; Raybould, A.; Rhee, S.Y.; Rice, E.; Romeis, J.; Vaughn, J.; Wal, J.M.; Glenn, K.
In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75
Full Text Available The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the
Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.
Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.
Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis
alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....
Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.
Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus
This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.
Chepeleva, E.; Sergeevichev, D.; Lotkov, A.; Kashin, O.; Korobeynikov, A.; Kozyr, K.; Baystrukov, V.; Zubarev, D.; Kretov, E.; Pokushalov, E.
Intravascular stenting of arteries in atherosclerotic lesions is one of the most frequently performed procedures in cardiovascular surgery today. Most stents are made of various stainless-steel alloys and other metals (such as nitinol). Nitinol is a biocompatible, superplastic and corrosion resistant material with an important feature of shape memory. However, the composition of this alloy includes nickel, which shows toxicity to the kidneys, liver, lungs, heart and other organs when it accumulates in the organism. In this research we investigated the nickel content in serum, urine and hair of the laboratory animals after implantation of nitinol stents treated with plasma ionic surface modification by silicon.
Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA, Southeast Asia (SEA, Cathay (CHY in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to present the results obtained during the survey of Lithuanian consumers in order to identify their attitudes towards food with genetically modified organisms (GMO. Investigating the consumers approach to genetically modified (GM food, the following were considered: consumers’ opinions on GMO were analyzed, their knowledge about the presence of food containing GMO on the Lithuanian market, the mandatory GM food labelling, the behavior to a transgenic product while shopping, as well as consumers’ willingness to purchase such products. Data were gathered through a survey of 1000 Lithuanian residents. The empirical results indicated that the majority of the respondents’ attitudes towards food containing GMO are negative. The older consumers with less income are more against GM food compared to younger, wealthier households. 72% of consumers know that if the food contains GMO it must be indicated on the label. However, many consumers who oppose GMO do not try to avoid paying attention to the components of the product listed on its label. Only about a quarter of consumers while buying a product look for such information. This indicates that consumers are not really interested in whether or not the product contains GMO
Miranda, Ana F; Taha, Mohamed; Wrede, Digby; Morrison, Paul; Ball, Andrew S; Stevenson, Trevor; Mouradov, Aidyn
Numerous strategies have evolved recently for the generation of genetically modified or synthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria designed for production of ethanol, biodiesel and other fuels. In spite of their obvious attractiveness there are still a number of challenges that can affect their economic viability: the high costs associated with (1) harvesting, which can account for up to 50 % of the total biofuel's cost, (2) nutrients supply and (3) oil extraction. Fungal-assisted bio-flocculation of microalgae is gaining increasing attention due to its high efficiency, no need for added chemicals and low energy inputs. The implementation of renewable alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources from agricultural wastes and wastewaters for growing algae and fungi makes this strategy economically attractive. This work demonstrates that the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus can efficiently flocculate the unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically modified derivatives that have been altered to enable secretion of free fatty acids into growth media. Secreted free fatty acids are potentially used by fungal cells as a carbon source for growth and ex-novo production of lipids. For most of genetically modified strains the total lipid yields extracted from the fungal-cyanobacterial pellets were found to be higher than additive yields of lipids and total free fatty acids produced by fungal and Synechocystis components when grown in mono-cultures. The synergistic effect observed in fungal-Synechocystis associations was also found in bioremediation rates when animal husbandry wastewater was used an alternative source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Fungal assisted flocculation can complement and assist in large scale biofuel production from wild-type and genetically modified Synechocystis PCC 6803 strains by (1) efficient harvesting of cyanobacterial cells and (2) producing of high yields of lipids accumulated in fungal-cyanobacterial pellets.
Ergaz, Zivanit; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known animal models, mostly in mice and rats, of ASD that helps us to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of human ASD. We describe only models where behavioral testing has shown autistic like behaviors. Some genetic models mimic known human syndromes like fragile X where ASD is part of the clinical picture, and others are without defined human syndromes. Among the environmentally induced ASD models in rodents, the most common model is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA) either prenatally or early postnatally. VPA induces autism-like behaviors following single exposure during different phases of brain development, implying that the mechanism of action is via a general biological mechanism like epigenetic changes. Maternal infection and inflammation are also associated with ASD in man and animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R
Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. Objective: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. Design: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5–10 y of age (BMI-z5to10). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z5to10 (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. Results: The median BMI-z5to10 was −0.07 (range: −3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z5to10 was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z5to10 than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. Conclusions: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect. PMID:23134884
Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R
Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5-10 y of age (BMI-z(5to10)). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z(5to10) (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. The median BMI-z(5to10) was -0.07 (range: -3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z(5to10) was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z(5to10) than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.
Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4 also modify DCM onset.A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior; DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up.Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027.We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts.
Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene
diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able......Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus...... nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Mate and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified...
Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Flynn, Dan F B; Schmid, Bernhard
Biodiversity research shows that diverse plant communities are more stable and productive than monocultures. Similarly, populations in which genotypes with different pathogen resistance are mixed may have lower pathogen levels and thus higher productivity than genetically uniform populations. We used genetically modified (GM) wheat as a model system to test this prediction, because it allowed us to use genotypes that differed only in the trait pathogen resistance but were otherwise identical. We grew three such genotypes or lines in monocultures or two-line mixtures. Phenotypic measurements were taken at the level of individual plants and of entire plots (population level). We found that resistance to mildew increased with both GM richness (0, 1, or 2 Pm3 transgenes with different resistance specificities per plot) and GM concentration (0%, 50%, or 100% of all plants in a plot with a Pm3 transgene). Plots with two transgenes had 34.6% less mildew infection and as a consequence 7.3% higher seed yield than plots with one transgene. We conclude that combining genetic modification with mixed cropping techniques could be a promising approach to increase sustainability and productivity in agricultural systems, as the fitness cost of stacking transgenes within individuals may thus be avoided.
Full Text Available Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs. The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP; this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.
Müller, M; Brem, G
Novel approaches to modify disease resistance or susceptibility in livestock are justified not only by economical reasons and with respect to animal welfare but also by recent advancements in molecular genetics. The control or elimination of infectious pathogens in farm animals is historically achieved by the use of vaccines and drugs and by quarantine safeguards and eradication. Currently, research on the improvement of disease resistance based on nucleic acid technology focuses on two main issues: additive gene transfer and the development of nucleic acid vaccines. The strategies aim at the stable or transient expression of components known to influence non-specific or specific host defence mechanisms against infectious pathogens. Thus, candidates for gene transfer experiments include all genes inducing or conferring innate and acquired immunity as well as specific disease resistance genes. Referring to the site and mode of action and the source of the effective agent the strategies are termed 'intracellular', 'genetic' and 'congenital' immunisation. The targeted disruption (deletive gene transfer) of disease susceptibility genes awaits the establishment of totipotential embryonic cell lineages in farm animals. The cytokine network regulates cellular viability, growth and differentiation in physiological and pathophysiological states. The identification of the JAK-STAT pathway used by many cytokines for their intracellular signal propagation has provided not only new target molecules for modulating the immune response but will also permit the further elucidation of host-pathogen interactions and resistance mechanisms.
Full Text Available Sapoviruses (SaVs are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs, including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2. We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV, one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5'- and 3'-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1 "GTG" at the 5'-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt 5'-untranslated region; and 2 the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII, sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII, and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain.
Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.
With the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops the EU has demanded that individual member states enact measures to prevent inadvertent admixture ¿ through outcrossing ¿ of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with products from conventional and organic farming. A literature review on
Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.
Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai
Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.
Chun Yan Gong
Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.
Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján
Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food.
Smyth, Stuart J
Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238
Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.
Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J
With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.
Liu Jinfeng; Xing Da; Shen Xingyan; Zhu Debin
With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with two types of nucleic acid probes hybridization was applied to detect GMOs for the first time. Whether the organisms contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator. The experiment results show that the detection limit is 100 fmol of PCR products. The promoter and the terminator can be clearly detected in GMOs. The method may provide a new means for the detection of GMOs due to its simplicity and high efficiency
Marrie, Ruth Ann
As with susceptibility to disease, it is likely that multiple factors interact to influence the phenotype of multiple sclerosis and long-term disease outcomes. Such factors may include genetic factors, socioeconomic status, comorbid diseases, and health behaviors, as well as environmental exposures. An improved understanding of the influence of these factors on disease course may reap several benefits, such as improved prognostication, allowing us to tailor disease management with respect to intensity of disease-modifying therapies and changes in specific health behaviors, in the broad context of coexisting health issues. Such information can facilitate appropriately adjusted comparisons within and between populations. Elucidation of these factors will require careful study of well-characterized populations in which the roles of multiple factors are considered simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krogh, P. H
ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... Policy were then evaluated. These two major factors - ecological and economic - were then integrated into decision support models for predicting the overall consequences of introducing GM crops into an agricultural system. Bt-maize line MON 810, resistant to a widespread insect pest called the European...... and economic results were integrated into a decision support model to facilitate the assessment of the impact of various cropping systems on soil quality and economics. In conclusion, the ECOGEN results indicate no difference of biological relevance in the impact on soil organisms between Bt-maize line MON 810...
The use of recombinant DNA techniques in conjunction with conventional genetic methods have led to a rapid increase in knowledge of the genetic map. Many animal genes have been mapped to chromosomes. A detailed genetic map has become of great value in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and in the development ...
Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher
Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212
Li, Min; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang
To observe the sub-chronic toxic effects of the genetically modified rice with double antisense SBE gene. Based on gender and weight, weanling Wistar rats were randomly sorted into five groups: non-genetically modified rice group (group A), genetically modified rice group (group B), half genetically modified rice group (group C), quarter genetically modified rice group (group D) and AIN-93G normal diet group (group E). Indicators were the followings: body weight, food consumption, blood routine, blood biochemical test, organ weight, bone density and pathological examination of organs. At the middle of the experiment, the percentage of monocyte of female group B was less than that of group E (P 0.05), and no notable abnormity in the pathological examination of main organs (P > 0.05). There were no enough evidence to confirm the sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice on rats.
Gomez H, Andres
The transgenic products or genetically modified have been product of the vertiginous technological developments related with the sciences of the life and mainly of the genetics. The Introduction of these products to the market has generated big expectations and discussions. It is undoubtedly intention of this paper to provide the reader a conceptual mark that identifies the main arguments exposed by the parts in debate, to identify the most relevant aspects in the international legislation and to describe shortly how the topic is approached in Colombia. They are gathered this way then and the so much arguments of defenders like opponents contain regarding the topic, among those that the improvement, of the productivity and the yields can be included by cultivated meter, the decrease of the malnutrition at world level, environmental risks for possible reductions of the biodiversity and of development of resistant plagues to pesticides or herbicides, among others. At international level the first steps are giving to unify a clear legislation in this respect, although at the moment it is not articulate with other legislations like the World Trade Organization WTO)
Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra
Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.
Full Text Available At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others labeling of food origination from GMO is obligatory. Labeling is obligatory in European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Norway, Switzerland and some others. In our country the Law on GMO and sub-law acts were conceived according to EU regulative. The terms for limited use, production, trade of GMO and GMO products have been prescribed. Validation and standardization of GMO testing methods are now being implemented. It is expected that the analytical GMO methods will soon be harmonized at the international level. .
Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien
This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.
Potter, Lisa M; Bissonnette, Sarah A; Knight, Jonathan D; Tanner, Kimberly D
The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise. We developed a novel written assessment tool and administered it to 120 non-biology majors, 154 entering biology majors, 120 advanced biology majors (ABM), and nine biology faculty. Results indicated that undergraduate biology majors rarely included molecular and cellular rationales in their initial explanations of GMOs. Despite ABM demonstrating that they have much of the biology knowledge necessary to understand genetic modification, they did not appear to apply this knowledge to explaining GMOs. Further, this study showed that all undergraduate student populations exhibited evidence of essentialist thinking while explaining GMOs, regardless of their level of biology training. Finally, our results suggest an association between scientifically accurate ideas and the application of molecular and cellular rationales, as well as an association between misconceptions and essentialist rationales. © 2017 L. M. Potter et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R
Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.
Liu, J.; Xie, H.; Zha, B.; Ding, W.; Luo, J.; Hu, C.
A methodology is proposed to identify genetically modified sugarcane from non-genetically modified sugarcane by using terahertz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine-discriminant analysis (SVM-DA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The classification rate of the above mentioned methods is compared, and different types of preprocessing are considered. According to the experimental results, the best option is PLS-DA, with an identification rate of 98%. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques are a powerful tool to identify genetically modified and non-genetically modified sugarcane.
Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo
Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora ...
Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear
Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...
Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija
From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.
Akinkugbe, A A; Avery, C L; Barritt, A S; Cole, S R; Lerch, M; Mayerle, J; Offenbacher, S; Petersmann, A; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; Slade, G D; Heiss, G; Kocher, T; Holtfreter, B
An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, 3 mg/L. Periodontitis was positively associated with higher prevalence odds of NAFLD, and this relationship was modified by serum CRP levels.
Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai
Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542
von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg
Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited.
Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad; Kouretas, Demetrios; Balias, Georgios; Savolainen, Kai; Tutelyan, Victor A; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Lee, Jeong Dong; Yang, Seung Hwan; Chung, Gyuhwa
Powerful scientific techniques have caused dramatic expansion of genetically modified crops leading to altered agricultural practices posing direct and indirect environmental implications. Despite the enhanced yield potential, risks and biosafety concerns associated with such GM crops are the fundamental issues to be addressed. An increasing interest can be noted among the researchers and policy makers in exploring unintended effects of transgenes associated with gene flow, flow of naked DNA, weediness and chemical toxicity. The current state of knowledge reveals that GM crops impart damaging impacts on the environment such as modification in crop pervasiveness or invasiveness, the emergence of herbicide and insecticide tolerance, transgene stacking and disturbed biodiversity, but these impacts require a more in-depth view and critical research so as to unveil further facts. Most of the reviewed scientific resources provide similar conclusions and currently there is an insufficient amount of data available and up until today, the consumption of GM plant products are safe for consumption to a greater extent with few exceptions. This paper updates the undesirable impacts of GM crops and their products on target and non-target species and attempts to shed light on the emerging challenges and threats associated with it. Underpinning research also realizes the influence of GM crops on a disturbance in biodiversity, development of resistance and evolution slightly resembles with the effects of non-GM cultivation. Future prospects are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.
Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation.
Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming
Genetically modified (GM) crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen
This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.
Balci, F; Papachristos, E B; Gallistel, C R; Brunner, D; Gibson, J; Shumyatsky, G P
We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout of the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide that show enhanced (i.e. prolonged) freezing in fear conditioning. We have tested the hypothesis that the mutants freeze longer because they are more uncertain than wild types about when to expect the electric shock. The knockouts however show normal accuracy and precision in timing, so we have rejected this alternative hypothesis. Last, we conduct the pharmacological validation of our behavioral screen using d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. We suggest including the analysis of interval timing and temporal memory in tests of genetically modified mice for learning and memory and argue that our paradigm allows this to be done simply and efficiently.
Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md
Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.
Full Text Available Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil and GM medicine (GM insulin. A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n=1017 were stratified according to stakeholders’ groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders’ groups.
The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.
Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio
Sleep-wake states are impaired in various neurological disorders. Impairment of sleep-wake states can be an early condition that exacerbates these disorders. Therefore, treating sleep-wake dysfunction may prevent or slow the development of these diseases. Although many gene products are likely to be involved in the sleep-wake disturbance, hypnotics and psychostimulants clinically used are limited in terms of their mode of action and are not without side effects. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing new hypnotics and psychostimulants with high efficacy and few side effects. Toward this end, animal models are indispensable for use in genetic and chemical screens to identify sleep-wake modifiers. As a proof-of-concept study, we performed behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with chemical and genetic sleep-wake modifiers. We were able to demonstrate that behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with hypnotics or psychostimulants from 9 to 10 days post-fertilization was sufficient to identify drugs with specific modes of action. We were also able to identify behavioral endpoints distinguishing GABA-A modulators and hypocretin (hcrt) receptor antagonists and between sympathomimetic and non-sympathomimetic psychostimulants. This behavioral profiling can serve to identify genes related to sleep-wake disturbance associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases and novel therapeutic compounds for insomnia and excessive daytime sleep with fewer adverse side effects.
Luana Michelle da Silva Godoy
Full Text Available Verifies the need for consumer information on the divergênciascientíficas regarding the risks of genetically modified foods . Concludes access to information is inherent in the exercise of the right of choice doconsumidor front of genetically modified foods , as the same were entered the market without the existence of scientific consensus related to risk.
Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi
We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.
de Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Kleter, G
Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina
To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline - via PubMed -, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors "organisms, genetically modified" and "food labeling". The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modified products and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies.
Wohlers, Anton E
Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common.
Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin
Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.
Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da
An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.
Full Text Available In the literature, the reports on the effects of a genetically modified (GM diet are scanty and heterogeneous; in particular, no direct evidence has so far been reported that GM food may affect human or animal health. Hepatocytes represent a suitable model for monitoring the effects of a GM diet, the liver potentially being a primary target. In a previous study, we demonstrated that some modifications occur in hepatocyte nuclei of mice fed on GM soybean. In order to elucidate whether such modifications can be reversed, in the present study, 3 months old mice fed on GM soybean since their weaning were submitted to a diet containing wild type soybean only, for one month. In parallel, to investigate the influence of GM soybean on adult individuals, mice fed on wild type soybean were changed to a GM diet, for the same time. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrated that a one-month diet reversion can influence some nuclear features in adult mice, restoring typical characteristics of controls in GM-fed animals, and inducing in control mice modifications similar to those observed in animals fed on GM soybean from weaning. This suggests that the modifications related to GM soybean are potentially reversible, but also that some modifications are inducible in adult organisms in a short time.
Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard
The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants. We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.
Simon L Zeller
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM plants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.
Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul
Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.
Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.
Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)
Wang, Jinghui; Li, Yan; Yang, Yinfeng; Chen, Xuetong; Du, Jian; Zheng, Qiusheng; Liang, Zongsuo; Wang, Yonghua
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), such as Uyghur Medicine (UM) has been used in clinical treatment for many years. TCM is featured as multiple targets and complex mechanisms of action, which is normally a combination of medicinal herbs and sometimes even contains certain rare animal medicinal ingredients. A question arises as to whether these animal materials can be removed replaced from TCM applications due to their valuable rare resources or animal ethics. Here, we select a classical UM Yimusake formula, which contains 3 animal drugs and other 8 herbs, and has got wealthy experience and remarkable achievements in treating erectile dysfunction (ED) in China. The active components, drug targets and therapeutic mechanisms have been comprehensively analyzed by systems-pharmacology methods. Additionally, to validate the inhibitory effects of all candidate compounds on their related targets, in vitro experiments, computational analysis and molecular dynamics simulations were performed. The results show that the modified, original and three animal materials display very similar mechanisms for an effective treatment of ED, indicating that it is quite possible to remove these three animal drugs from the original formula while still keep its efficiency. This work provides a new attempt for deleting animal materials from TCM, which should be important for optimization of traditional medicines.
Li, Zhuqing; Li, Xiang; Wang, Canhua; Song, Guiwen; Pi, Liqun; Zheng, Lan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao
Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc. The LODs are 15 copies for RF2, MS1, and RT73 assays using pCAN as the calibrator and 10 genome copies for the other events. The LOQ in each event-specific real-time PCR assay is 20 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and PEP assays are between 91% and 97%, and the squared regression coefficients (R 2 ) are all higher than 0.99. The quantification bias values varied from 0.47% to 20.68% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.06% to 24.61% in the quantification of simulated samples. Furthermore, 10 practical canola samples sampled from imported shipments in the port of Shanghai, China, were analyzed employing pCAN as the calibrator, and the results were comparable with those assays using commercial certified materials as the calibrator. Concluding from these results, we believe that this newly developed pCAN plasmid is one good candidate for being a plasmid DNA reference material in the detection and quantification of the eight GM canola events in routine analysis.
Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina
OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes
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Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.
that genetically modified functional foods can be a potential wallbreaker for the use of GMOs in food production, that is: if European health claim legislation is deregulated as expected. This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers......' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. Before implementing the conjoint task, two thirds of the respondents were asked to taste a cheese, which was supposedly genetically modified. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well...
Moerbeek, H.; Casimir, G.
Research has shown that women are less accepting of genetically engineered products than men. We expect two mechanisms to be at work here. First, in consumer behaviour theory, more knowledge is assumed to lead to more acceptance. We assumed that for genetically engineered foods, this general
No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de
Glandorf, D.C.M.; Verheggen, Patrick; Jansen, Timo; Jorritsma, J.-W.; Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Wernars, Karel; Thomashow, L.S.; Laureijs, Eric; Thomas-Oates, J.E.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Loon, L.C. van
We released genetically modified Pseudomonas putida WCS358r into the rhizospheres of wheat plants. The two genetically modified derivatives, genetically modified microorganism (GMM) 2 and GMM 8, carried the phz biosynthetic gene locus of strain P. fluorescens 2-79 and constitutively produced the
Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia
Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.
Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.
The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized
Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.; Zhang, X.S.
Considerable attention has been paid to estimating genetic variability in quantitative traits and to how it is maintained and changed by selection in natural and domesticated populations, but rather little attention has been paid to how levels of environmental and phenotypic variance are influenced.
D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...
Lund jacobsen, Bodil
Risk evaluation of genetically modified microorganism (GMMO) in relation to human health effects brings into consideration the ability of the microorganism to survive and colonise the gastrointestinal tract and the potential gene transfer to the resident microbiota. Different biological containment...
Voet, van der H.; Perry, J.N.; Amzal, B.; Paoletti, C.
Background - Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment.
Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena
Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.
Odile J Lim Tung
Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The
Springer, Antje; Papastefanou, Georgios; Tsioumanis, Asterios; Mattas, Konstadinos
'Modern biotechnology is a central issue in the public debate as there are still concerns about possible adverse effects deriving from the use of genetically modified organisms. The public, by influencing decisions on new biotechnology, politically through democratic channels or interest groups, but also as consumers via the market, will constitute the ultimate judge of agricultural biotechnology. The present research paper deals with attitudes towards genetically modified food (GM foods) in ...
Janzen, Edward L.; Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.
Agricultural biotechnology is advancing rapidly and is embracing all major crops. The adoption of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and cotton have reached high levels in the United States. Wheat is the next major crop confronting the biotechnology issue, but no commercial varieties of genetically modified (GM) wheat have been released yet. Primary opportunities for GM developments in wheat center around improvements that meet consumer and end-user needs/issues in addition to meeting produ...
Jul 31, 2013 ... The maize imported into Kenya contained Bt genetic elements. Nevertheless, the .... obtained from various open air markets and retail shops located in ... Magic, Bokomo and Temmy) was not successful. Assessment of cry1Ab ...
Plon, Sharon E
.... The yeast RAD9 protein has similar functions and sequence motifs as BRCA1 and we proposed to identify candidate modifier loci by identifying haploinsufficient mutations at a second locus that alters...
Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J
Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials
Tindano, K; Moula, N; Leroy, P; Traoré, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N
Farm animal genetic resources are threatened worldwide. Participation in markets, while representing a crucial way out of poverty for many smallholders, affects genetic management choices with associated sustainability concerns. This paper proposes a contextualized study of the interactions between markets and animal genetic resources management, in the case of sheep markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It focusses on the organization of marketing chains and the valuation of genetic characteristics by value chain actors. Marketing chain characterization was tackled through semi-structured interviews with 25 exporters and 15 butchers, both specialized in sheep. Moreover, revealed preference methods were applied to analyse the impact of animals' attributes on market pricing. Data were collected from 338 transactions during three different periods: Eid al-Adha, Christmas and New Year period, and a neutral period. The neutral period is understood as a period not close to any event likely to influence the demand for sheep. The results show that physical characteristics such as live weight, height at withers and coat colour have a strong influence on the animals' prices. Live weight has also had an increasing marginal impact on price. The different markets (local butcher, feasts, export market, sacrifices) represent distinct demands for genetic characteristics, entailing interesting consequences for animal genetic resource management. Any breeding programme should therefore take this diversity into account to allow this sector to contribute better to a sustainable development of the country.
Italy and the United Kingdom. In all four countries, however, genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting product, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well...
Homberg, J.R.; Nijman, I.J.; Kuijpers, S.; Cuppen, E.
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how
Roč. 8, č. 3 (2008), s. 180-186 ISSN 1568-0096 Grant - others:EU-FP6-NoE Clinigene(XE) 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * genetically modified vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.316, year: 2008
Roč. 55, č. 6 (2009), s. 199-200 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : genetically modified vaccines * cancer surgery and chemotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2009
Jun 10, 2015 ... Key words: Modified Cry1Ac1, food safety assessment, toxicity, insect- resistant rice Agb0101. INTRODUCTION. Genetically modified (GM) crops are becoming an increasingly important feature of the agricultural land- scapes. In 2013, approximately 175 million hectares of. GM crops were planted by 18 ...
Gaastra, Benjamin; Shatunov, Aleksey; Pulit, Sara; Jones, Ashley R; Sproviero, William; Gillett, Alexandra; Chen, Zhongbo; Kirby, Janine; Fogh, Isabella; Powell, John F; Leigh, P Nigel; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Shaw, Christopher E; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Lewis, Cathryn M; Al-Chalabi, Ammar
Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA
Full Text Available The classical concepts in plant and livestock selection for economically important quantitative traits traditionally are based on phenotypic records, aiming at improvement of the traits by obtaining better genetic gain. The increase in genetic variation together with shortening of the generation interval is the major target of long term improvement of methods and tools for selection activities. The discoveries and implementations of biotechnology and molecular biology for selection purposes provide a stable background for generating of new knowledge and practical use in agricultural research and practice as well as to meet the growing demand for more and with better quality food and feed. The innovations in molecular knowledge related to practical selection aside with the quick quantification in breeding schemes allowed to reconsider the opportunities for sustainable development of selection methods for improvement of the traits of interest in agriculture, the quick invention and practical application of new high-throughput technologies for studying of the genomic variation, evolution, translation of proteins and metabolite determination altogether put in an open and communicative environment of information technologies provide a new holistic platform for better research and more knowledge for practical application of selection decisions.
Roč. 47, č. 5 (2001), s. 153-155 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cell s * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001
Potter, Lisa M.; Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Knight, Jonathan D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.
The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z
Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.
Jennifer R. Prentice
Full Text Available The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.
Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel
environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI......Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight...
Chern, Wen S.
Surveys on consumer acceptance of GM foods revealed differences in knowledge, risk perception and acceptance of GM foods in Japan, Norway, Spain, Taiwan and the United States. There were opponents and proponents of GM foods. However, even in the United States, one of the most supportive countries, consumers were willing to pay substantial premiums to avoid GM alternatives. While genetic engineering holds great potential to enhance yield and productivity for many crops, especially those widely...
Tatiana V Matveeva
Full Text Available Summary: In July 2016 the State Duma adopted the Federal Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in terms of improving the state regulation in the field of genetic engineering” (03.07.2016 N 358-FL. This review is devoted to the analysis of Article 4 of the Act, namely the discussion of what GMOs may be authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia.
Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...
Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.
The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615
Liang, Chun-lai; Li, Yong-ning; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Cui, Wen-ming; Jia, Xu-dong
To assess the immunotoxicologic effects of genetically modified drought resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1 gene. A total of 250 female BALB/c mice (6-8 week-old, weight 18-22 g) were divided into five large groups (50 mice for each large group) by body weight randomly. In each large group, the mice were divided into five groups (10 mice for each group) by body weight randomly, which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control and positive control group were fed with feedstuff AIN-93G, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (proportion up to 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, organ coefficient of spleen and thymus, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC), serum 50% hemolytic value (HC50), mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected respectively. After 30 days raise, among negative control group, common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, mice body weight were (21.0±0.3), (20.4±0.7), (21.1±1.0), (21.1±1.0), (19.4±1.0) g, respectively (F=7.47, Pgenetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 was substantially equivalent to parental wheat in the effects on immune organs and immunologic functions of mice, and it didn't show immunotoxicity.
Robert A Taft
Full Text Available There is a continual need to improve efficiency in creating precise genetic modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We describe a novel approach resulting in 100% germline transmission from competent injected ESCs. We developed an F1 mouse host embryo (Perfect Host, PH that selectively ablates its own germ cells via tissue-specific induction of diphtheria toxin. This approach allows competent microinjected ESCs to fully dominate the germline, eliminating competition for this critical niche in the developing and adult animal. This is in contrast to conventional methods, where competition from host germ cells results in offspring derived from host cells and ESCs, necessitating extensive breeding of chimeras and genotyping to identify germline. The germline transmission process is also complicated by variability in the actual number of ESCs that colonize the germline niche and the proportion that are germline competent. To validate the PH approach we used ESC lines derived from 129 F1, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR backgrounds as well as an iPS line. Resulting chimeric males produced 194 offspring, all paternally derived from the introduced stem cells, with no offspring being derived from the host genome. We further tested this approach using eleven genetically modified C57BL/6N ESC lines (International Knockout Mouse Consortium. ESC germline transmission was observed in 9/11 (82% lines using PH blastocysts, compared to 6/11 (55% when conventional host blastocysts were used. Furthermore, less than 35% (83/240 of mice born in the first litters from conventional chimeras were confirmed to be of ESC-origin. By comparison, 100% (137/137 of the first litter offspring of PH chimeras were confirmed as ESC-derived. Together, these data demonstrate that the PH approach increases the probability of germline transmission and speeds the generation of ESC derived animals from chimeras. Collectively, this approach reduces the time and costs inherent in the
Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy
An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.
Andrew, Johnny; Ismail, Normaz Wana; Djama, Marcel
The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, have been rapidly increasing in production for the last 20 years. Despite their known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also to the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks. This paper provides an overview of GM crop technology from international and national context and explores the governance and issues surrounding this technology application in Malaysia. Basically, GM research activities in Malaysia are still at an early stage of research and development and most of the GM crops approved for release are limited for food, feed and processing purposes. Even though Malaysia has not planted any GM crops commercially, actions toward such a direction seem promising. Several issues concerning GM crops as discussed in this paper will become more complex as the number of GM crops and varieties commercialised globally increase and Malaysia starts to plant GM crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Zaiton Ahmad; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin; Affrida Abu Hassan; Mohd Zaid Hassan; Rusli Ibrahim
Bio Design Facility is the specifically designed glass house for propagation, screening and analysis of high quality plant varieties developed through biotechnology or a combination of nuclear technology and biotechnology. High quality plant varieties especially genetically modified plants (GMO) require a special glass house facility for propagation and screening to isolate them from cross-pollinating with wild type varieties in surrounding ecosystem, and for carrying out evaluation of possible risks of the plants to human, animal and environment before they are proven safe for field trials or commercial release. This facility which was developed under the Ninth Malaysia Plan is classified as the Plant Containment Level 2 and is compliance with the bio safety regulations and guidance for the safe release of GMO according to Malaysian Bio safety Act 2007. Bio Design Facility is fully operational since 2010 and in 2012, it has also been certified as the glass house for post-entry quarantine by The Department of Agriculture. This paper summarizes the bio safety procedure for a safe, controlled and contained growing and evaluation of GMO in Bio Design Facility. This procedure covers the physical (containment and equipment's) and operational (including responsibility, code of practice, growing, decontamination and disposal of plant materials, emergency and contingency plan) aspects of the facility. (author)
Zou, Shiying; Lang, Tianqi; Liu, Xu; Huang, Kunlun; He, Xiaoyun
Genetically modified (GM) maize, DAS-40278-9, expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein, which confers tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicides. The aad-1 gene, which expresses the AAD-1 protein, was derived from Gram-negative soil bacterium, Sphingobium herbicidovorans. A 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study was conducted on rats as a component of the safety evaluation of DAS-40278-9 maize. Rats were given formulated diets containing maize grain from DAS-40278-9 or a non-GM near isogenic control comparator at an incorporation rate of 12.5%, 25%, or 50% (w/w), respectively for 90 days. In addition, another group of rats was fed a basic rodent diet. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathological examinations. Under the condition of this study, DAS-40278-9 maize did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats compared with rats fed diets containing non-GM maize. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok and a low producer (p2F. Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01. When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05. Significant survival (40% was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the viability of microorganisms from Collection of Industrial Microorganisms from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnology – Timisoara, during freezing and thawing as part of cryopreservation technique. The stability in real time of 19 strains cryopreserved in 16% glycerol was evaluated during a 6-months period. The strains studied were: Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rhizobium meliloti, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Bacillus globigii, Bacillus licheniformis, and 9 strains of Bacillus subtilis. The strains cryopreserved at -20oC and -70oC were activated using the fast thawing protocol. A better cell recovery was achieved with the -70oC protocol reaching an average viability for E. coli of 86,3%, comparing with 78,6% in -20oC protocol. The cell recovery percentages for the other strains were: 92,4% for L. acidophilus, 93,9% for A.niger, 89% for A. oryzae, 86,7% for T. viride, 94,2% for R. meliloti, 82,1% for S. cerevisiae, 89,9% for B. licheniformis. Regarding the viability of genetically modified microorganisms, the values shows a good recovering after freezing and thawing, even after 180 days of cryopreservation. With the -20oC protocol lower viability was observed due probably to the formation of eutectic mixtures and recrystalization processes.
Bambang R Prawiradiputra
Full Text Available The opportunity of the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO forage crops in Indonesia is quite large. Although until now there is no single forage crop awarded safely crop in Indonesia, but several crop byproducts have been used as feed ingredient. The controversy over the presence of GMO plant cannot be avoided. There are a part of communities who could not accept the presence of GMO crops for some reasons. On the other hand, the producers claimed the advantages of the GMO crops such as reducing pesticide application, reducing cost of weeding, more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and increasing production, farmer’s income and welfare. For the opponent, the main concerns are environmental issues and the possibility of emerging diseases in animal as well as human being. The Biosafety Comission through Biosafety Technical Team has the authority to recommend whether GMO food or feed (and plants is safe or not safe to be consumed and grown in Indonesia after the assessment.
Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea
An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 15......, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. The aim of the study was to use a known animal model in performance of safety assessment of a GM crop, in this case KMD1 rice. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of KMD1 rice when tested in the design...... used in this 90-day study. Nevertheless the experiences from this study lead to the overall conclusion that safety assessment for unintended effects of a GM crop cannot be done without additional test group(s)....
Beisner, Brianne A.; Jackson, Megan E.; Cameron, Ashley N.; McCowan, Brenda
The persistence of biological systems requires evolved mechanisms which promote stability. Cohesive primate social groups are one example of stable biological systems, which persist in spite of regular conflict. We suggest that genetic relatedness and its associated kinship structure are a potential source of stability in primate social groups as kinship structure is an important organizing principle in many animal societies. We investigated the effect of average genetic relatedness per matri...
Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I
The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard...... to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original...
McFarlane, R.; Roberts, M.
One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modem society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents of genetic modification (GM), and the difficulty of resolution within the secular-based framework of quantitative risk assessment applied by the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) and decision-making committees. Alternative frameworks suggested by Maori are beginning to emerge, and along with the results of several government-funded research projects in this area, should make a valuable contribution to a new framework that more equitably incorporates the fundamental principles of both knowledge systems. If this aim is achieved, it will be of considerable interest to other indigenous peoples in the world who are also faced with real and perceived threats to their cultural beliefs and values originating from new biotechnologies. (author)
Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.
Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I
The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.
Meer, P.J. van der [Ministry for the Environment (Netherlands)
The introduction of these new molecular technologies initiated an international discussion on the safety in biotechnology. In 1974 one of the pioneers of this new technology, Paul Berg, expressed his view on the potential risks of recombinant DNA applications in the famous 'Berg letter', leading to a self-imposed moratorium on certain experiments. Following the Berg letter and the Asilomar convention, much international attention has been given to the question of safety in biotechnology. This attention resulted in hundreds of documents, research programmes, guidelines and regulations. This resulted, among others, in two EC Directives on genetically modified organisms: the EC Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, and Directive 90/220/EEC on the release of genetically modified organisms. These directives lay down a system for harmonization of risk assessment and risk management with regard to the safety for human health and the environment.
Meer, P.J. van der
The introduction of these new molecular technologies initiated an international discussion on the safety in biotechnology. In 1974 one of the pioneers of this new technology, Paul Berg, expressed his view on the potential risks of recombinant DNA applications in the famous 'Berg letter', leading to a self-imposed moratorium on certain experiments. Following the Berg letter and the Asilomar convention, much international attention has been given to the question of safety in biotechnology. This attention resulted in hundreds of documents, research programmes, guidelines and regulations. This resulted, among others, in two EC Directives on genetically modified organisms: the EC Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, and Directive 90/220/EEC on the release of genetically modified organisms. These directives lay down a system for harmonization of risk assessment and risk management with regard to the safety for human health and the environment
I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. © The Author(s) 2015.
Moguilnaya, T.; Suminov, Y.; Botikov, A.; Ignatov, S.; Kononenko, A.; Agibalov, A.
We developed the new automatic method that combines the method of forced luminescence and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This method is used for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution. We carried out the statistical spectral analysis of pathogens, genetically modified soy and nano-particles of silver in water from different regions in order to determine the statistical errors of the method. We studied spectral characteristics of these objects in water to perform the initial identification with 95% probability. These results were used for creation of the model of the device for monitor of pathogenic organisms and working model of the device to determine the genetically modified soy in meat.
Pham, Van Binh; Tung Pham, Xuan Thanh; Duong Dang, Ngoc Thuy; Tuyen Le, Thi Thanh; Tran, Phu Duy; Nguyen, Thanh Chien; Nguyen, Van Quoc; Dang, Mau Chien; Tong, Duy Hien; Van Rijn, Cees J M
A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor based sensor (SiNW-FET) has been proved to be the most sensitive and powerful device for bio-detection applications. In this paper, SiNWs were first fabricated by using our recently developed deposition and etching under angle technique (DEA), then used to build up the complete SiNW device based biosensor. The fabricated SiNW biosensor was used to detect DNA of genetically modified maize. As the DNA of the genetically modified maize has particular DNA sequences of 35S promoter, we therefore designed 21 mer DNA oligonucleotides, which are used as a receptor to capture the transferred DNA of maize. In our work, the SiNW biosensor could detect DNA of genetically modified maize with concentrations down to about 200 pM
Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua
A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schnettler, Berta; Velásquez, Carlos; Miranda, Horacio
With the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 40...
Full Text Available With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches.
Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona
Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. For thi......Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...
Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.
: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present...... that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA...
CONSUMERS' PURCHASE INTENTIONS WITH REGARD TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS ARE INVESTIGATED THROUGH A CROSS-NATIONAL SURVEY IN DENMARK, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN AND ITALY, USING BEER AND YOGHURT AS EXAMPLES (N=1000 PER PRODUCT). RESULTS SHOW THAT GENERALLY COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF ITALIAN CONSUMERS...... ARE NOT COMPARABLE WITH COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF CONSUMERS OF THE THREE OTHER COUNTRIES. IN ALL CASES, HOWEVER, PUR-CHASE INTENTIONS ARE STRONGLY EXPLAINED BY CONSUMERS' OVERALL ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETIC MODIFICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTION....
Lu, Song; Chow, Christie C; Zhou, Junwei; Leung, Po Sing; Tsui, Stephen K; Lui, Kathy O
In this chapter, we describe a highly efficient genetic modification strategy for human pancreatic progenitor cells using modified mRNA-encoding GFP and Neurogenin-3. The properties of modified mRNA offer an invaluable platform to drive protein expression, which has broad applicability in pathway regulation, directed differentiation, and lineage specification. This approach can also be used to regulate expression of other pivotal transcription factors during pancreas development and might have potential therapeutic values in regenerative medicine.
factories vary largely, including industrial production of valuable compounds for biofuels, polymer synthesis and food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The improvement of computational and biochemical tools has revolutionized the synthesis of novel modified microbial strains, opening up new......The importance of metabolic engineering has been growing over the last decades, establishing the use of genetically modified microbial strains for overproduction of metabolites at industrial scale as an innovative, convenient and biosustainable method. Nowadays, application areas of microbial...
Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio
Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044
Ahmet Duran Çelik; Erdal Dağıstan
In this study consumers’ perception of, and purchase intention for genetically modified foods were examined in the city center of Hatay. The data of the 343 surveys were collected by using the face to face interview method. The data were analyzed by means of Likert Scale, and Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the survey results, consumers’ risk perceptions about genetically modified foods are quite high. Consumers don’t willingly purchase genetically modified foods, and they intend ...
Ormandy, Elisabeth H
This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. 2016 FRAME.
Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has created biological organisms with advanced genetic sequences and has been extensively used to express multiple genes for therapeutic purposes when expressed in a suitable host. Microbial systems such as prokaryotic bacteria has been successfully utilized as a heterologous systems showing high therapeutic potency for various human diseases. Bioengineered bacteria have been successfully utilized for producing therapeutic proteins, treating infectious diseases, and disease arise due to increasing resistance to antibiotics. Prominently E. coli found to be the most widely used expression system for recombinant therapeutic protein production i.e. hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Besides E. coli, non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria has also been considered as an excellent candidate for live mucosal vaccine. Likewise, S. typhimurium has been deployed as attenuated type of vaccination as well as in treatment strategy of various cancers due to its ability of wide progression in tumors. The present article is a summarized view of the main achievements and current developments in the field of recombinant therapeutics using bacterial strains focusing on their usability in therapeutics and future potential.
Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.
This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and
Full Text Available The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.
Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G
The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.
Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N
The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher
Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532
Mathur, Pramod K; Vogelzang, Roos; Mulder, Herman A; Knol, Egbert F
Animal health and welfare are monitored during meat inspection in many slaughter plants around the world. Carcasses are examined by meat inspectors and remarks are made with respect to different diseases, injuries, and other abnormalities. This is a valuable data resource for disease prevention and enhancing animal welfare, but it is rarely used for this purpose. Records on carcass remarks on 140,375 finisher pigs were analyzed to investigate the possibility of genetic selection to reduce the risk of the most prevalent diseases and indicators of suboptimal animal welfare. As part of this, effects of some non-genetic factors such as differences between farms, sexes, and growth rates were also examined. The most frequent remarks were pneumonia (15.4%), joint disorders (9.8%), pleuritis (4.7%), pericarditis (2.3%), and liver lesions (2.2%). Joint disorders were more frequent in boars than in gilts. There were also significant differences between farms. Pedigree records were available for 142,324 pigs from 14 farms and were used for genetic analysis. Heritability estimates for pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, liver lesions, and joint disorders were 0.10, 0.09, 0.14, 0.24, and 0.17 on the liability scale, respectively, suggesting the existence of substantial genetic variation. This was further confirmed though genome wide associations using deregressed breeding values as phenotypes. The genetic correlations between these remarks and finishing traits were small but mostly negative, suggesting the possibility of enhancing pig health and welfare simultaneously with genetic improvement in finishing traits. A selection index based on the breeding values for these traits and their economic values was developed. This index is used to enhance animal welfare in pig farms.
D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B
described by the concept of animal temperament (also known as coping styles, personality or behavioural syndromes), but this has rarely been demonstrated at the genetic level in farm animals. These findings may have practical implications for the development of breeding programmes aimed at altering animal temperament. Breeding to reduce aggression could result in some reduction in activity at weighing. This would have consequences for animal production, because pigs which are inactive at weighing take longer to move into and out of the weigh crate, and perhaps also for animal welfare.
Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.
In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent
... technologies in the them from with breeding whether examines and Picnic Basket subject, from potentially dangerous products. either use or about the regulatory processes established to protect us genetically other regulators modified "natural" the production. explains, in dear language, the technologies around the food, methods question of world of Researc...
Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.
The environmental impacts of genetically modified crops is still a controversial issue in Europe. The overall risk assessment framework has recently been reinforced by the European Food Safety Authority(EFSA) and its implementation requires harmonized and efficient methodologies. The EU-funded re...
Glover, D.; Stone, G.D.
A surge of media reports and rhetorical claims depicted genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to the ‘global food crisis’ manifested in the sudden spike in world food prices during 2007–08. Broad claims were made about the potential of GM technologies to tackle the crisis, even though the
Florek-Łuszczki Magdalena; Lachowski Stanisław; Chmielewski Jarosław; Jurkiewicz Anna
The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO) amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.
Full Text Available The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.
Hoeven, van der N.; Elsas, van J.D.; Heijnen, C.E.
A computer simulation model was developed which describes growth and competition of bacteria in the soil environment. In the model, soil was assumed to contain millions of pores of a few different size classes. An introduced bacterial strain, e.g. a genetically modified micro-organism (GEMMO), was
Schagen, Frederik H. E.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Hospers, Geke A. P.
Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product
Kok, Esther J.; Pedersen, Jan W.; Onori, Roberta
The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One...
Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.
This is the annual report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT - Institue of Food Safety). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2010. In 2010 RIKILT participated in one ring trial for inter laboratory validation
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.
This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Nor-wegian and Finnish consumers' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across...
Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, A.N.E.; Kiss, Jozsef; Loon, van Joop J.A.; Messéan, Antoine; Nuti, Marco; Perry, Joe N.; Sweet, Jeremy B.; Tebbe, Christoph C.
In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their
Kuiper, H.A.; Kleter, G.A.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Kok, E.J.
International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for
McInerney, Claire R.; Bird, Nora J.
Introduction: Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET) is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of…
AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...
König, A.; Cockburn, A.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Debruyne, E.; Grafstroem, R.; Hammerling, U.; Kimber, I.; Knudsen, I.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Penninks, A.H.; Poulsen, M.; Schauzu, M.; Wal, J.M.
This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of
Kim, Sei-Hill; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Choi, Doo-Hun; Jun, Sangil
Analyzing survey data on the issue of genetically modified foods in South Korea, this study explores the role of news media in facilitating informed issue evaluation. Respondents who read a newspaper more often were more knowledgeable about the issue. Also, heavy newspaper readers were more able than light readers to hold "consistent"…
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results
Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.
Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of
Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara
Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in 11 case...
Goodman, Richard E.; Hefle, Susan L.; Taylor, Steven L.; van Ree, Ronald
The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use ( tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have
Pertry, I.; Nothegger, C.; Sweet, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Davies, H.; Iserentant, D.; Hull, R.; Mezzetti, B.; Messens, K.; Loose, De M.; Oliveira, de D.; Burssens, S.; Gheysen, G.; Tzotzos, G.
Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems
Full Text Available The objective of the conducted analysis is the opinion of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO and determination of the relationship between the level of knowledge concerning GMO, and evaluation of the safety of their use in industry and agriculture.
This article contains a discussion paper on the use of exotic species and genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and enhanced fisheries, together with a summary of ICLARM's (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Philippines) current position on this important topic.
Kuiper, Harry A.; Kleter, Gijs A.; Noteborn, Hub P.J.M.; Kok, Esther J.
Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism
Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn
In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…
Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.
This is the annual report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2011. In 2011 both RIKILT and the Routine Field Laboratory of the Netherlands Food
Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.
This is the annual report of the Dutch Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT Wageningen UR). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2012. In 2012 the two Dutch Official Laboratories participated in several proficiency tests with good
Tan, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobing; Tang, Yao; Lv, Jianjun; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Li; Yang, Yanwei; Miao, Yufa; Jiang, Hua; Chen, Gaofeng; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Xue
The present study was performed to evaluate the food safety of TT51-1, a new type of genetically modified rice that expresses the Cry1Ab/Ac protein (Bt toxin) and is highly resistant to most lepidopteran pests. Sixteen male and 16 female cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: conventional rice (non-genetically modified rice, non-GM rice), positive control, 17.5% genetically modified rice (GM rice) and 70% GM rice. Monkeys in the non-GM rice, positive control, and GM rice groups were fed on diets containing 70% non-GM rice, 17.5% GM rice or 70% GM rice, respectively, for 182 days, whereas animals in the positive group were intravenously injected with cyclophosphamide every other day for a total of four injections before the last treatment. Six months of treatment did not yield abnormal observations. Specifically, the following parameters did not significantly differ between the non-GM rice group and GM rice groups: body weight, food consumption, electrocardiogram, hematology, immuno-phenotyping of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, mitogen-induced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation, splenocyte proliferation, KLH-T cell-dependent antibody response, organ weights and ratios, and histological appearance (p>0.05). Animals from the GM rice group differed from animals in the non-GM rice group (pGM rice. In conclusion, a 6-month feeding study of TT51-1 did not show adverse immunotoxicological effects on cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:27684490
Nijman Isaäc J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-/- rat and the behaviorally and genetically divergent Brown Norway rat, and performed a QTL analysis. Results In a cohort of >150 intercross SERT-/- and control (SERT+/+ rats we characterized 12 traits that were previously associated with SERT deficiency, including activity, exploratory pattern, cocaine-induced locomotor activity, and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Using 325 genetic markers, 10 SERT-/--specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs for parameters related to activity and exploratory pattern (Chr.1,9,11,14, and cocaine-induced anxiety and locomotor activity (Chr.5,8 were identified. No significant QTLs were found for fat parameters. Using in silico approaches we explored potential causal genes within modifier QTL regions and found interesting candidates, amongst others, the 5-HT1D receptor (Chr. 5, dopamine D2 receptor (Chr. 8, cannabinoid receptor 2 (Chr. 5, and genes involved in fetal development and plasticity (across chromosomes. Conclusions We anticipate that the SERT-/--specific QTLs may lead to the identification of new modulators of serotonergic signaling, which may be targets for pharmacogenetic and therapeutic approaches.
E. L. Levitsky
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the published literature regarding the problem of safety of consuming food products containing genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified food products are given a brief definition, purpose and methods of their production are described, and the pro- and contra- arguments for their consumption are presented. The discussion is mostly focused on results of evaluating possible toxicity of such foods and their safety for macroorganism using traditional methods of toxicological analysis. Test results for long-term toxic effects, namely allergenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, and the possibility of mutagenic effects of these food products on the human body and the intestinal microflora are discussed separately. These data are based on the current understanding of the laws of the penetration and functioning of foreign genetic material outside the body, its entry and the possibility of integration into the genome during intake of foods manufactured by genetic engineering. The basic principles of the toxicological and hygienic regulation of these food products are also considered. An analysis of published experimental results allowed to draw a general conclusion about the absence of reliable scientific information indicating the presence of the toxic properties of genetically modified foods, and therefore of credible evidence of the dangers of consuming for humans and pets.
Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul
Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.
Choisy, Marc; de Roode, Jacobus C
Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the evolution of genetically fixed versus phenotypically plastic forms of medication. Our model shows that the relative benefits (the antiparasitic properties of medicinal food) and costs (side effects of medicine, the costs of searching for medicine, and the costs of plasticity itself) crucially determine whether medication is genetically fixed or phenotypically plastic. Our model suggests that animals evolve phenotypic plasticity when parasite risk (a combination of virulence and prevalence and thus a measure of the strength of parasite-mediated selection) is relatively low to moderately high and genetically fixed medication when parasite risk becomes very high. The latter occurs because at high parasite risk, the costs of plasticity are outweighed by the benefits of medication. Our model provides a simple and general framework to study the conditions that drive the evolution of alternative forms of animal medication.
Diane S. Daniel
Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A strong epidemiological link has been reported between E. faecalis inhabiting animals and environmental sources. This study investigates the genetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in E. faecalis from three sources in Malaysia. A total of 250 E. faecalis isolates were obtained consisting of 120 isolates from farm animals, 100 isolates from water sources and 30 isolates from hospitalized patients. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis-typing yielded 63 pulsotypes, with high diversity observed in all sources (D = ≥0.901. No pulsotype was common to all the three sources. Each patient room had its own unique PFGE pattern which persisted after six months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Fosfomycin were evaluated. Resistance to Tetracycline was most prevalent in isolates from farm animals (62% and water sources (49%. Water isolates (86% had a higher prevalence of the asa1 gene, which encodes for aggregation substance, whereas clinical (78% and farm animal isolates (87% had a higher prevalence of the esp gene, encoding a surface exposed protein. This study generates knowledge on the genetic diversity of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence characteristics from various sources in Malaysia. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Enterococcus faecalis, Genetic diversity, Molecular typing, Virulence markers
Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten
., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H...... to separate potentially unintended effects of the novel gene product from other unintended effects at the level of intake defined in the test and within the remit of the test. Recommendations for further work necessary in the field are given.......This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A...
Goodman, Richard E; Hefle, Susan L; Taylor, Steven L; van Ree, Ronald
The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the current understanding of food allergens and knowledge regarding the prediction of allergenic activity. Although there have been refinements, the key aspects of the evaluation have not changed. The allergenic properties of the gene donor and the host (recipient) organisms are considered in determining the appropriate testing strategy. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is compared to all known allergens to determine whether the protein is a known allergen or is sufficiently similar to any known allergen to indicate an increased probability of allergic cross-reactivity. Stability of the protein in the presence of acid with the stomach protease pepsin is tested as a risk factor for food allergenicity. In vitro or in vivo human IgE binding are tested when appropriate, if the gene donor is an allergen or the sequence of the protein is similar to an allergen. Serum donors and skin test subjects are selected based on their proven allergic responses to the gene donor or to material containing the allergen that was matched in sequence. While some scientists and regulators have suggested using animal models, performing broadly targeted serum IgE testing or extensive pre- or post-market clinical tests, current evidence does not support these tests as being predictive or practical. Based on the evidence to date, the current assessment process has worked well to prevent the unintended introduction of allergens in commercial GM crops.
Full Text Available Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.
Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick
Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.
Halter, Mathew C; Zahn, James A
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products. Elimination routes that have the potential to impact the food chain or environment have been more heavily scrutinized for the fate and persistence of biological products. In this study, we developed and optimized a method for monitoring the degradation of strain-specific DNA markers from a genetically-modified organism (GMO) used for the commercial production of 1,3-propanediol. Laboratory and field tests showed that a marker for heterologous DNA in the GM organism was no longer detectable by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after 14 days. The half-life of heterologous DNA was increased by 17% (from 42.4 to 49.7 h) after sterilization of the soil from a field plot, which indicated that abiotic factors were important in degradation of DNA under field conditions. There was no evidence for horizontal transfer of DNA target sequences from the GMO to viable organisms present in the soil.
Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F
Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.
Glazko, V.I.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Glazko, T.T.
The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations
Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Binladen, J.
Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including...... the oldest authenticated ancient DNA sequences known, and megafaunal sequences including mammoth, bison, and horse. The genetic data record a number of dramatic changes in the taxonomic diversity and composition of Beringian vegetation and fauna. Temperate cave sediments in New Zealand also yielded DNA...
Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro
Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Although, genetically modified (GM crops have to be a broadly debated topic in different countries, there has been much less attention devoted to farmer attitudes towards GM crops. This paper attempts to research farmers’ insights on GM crops in Georgia through February-March 2014. An in-depth survey of 611 farmers revealed that respondents lack sufficient knowledge about genetic engineering. They tend to have a negative attitude towards GM crops and are strongly against of import and adoption of GM seeds. An empirical examination based on analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient verified that both education and age were significant determinants of awareness of farmers about genetically engineered crops, while income used to have no significant influence on the farmers’ decision to adopt GM crops. In addition, relationship between awareness about genetic engineering and farmers’ decision to adopt GM crops has to be insignificant, as well.
Maes, Jasmien; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Gheysen, Godelieve; Valcke, Martin
A large-scale cross-sectional study (N = 4002) was set up to determine Flemish secondary school students' willingness to eat genetically modified food (WTE) and to link students' WTE to previously identified key variables from research on the acceptance of genetic modification (GM). These variables include subjective and objective knowledge about genetics and biotechnology, perceived risks and benefits of GM food crops, trust in information from different sources about GM, and food neophobia. Differences between WTE-related variables based on students' grade level, educational track, and gender were analyzed. The students displayed a rather indecisive position toward GM food and scored weakly on a genetics and biotechnology knowledge test. WTE correlated most strongly with perceived benefits and subjective and objective knowledge. The results have clear implications for education, as they reiterate the need to strengthen students' scientific knowledge base and to introduce a GM-related debate at a much earlier stage in their school career.
Ahmet Duran Çelik
Full Text Available In this study consumers’ perception of, and purchase intention for genetically modified foods were examined in the city center of Hatay. The data of the 343 surveys were collected by using the face to face interview method. The data were analyzed by means of Likert Scale, and Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the survey results, consumers’ risk perceptions about genetically modified foods are quite high. Consumers don’t willingly purchase genetically modified foods, and they intend to consume foods grown in traditional methods. High risk perceptions have a determining role on consumers’ views about genetically modified foods and their purchase intention for them. Another outcome from this study is that consumers’ awareness and knowledge levels about genetically modified foods are quite low, and that their perceptions and attitudes are mostly based on biases.
Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud
Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.
Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang
Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Devlin-Durante, M K; Miller, M W; Precht, W F; Baums, I B
Foundation species such as redwoods, seagrasses and corals are often long-lived and clonal. Genets may consist of hundreds of members (ramets) and originated hundreds to thousands of years ago. As climate change and other stressors exert selection pressure on species, the demography of populations changes. Yet, because size does not indicate age in clonal organisms, demographic models are missing data necessary to predict the resilience of many foundation species. Here, we correlate somatic mutations with genet age of corals and provide the first, preliminary estimates of genet age in a colonial animal. We observed somatic mutations at five microsatellite loci in rangewide samples of the endangered coral, Acropora palmata (n = 3352). Colonies harboured 342 unique mutations in 147 genets. Genet age ranged from 30 to 838 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.195 -04 per locus per year based on colony growth rates and 236 to 6500 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.542 -05 per locus per year based on sea level changes to habitat availability. Long-lived A. palmata genets imply a large capacity to tolerate past environmental change, and yet recent mass mortality events in A. palmata suggest that capacity is now being frequently exceeded. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida
In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or for the production of biotechnological products (e.g. enzymes, pharmaceutical products) will continuously grow in the future. Numerous specialised S. cerevisiae wine strains were obtained in recent years, possessing a wide range of optimised or novel oenological properties, capable of satisfying the demanding nature of modern winemaking practise. The unlocking of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome complexities will contribute decisively to the knowledge about the genetic make-up of commercial yeast strains and will influence wine strain improvement via genetic engineering. The most relevant advances regarding the importance and implications of the use of GM yeast strains in the wine industry are discussed in this mini-review. In this work, various aspects are considered including the strategies used for the construction of strains with respect to current legislation requirements, the environmental risk evaluations concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified yeast strains, the methods for detection of recombinant DNA and protein that are currently under evaluation, and the reasons behind the critical public perception towards the application of such strains.
Li, Jingting; Sen, George L
Organotypic cultures allow the reconstitution of a 3D environment critical for cell-cell contact and cell-matrix interactions which mimics the function and physiology of their in vivo tissue counterparts. This is exemplified by organotypic skin cultures which faithfully recapitulates the epidermal differentiation and stratification program. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes are genetically manipulable through retroviruses where genes can be easily overexpressed or knocked down. These genetically modified keratinocytes can then be used to regenerate human epidermis in organotypic skin cultures providing a powerful model to study genetic pathways impacting epidermal growth, differentiation, and disease progression. The protocols presented here describe methods to prepare devitalized human dermis as well as to genetically manipulate primary human keratinocytes in order to generate organotypic skin cultures. Regenerated human skin can be used in downstream applications such as gene expression profiling, immunostaining, and chromatin immunoprecipitations followed by high throughput sequencing. Thus, generation of these genetically modified organotypic skin cultures will allow the determination of genes that are critical for maintaining skin homeostasis.
Scholtens, Ingrid; Laurensse, Emile; Molenaar, Bonnie; Zaaijer, Stephanie; Gaballo, Heidi; Boleij, Peter; Bak, Arno; Kok, Esther
Nowadays most animal feed products imported into Europe have a GMO (genetically modified organism) label. This means that they contain European Union (EU)-authorized GMOs. For enforcement of these labeling requirements, it is necessary, with the rising number of EU-authorized GMOs, to perform an increasing number of analyses. In addition to this, it is necessary to test products for the potential presence of EU-unauthorized GMOs. Analysis for EU-authorized and -unauthorized GMOs in animal feed has thus become laborious and expensive. Initial screening steps may reduce the number of GMO identification methods that need to be applied, but with the increasing diversity also screening with GMO elements has become more complex. For the present study, the application of an informative detailed 24-element screening and subsequent identification strategy was applied in 50 animal feed samples. Almost all feed samples were labeled as containing GMO-derived materials. The main goal of the study was therefore to investigate if a detailed screening strategy would reduce the number of subsequent identification analyses. An additional goal was to test the samples in this way for the potential presence of EU-unauthorized GMOs. Finally, to test the robustness of the approach, eight of the samples were tested in a concise interlaboratory study. No significant differences were found between the results of the two laboratories.
Brianne A Beisner
Full Text Available The persistence of biological systems requires evolved mechanisms which promote stability. Cohesive primate social groups are one example of stable biological systems, which persist in spite of regular conflict. We suggest that genetic relatedness and its associated kinship structure are a potential source of stability in primate social groups as kinship structure is an important organizing principle in many animal societies. We investigated the effect of average genetic relatedness per matrilineal family on the stability of matrilineal grooming and agonistic interactions in 48 matrilines from seven captive groups of rhesus macaques. Matrilines with low average genetic relatedness show increased family-level instability such as: more sub-grouping in their matrilineal groom network, more frequent fighting with kin, and higher rates of wounding. Family-level instability in multiple matrilines within a group is further associated with group-level instability such as increased wounding. Stability appears to arise from the presence of clear matrilineal structure in the rhesus macaque group hierarchy, which is derived from cohesion among kin in their affiliative and agonistic interactions with each other. We conclude that genetic relatedness and kinship structure are an important source of group stability in animal societies, particularly when dominance and/or affilative interactions are typically governed by kinship.
Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)
Eriksson, S; Jonas, E; Rydhmer, L; Röcklinsberg, H
The hot topic of genetic modification and genome editing is sometimes presented as a rapid solution to various problems in the field of animal breeding and genetics. These technologies hold potential for future use in agriculture but we need to be aware of difficulties in large-scale application and integration in breeding schemes. In this review, we discuss applications of both classical genetic modifications (GM) using vectors and genome editing in dairy cattle breeding. We use an interdisciplinary approach considering both ethical and animal breeding perspectives. Decisions on how to make use of these techniques need to be made based not only on what is possible, but on what is reasonable to do. Principles of animal integrity, naturalness, risk perception, and animal welfare issues are examples of ethically relevant factors to consider. These factors also influence public perception and decisions about regulations by authorities. We need to acknowledge that we lack complete understanding of the genetic background of complex traits. It may be difficult, therefore, to predict the full effect of certain modifications in large-scale breeding programs. We present 2 potential applications: genome editing to dispense with dehorning, and insertion of human genes in bovine genomes to improve udder health as an example of classical GM. Both of these cases could be seen as beneficial for animal welfare but they differ in other aspects. In the former case, a genetic variant already present within the species is introduced, whereas in the latter case, transgenic animals are generated-this difference may influence how society regards the applications. We underline that the use of GM, as well as genome editing, of farm animals such as cattle is not independent of the context, and should be considered as part of an entire process, including, for example, the assisted reproduction technology that needs to be used. We propose that breeding organizations and breeding companies
Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi
A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (C f ) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined C f for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.
Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.
'In the mid-1990s, a mismatch was addressed between European genetically modified food policy, which focused primarily on risks and economic prospects, and public anxieties, which also included other concerns, and there was a development in European food policy toward the inclusion of what were referred to as "ethical aspects." Using parliamentary debates in Denmark in 2002 and 2015 as a case, this article examines how three storylines of concern that were visible in public discourse at the time were represented by the decision makers in parliament. It shows that core public concerns raising fundamental questions about genetically modified foods, and in particular their perceived unnaturalness, were not considered in the parliamentary debates. It is suggested that the failure of the parliament to represent the public may undermine the legitimacy of politicians and lead to disillusionment with parliamentary government.
Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer benefits to human health when administered in adequate amounts. Among the frequent proposed health benefits attributed to probiotics, their ability to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Although history has revealed that probiotics were part of fermented foods in the past, clinicians have started to use them therapeutically in regular diets. Moreover, the use of genetically modified probiotics to deliver molecules of therapeutic interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This chapter summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives on the use of both traditional and genetically modified probiotics to treat human diseases as well as what the future may hold concerning the use of these probiotics in humans.
Konig, A.; Cockburn, A.; Crewel, R. W. R.
of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use......This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group I of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics...... (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex...
Nesvold, Håvard; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G
Unknown genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have not undergone a risk evaluation, and hence might pose a danger to health and environment. There are, today, no methods for detecting unknown GMOs. In this paper we propose a novel method intended as a first step in an approach for detecting unknown genetically modified (GM) material in a single plant. A model is designed where biological and combinatorial reduction rules are applied to a set of DNA chip probes containing all possible sequences of uniform length n, creating probes capable of detecting unknown GMOs. The model is theoretically tested for Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and the probabilities for detecting inserts and receiving false positives are assessed for various parameters for this organism. From a theoretical standpoint, the model looks very promising but should be tested further in the laboratory. The model and algorithms will be available upon request to the corresponding author.
Full Text Available The term “genetic modified organisms (GMO” has become a controversial topic as its benefits for both food producers and consumers are companied by potential biomedical risks and environmental side effects. Increasing concerns from the public about GMO, particularly in the form of genetic modified (GM foods, are aimed at the short- and long-lasting health problems that may result from this advanced biotechnology. Complex studies are being carried out around the world independently to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM foods. In this paper, we attempt to summarize up-to-date knowledge about the benefits and potential problems of GM food. We also introduce some recent technological developments in GM foods and their impact in the field.
Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus
The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.
Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari
This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. © The Author(s) 2013.
Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Rafiaani Khachak, Parisa; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank
Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countrie...
Bond, Craig A.; Carter, Colin A.; Farzin, Y. Hossein
Rice production in California is intensive in input usage. Weed resistance has led to growing chemical usage and has raised costs for many rice producers in California. In recent years, widespread adoption of genetically modified (GM) soybeans, corn, canola, and cotton has provided growers of those crops with new production alternatives that reduce chemical usage. But GM rice has not yet been approved for commercial production in California or elsewhere. One reason that GM rice production has...
Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas
The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...
Jin, Jing; Wailes, Eric; Dixon, Bruce; Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.; Zheng, Zhihao
Over the past decade public perception of GM food in China has become increasingly contentious. Concerns have emerged with regard to public health, environmental safety, and economic impacts. This paper utilizes a survey conducted in 2013 to evaluate China’s urban consumers’ acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified rice. The survey was conducted in thirteen of the main rice consuming provinces of China. Responses from 994 consumers are used to estimate WTP for GM rice ...
Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Song-Wilson, Yi; Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denatu...
Wree, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
High Yield Genetically Modified Wheat (HOSUT) HOSUT lines are an innovation in wheat breeding based on biotechnology with an incremental yield potential of ca. 28% compared to conventional wheat varieties. We apply the real option concept of Maximum Incremental Social Tolerable Irreversible Costs (MISTICs) to do an ex-ante assessment of the socioeconomic potential of HOSUT lines for Germany. We analyze the cost and benefits to farmer and society within two scenarios. Our results of our scenar...
Furtan, William Hartley; Gray, Richard S.; Holzman, J.J.
This study examines the optimal approval strategy for genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties in Canada and the United States. Without an affordable segregation system, the introduction of GM wheat will create a market for "lemons" that will result in the loss of important export markets. Using a differentiated product trade model for spring wheat, with endogenous technology pricing, a payoff matrix is generated for the possible approval outcomes. Results show that the existence of the mark...
Tarjem, Ida Arff
The African continent is faced with enormous challenges of poverty, hunger and food insecurity, which is exacerbated by climatic and environmental change, and a rapidly increasing population; and in the midst of it all is the smallholder and subsistence African farmer. Some believe that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM crops may offer part of the solution to some of these challenges. The GMO debate has gained considerable traction in the East African region, as recent regulat...
Fernandez, Antonio; Paoletti, Claudia
Identifying and assessing unintended effects in genetically modified food and feed are considered paramount by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and Codex Alimentarius, despite heated debate. This paper addresses outstanding needs: building consensus on the history-of-safe-use concept, harmonizing criteria to select appropriate conventional counterparts, and improving endpoint selection to identify unintended effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katherine Barrett; Elisabeth Abergel
The development and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) crops continues despite persisting uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. Canada is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of GM crops. Regulators have claimed that existing federal policies for assessing environmental hazards are ‘science-based’ and sufficiently precautionary. We challenge this by examining the scientific data used to approve one variety of GM canola for environmental release. We argue tha...
Claire R. McInerney
Full Text Available Introduction. Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of Websites on any topic. Method. This study sought to use the WQET to determine the quality of Websites in the context of biotechnology or genetically modified food and to seek one or more easily identified characteristics, such as bias, commitment, use of metatags and site update-access interval (length of time between last update of the site and the date reviewed that might be used as a quick discriminator of a Website's quality. Analysis. Using SPSS, ANOVA and regression analyses were performed with the website variables of a population of one hundred Websites about genetically modified food. Results. Only the site update-access interval was determined to be a shortcut quality indicator with an inverse relationship. The longer the interval the lower the quality score. Conclusion. The study established a model for Website quality evaluation. The update-access interval proved to be the single clear-cut indicator to judge Website quality in everyday information seeking.
Hu, Yichun; Zhuo, Qin; Gong, Zhaolong; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang
In the present work, we evaluated the three generation reproductive toxicity of the genetically modified rice with insectresistant cry1Ac and sck genes. 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups which were fed with genetically modified rice diet (GM group), parental control rice diet (PR group) and AIN-93 control diet (both used as negative control) respectively. Bodyweight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry, relative organ weights and histopathology for each generation were examined respectively. All the hematology and serum chemistry parameters, organ/body weight indicators were within the normal range or no change to the adverse direction was observed, although several differences in hematology and serum chemistry parameters (WBC, BUN, LDH of male rat, PLT, PCT, MPV of female rats), reproductive data (rate of morphologically abnormal sperm) were observed between GM rice group and two control groups. No macroscopic or histological adverse effects were found or considered as treatment-related, either. Overall, the three generation study of genetically modified rice with cry1Ac and sck genes at a high level showed no unintended adverse effects on rats's reproductive system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
De Freece, Chenoa; Paré Toé, Léa; Esposito, Fulvio; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Favia, Guido
Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are emerging as a measure to control mosquito-borne diseases, but before any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are released into the environment, it is imperative to establish regulatory standards incorporating public engagement. A previous project in Burkina Faso introduced a type of genetically modified cotton [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] cotton) that produces insecticide, and incorporated policies on public engagement. We explored the perspectives of Burkinabè (citizens of Burkina Faso) on bio-agricultural exposure to GMOs and their receptiveness to the use of GMOs. Interviews were conducted in a village (Bondoukuy) and with representatives from stakeholder organizations. The population may be very receptive to the use of GMMs against malaria, but may voice unfounded concerns that GMMs can transmit other diseases. It is important to constantly supply the population with correct and factual information. Investigating the application of Burkina Faso's biotechnology policies with regard to Bt cotton has shown that it may be conceivable in the future to have open discussions about the merits of GMM release. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy
Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.
Kawahara, Masahiro; Chen, Jianhong; Sogo, Takahiro; Teng, Jinying; Otsu, Makoto; Onodera, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki
Thrombopoietin is a potent cytokine that exerts proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through its cognate receptor, c-Mpl. Therefore, mimicry of c-Mpl signaling by a receptor recognizing an artificial ligand would be attractive to attain specific expansion of genetically modified HSCs. Here we propose a system enabling selective expansion of genetically modified cells using an antibody/receptor chimera that can be activated by a specific antigen. We constructed an antibody/c-Mpl chimera, in which single-chain Fv (ScFv) of an anti-fluorescein antibody was tethered to the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of c-Mpl. When the chimera was expressed in interleukin (IL)-3-dependent pro-B cell line Ba/F3, genetically modified cells were selectively expanded in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a specific antigen. Furthermore, highly purified mouse HSCs transduced with the retrovirus carrying antibody/c-Mpl chimera gene proliferated in vitro in response to BSA-FL, and the cells retained in vivo long-term repopulating abilities. These results demonstrate that the antibody/c-Mpl chimera is capable of signal transduction that mimics wild-type c-Mpl signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi
Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.
Full Text Available In the last sixteen years worldwide production of genetically modified (GM crops has been increased sharply. At the same time, consumer?s attitudes toward food products made from GM ingredients have been largely negative. This review considers the global production of GM plants in 2011 and consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods in Europe and Croatia. While planted areas of GM crops grow worldwide, data from European surveys shows generally negative consumer?s perception towards GM food. Eurobarometer survey from 2010 was especially pointed out, where Croatian consumers were included in research for first time. It has been shown that the Croatian, even more than Europeans, do not approve the use of genetically modified food in human consumption. This aversion to GM crops is based on the personal attitude of consumers, whereas the two main risks cited are: potential health risk and preference for natural food, and social risks which include possible adverse effects of GM plants on the environment. Research has shown that the perceived level of risk by consumers can be mitigated if the confidence is built in state institutions and scientific research.
Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay
An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.
Gutorova, Nataliya; Batyhina, Olena; Trotska, Maryna
Introduction: Science is constantly being developed which leads to both positive and negative changes in public health and the environment. One of the results of scientific progress is introduction of food based on genetically modified organisms whose effects on human health, to date, remain scantily studied and are ambiguous. The aim: to determine how human health can be influenced by food production based on genetically modified organisms. Materials and methods: international acts, data of international organizations and conclusions of scientists have been examined and used in the study. The article also summarizes information from scientific journals and monographs from a medical and legal point of view with scientific methods. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. Conclusions: Genetically modified organisms are specific human-made organisms being a result of using modern biotechnology techniques. They have both positive and negative effects on human health and the environment. The main disadvantage is not sufficient study of them in various spheres of public life.
Wohlers, Anton E
This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.
Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg
Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where...... records exist for the parents). Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to the sire-dam model). Conclusions The new algorithm to estimate genetic parameters via Gibbs sampling solves the bias problems typically occurring in animal...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...
Herman, Rod A; Price, William D
The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.
of the research presented in this paper was to gain insight into consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods to obtain a better understanding of how consumers form attitudes to genetic engineering in food production. Perceived risks and benefits of applying genetic engineering in foods were...... on consumer belief structures was investigated. 3. Means-end chain theory served as the theoretical basis for conducting qualitative interviews using the laddering method with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy, using beer and yoghurt as tangible product examples. 4. Initial......, the results also indicate that general attitude domains such as food neophobia and attitude to technology may influence consumers' belief structures and eventually attitudes towards applying gene technology in food production. The extent to which thes domains play a significant role however, still remain...
Moore, K L; Mrode, R; Coffey, M P
Visual Image analysis (VIA) of carcass traits provides the opportunity to estimate carcass primal cut yields on large numbers of slaughter animals. This allows carcases to be better differentiated and farmers to be paid based on the primal cut yields. It also creates more accurate genetic selection due to high volumes of data which enables breeders to breed cattle that better meet the abattoir specifications and market requirements. In order to implement genetic evaluations for VIA primal cut yields, genetic parameters must first be estimated and that was the aim of this study. Slaughter records from the UK prime slaughter population for VIA carcass traits was available from two processing plants. After edits, there were 17 765 VIA carcass records for six primal cut traits, carcass weight as well as the EUROP conformation and fat class grades. Heritability estimates after traits were adjusted for age ranged from 0.32 (0.03) for EUROP fat to 0.46 (0.03) for VIA Topside primal cut yield. Adjusting the VIA primal cut yields for carcass weight reduced the heritability estimates, with estimates of primal cut yields ranging from 0.23 (0.03) for Fillet to 0.29 (0.03) for Knuckle. Genetic correlations between VIA primal cut yields adjusted for carcass weight were very strong, ranging from 0.40 (0.06) between Fillet and Striploin to 0.92 (0.02) between Topside and Silverside. EUROP conformation was also positively correlated with the VIA primal cuts with genetic correlation estimates ranging from 0.59 to 0.84, whereas EUROP fat was estimated to have moderate negative correlations with primal cut yields, estimates ranged from -0.11 to -0.46. Based on these genetic parameter estimates, genetic evaluation of VIA primal cut yields can be undertaken to allow the UK beef industry to select carcases that better meet abattoir specification and market requirements.
Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu
Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans.
Full Text Available Following the clinical success achieved with the first generation of adoptive cell therapy (ACT utilizing in vitro expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, the second and third generations of TIL ACT are evolving toward the use of genetically modified TIL. TIL therapy generally involves the transfer of a high number of TIL, ranging from 109 to 1011 cells. One of the technical difficulties in genetically modifying TIL, using a retroviral vector, is the ability to achieve large expansion of transduced TIL, while keeping the technique suitable to a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP environment. Consequently, we developed and optimized a novel method for the efficient production of large numbers of GMP-grade, gene-modified TIL for the treatment of patients with ACT. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 was used as the gene of interest for methodology development. The optimized procedure is currently used in the production of gene-modified TIL for two clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic melanoma at MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Tech Directions, 2008
Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…
Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.
Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Yajie; Yu, Shanshan; Lu, Lu; Ding, Mingqin; Cheng, Jing; Song, Guoxu; Gao, Xing; Yao, Liangming; Fan, Dongdong; Meng, Shu; Zhang, Xuewen; Hu, Shengdi; Tian, Yong
The rapid generation of various species and strains of laboratory animals using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has dramatically accelerated the interrogation of gene function in vivo. So far, the dominant approach for genotyping of genome-modified animals has been the T7E1 endonuclease cleavage assay. Here, we present a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based (PAGE) method to genotype mice harboring different types of indel mutations. We developed 6 strains of genome-modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and utilized this approach to genotype mice from F0 to F2 generation, which included single and multiplexed genome-modified mice. We also determined the maximal detection sensitivity for detecting mosaic DNA using PAGE-based assay as 0.5%. We further applied PAGE-based genotyping approach to detect CRISPR/Cas9-mediated on- and off-target effect in human 293T and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Thus, PAGE-based genotyping approach meets the rapidly increasing demand for genotyping of the fast-growing number of genome-modified animals and human cell lines created using CRISPR/Cas9 system or other nuclease systems such as TALEN or ZFN.
Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.
Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo
Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs, the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. Wistar (WIS rats were used as controls. Results Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity in a familiar, but not in a novel environment. They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most sensitive measure of skilled performance (i.e., single attempt success. In contrast, their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. Conclusion The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD.
Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten
This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schrøder, M., Poulsen, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emami, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339-349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding study on the GM food with and without spiking with the pure novel gene product, with the knowledge about the identity of the genetic change, the compositional data of the GM food, the results from in-vitro/ex-vivo studies as well as the results from the preceding 28-day toxicity study with the novel gene product, before the hazard characterisation is concluded. The results demonstrated the ability of the 90-day rat feeding study to detect the biological/toxicological effects of the
Wells, Kevin D
Modern biotechnology resulted from of a series of incremental improvements in the understanding of DNA and the enzymes that nature evolved to manipulate it. As the potential impact of genetic engineering became apparent, scientists began the process of trying to identify the potential unintended consequences. Restrictions to recombinant DNA experimentation were at first self-imposed. Collaborative efforts between scientists and lawyers formalized an initial set of guidelines. These guidelines have been used to promulgate regulations around world. However, the initial guidelines were only intended as a starting point and were motivated by a specific set of concerns. As new data became available, the guidelines and regulations should have been adapted to the new knowledge. Instead, other social drivers drove the development of regulations. For most species and most applications, the framework that was established has slowly allowed some products to reach the market. However, genetically engineered livestock that are intended for food have been left in a regulatory state of limbo. To date, no genetically engineered food animal is available in the marketplace. A short history and a U.S.-based genetic engineer's perspective are presented. In addition, a request to regulatory agencies is presented for consideration as regulation continues to evolve. Regulators appear to have shown preference for the slow, random progression of evolution over the efficiency of intentional design.
Hill, William G
Although animal breeding was practiced long before the science of genetics and the relevant disciplines of population and quantitative genetics were known, breeding programs have mainly relied on simply selecting and mating the best individuals on their own or relatives' performance. This is based on sound quantitative genetic principles, developed and expounded by Lush, who attributed much of his understanding to Wright, and formalized in Fisher's infinitesimal model. Analysis at the level of individual loci and gene frequency distributions has had relatively little impact. Now with access to genomic data, a revolution in which molecular information is being used to enhance response with "genomic selection" is occurring. The predictions of breeding value still utilize multiple loci throughout the genome and, indeed, are largely compatible with additive and specifically infinitesimal model assumptions. I discuss some of the history and genetic issues as applied to the science of livestock improvement, which has had and continues to have major spin-offs into ideas and applications in other areas.
Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A
At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of
Marani, Mariela M; Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Camperi, Silvia A; Leite, José Roberto de Souza Almeida
For the prospective immunorecognition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) as a biomarker protein expressed by transgenic soybean, an extensive in silico evaluation of the referred protein was performed. The main objective of this study was the selection of a set of peptides that could function as potential immunogens for the production of novel antibodies against CP4-EPSPS protein. For this purpose, the protein was in silico cleaved with trypsin/chymotrypsin and the resultant peptides were extensively analyzed for further selection of the best candidates for antibody production. The analysis enabled the successful proposal of four peptides with potential immunogenicity for their future use as screening biomarkers of genetically modified organisms. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to select and define potential linear epitopes for the immunization of animals and, subsequently, to generate adequate antibodies for CP4-EPSPS recognition. The present work will be followed by the synthesis of the candidate peptides to be incubated in animals for antibody generation and potential applicability for the development of an immunosensor for CP4-EPSPS detection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases.
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia
Many studies have shown that consumers are very sceptical towards genetically modified foods. They call them 'Frankenstein foods' and are not convinced when experts and the food industry claim that there is no difference between genetically modified foods and food products they normally buy....... However, a new study carried out by MAPP in collaboration with researchers in Norway, Sweden and Finland indicates that consumers' scepticism is reduced when they taste genetically modified foods and experience that the products are more tasty and more healthy than similar conventional products...... to fat content, fatty acids content, price and added calcium and zinc. Moreover, the product descriptions differed in relation to whether genetically modified rennet had been used or not. In all four countries consumers attached most importance to the type of rennet. Also price was considered important...
Fransen, M.L.; Reinders, M.J.; Bartels, J.; Maassen, R.L.
The present study examines how communicated messages could be effective in affecting consumers' attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding genetically modified (GM) foods. Based on Regulatory Focus Theory, it was hypothesized that exposure to a communication message matching a consumer's
Rein, A.; Bittens, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften
For soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a plant-microorganism system for in situ - bioremediation has been developed. It consists of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) in conjunction with plant roots. The GMOs are Pseudomonas fluorescens strains which are genetically engineered to degrade PCB congeners in situ. Their metabolism requires root exudates and is therefore tightly coupled to plant rhizospheres. Compared to wild type organisms, the genetically modified bacteria develop a specificity to PCB as a substrate and therefore foster biodegradation in a more efficient way. To evaluate the efficiency and impact of this bioremediation system for potential field application, lysimeter tests are carried out. The lysimeters are filled with contaminated soil from a PCB release site in Denmark and planted with GMO inoculated plants. On the basis of these experiments, a detailed risk analysis is carried out to obtain conclusions to field-conditions (potential deliberate GMO-release). A qualitative and quantitative assessment of actual or potential effects is performed, addressing transport, fate and exposure of PCBs, GMOs and specific degradation products in different environmental compartments. (orig.)
Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences
To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)
Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel
The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated a risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived GM foods. The results of this research are presented in three papers. This paper describes the conceptual development of the proposed RBCS that focuses on two categories of adverse health effects: (1) toxic and antinutritional effects, and (2) allergenic effects. The factors that may affect the level of potential health risks of GM foods are identified. For each factor identified, criteria for differentiating health risk potential are developed. The extent to which a GM food satisfies applicable criteria for each factor is rated separately. A concern level for each category of health effects is then determined by aggregating the ratings for the factors using predetermined aggregation rules. An overview of the proposed scheme is presented, as well as the application of the scheme to a hypothetical GM food.
(CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses...... of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.......Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I...
Liang, Chun Lai; Zhang, Xiao Peng; Song, Yan; Jia, Xu Dong
To evaluate the immunotoxicological effects of genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene in female BALB/c mice. Female mice weighing 18-22 g were divided into five groups (10 mice/group), which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control group and positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (the proportion is 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus, white blood cell count, histological examination of immune organ, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell, serum half hemolysis value, mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected. No immunotoxicological effects related to the consumption of the genetically modified wheat were observed in BALB/c mice when compared with parental wheat group, common wheat group and negative control group. From the immunotoxicological point of view, results from this study demonstrate that genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene is as safe as the parental wheat. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter
Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits.
Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon
The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017
Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis
New advances in crop genetic engineering can significantly pace up the development of genetically improved varieties with enhanced yield, nutrition and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetically modified (GM) crops can act as powerful complement to the crops produced by laborious and time consuming conventional breeding methods to meet the worldwide demand for quality foods. GM crops can help fight malnutrition due to enhanced yield, nutritional quality and increased resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, several biosafety issues and public concerns are associated with cultivation of GM crops developed by transgenesis, i.e., introduction of genes from distantly related organism. To meet these concerns, researchers have developed alternative concepts of cisgenesis and intragenesis which involve transformation of plants with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization, respectively. Recombinase technology aimed at site-specific integration of transgene can help to overcome limitations of traditional genetic engineering methods based on random integration of multiple copy of transgene into plant genome leading to gene silencing and unpredictable expression pattern. Besides, recently developed technology of genome editing using engineered nucleases, permit the modification or mutation of genes of interest without involving foreign DNA, and as a result, plants developed with this technology might be considered as non-transgenic genetically altered plants. This would open the doors for the development and commercialization of transgenic plants with superior phenotypes even in countries where GM crops are poorly accepted. This review is an attempt to summarize various past achievements of GM technology in crop improvement, recent progress and new advances in the field to develop improved varieties aimed for better consumer acceptance.
Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M
Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose
Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y
Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to
Whittlesey, Rebecca L.; Andrews, Nancy C.
The hereditary hemochromatosis protein HFE promotes the expression of hepcidin, a circulating hormone produced by the liver that inhibits dietary iron absorption and macrophage iron release. HFE mutations are associated with impaired hepatic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signaling for hepcidin production. TMPRSS6, a transmembrane serine protease mutated in iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia, inhibits hepcidin expression by dampening BMP/SMAD signaling. In the present study, we used genetic approaches in mice to examine the relationship between Hfe and Tmprss6 in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. Heterozygous loss of Tmprss6 in Hfe−/− mice reduced systemic iron overload, whereas homozygous loss caused systemic iron deficiency and elevated hepatic expression of hepcidin and other Bmp/Smad target genes. In contrast, neither genetic loss of Hfe nor hepatic Hfe overexpression modulated the hepcidin elevation and systemic iron deficiency of Tmprss6−/− mice. These results indicate that genetic loss of Tmprss6 increases Bmp/Smad signaling in an Hfe-independent manner that can restore Bmp/Smad signaling in Hfe−/− mice. Furthermore, these results suggest that natural genetic variation in the human ortholog TMPRSS6 might modify the clinical penetrance of HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis, raising the possibility that pharmacologic inhibition of TMPRSS6 could attenuate iron loading in this disorder. PMID:21355094
Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p consumers in making informed purchase decisions.
Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun
Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumef...
Andersen, Lars Bracht
of GMO related content in a food product is in fact an appropriate measure to protect consumer interests. Furthermore, the EU labelling rules may prove to be a trade obstacle causing conflict in the EU’s trade relations with third countries. The labelling rules will most likely be considered a trade......In 2003 the EU adopted new rules regulating all aspects of placing genetically modified foods on the market. The rules significantly enhance the scope of the labelling requirement in an attempt to accommodate consumer demand, but it is debatable whether or not a labelling requirement in the case...
Muranen, Taru A; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl
PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion....... We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). METHODS: Using genotype data from 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77...
Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C
Assessing consumer perceptions and willingness to pay for genetically modified (GM) foods has been one of the most active areas of empirical research in agricultural economics. Researchers over the past 15 years have delivered well over 100 estimates of consumers' willingness to pay for GM foods using surveys and experimental methods. In this review, we explore a number of unresolved issues related to three questions that are critical when considering the sum of the individual contributions that constitute the evidence on consumer preferences for GM foods.
Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B. S.
to integrate the combined soil ecological and economic effects of introducing systems including genetically modified (GM) crops by performing data mining and building decision support systems. The project involved eight academic partners from five EU countries and an input from Monsanto. Maize expressing......The biodiversity of, and processes performed by soil organisms make up a crucial part of the natural basis for agricultural production and, therefore, have subsequent economic consequences. ECOGEN was a research initiative funded under the European Commission Framework 5 programme, designed...
Sorokina, E Iu; Chernyshova, O N
A quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction method was applied to the detection and quantification of MON863 and MON810 in stacked genetically modified maize MON 810xMON 863. The limit of detection was approximately 0,1%. The accuracy of the quantification, measured as bias from the accepted value and the relative repeatability standard deviation, which measures the intra-laboratory variability, were within 25% at each GM-level. A method verification has demonstrated that the MON 863 and the MON810 methods can be equally applied in quantification of the respective events in stacked MON810xMON 863.
Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao
As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Borch, K.; Rasmussen, B.; Schleisner, L.
important and uncertain fac-tors for the future direction of GM crops: 1) publicparticipation in regulation, 2) utility value for the consumers, 3) being first to market GM-ryegrass, and 4) an efficient professional network. Based on the identified drivers several scenar-ios were constructed, of which two......, a methodological approach is suggested to analyse the uncertainties that the biotech industry and the authorities face when implementing genetically modified (GM) crops. These uncertainties embracescientific rationality regarding technological development and risk assessments, as well as ethic political and social...
Liu, Jianjun; Kan, Jianquan
In this paper, based on the terahertz spectrum, a new identification method of genetically modified material by support vector machine (SVM) based on affinity propagation clustering is proposed. This algorithm mainly uses affinity propagation clustering algorithm to make cluster analysis and labeling on unlabeled training samples, and in the iterative process, the existing SVM training data are continuously updated, when establishing the identification model, it does not need to manually label the training samples, thus, the error caused by the human labeled samples is reduced, and the identification accuracy of the model is greatly improved.
Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe
The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on
Frank M. You; Qijian Song; Gaofeng Jia; Yanzhao Cheng; Scott Duguid; Helen Booker; Sylvie Cloutier
The type 2 modified augmented design (MAD2) is an efficient unreplicated experimental design used for evaluating large numbers of lines in plant breeding and for assessing genetic variation in a population. Statistical methods and data adjustment for soil heterogeneity have been previously described for this design. In the absence of replicated test genotypes in MAD2, their total variance cannot be partitioned into genetic and error components as required to estimate heritability and genetic ...
Edmunds, Charles Warren
Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture
Nelson, Nicole C
In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.
Mano, Junichi; Shigemitsu, Natsuki; Futo, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi
We developed a novel type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array with TaqMan chemistry as a platform for the comprehensive and semiquantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) crops. Thirty primer-probe sets for the specific detection of GM lines, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, endogenous reference genes, and donor organisms were synthesized, and a 96-well PCR plate was prepared with a different primer-probe in each well as the real-time PCR array. The specificity and sensitivity of the array were evaluated. A comparative analysis with the data and publicly available information on GM crops approved in Japan allowed us to assume the possibility of unapproved GM crop contamination. Furthermore, we designed a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application, Unapproved GMO Checker version 2.01, which helps process all the data of real-time PCR arrays for the easy assumption of unapproved GM crop contamination. The spreadsheet is available free of charge at http://cse.naro.affrc.go.jp/jmano/index.html .
evolution of the CES, the use of the advantages offered by genetically modified organisms produced by modern biotechnology can be regarded as aromorphosis. If the genetic program of biosyntheses performed by plants in-cludes the new genes that will program the synthesis of all molecules necessary for humans, the plants, both unicellular and higher, will produce the whole range of food substances perfectly corresponding to the requirements of the human body. This is a long way, but the investment of resources and time will be justified not only by the creation of an LSS for long-distance space missions and colonization of planets that will contain as many closed loops as possible and be energy efficient. This will also be a convenient and safest instrument to study and justify the wide use of products of genetically modified plants on Earth. Today, humanity is extremely wary of this idea because of its novelty. As experimental human life support ecosystems are closed systems, they provide the most reliable and safest instrument for studying issues related to GMO and preparing scientifically based suggestions for their practical use. The report will contain data on the spectra of mismatches between vegetable foods produced in BIOS-3 and human requirements, and the objectives of correcting the biosynthesis programs in the CES.
Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.
As a result of rapid biotechnological developments in the past century, genetically modified (GM) crops were developed and introduced for field application. Despite the advantages of these crops and the professional marketing policies, people also started questioning the safety of GM products
Full Text Available As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms.
Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Dai, Yunqing; Huang, Kunlun
With the development of genetically modified crops, there has been a growing interest in available approaches to assess the potential allergenicity of novel gene products. We were not sure whether Cry1C could induce allergy. We examined the protein with three other proteins to determine the potential allergenicity of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice. Female Brown Norway (BN) rats received 0.1 mg peanut agglutinin (PNA), 1mg potato acid phosphatase (PAP), 1mg ovalbumin (OVA) or 5 mg purified Cry1C protein dissolved in 1 mL water by daily gavage for 42 days to test potential allergenicity. Ten days after the last gavage, rats were orally challenged with antigens, and physiologic and immunologic responses were studied. In contrast to sensitization with PNA, PAP and OVA Cry1C protein did not induce antigen-specific IgG2a in BN rats. Cytokine expression, serum IgE and histamine levels and the number of eosinophils and mast cells in the blood of Cry1C group rats were comparable to the control group rats, which were treated with water alone. As Cry1C did not show any allergenicity, we make the following conclusion that the protein could be safety used in rice or other plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Kun; Han, Heyou; Luo, Zhihui; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiuping
Since the global cultivation of genetically modified crops constantly expands, it remains a high demand to establish different ways to sort food and feed that consist or contain genetically modified organisms. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is a flexible tool for biological analysis due to its excellent properties for detecting wide varieties of target biomolecules including nucleic acids. In the present study, a SERS-barcoded nanosensor was developed to detect Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene-transformed rice expressing insecticidal proteins. The barcoded sensor was designed by encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with silica and conjugation of oligonucleotide strands for targeting DNA strands. The transition between the cry1A(b) and cry1A(c) fusion gene sequence was used to construct a specific SERS-based detection method with a detection limit of 0.1 pg/mL. In order to build the determination models to screen transgene, a series mixture of Bt rice and normal rice were prepared for SERS assay, and the limit of detection was 0.1% (w/w) transgenic Bt rice relative to normal rice. The sensitivity and accuracy of the SERS-based assay was comparable with real-time PCR. The SERS-barcoded analytical method would provide precise detection of transgenic rice varieties but also informative supplement to avoid false positive outcomes. Crown Copyright Â© 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fedoroff, Nina V
While European restaurants race to footnote menus, reassuring concerned gourmands that no genetically modified ingredients were used in the preparation of their food, starving populations around the world eagerly await the next harvest of scientifically improved crops. "Mendel in the Kitchen" provides a clear and balanced picture of this tangled, tricky (and very timely) topic. Any farmer you talk to, could tell you that we've been playing with the genetic makeup of our food for millennia, carefully coaxing nature to do our bidding. The practice officially dates back to Gregor Mendel - who was not a renowned scientist, but a 19th century Augustinian monk. Mendel spent many hours toiling in his garden, testing and cultivating more than 28,000 pea plants, selectively determining very specific characteristics of the peas that were produced, ultimately giving birth to the idea of heredity - and the now very common practice of artificially modifying our food. But as science takes the helm, steering common field pr...
Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib
Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades.
Kaneko, Etsuji; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki
Gene therapy has been regarded as an innovative potential treatment against serious congenital diseases. However, applications of gene therapy remain limited, partly because its clinical success depends on therapeutic gene-transduced cells acquiring a proliferative advantage. To address this problem, we have developed the antigen-mediated genetically modified cell amplification (AMEGA) system, which uses chimeric receptors to enable the selective proliferation of gene-transduced cells. In this report, we describe mimicry of c-Kit signaling and its application to the AMEGA system. We created an antibody/c-Kit chimera in which the extracellular domain of c-Kit is replaced with an anti-fluorescein single-chain Fv antibody fragment and the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor. A genetically modified mouse pro-B cell line carrying this chimera showed selective expansion in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a growth inducer. By further engineering the transmembrane domain of the chimera to reduce interchain interaction we attained stricter ligand-dependency. Since c-Kit is an important molecule in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), this antibody/c-Kit chimera could be a promising tool for gene therapy targeting HSCs. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria
The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.
Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki
As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231
S. Ravi Rajan
Full Text Available The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.
Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaofu; Jin, Nuo; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Sainan; Miao, Qingmei; Zhu, Qing; Xu, Junfeng
Genetically modified (GM) rice KMD1, TT51-1, and KF6 are three of the most well known transgenic Bt rice lines in China. A rapid and sensitive molecular assay for risk assessment of GM rice is needed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), currently the most common method for detecting genetically modified organisms, requires temperature cycling and relatively complex procedures. Here we developed a visual and rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify three GM rice event-specific junction sequences. Target DNA was amplified and visualized by two indicators (SYBR green or hydroxy naphthol blue [HNB]) within 60 min at an isothermal temperature of 63 °C. Different kinds of plants were selected to ensure the specificity of detection and the results of the non-target samples were negative, indicating that the primer sets for the three GM rice varieties had good levels of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP, with detection limits at low concentration levels (0.01%−0.005% GM), was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. Additionally, the LAMP assay coupled with an indicator (SYBR green or HNB) facilitated analysis. These findings revealed that the rapid detection method was suitable as a simple field-based test to determine the status of GM crops.
Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K
The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set.