WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal testing alternatives

  1. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  2. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  3. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  4. Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Doke, Sonali K.; Shashikant C. Dhawale

    2013-01-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high ...

  5. Testing Alternative Hypotheses about Animal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Lang, Michael; Lawson, Anton E.

    Research indicates that the effectiveness of instruction in the elementary classroom is enhanced when it incorporates materials that actively engage students in the generation of scientific explanations. To this end, this document describes an exercise that allows Kindergarten students to explore the basic principles of animal behavior in an…

  6. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Herwig; Kersen, Silke; Weimer, Michaela; Mertsching, Heike

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  7. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper. PMID:21607681

  8. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113

  9. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  10. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique” by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and...

  11. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; HENDRIKSEN Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders....

  12. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing. PMID:11955681

  13. Opportunities for animal alternatives implementation in the evolving OECD fish testing framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews opportunities for animal alternative approaches in the FTF. These will be placed in the context of in vivo tests required in many regulatory situations for the registration of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The Framework inte...

  14. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  15. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  16. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  17. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  18. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. PMID:24161465

  19. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.

  20. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated. PMID:21533817

  1. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types. PMID:19839229

  2. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future. PMID:24819539

  3. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  4. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Rachel; FUCHS Horst; Wever, Bart De; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry...

  5. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed. PMID:21619857

  6. Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments. PMID:19326030

  7. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. PMID:26188116

  8. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them.

  9. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  10. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhdel, Irmela; Vanparys, Philippe; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Roggen, Erwin; Oué draogo, Gladys; Basketter, David A.; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Rossi, Annamaria; Skinner, Nigel; Blaauboer, Bas; Pelkonen, Olavi; Maxwell, Gavin; Yager, James

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  11. E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes have become within only one decade an important commodity, changing the market of the most mass-killing commercial product. While a few years ago estimates suggested that in the course of the 21st century one billion people would die prematurely from tobacco consumption, e-cigarettes continuously gaining popularity promise 10-30fold lower health effects, possibly strongly changing this equation. However, they still are not a harmless life-style drug. Acceptability simply depends on whether we compare their use to smoking or to not-smoking. In the absence of long-term follow-up health data of users, additional uncertainty comes from the lack of safety data, though this uncertainty likely only is whether they represent 3 or 10% of the risk of their combustible counterpart. This means that there is little doubt that they represent a prime opportunity for smokers to switch, but also that their use by non-smokers should be avoided where possible. The real safety concerns, however, are that e-cigarettes expose their users to many compounds, contaminants and especially flavors (more than 7,000 according to recent counts), which have mostly not been tested, especially not for long-term inhalation exposure. Neither the precautionary traditional animal testing nor post-marketing surveillance will offer us data of sufficient quality or sufficiently fast to support product development and regulatory decisions. Thus, alternative methods lend themselves to fill this gap, making this new product category a possible engine for new method development and its implementation and validation. PMID:27410253

  12. E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes have become within only one decade an important commodity, changing the market of the most mass-killing commercial product. While a few years ago estimates suggested that in the course of the 21st century one billion people would die prematurely from tobacco consumption, e-cigarettes continuously gaining popularity promise 10-30fold lower health effects, possibly strongly changing this equation. However, they still are not a harmless life-style drug. Acceptability simply depends on whether we compare their use to smoking or to not-smoking. In the absence of long-term follow-up health data of users, additional uncertainty comes from the lack of safety data, though this uncertainty likely only is whether they represent 3 or 10% of the risk of their combustible counterpart. This means that there is little doubt that they represent a prime opportunity for smokers to switch, but also that their use by non-smokers should be avoided where possible. The real safety concerns, however, are that e-cigarettes expose their users to many compounds, contaminants and especially flavors (more than 7,000 according to recent counts), which have mostly not been tested, especially not for long-term inhalation exposure. Neither the precautionary traditional animal testing nor post-marketing surveillance will offer us data of sufficient quality or sufficiently fast to support product development and regulatory decisions. Thus, alternative methods lend themselves to fill this gap, making this new product category a possible engine for new method development and its implementation and validation.

  13. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart;

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee o...

  14. FRAMEWORK FOR VALIDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IN VITRO TOXICITY TESTS: REPORT OF THE VALIDATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER COMMITTEE OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. owever, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coo...

  15. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  16. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods. PMID:19393278

  17. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  18. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  19. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  20. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J; Reed F Noss

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  1. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  2. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  3. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed. PMID:19393279

  4. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, R.; Wever, B. de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Hill, E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of th

  5. In vitro pituitary and thyroid cell proliferation assays and their relevance as alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Barae; Aarts, Jac M M J G; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro effect of eleven thyroid-active compounds known to affect pituitary and/or thyroid weights in vivo, using the proliferation of GH3 rat pituitary cells in the so-called "T-screen," and of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in a newly developed test denoted "TSH-screen" to gain insight into the relative value of these in vitro proliferation tests for an integrated testing strategy (ITS) for thyroid activity. Pituitary cell proliferation in the T-screen was stimulated by three out of eleven tested compounds, namely thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Of these three compounds, only T4 causes an increase in relative pituitary weight, and thus T4 was the only compound for which the effect in the in vitro assay correlated with a reported in vivo effect. As to the newly developed TSH-screen, two compounds had an effect, namely, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced and T4 antagonized FRTL-5 cell proliferation. These effects correlated with in vivo changes induced by these compounds on thyroid weight. Altogether, the results indicate that most of the selected compounds affect pituitary and thyroid weights by modes of action different from a direct thyroid hormone receptor (THR) or TSH receptor (TSHR)-mediated effect, and point to the need for additional in vitro tests for an ITS. Additional analysis of the T-screen revealed a positive correlation between the THR-mediated effects of the tested compounds in vitro and their effects on relative heart weight in vivo, suggesting that the T-screen may directly predict this THR-mediated in vivo adverse effect. PMID:23861076

  6. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry

  7. Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthoff, Bernward

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry. PMID:15982684

  8. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU): a transatlantic bridge for the paradigm shift in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU) was founded based collaboration between the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of Konstanz. CAAT-EU, housed at the University of Konstanz, will coordinate transatlantic activities to promote humane science in research and education, and participate, as partner or coordinator, in publicly and privately funded European projects. Thomas Hartung will serve as program liaison representing Johns Hopkins University and Marcel Leist as the University of Konstanz liaison. CAAT-EU aims to: 1) Set up transatlantic consortia for international research projects on alternative methods. 2) Establish a CAAT Europe faculty and advisory board composed of sponsor representatives and prominent academics from Europe . 3) Participate in the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t4) devoted to conceptual work for the paradigm shift in toxicology. 4) Coordinate a series of information days in Europe on relevant developments in the US, similar to the 2009 series CAAT held in the US on EU issues (one on the 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and one on EU and US chemical regulation). 5) Support ALTEX as the official journal of CAAT and CAAT-EU. 6) Develop strategic projects with sponsors to promote humane science and new toxicology, especially with CAAT faculty members. 7) Develop a joint education program between Johns Hopkins and the University of Konstanz, such as e-courses and the existing Humane Science Certificate program developed by CAAT, a student exchange program, and collaboration with the International Graduate School "Cell-based Characterization of De- and Regeneration" in Konstanz. PMID:20390240

  9. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; M.Daneshian; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  10. Animal testing and alternative approaches for the human health risk assessment under the proposed new European chemicals regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Thomas; Gerner, Ingrid; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Liebsch, Manfred; Schulte, Agnes; Spielmann, Horst; Vogel, Richard; Wettig, Klaus [Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung (BfR), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals within a period of 15 years. We are providing estimates of the testing requirements based on our personal experiences during the past 20 years. A realistic scenario based on an in-depth discussion of potential toxicological developments and an optimised ''tailor-made'' testing strategy shows that to meet the goals of the REACH policy, animal numbers may be significantly reduced below 10 million if industry would use in-house data from toxicity testing, which are confidential, if non-animal tests would be used, and if information from quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) would be applied in substance-tailored testing schemes. The procedures for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have the strongest impact on the total number of animals bred for testing under REACH. We are assuming both an active collaboration with our colleagues in industry and substantial funding of the development and validation of advanced non-animal methods by the EU Commission, specifically in reproductive and developmental toxicity. (orig.)

  11. Animal testing and alternative approaches for the human health risk assessment under the proposed new European chemicals regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Thomas; Gerner, Ingrid; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Liebsch, Manfred; Schulte, Agnes; Spielmann, Horst; Vogel, Richard; Wettig, Klaus

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals within a period of 15 years. We are providing estimates of the testing requirements based on our personal experiences during the past 20 years. A realistic scenario based on an in-depth discussion of potential toxicological developments and an optimised "tailor-made" testing strategy shows that to meet the goals of the REACH policy, animal numbers may be significantly reduced below 10 million if industry would use in-house data from toxicity testing, which are confidential, if non-animal tests would be used, and if information from quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) would be applied in substance-tailored testing schemes. The procedures for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have the strongest impact on the total number of animals bred for testing under REACH. We are assuming both an active collaboration with our colleagues in industry and substantial funding of the development and validation of advanced non-animal methods by the EU Commission, specifically in reproductive and developmental toxicity. PMID:15170526

  12. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanopa

  13. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted three coordinated experiments to test whether DRA has persistence-strengthening effects on clinically significant target behavior and then tested the ...

  14. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. PMID:22558975

  15. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  16. Meeting Report: Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing che...

  17. Alternatives to animal experimentation for hormonal compounds research

    OpenAIRE

    M. PENZA; Jeremic, M.; Montani, C.; Unkila, M.; L. Caimi; G. Mazzoleni; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Alternatives to animal testing and the identification of reliable methods that may decrease the need for animals are currently the subject of intense investigation worldwide. Alternative testing procedures are particularly important for synthetic and natural chemicals that exert their biological actions through binding nuclear receptors, called nuclear receptors-interacting compounds (NR-ICs), for which research is increasingly emphasizing the limits of several models in the accurate estimati...

  18. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  19. Electrochemistry of Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 with gold nanoparticles: An alternative to animal testing in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-10-01

    This work reports for the first time the direct electron transfer of the Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on glassy carbon electrodes to provide an analytical tool as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process. Cytochrome P450 2D15, that corresponds to the human homologue P450 2D6, was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and entrapped on glassy carbon electrodes (GC) either with the cationic polymer polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) or in the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Reversible electrochemical signals of P450 2D15 were observed with calculated midpoint potentials (E1/2) of −191 ± 5 and −233 ± 4 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for GC/PDDA/2D15 and GC/AuNPs/2D15, respectively. These experiments were then followed by the electro-catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in the presence of metoprolol. The latter drug is a beta-blocker used for the treatment of hypertension and is a specific marker of the human P450 2D6 activity. Electrocatalysis data showed that only in the presence of AuNps the expected α-hydroxy-metoprolol product was present as shown by HPLC. The successful immobilization of the electroactive C. familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on electrode surfaces addresses the ever increasing demand of developing alternative in vitromethods for amore detailed study of animal P450 enzymes' metabolism, reducing the number of animals sacrificed in preclinical tests. PMID:26092534

  20. Electrochemistry of Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 with gold nanoparticles: An alternative to animal testing in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-10-01

    This work reports for the first time the direct electron transfer of the Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on glassy carbon electrodes to provide an analytical tool as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process. Cytochrome P450 2D15, that corresponds to the human homologue P450 2D6, was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and entrapped on glassy carbon electrodes (GC) either with the cationic polymer polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) or in the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Reversible electrochemical signals of P450 2D15 were observed with calculated midpoint potentials (E1/2) of −191 ± 5 and −233 ± 4 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for GC/PDDA/2D15 and GC/AuNPs/2D15, respectively. These experiments were then followed by the electro-catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in the presence of metoprolol. The latter drug is a beta-blocker used for the treatment of hypertension and is a specific marker of the human P450 2D6 activity. Electrocatalysis data showed that only in the presence of AuNps the expected α-hydroxy-metoprolol product was present as shown by HPLC. The successful immobilization of the electroactive C. familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on electrode surfaces addresses the ever increasing demand of developing alternative in vitromethods for amore detailed study of animal P450 enzymes' metabolism, reducing the number of animals sacrificed in preclinical tests.

  1. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, J.A.Y.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Haan, de L.H.J.; Koning, R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on

  2. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  3. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  4. Metabolic activation capacity by primary hepatocytes expands the applicability of the embryonic stem cell test as alternative to experimental animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettwer, Michael; Reis-Fernandes, Marcos A; Iken, Marcus; Ott, Michael; Steinberg, Pablo; Nau, Heinz

    2010-08-01

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) represents a validated alternative method for in vivo embryotoxicity testing. In the present study, primary hepatocytes were combined with the EST by a preincubation approach to improve its predictivity on bioactivation caused teratogenicity. As substances the well-known proteratogens cyclophosphamide (CPA) and valpromide (VPD) were used. The embryotoxic potential of CPA was detected by a strong decrease of the resulting ID(50)-concentration (50% inhibition of ES cell differentiation) after incubation with murine hepatocytes. Interspecies variation in metabolism was detected by testing VPD. After incubation of VPD with murine hepatocytes no inhibition of ES cell differentiation was observed, since hardly any teratogenic VPD metabolites were formed. In contrast, with human hepatocytes a significant conversion of VPD into the teratogen valproic acid (VPA) was observed. In summary we developed a co-culture approach for embryotoxicity testing, whereby the test compounds were incubated with hepatocytes and the supernatant was added to the ES cell culture to obtain a dose dependency of the preincubated test substances. PMID:20132877

  5. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins.

  6. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. PMID:25479353

  7. Progress in alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing on animals%神经发育毒性动物实验替代方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 梁锦锋; 宋淑亮; 吉爱国

    2012-01-01

    Industrial chemical exposure during early embryonic development can cause fetal brain damage, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and sub-clinical brain dysfunction. Although the safety evaluation of chemicals based on animal toxicity tests is relatively reliable, many of these tests are expensive in terms of scientific resources and time and do not fit in with the current trend of reduced use of laboratory animals. As a result, alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity(DNT) testing attract more attention. The paper reviews establishment and improvement of alternatives, including sensitivity, low consumption and adaptability to high throughput screening, advantages, and current applications of cell-based models and non-mammalian models and finally the challenges existing. The alternatives will not completely replace a paradigm that involves in vivo testing in mammals, but they will be of great value in prioritizing chemicals and in identifying mechanisms of DNT.%胚胎早期暴露于某些工业化学物中,即使是很小剂量,也可导致胚胎脑损伤,引起神经发育性疾病和亚临床脑功能不良.虽然化学物基于动物毒性实验的安全性评价是较可靠的,但这种方法耗时长、成本高,而且不符合目前减少实验动物使用的趋势,因此神经发育毒性(DNT)实验的替代模型逐步引起重视.为建立和完善快速、经济又可高通量筛选受试物的替代方法,本文分别介绍了体外细胞模型和非哺乳动物模型的优势、现阶段应用以及所面临的挑战.这些替代法虽不能完全取代包括哺乳动物在内的体内实验,但它们在区分化合物和识别DNT机制方面将发挥巨大的作用.

  8. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: genotoxicity. A COLIPA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, Stefan; Kirst, Annette; Aardema, Marilyn; Banduhn, Norbert; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Dufour, Eric; Fautz, Rolf; Harvey, James; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Carmichael, Paul; Macfarlane, Martin; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Scheel, Julia

    2010-01-01

    For the assessment of genotoxic effects of cosmetic ingredients, a number of well-established and regulatory accepted in vitro assays are in place. A caveat to the use of these assays is their relatively low specificity and high rate of false or misleading positive results. Due to the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive ban on in vivo genotoxicity testing for cosmetics that was enacted March 2009, it is no longer possible to conduct follow-up in vivo genotoxicity tests for cosmetic ingredients positive in in vitro genotoxicity tests to further assess the relevance of the in vitro findings. COLIPA, the European Cosmetics Association, has initiated a research programme to improve existing and develop new in vitro methods. A COLIPA workshop was held in Brussels in April 2008 to analyse the best possible use of available methods and approaches to enable a sound assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients. Common approaches of cosmetic companies are described, with recommendations for evaluating in vitro genotoxins using non-animal approaches. A weight of evidence approach was employed to set up a decision-tree for the integration of alternative methods into tiered testing strategies. PMID:20382194

  9. Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

  10. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  11. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  12. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  13. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto;

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...

  14. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research and Testing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Perspectives, policy issues, and options for Congressional action that relate most directly to the development and implementation of alternatives to animal use in research and testing are addressed in this report. Testimonies and reports include those from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Institute of Health, and the Food and Drug…

  15. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level...

  16. Alternative methods and strategies to reduce, refine, and replace animal use for veterinary vaccine post-licensing safety testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    KULPA-EDDY Jodie; Srinivas, Geetha; HALDER Maria; Brown, Karen; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett; Stokes, William

    2011-01-01

    NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace animal use. Six topics were addressed in detail by speakers and workshop participants and are reported in a series of six reports. This workshop report, the last in the series, addresses methods and strategies for veterinary vacci...

  17. Assessment of the potential skin irritation of lysine-derivative anionic surfactants using mouse fibroblast and human keratinocytes as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Molina, Lourdes; Mitjans Arnal, Montserrat; Infante Martínez-Pardo, Ma. Rosa; Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to identify new surfactants with low skin irritant properties for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, employing cell culture as an alternative method to in vivo testing. In addition, we sought to establish whether potential cytotoxic properties were related to the size of the counterions bound to the surfactants. Methods. Cytotoxicity was assessed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T6, and the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544, using the MT...

  18. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  19. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; Van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recomme...

  20. Animals in Science Education--Ethics and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes the animal rights argument that objects to the use or killing of animals for educational purposes. Reviews and evaluates alternative approaches that include the nonanimal options of videotaped experiments, self-experimentation, and computer simulations. (MDH)

  1. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  2. Freshwater Planarians as an Alternative Animal Model for Neurotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Zhang, Siqi; Khuu, Cindy; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-09-01

    Traditional toxicology testing has relied on low-throughput, expensive mammalian studies; however, timely testing of the large number of environmental toxicants requires new in vitro and in vivo platforms for inexpensive medium- to high-throughput screening. Herein, we describe the suitability of the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new animal model for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. As these asexual animals reproduce by binary fission, followed by regeneration of missing body structures within approximately 1 week, development and regeneration occur through similar processes allowing us to induce neurodevelopment "at will" through amputation. This short time scale and the comparable sizes of full and regenerating animals enable parallel experiments in adults and developing worms to determine development-specific aspects of toxicity. Because the planarian brain, despite its simplicity, is structurally and molecularly similar to the mammalian brain, we are able to ascertain neurodevelopmental toxicity that is relevant to humans. As a proof of concept, we developed a 5-step semiautomatic screening platform to characterize the toxicity of 9 known neurotoxicants (consisting of common solvents, pesticides, and detergents) and a neutral agent, glucose, and quantified effects on viability, stimulated and unstimulated behavior, regeneration, and brain structure. Comparisons of our findings with other alternative toxicology animal models, such as zebrafish larvae and nematodes, demonstrated that planarians are comparably sensitive to the tested chemicals. In addition, we found that certain compounds induced adverse effects specifically in developing animals. We thus conclude that planarians offer new complementary opportunities for developmental neurotoxicology animal models. PMID:26116028

  3. Animal exposure during burn tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An animal exposure test system has been designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consists of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram and respiration. The ECG and respiration sensors are located in a belt placed around the torso of the subject, electrode wires forming an umbilical to a connector in the top of the compartment. A cable extends from the connector to the power supply and signal conditioning electronics. These are connected to a dual-beam oscilloscope for real time monitoring and a magnetic tape recorder having three or more channels. Endpoints observed are bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, changes in respiratory pattern, respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest. The ECG record also appears to be a good method of monitoring animal activity as indicated by an increase in EMG noise superimposed on the record during increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases.

  4. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  5. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products. PMID:25183445

  6. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  7. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    OpenAIRE

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is large interest in the development of in vitro and/or in silico test systems as alternatives for the animal studies. The aim of the present thesis was to evaluate the applicability of combined in vi...

  8. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in...... anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  9. Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: are they alternatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Lagadic, L.; Caquet, T.

    1998-01-01

    An enlarged interpretation of alternatives in toxicology testing includes the replacement of one animal species with another, preferably a nonmammalian species. This paper reviews the potential of invertebrates in testing environmental chemicals and provides evidence of their usefulness in alternative testing methodologies. The first part of this review addresses the use of invertebrates in laboratory toxicology testing. Problems in extrapolating results obtained in invertebrates to those obt...

  10. Animal Alternative Methods and the Development of Strategy for Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century%动物实验替代方法与21世纪毒性测试发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭家彬; 彭双清

    2011-01-01

    随着新化学物质日益增多以及“3R”原则的广泛实施,传统的毒性测试面临着严峻挑战.毒性测试的发展正经历着一个关键时期,即从耗时、耗费的传统整体动物试验转向快速高通量的、含定量参数分析和机制研究的体外替代试验.实验动物替代方法不仅是出于遵行“3R”原则的考虑,也是毒理学学科发展以及社会经济发展的需要与科学要求.实验动物替代方法的发展与应用已成为21世纪毒性测试的重要方向,获得越来越广泛的支持和管理认可,具有广阔的发展前景和十分重要的应用价值.%Traditional toxicity testing is facing great challenging as increasing new chemicals and the implementation of "3R" principle. The development of toxicity testing is approaching a pivotal point where expensive and lengthy traditional in vivo animal tests are transformed to in vitro high-throughput alternative methods with quantitative parameters analysis and mechanistic exploration. Animal alternative methods are considered not only for the compliance of " 3 R" principle, but also for the demands and scientific requirements for the development of toxicology and social economy. The development and application of animal alternative methods have become an important direction of toxicity testing in the twenty-first century, and are gained increasingly wide support and regulatory acceptance with broad prospect and important value.

  11. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  12. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  13. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Colacci; Monica Vaccari; Maria Grazia Mascolo; Francesca Rotondo; Elena Morandi; Daniele Quercioli; Stefania Perdichizzi; Cristina Zanzi; Stefania Serra; Vanes Poluzzi; Paola Angelini; Sandro Grilli; Franco Zinoni

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA) appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome...

  14. A review of the status of alternative approaches to animal testing and the development of integrated testing strategies for assessing the toxicity of chemicals under REACH--a summary of a DEFRA-funded project conducted by Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindon, Christina; Combes, Robert; Cronin, Mark T D; Roberts, David W; Garrod, John

    2006-03-01

    Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME were recently awarded a DEFRA tender to conduct a review of the status of alternative approaches to animal testing, and to recommend further research with regard to the forthcoming European Union REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) system for the safety testing and risk assessment of chemicals. The outcome of the project is summarised, including the prospects for in vitro and in silico testing, areas where reduction and refinement could be applied, and how decision-tree integrated testing strategies could be used to reduce the number of animals needed to fulfil the testing requirements of the REACH system. This paper is a prelude to a series of individual papers on detailed suggestions for applying non-animal methods to each of the major toxicity endpoints in REACH. PMID:16555968

  15. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

  16. Assessment of the potential irritation and photoirritation of novel amino acid-based surfactants by in vitro methods as alternative to the animal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultraviolet-A radiation damage effects on skin and eyes will be increased by phototoxic compounds which could be present in pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. Great efforts have been made in the last years to find surfactants to replace those with phototoxic potential in commercial use. Series of different in vitro models for phototoxicity, included to validated neutral red uptake (NRU) 3T3 phototoxicity assay are useful screening tools. The phototoxic effects of a novel family of glycerol amino acid-based surfactant compounds were examined via these assays. Human red blood cells and two immortalised cell lines, murine fibroblast cell line 3T3, and one human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were the in vitro models employed to predict potential photoirritation. The phototoxic end-points assessed were hemolysis (human red blood cell test) and resazurin transformation to resorufin and NRU in cell culture methods. The results suggest that no phototoxic effects by any new amino acid derived-surfactants, could be identified

  17. Russia: update on animal experiments and alternatives in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Progress continues in Russia with growing awareness and implementation of alternatives in education. Further outreach visits and negotiations for replacement have been made by InterNICHE campaigners. Russian language information resources have been complemented by the distribution of translated freeware physiology and pharmacology alternatives; and the InterNICHE Alternatives Loan Systems continue to provide valuable hands-on access to a range of learning tools. Donations of computers and alternatives have established exemplary multimedia laboratories, with software having directly replaced the annual use of several thousand animals. New agreements have been made with institutes to abandon animal experiments for teaching purposes. Work to consolidate the successes is being done, and Russian teachers have begun to present at conferences to share their experiences of implementation. Further development and implementation of alternatives is being achieved through grant funding from the InterNICHE Humane Education Award. Using a different approach, cases of determined conscientious objection have included a campaign against the use of stolen companion animals for surgery practice in the Russian Far East, and a continuing legal challenge to experiments at Moscow State University. This multi-pronged, decentralised and culturally appropriate campaigning strategy has proved to be an effective approach to achieving sustainable change in Russia.

  18. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  19. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ecological and immunological interactions. Most previous reviews of antibiotic resistance focus on resisters but overlook persisters, although both are fundamental to bacteria survival through antibiosis. Here, we discuss resisters and persisters together to contrast the distinct ecological responses of persisters during antibiotic stress and propose different regimens to eradicate persisters. Our intention is not only to provide an ecoimmunological interpretation, but also to use an ecoimmunological system to categorize available alternatives and promote the discovery of prospective approaches to relieve ART problems within the general scope of improving animal health. Thus, we will categorize available alternatives to antibiotics and envision applications of ecoimmunological tenets to promote related studies in animal production.

  20. Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory...

  1. Animal experimentation in snake venom research and in vitro alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Paula G

    2003-08-01

    Current experimental techniques used in snake venom research (with and without the use of animals) are reviewed. The emphasis is on the reduction of the use of animals in the development of antivenoms for the clinical treatment of snakebite. Diagnostic and research techniques for the major pathologies of envenoming are described and those using animals are contrasted with non-sentient methods where possible. In particular, LD50 and ED50 assays using animals (in vivo) and fertilised eggs (in vivo, non-sentient) are compared as well as in vitro procedures (ELISA and haemolytic test) for ED50 estimations. The social context of antivenom production, supply and demand is outlined together with the consequent tension between the benefits derived and the increase in opposition to experiments on animals. Stringent regulations governing the use of animals, limited research funds and public pressure all focus the need for progress towards non-animal, or non-sentient, research methods. Some achievements are noted but success is hampered by lack of detailed knowledge of the many constituents of venom which have to be assessed as a whole rather than individually. The only way to evaluate the net pathological effect of venom is to use a living system, usually a rodent, and similarly, the efficacy of antivenoms is also measured in vivo. The pre-clinical testing of antivenoms in animals is therefore a legal requirement in many countries and is strictly monitored by government authorities. New technologies applied to the characterisation of individual venom proteins should enable novel in vitro assays to be designed thus reducing the number of animals required. In the meantime, the principles of Reduce, Refine and Replace relating to animals in research are increasingly endorsed by those working in the field and the many agencies regulating ethical and research policy. PMID:12906883

  2. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  3. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Otto

    2003-04-11

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for different uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces for introducing assessment and testing strategies e.g. using a limited number of tests and/or alternative test methods are: (a) animal welfare considerations; (b) new scientific knowledge i.e. introducing tests for new endpoints and tests for better understanding of mode of action; and (c) lack of testing capacity/reduction of required resources economically as well as time wise. PMID:12676447

  4. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing

  5. Proposal for a Brazilian centre on alternative test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa de Moura; Nunes, Jadir; Presgrave, Octavio; de Carvalho, Dermeval; Masson, Philippe; Rivera, Ekaterina; Coecke, Sandra; Kreysa, Joachim; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have recently taken place in Brazil in order to foster the creation of centers dedicated to alternatives to animal testing. In 2008, Vanessa Sá-Rocha organized a meeting with Brazilian regulatory authorities and the major stakeholders in the field of testing to foster discussions on the process of funding, development, and validation of alternative methods in Brazil. Octavio Presgrave published a scientific article on "The Need for the Establishment of a Brazilian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods." Also in 2008, Jadir Nunes, together with Dermeval de Carvalho, prepared and presented a proposal to the Brazilian National Agency of Health Surveillance (ANVISA) for the creation of a Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. ECVAM and other European stakeholders have been involved in the initiatives. Furthermore, also in 2008, a new legislation has been adopted in Brazil regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes ("lei Arouca"). The legislation establishes, among other provisions, the task of monitoring and evaluating the introduction of alternative methods. However, the legislation does not provide for promotion of or information about, existing alternative methods to the larger Brazilian scientific community. In order to streamline the different activities, Chantra Eskes acted as a facilitator by establishing a new joint proposal with the current Brazilian stakeholders, aimed at setting up a Brazilian Center on Alternative Test Methods. PMID:20383476

  6. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  7. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing

  8. Summary and Validation of New Animal-Free Toxicity Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Marina; Daneshian, Mardas

    2013-01-01

    Alternatives to animal testing have been developed mainly in the fields of toxicology and vaccine testing. Typical examples are the evaluation of phototoxicity, eye irritation, or skin corrosion resulting from cosmetics and industrial chemicals. Examples also can be found in other biomedical areas, however, including the control of the quality of drug preparations or for the control of the production process of biologics. For regulatory purposes, the quality, transferability, and predictivity...

  9. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to animal testing. However, the predictive value of in vitro test systems is often limited due to the unawareness about the mechanisms of toxicity and the complexity of organisms. As a consequence, a ...

  10. Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Annette; Eriksson, Tove; Eltze, Tobias; Kolle, Susanne; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15-20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potential of a substance is usually carried out in animal models. Nowadays, there is much interest in reducing and ultimately replacing current animal tests. Furthermore, as of 2013, the EU has posed a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients that includes skin sensitization. Therefore, predictive and robust in vitro tests are urgently needed. In order to establish alternatives to animal testing, the in vitro tests must mimic the very complex interactions between the sensitizing chemical and the different parts of the immune system. This review article summarizes recent efforts to develop in vitro tests for predicting skin sensitizers. Cell-based assays, in chemico methods and, to a lesser extent, in silico methods are presented together with a discussion of their current status. With considerable progress having been achieved during the last years, the rationale today is that data from different non-animal test methods will have to be combined in order to obtain reliable hazard and potency information on potential skin sensitizers. PMID:22707154

  11. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2015-07-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. PMID:23554402

  12. Animal vs. non-animal tests for the monitoring of marine biotoxins in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2005-01-01

    Since bivalve molluscs can contain algae biotoxins that can cause gastroenterological or even lethal neurological diseases in humans, a public health control system on marine biotoxins has been implemented in EU Directive 91/492. Currently, the reference method laid down for this purpose is the so-called "mouse bioassay" with death of the animals as an endpoint. To date, this extremely distressful animal test has not been standardised or validated, and there is scientific evidence that it is neither relevant nor reliable. Therefore different EU Member States have been striving to replace the mouse bioassay or to reduce the animal numbers and the distress for the animals. In the United Kingdom, the test is being performed with two instead of three mice, the animals are anaesthetised before injection of the mollusc extract and remain in narcosis until their death. In Germany the mouse bioassay has not been performed for many years; without restriction of consumer health safety, marine biotoxins are detected with chemical analytical test methods. The application of alternative test methods is legally required according to EU Directive 86/609 on the Protection of Laboratory Animals. Apparently there is a conflict between two equal valid EU Directives, which has to be overcome.

  13. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  14. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  15. The Historical Development of Animal Toxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gertler, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper traces the historical development of animal toxicity testing, from its ancient origins through the period of standardization following World War II. It explores the roots of toxicity testing in physiology and experimental medicine, drug development, and the detection and identification of poisons. The discussion then turns to the shift in focus from acute to chronic toxicity which occurred around the turn of the century. The controversy over the potential toxicity of preservatives ...

  16. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing.

  17. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing. PMID:25991698

  18. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  19. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  20. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed

  1. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to

  2. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories. PMID:26626125

  3. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use. PMID:26614819

  4. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use.

  5. Farm Animal Welfare - Testing for Market Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Grykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Many consumers are concerned with animal welfare in the conventional production of farm livestock. This concern can be related both to their own and others’ consumption. In the latter case, there is a negative externality from consumption. We suggest a survey design that enables us to test for a market failure in farm livestock production. Applying this to the question of battery cages in egg production, we cannot show that a market failure exists. The policy can be extended to general disc...

  6. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing. PMID:18419591

  7. Animal model and alternative test to skin antioxidant efficacy assessment%皮肤抗氧化功效评价动物模型及替代方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步犁; 程树军; 秦瑶; 谈伟君

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and damage is closely related to skin functional decreased and diseases.Traditional biological evaluation of the skin antioxidant often use animal model through creative a model of local skin injury or disease.With the deepening understanding of the mechanism of skin oxidative damage and the development of in vitro culture techniques,using cultured skin cells or reconstructive skin model test system can be establish a new rapid testing method which can be used in the evaluation and screening of antioxidant effects,as well as mechanisms research and product development.%氧化应激和损伤与多种皮肤功能下降和皮肤疾病密切相关.传统皮肤抗氧化剂的生物学评价多采用局部皮肤损伤模型或疾病动物模型,随着皮肤氧化损伤机制的认识不断深入和体外培养技术的发展,利用体外培养的皮肤细胞或重建的皮肤模型为测试系统,建立新型快速检测方法,可用于抗氧化效应评价和筛查,以及机制研究和产品开发.

  8. Testing Cosmetics on Animals: An Idea Who's Time Has Gone

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Noah

    2005-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in reducing animal testing in the assessment the safety of cosmetic products, it persists and there is no definitive end in sight. The reasons for this are not entirely clear because the major constituents, consumers, animal rights activists, and the corporations engaged in the testing all seem to want it to end. While the government still requires animal testing for drugs and other consumer products, there is no explicit requirement for the animal testing of cosme...

  9. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.;

    massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity....... To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient...... administered bovine immunoglobulin is currently being tested in a calf herd with persistent diarrhea problems. Furthermore, it was shown in a Campylobacter challenge model in chickens that caecal and faecal counts of Campylobacter were between 0.5 and 1.0 logs lower in birds when given 200 mg avian...

  10. Glossary of reference terms for alternative test methods and their validation : t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrario, Daniele; Brustio, Roberta; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This glossary was developed to provide technical references to support work in the field of alternatives to animal testing. It was compiled from various existing reference documents coming from different sources and is meant to be a point of reference on alternatives to animal testing. Giving the ever-increasing number of alternative test methods and approaches being developed over the last decades, a combination, revision and harmonization of earlier published collections of terms used in th...

  11. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Fahey, Jr.; Kerr, Katherine R.; de Godoy, Maria R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More rec...

  12. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerob...

  13. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  14. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  15. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  16. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing. PMID:24609452

  17. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  18. Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

  19. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  20. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  1. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. PMID:25058855

  2. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process.

  3. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  4. Optimization of Animal Testing and Alternative Methods for Shellfish Toxin Monitoring%贝类毒素监测的动物试验优化及替代方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程树军; 黄韧; 刘慧智

    2011-01-01

    贝类毒素严重威胁水产品的质量,而且给人类健康带来潜在危害.由于其结构多样、作用机制复杂,贝类毒素监控计划通常使用动物方法,不仅成本高、定量难,而且不符合"3R"的要求.运用减轻动物痛苦和减少数量的优化方法,开发新的基于毒性作用机制和结构分析的细胞功能检测法、免疫学方法、化学分析法和生物传感器方法,这些动物试验替代方法的研究提高了贝类毒素监测的有效性,经过科学验证和认可后可用于监控目的.%Objective Shellfish toxins are not only threatening to quality of marine aquatic products but also become a potential threat to human health. As the structure diversity and function mechanism complexity, the monitoring programs of shellfish toxins using animal models are costly,difficult to quantitate and not meet 3R principles. There is a pressing need to develop new methods to reduce quantity of used animals and to relieve animal distress. Recently, many new assays based on action mechanisms have been developed including functional, immunological, chemical analysis and biosensor methods. These methods promote the efficacy of shellfish toxin monitoring,and will be accepted by administration for regulation programs provided these approaches be scientifically validated and standardized.

  5. Development and validation of animal-free test methods to predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Bauch, Caroline D.

    2013-01-01

    Skin sensitization is the development of the allergic contact dermatitis caused by chemicals. Regulatory accepted methods to assess skin sensitizing potential of chemicals are animal based tests, but increasing interest in animal welfare presses the development of animal-free methods. The aim of this work was the development, establishment and validation of several alternative methods to animal testing to predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. Therefore several methods reflectin...

  6. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

    1999-04-01

    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  7. Animal Consciousness as a Test Case of Cognitive Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    In our dealings with animals at least most of us see them as conscious beings. On the other hand the employment of human categories to animals seems to be problematic. Reflecting on the details of human beliefs, for example, casts serious doubt on whether the cat is able to believe anything at all. These theses try to reflect on methodological issues when investigating animal minds. Developing a theory of animal mentality seems to be a test case of the interdisciplinary research programme in ...

  8. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  9. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  10. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  11. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Burden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  12. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  13. 海洋生物毒素检测的动物试验替代方法及标准化%Alternative methods for testing marine biotoxin in animal models and the standardization of these methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程树军; 焦红; 谈伟君

    2011-01-01

    海洋生物毒素结构多样、种类繁多、作用机制复杂,给人类健康带来潜在的风险.使用动物模型检测贝类组织中的海洋毒素是许多国家监控计划推荐的方法.近年来,新的基于毒性作用机制和明确化学结构的检测方法不断被开发,如细胞检测法、免疫学方法、化学分析法和生物传感器方法等.有的方法已进入标准化和验证程序,逐渐被认可用于监控和检测目的.%Marine biotoxins bring potential health risks to human. Because of the complexity of chemical structure and the diversity of action mechanism of marine biotoxin, monitoring programs in many countries use animal models to detect the presence of marine biotoxin in shellfish tissues. Many new assay methods based on the mechanism and definite chemical structure of marine biotoxin were developed in recent years, including functional, immunological, chemical methods and biosensors. Several methods are going on the way of validation and standardization, and are gradually accepted by regulations.

  14. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Cacioppo, D; Tolone, M.; Riggio, V; Maizon, D.O.; Portolano, B

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EB...

  15. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  16. EURL ECVAM Strategy for Replacement of Animal Testing for Skin Sensitisation Hazard Identification and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    CASATI Silvia; Worth, Andrew; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; Whelan, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods, the assessment of the skin sensitisation potential of chemicals still relies on animal testing. Progress in the development of alternative methods has been prompted by the increasing knowledge on the key mechanisms of the skin sensitisation pathway, as recently documented in the OECD Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. Based on an analysis of the regulatory requirements for this endpoint within relevant piece...

  17. Researchers exploring faster alternatives to 2-year test for carcinogenicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: Animals;Animals,Laboratory;biomarkers of exposure & effect: validation;Carcinogenicity Tests;Carcinogens;Female;metabolism;methods;Male;Mice;Pharmaceutical Preparations;Predictive Value of Tests;Prognosis;Rats;standards;Species Specificity;trends;Time Factors;Tumor Markers,Biological;United States;United States Environmental Protection Agency;United States Food and Drug Administration.

  18. In chemico evaluation of prohapten skin sensitizers: behavior of 2-methoxy-4-(¹³C)methylphenol in the peroxidase peptide reactivity assay (PPRA) as an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckel, Fabien; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Gerberick, G Frank; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-26

    In chemico methods, based on the assessment of a hapten's reactivity toward peptides, have been proposed as alternative methods for the assessment of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. However, even with these approaches showing promise, a major drawback is the activation of prohaptens, i.e. molecules needing a metabolic activation to become reactive and therefore sensitizing. Recently, it has been proposed to couple an enzymatic activation step based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/hydrogen peroxide to such peptide reactivity assays. To evaluate this approach, the behavior of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (2M4MP), reported as a moderate sensitizer according to the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA), has been investigated in this assay. To follow the reaction with the peptides and characterize more easily intermediates and adducts, the molecule was first (13)C isotopically substituted at the most probable reactive position. When 2M4MP was incubated with HRP/H2O2 in a mixture PBS (pH 7.4, 0.1M)/acetonitrile 2:1, two main products were formed deriving from the formation of a quinone methide 2M4MQ subsequently trapped by either H2O2 or H2O to form a benzylic hydroperoxide or alcohol, respectively. When nucleophiles such as GSH or a peptide containing a cysteine residue (Pep-Cys) were present in the reaction medium, the quinone methide 2M4MQ was trapped by the more nucleophilic thiol function to form thio-adducts. No modifications of 2M4MP were observed when the same reactions were carried out without HRP confirming that the activation of the molecule was enzyme related. Amino nucleophiles were shown to be far less reactive towards the quinone methide 2M4MQ with only tiny formation of adducts with lysine or arginine side chains. In addition we demonstrated that the same enzymatic activation could also take place in a microemulsion based on sodium dodecyl sulfate/tert-butanol/chloroform/buffer. PMID:23454653

  19. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Alan M.; Andrew N. Rowan

    1987-01-01

    Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration...

  20. REACH, animal testing, and the precautionary principle

    OpenAIRE

    Menache, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Andre Menache,1 Candida Nastrucci21Antidote Europe, Perpignan, France; 2University of Rome, "Tor Vergata", Rome, ItalyAbstract: Relatively little is known about the toxicity of the many chemicals in existence today. This has prompted European Union regulatory authorities to launch a major chemicals testing program, known as Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Although the driving force behind REACH is ostensibly based on the precauti...

  1. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  2. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  3. CNAL Held International Proficiency Testing Workshop On Animal Quarantine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ From 14th to 16th, July 2004, CNAL held International Proficiency Testing Workshop on Animal Quarantine in TianJin, China. Approximately 50 experts from AQSIQ (General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection & Quarantine of the People's Republic of China) and Ministry of Agriculture who are engaged in the technical and management activities of animal quarantine laboratories attended the workshop.

  4. Testing Alternative Theories of Gravity using LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on alternative theories of gravity using gravitational wave detection from inspiralling compact binaries with the proposed LISA space interferometer. Specifically, we estimate lower bounds on the coupling parameter \\omega of scalar-tensor theories of the Brans-Dicke type and on the Compton wavelength of the graviton \\lambda_g in hypothetical massive graviton theories. In these theories, modifications of the gravitational radiation damping formulae or of the propagation of the waves translate into a change in the phase evolution of the observed gravitational waveform. We obtain the bounds through the technique of matched filtering, employing the LISA Sensitivity Curve Generator (SCG), available online. For a neutron star inspiralling into a 10^3 M_sun black hole in the Virgo Cluster, in a two-year integration, we find a lower bound \\omega > 3 * 10^5. For lower-mass black holes, the bound could be as large as 2 * 10^6. The bound is independent of LISA arm...

  5. Alternatives to in vivo Tests to Detect Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Fish and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of current research in risk assessment of chemicals is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, replace or refine the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. In 2009, the US EPA began implementation of t...

  6. [Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test as an Alternative for the Mouse Inoculation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, R.; Hörnlimann, B.; Wandeler, A. I.; Kappeler, A.; Kipfer, R.; Peterhans, E.

    1990-01-01

    Rabies has disappeared from large parts of Switzerland. Due to systematic oral fox-vaccination campaings that started in 1987, cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals have been confined to the western frontier with France in the last three years. Nevertheless, some cases of severe exposition of man by rabid or rabies-suspect animals still occur. Rabies can be diagnosed in brain smears of infected animals with high specificity and sensitivity by a direct immunofluorescence method. According to WHO recommendations, negative results are to be confirmed in cases of a human exposition by intracerebral inoculation of brain suspensions in three-weeks-old mice. This method has an excellent sensitivity and is able to detect false-negative results in immunofluorescence, which occur in a very small percentage (0.043%). The disadvantage of this confirmatory assay is the sacrification of relatively high numbers of mice (in the Swiss rabies center about 1,300 animals each year), and the long time required for a final diagnosis: 7-20 days in positive, 21 days in negative cases. The cultivation of virus from brain suspensions on a mouse neuroblastoma cell line is a tempting alternative to the mouse inoculation test. This method usually provides a conclusive diagnosis within a few days. However, in our hands it showed in preliminary experiments an unsatisfactory sensitivity (80.7%). The necessity to carry out strict reproducibility controls in this assay has to be emphasized. Further work must be invested in the improvement of the rabies tissue culture infection test and a careful long-term comparison with the mouse inoculation test will be necessary before the mouse inoculation test can be replaced.

  7. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  8. 77 FR 73286 - Codification of Animal Testing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... in vitro and in silico methods, in general, as alternative test methods that a manufacturer may wish... studies), in vitro or in silico test methods that have been approved by the Commission, literature sources... whenever possible. Data from in vitro or in silico test methods that have not been approved by...

  9. Binary Experiments, Minimax Tests and 2-Alternating Capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarski, Tadeusz

    1982-01-01

    The concept of Choquet's 2-alternating capacity is explored from the viewpoint of Le Cam's experiment theory. It is shown that there always exists a least informative binary experiment for two sets of probability measures generated by 2-alternating capacities. This result easily implies the Neyman-Pearson lemma for capacities. Moreover, its proof gives a new method of construction of minimax tests for problems in which hypotheses are generated by 2-alternating capacities. It is also proved th...

  10. An Alternative to the Use of Animals to Teach Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Paulo José; Tazinafo, Lucas Favaretto; Silva, Mauro Ferreira; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alternative approach to teach diabetes mellitus in our practical classes, replacing laboratory animals. We used custom rats made of cloth, which have a ventral zipper that allows stuffing with glass marbles to reach different weights. Three mock rats per group were placed into metabolic cages with real food and water and with test…

  11. The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms Including Alternatives to Dissection. Monograph IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.

    This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter 1,…

  12. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies. PMID:24512229

  13. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies.

  14. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is

  15. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Goldberg

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration of new avenues for testing based on the advances in cell biology.

  16. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because...

  17. Food for Thought... on the Economics of Animal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bottini, Annamaria; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    "Money makes the world go around". We all have heard this, but in the field of alternative methods, we use to talk about ethics, scientific progress, politics, animal welfare or consumer and environment safety. In this series of articles, however, we have occasionally come to issues which were difficult to separate from economical reasoning. Most obviously, the article on globalisation [Bottini et al. 2007] showed the resonance of a major economical trend and recent developments in the field ...

  18. Political incentives towards replacing animal testing in nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2009-01-01

    The Treaty of Lisbon requests the European Union and the Member States to pay full regard to animal welfare issues when implementing new policies. The present article discusses how these provisions are met in the emerging area of nanotechnology. Political action plans in Europe take into account animal welfare issues to some extent. Funding programmes promote the development of non-animal test methods, however only in the area of nanotoxicology and also here not sufficiently to "pay full regard" to preventing animal testing, let alone to bring about a paradigm change in toxicology or in biomedical research as such. Ethical deliberations on nanotechnology, which influence future policies, so far do not address animal welfare at all. Considering that risk assessment of nanoproducts is conceived as a key element to protect human dignity, ethical deliberations should address the choice of the underlying testing methods and call for basing nanomaterial safety testing upon the latest scientific--and ethically acceptable--technologies. Finally, public involvement in the debate on nanotechnology should take into account information on resulting animal experiments. PMID:20383474

  19. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009.

  20. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  1. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  2. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  3. Searching for Alternatives to Standardized Tests: Whys, Whats, and Whithers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Walter; Madaus, George

    1989-01-01

    The continuing interest in standardized testing alternatives suggests that the make-a-better-mousetrap mentality still flourishes in education and employment assessment circles. Some promising new testing technologies might broaden the range of human talents assessed. However, educators must refuse to accept bondage to any single technology, no…

  4. Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Wang; Xiangfang Zeng; Qing Yang; Shiyan Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorgan...

  5. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... final results of each test conducted by the licensee and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  6. Preclinical safety testing for cell-based products using animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBlane, James W

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of preclinical testing include to show why there might be therapeutic benefit in patients and to provide information on the product's toxicity. For cell-based products, given even once, there may be long term exposure and this could imply, unlike for conventional drugs, that all preclinical studies may be needed prior to first human use. The duration of exposure to cells should be studied in animals to guide toxicity assessments. Distribution of cells after administration by a route resembling that intended in humans should be studied to understand potential risks. Risk of tumour formation with the product may also need to be characterised. To the extent that this information can be generated by in vitro testing, studies in animals may not be needed and limitations on the capability of preclinical data to predict human toxicity are recognised: species-specificity make some cell products act only in humans and a human cell-product might be expected to be rejected by immunocompetent animals. Does this suggest testing in immunosuppressed animals or of development of an animal-cell product supposedly similar to the human cell product? No single answer seems to fit every situation.

  7. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified. PMID:23891496

  8. Proposed experimental test of an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A new experimental test of electric screening in superconductors is proposed. • The electric screening length is predicted to be much larger than in normal metals. • The reason this was not seen in earlier experiments is explained. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity. - Abstract: An alternative form of London’s electrodynamic theory of superconductors predicts that the electrostatic screening length is the same as the magnetic penetration depth. We argue that experiments performed to date do not rule out this alternative formulation and propose an experiment to test it. Experimental evidence in its favor would have fundamental implications for the understanding of superconductivity.

  9. Recursive Algorithm and Alternate Operation Strategy in Sequential Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-lin; CHEN Zhan-qi; GUO Lue

    2009-01-01

    Based on the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) developed by Wald, an improved method for successful probability test of missile flight is proposed. A recursive algorithm and its program in Matlab are designed to calculate the real risk level of the sequential test decision and the average number of samples under various test conditions. A concept, that is "rejecting as soon as possible", is put forward and an alternate operation strategy is conducted. The simulation results show that it can reduce the test expenses.

  10. Design, construction and testing of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small animals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, M J; Preache, M M

    1980-11-01

    This final report describes both the engineering development of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small laboratory animals, and the biological protocol for the use of such enclosures in the testing of animals to determine possible biological effects of the environment associated with HVDC transmission lines. The test enclosure which has been designed is a modular unit, which will house up to eight rat-sized animals in individual compartments. Multiple test enclosures can be used to test larger numbers of animals. A prototype test enclosure has been fabricated and tested to characterize its electrical performance characteristics. The test enclosure provides a simulation of the dominant environment associated with HVDC transmission lines; namely, a static electric field and an ion current density. A biological experimental design has been developed for assessing the effects of the dominant components of the HVDC transmission line environment.

  11. On hypothesis testing with a partitioned random alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is common in statistical practice that one needs to make a choice among m + 1 mutually exclusive claims on distributions.When m=1,it is done by the (traditional) hypothesis test.In this paper,a generalization to the case m > 1 is proposed.The fundamental difference with the case m=1 is that the new alternative hypothesis is a partition of m multiple claims and is data-dependent.Data is used to decide which claim in the partition is to be tested as the alternative.Thus,a random alternative is involved.The conditional and overall type I errors of the proposed test are controlled at a given level,and this test can be used as a new solution for the general multiple test problem.Several classical problems,including the one-sample problem,model selection in multiple linear regression,and multi-factor analysis,are revisited,and new tests are provided correspondingly.Consequently,the famous two-sided t-test should be replaced by the proposed.

  12. Identifying and characterizing chemical skin sensitizers without animal testing: Colipa's research and method development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, P; Ashikaga, T; Bessou-Touya, S; Schepky, A; Gerberick, F; Kern, P; Marrec-Fairley, M; Maxwell, G; Ovigne, J-M; Sakaguchi, H; Reisinger, K; Tailhardat, M; Martinozzi-Teissier, S; Winkler, P

    2010-09-01

    The sensitizing potential of chemicals is usually identified and characterized using one of the available animal test methods, such as the mouse local lymph node assay. Due to the increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the screening of new chemicals, the Colipa Skin Tolerance Task Force collaborates with and/or funds research groups to increase and apply our understanding of the events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitization. Knowledge gained from this research is used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterization of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present one in chemico (direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA)) and two in vitro test methods (cell based assays (MUSST and h-CLAT)) have been evaluated within Colipa inter-laboratory ring trials and accepted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) for pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will be used to support the development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitizer potency prediction. The replacement of the need for animal testing for skin sensitization risk assessment is viewed as ultimately achievable and the next couple of years should set the timeline for this milestone. PMID:20624454

  13. SkinEthic Laboratories, a company devoted to develop and produce in vitro alternative methods to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brugerolle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    SkinEthic Laboratories is a France-based biotechnology company recognised as the world leader in tissue engineering. SkinEthic is devoted to develop and produce reliable and robust in vitro alternative methods to animal use in cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. SkinEthic models provide relevant tools for efficacy and safety screening tests in order to support an integrated decision-making during research and development phases. Some screening tests are referenced and validated as alternatives to animal use (Episkin), others are in the process of validation under ECVAM and OECD guidelines. SkinEthic laboratories provide a unique and joined experience of more than 20 years from Episkin SNC and SkinEthic SA. Their unique cell culture process allows in vitro reconstructed human tissues with well characterized histology, functionality and ultrastructure features to be mass produced. Our product line includes skin models: a reconstructed human epidermis with a collagen layer, Episkin, reconstructed human epidermis without or with melanocytes (with a tanning degree from phototype II to VI) and a reconstructed human epithelium, i.e. cornea, and other mucosa, i.e. oral, gingival, oesophageal and vaginal. Our philosophy is based on 3 main commitments: to support our customers by providing robust and reliable models, to ensure training and education in using validated protocols, allowing a large array of raw materials, active ingredients and finished products in solid, liquid, powder, cream or gel form to be screened, and, to provide a dedicated service to our partners.

  14. Development and Testing of an Animal Feed Mixing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Balami; D. Adgidzi; A. Mua’zu

    2013-01-01

    An animal feed mixing machine was designed, developed and tested. The machine was tested using a feed components divided into three equal measures of 50 kg for ground corn, 0.265 kg for cassava flour and 2.65 kg for shelled corn replicated thrice at four mixing durations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The average CV is 4.84% which shows a significant reduction in feed components for the samples tested. The degree of mixing attained was 95.16% which portrays an improvement of about 7.8% reduction i...

  15. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further

  16. A new powerful nonparametric rank test for ordered alternative problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogen Shan

    Full Text Available We propose a new nonparametric test for ordered alternative problem based on the rank difference between two observations from different groups. These groups are assumed to be independent from each other. The exact mean and variance of the test statistic under the null distribution are derived, and its asymptotic distribution is proven to be normal. Furthermore, an extensive power comparison between the new test and other commonly used tests shows that the new test is generally more powerful than others under various conditions, including the same type of distribution, and mixed distributions. A real example from an anti-hypertensive drug trial is provided to illustrate the application of the tests. The new test is therefore recommended for use in practice due to easy calculation and substantial power gain.

  17. Using Alternative Approaches to Prioritize Testing for the Universe of Chemicals with Potential for Human Exposure (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One use of alternative methods is to target animal use at only those chemicals and tests that are absolutely necessary. We discuss prioritization of testing based on high-throughput screening assays (HTS), QSAR modeling, high-throughput toxicokinetics (HTTK), and exposure modelin...

  18. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  19. Improved Animal Models for Testing Gene Therapy for Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.; Flynn, Rowan; Dichek, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy delivered to the blood vessel wall could augment current therapies for atherosclerosis, including systemic drug therapy and stenting. However, identification of clinically useful vectors and effective therapeutic transgenes remains at the preclinical stage. Identification of effective vectors and transgenes would be accelerated by availability of animal models that allow practical and expeditious testing of vessel-wall-directed gene therapy. Such models would include humanlike le...

  20. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  1. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M;

    2015-01-01

    types and concentrations taking into account the inherent impact of NP properties and the effects of changes in experimental conditions using well-characterized NPs. The results of the studies have been used to generate recommendations for a suitable and robust testing strategy which can be applied...... towards alternative testing strategies for hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials, highlighting the adaptation of standard methods demanded by the special physicochemical features of nanomaterials and bioavailability studies. The work has assessed a broad range of toxicity tests, cell models and NP...

  2. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... by simulation. Furthermore, our own simulation results suggest that the user-specied adjustment scheme for deterministic components (e.g. OLS, GLS, or recursive adjustment) has a much higher impact on the power of unit root tests than accounting for nonlinearity, at least under local (linear or nonlinear......This article extends the analysis of local power of unit root tests in a nonlinear direction by considering local nonlinear alternatives and tests built specically against stationary nonlinear models. In particular, we focus on the popular test proposed by Kapetanios et al. (2003, Journal...

  3. Juvenile animal testing in drug development--is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In pharmaceutical drug development, there has been increased interest in the need to perform juvenile animal studies to support the safety of use of new medicines in the pediatric population. Although such studies are not new, the increased interest has been "formalized" in recent regulatory guidelines. As a result, companies are now performing many more studies in juvenile animals, even when there is a lack of robust knowledge of cross-species functional and kinetic differences among juveniles that means extrapolation of any toxicology study finding to an immature human may not be easy or even relevant, especially if performed in the wrong species at the wrong time. It will be shown by presentation of some basic considerations needed in order to perform such testing, that juvenile animal studies are indeed feasible. However, it will also be highlighted that (based on available knowledge) there are currently not enough clear-cut examples to answer the question of whether juvenile animal toxicology studies to support pediatric development (by affecting the performance or design of a pediatric clinical trial or identifying a potential different-from-adult safety risk in clinical use) are truly useful or necessary. PMID:20350578

  4. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. PMID:23612449

  5. Mechanistic approaches and the development of alternative toxicity test methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Balls, M

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism can be defined as an explanation of an observed phenomenon that explains the processes underlying the phenomenon in terms of events at lower levels of organization. A prerequisite for new, more mechanistic, approaches, which would use in vitro systems rather than conventional animal analogy models, is a strengthening of the underlying scientific basis of toxicity testing. This will require greater recognition of the differences between fidelity and discrimination models and betwee...

  6. Skin sensitization--a critical review of predictive test methods in animals and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, P A; Basketter, D A; Maurer, T; Mueller, D; Potokar, M; Bontinck, W J

    1991-04-01

    With the exception of the Draize Test, the guinea-pig test methods currently accepted by regulatory authorities worldwide are well able to predict the potential of a material to cause skin sensitization. Nevertheless, (a) some methods are more sensitive than others (e.g. adjuvant tests are generally more sensitive than non-adjuvant tests); (b) methods cannot be sufficiently standardized to give full reproducibility of results between laboratories; and (c) most methods are based on subjective visual grading of skin reactions--difficulties thus arise when testing coloured or irritant materials. Laboratories must be able to show the sensitivity of the method(s) they use by demonstrating that positive reactions occur with mild/moderate contact allergens rather than the strong/extreme sensitizers currently recommended in certain guidelines, specifically in the EEC Test Method. The sensitivity of the adjuvant tests is such that it is possible to halve the minimum number of animals required by present regulatory guidelines without compromising the capacity of the tests to detect weak/mild sensitizers. A similar review has not yet been made for non-adjuvant tests. Alternative test methods, including some recently developed mouse models, offer several advantages, including more objective endpoints. These tests have not been extensively validated and this precludes their use at present for regulatory purposes other than to confirm the sensitization potential of a material. Two new test methods using mice, the Mouse Ear-swelling Test and the Local Lymph Node Assay, appear promising. They should undergo rigorous interlaboratory testing to determine their sensitivity and specificity. In vitro methods do not represent a viable alternative in the foreseeable future. An approach using quantitative structure-activity relationships is the most likely route to a non-animal model, but this will require considerable research, development and validation. Human sensitization tests have

  7. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineyard, E. A.; Sand, J. R.; Miller, W. A.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising, changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve performance.

  8. Improved animal models for testing gene therapy for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Flynn, Rowan; Dichek, David A

    2014-04-01

    Gene therapy delivered to the blood vessel wall could augment current therapies for atherosclerosis, including systemic drug therapy and stenting. However, identification of clinically useful vectors and effective therapeutic transgenes remains at the preclinical stage. Identification of effective vectors and transgenes would be accelerated by availability of animal models that allow practical and expeditious testing of vessel-wall-directed gene therapy. Such models would include humanlike lesions that develop rapidly in vessels that are amenable to efficient gene delivery. Moreover, because human atherosclerosis develops in normal vessels, gene therapy that prevents atherosclerosis is most logically tested in relatively normal arteries. Similarly, gene therapy that causes atherosclerosis regression requires gene delivery to an existing lesion. Here we report development of three new rabbit models for testing vessel-wall-directed gene therapy that either prevents or reverses atherosclerosis. Carotid artery intimal lesions in these new models develop within 2-7 months after initiation of a high-fat diet and are 20-80 times larger than lesions in a model we described previously. Individual models allow generation of lesions that are relatively rich in either macrophages or smooth muscle cells, permitting testing of gene therapy strategies targeted at either cell type. Two of the models include gene delivery to essentially normal arteries and will be useful for identifying strategies that prevent lesion development. The third model generates lesions rapidly in vector-naïve animals and can be used for testing gene therapy that promotes lesion regression. These models are optimized for testing helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd)-mediated gene therapy; however, they could be easily adapted for testing of other vectors or of different types of molecular therapies, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall. Our data also supports the promise of HDAd to deliver long

  9. Pertussis serological potency test as an alternatively to the intracerebral mouse protection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, A; van Straaten-van de Kappelle, I; Hendriksen, C; van de Donk, H

    1996-01-01

    The current potency test for pertussis vaccines, the intracerebral protection test (MPT), is still the only mandatory laboratory model available. This test, however, is a valid, but inhumane and imprecise test and therefore a good candidate for replacement. Recently we have developed the Pertussis Serological Potency Test (PSPT) as an alternative for the MPT. The PSPT is based on in vitro assessment of the humoral immune response against the whole range of surface -antigens of B. pertussis in mice after immunisation with Whole Cell Vaccine (WCV). We have demonstrated a relationship between the mean pertussis antibody concentration at the day of challenge and the proportion of surviving mice at each vaccine dose in the MPT (R = 0.91). The PSPT is a model in which mice (20-24 g) are immunised i.p. with graded doses of vaccine and bled after four weeks. Sera are titrated in a whole cell ELISA and potency based on the vaccine dose-dependent antibody response is estimated by means of a parallel line analysis. In an in-house validation study 13 WCVs were tested in the PSPT and MPT. Homogeneity of both tests was proven by means of the chi-square test; potencies were significantly similar (p = 0.95). Compared to the MPT, the PSPT is more reproducible as is indicated by its smaller 95% confidence intervals. Moreover, by using the PSPT the animal distress can be reduced to an acceptable level and the PSPT also results in a reduction of more than 25% in use of mice. Additional experiments showed that estimation of WCV-potency in the PSPT based on specific antibody responses against protective antigens (PT, FHA, 69- and 92-kDa OMPS) was not possible or did not correlate with protection in MPT. Sera obtained from the PSPT showed a correlation between pertussis antibody levels and complement-mediated killing by pertussis antibodies in in vitro assays. In conclusion, the PSPT is a promising substitute for the MPT though further validation and additional studies on functional

  10. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao;

    This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls...... as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference animal...

  11. Operational evaluation of the high flow alternative filter test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative to the current filter test system (Q107) used to test Size 4 (500 cubic feet per min rated flow) and larger nuclear grade high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters at DOE Filter Test Facilities (FTFs) has been developed. This new test system, called the High Flow Alternative Filter Test System (HFATS), has undergone a long-term operational evaluation at the Oak Ridge FTF (ORFTF) for: comparison between HEPA filter penetration measurements made with the HFATS and with the Q107; assessment of the HFATS' long-term routine operational performance in the FTF environment; and determination of the potential operational impacts of the HFATS on the FTFs. Data for the operational evaluation were collected by the Oak Ridge staff using both test systems. These data were analyzed and interpreted by Los Alamos staff. A total of 849 filters were tested in the evaluation. The data provided by the HFATS easily permits filter penetration to be reported in terms of: penetration at the size of maximum penetration; number, surface area, or mass penetration; or penetration at 0.3 μm for reference to historical data. Results of the penetration measurement comparisons show that the HFATS measurements at about 0.3 μm aerosol diameter do not differ significantly from the Q107 measurements. Analysis of the HFATS penetration data indicates that for the 100% flow tests maximum penetration most frequently occurs at an aerosol diameter of about 0.15 μm as measured by a laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS). The 0.15 μm HFATS measurements at 100% test flow were markedly higher than the corresponding Q107 measurements. These measurements resulted in over 18% of the filters being rejected by the HFATS only, compared to no filters being rejected only by the Q107 and approximately 0.2% being rejected by both systems

  12. Microencapsulation and testing of the agricultural animal repellent, Daphne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, B; Kosir, I; Knez, E; Kukovic, M; Skerlavaj, V; Skvarc, A

    1999-01-01

    The microencapsulated animal repellent Daphne was prepared by in situ polymerization of melamine-formaldehyde prepolymer with styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer as a modifying agent. Pure Daphne (a mixture of essential oils and other volatile compounds) and Daphne (45 wt%) diluted with isopropylmyristate (55 wt%) were used as core materials. Three types of formulations were prepared: (1) aqueous suspension concentrates, to be diluted for spraying, (2) thickened pastes with microcapsules for coating tree bark, and (3) textile, paper and metal strips, coated or impregnated with microcapsules. In field testing, all formulations with microcapsules showed a prolonged effect in comparison with non-encapsulated Daphne. The repelling effect on animals was stronger in summer and weaker in winter, when the pressure of the animals was much more intense, and diffusion of repellent from the microcapsules was reduced due to low temperatures. However, pastes for the bark and non-woven textile strips impregnated with microencapsulated Daphne showed good repelling effect against deer and rabbits in the winter period. PMID:10080111

  13. Genome-wide alternative polyadenylation in animals: insights from high-throughput technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Sun; Yonggui Fu; Yuxin Li; Anlong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays an important role in gene expression by affecting mRNA stability,translation,and translocation in cells.However,genome-wide APA events have only recently been subjected to more systematic analysis with newly developed high-throughput methods.In this review,we focus on the recent technological development of APA analyses on a genome-wide scale,as well as the impact of APA switches on a number of critical biological processes in animals,including cell proliferation,differentiation,and oncogenic transformation.With the highly enlarged scope of genome-wide APA analyses,the APA regulations of various biological processes have increasingly become a new paradigm for the regulation of gene transcription and translation.

  14. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further toxicity testing. The in vitro toxicity outcomes are hardly used in quantitative risk assessment of chemicals, for example to predict health-based guidance values like an acceptable or tolerable d...

  15. Implementation of alternative test strategies for the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, A E

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology introduces a new field that requires novel approaches and methods for hazard and risk assessment. For an appropriate scientific platform for safety assessment, nanoscale properties and functions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including how the physicochemical properties of the materials relate to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface, must be considered. Moreover, this rapidly advancing new field requires novel test strategies that allow multiple toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use and is based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease. First, a predictive toxicological approach for the safety assessment of ENMs will be discussed against the background of a '21st-century vision' for using alternative test strategies (ATSs) to perform toxicological assessment of large numbers of untested chemicals, thereby reducing a backlog that could otherwise become a problem for nanotechnology. An ATS is defined here as an alternative to animal experiments or refinement/reduction alternative to traditional animal testing. Secondly, the approach of selecting pathways of toxicity to screen for the pulmonary hazard potential of carbon nanotubes and metal oxides will be discussed, as well as how to use these pathways to perform high-content or high-throughput testing and how the data can be used for hazard ranking, risk assessment, regulatory decision-making and 'safer-by-design' strategies. Finally, the utility and disadvantages of this predictive toxicological approach to ENM safety assessment, and how it can assist the 21st-century vision, will be addressed. PMID:23879741

  16. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test... care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  17. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  18. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Qing; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers. Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries. PMID:27153059

  20. Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers. Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries.

  1. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  2. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test...

  3. Joint Test Report For Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This joint Test Report (JTR) documents the results of the laboratory and field testing as well as any test modifications made during the execution of the testing. The technical stakeholders agreed upon test procedure modifications documented in this document. This JTR is made available as a reference for future pollution prevention endeavors by other NASA centers, the Department of Defense and commercial users to minimize duplication of effort. All coating system candidates were tested using approved NASA and AFSPC standard coating systems as experimental controls. This study looked at eight alternative coating systems and two control coating systems and was divided into Phase I Screening Tests, Phase II Tests, and Field Testing. The Phase I Screening Tests were preliminary tests performed on all the selected candidate coating systems. Candidate coating systems that did not meet the acceptance criteria of the screening tests were eliminated from further testing. Phase I Screening Tests included: Ease of Application, Surface Appearance, Dry-To-Touch (Sanding), Accelerated Storage Stability, Pot Life (Viscosity), Cure Time (Solvent Rubs), Cleanability, Knife Test, Tensile (pull-off) Adhesion, and X-Cut Adhesion by Wet

  4. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  5. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  6. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  7. Impact of relationships between test and training animals and among training animals on reliability of genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Lund, M S; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Su, G

    2015-10-01

    One of the factors affecting the reliability of genomic prediction is the relationship among the animals of interest. This study investigated the reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to the relationship between test and training animals, and among animals within the training data set. Different training data sets were generated from EuroGenomics data and a group of Nordic Holstein bulls (born in 2005 and afterwards) as a common test data set. Genomic breeding values were predicted using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and a Bayesian mixture model. The results showed that a closer relationship between test and training animals led to a higher reliability of genomic predictions for the test animals, while a closer relationship among training animals resulted in a lower reliability. In addition, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to a slightly higher reliability of genomic prediction, especially for the scenario of distant relationships between training and test animals. Therefore, to prevent a decrease in reliability, constant updates of the training population with animals from more recent generations are required. Moreover, a training population consisting of less-related animals is favourable for reliability of genomic prediction. PMID:26010512

  8. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Animal and other test system care. 792... Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems...

  9. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a

  10. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  11. A dataset on 145 chemicals tested in alternative assays for skin sensitization undergoing prevalidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy A; Foertsch, Leslie; Emter, Roger; Jaworska, Joanna; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Skin sensitization is a key endpoint for cosmetic ingredients, with a forthcoming ban for animal testing in Europe. Four alternative tests have so far been submitted to ECVAM prevalidation: (i) MUSST and (ii) h-Clat assess surface markers on dendritic cell lines, (iii) the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) measures reactivity with model peptides and (iv) the KeratinoSens(TM) assay which is based on detection of Nrf2-induced luciferase. It is anticipated that only an integrated testing strategy (ITS) based on a battery of tests might give a full replacement providing also a sensitization potency assessment, but this concept should be tested with a data-driven analysis. Here we report a database on 145 chemicals reporting the quantitative endpoints measured in a U937- test, the DPRA and KeratinoSens(TM) . It can serve to develop data-driven ITS approaches as we show in a parallel paper and provides a view as to the current ability to predict with in vitro tests as we are entering 2013. It may also serve as reference database when benchmarking new molecules with in vitro based read-across and find use as a reference database when evaluating new tests. The tests and combinations thereof were evaluated for predictivity, and overall a similar predictivity was found as before on three-fold smaller datasets. Analysis of the dose-response parameters of the individual tests indicates a correlation to sensitization potency. Detailed analysis of chemicals false-negative and false-positive in two tests helped to define limitations in the tests but also in the database derived from animal studies. PMID:23576290

  12. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora; Cristina Vargas-Irwin; Lady Andrea Polanco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  15. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S; Jyoti, S

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  16. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  17. Testing Alternative Theories of Dark Matter with the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Baojiu; Mota, David F; Zhao, HongSheng

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to study and constrain modified gravity theories for dark matter using CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization. We assume that the theories considered here have already passed the matter power-spectrum test of large-scale structure. With this requirement met, we show that a modified gravity theory can be specified by parametrizing the time evolution of its dark-matter density contrast, which is completely controlled by the dark matter stress history. We calculate how the stress history with a given parametrization affects the CMB observables, and a qualitative discussion of the physical effects involved is supplemented with numerical examples. It is found that, in general, alternative gravity theories can be efficiently constrained by the CMB temperature and polarization spectra. There exist, however, special cases where modified gravity cannot be distinguished from the CDM model even by using both CMB and matter power spectrum observations, nor can they be efficiently restricted by ...

  18. The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentem, Julia; Chamberlain, Mark; Sangster, Bart

    2004-12-01

    At present, we are unable to use much of the data derived from alternative (non-animal) tests for human health risk assessment. This brief Comment outlines why it is plausible that new paradigms could be developed to enable risk assessment to support consumer safety decisions, without the need to generate data in animal tests. The availability of technologies that did not exist 10 years ago makes this new approach possible. The approach is based on the concept that data and information derived from applying existing and new technologies to non-animal models can be interpreted in terms of harm and disease in man. A prerequisite is that similar data and information generated in a clinical setting are available to permit this "translation". The incorporation of this additional translation step should make it possible to use data and information generated in non-animal models as inputs to risk assessment. The new technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. Their application to in vitro and human "models" enables large amounts of data to be generated very quickly. The processing, interpretation and translation of these data need to be supported by powerful informatics capabilities and statistical tools. The use of integrated "systems biology" approaches will further support the interpretation by providing better understanding of the underlying biological complexity and mechanisms of toxicity. Clinical medicine is using the opportunities offered by the new "omics" technologies to advance the understanding of disease. The application of these technologies in clinical medicine will generate massive amounts of data that will need processing and interpretation to allow clinicians to better diagnose disease and understand the patients' responses to therapeutic interventions. Support from clinical epidemiology will be essential. If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit

  19. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao;

    This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls as...... a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference...... animal resulted in a lower reliability. Therefore, the design of reference population is important for improving the reliability of genomic prediction. With regard to model, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to slightly a higher reliability of genomic prediction than the GBLUP model....

  20. Improving animal welfare and reducing animal use for veterinary vaccine potency testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, William; Brown, Karen; KULPA-EDDY Jodie; Srinivas, Geetha; HALDER Maria; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; GIFFORD Glen; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to improved human and animal health and welfare by preventing diseases and deaths caused by a wide range of infectious agents. However, testing necessary to ensure vaccine effectiveness and safety can involve large numbers of animals and significant pain and distress. NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance ...

  1. The Effects of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied with Animations on Overcoming 11th Grade Students' Alternative Conceptions of Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Hulya; Demircioglu, Gokhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the effect of conceptual change texts accompanied with computer animations on 11th grade students' understanding and alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding. One experimental group (EG; N = 28) and one comparison group (CG; N = 30) were used in the study. While the comparison group taught traditional…

  2. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  3. Second Life, a 3-D Animated Virtual World: An Alternative Platform for (Art) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    3-D animated virtual worlds are no longer only for gaming. With the advance of technology, animated virtual worlds not only are found on every computer, but also connect users with the internet. Today, virtual worlds are created not only by companies, but also through the collaboration of users. Online 3-D animated virtual worlds provide a new…

  4. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  5. Report of the International Workshop on Animal Disposal Alternatives: from concept to catalyst for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    The principle of animal depopulation and animal disposal has been a fundamental approach of veterinary and regulatory interventions for the effective biological containment and eradication of contagious diseases since the science and art of veterinary medicine began. Today's world, however, is one of epidemiological globalisation, changing social values concerning the management of animal populations, and recognition of the environmental consequences associated with animal disposal, especially during animal disease emergencies. It has consequently become apparent that new approaches are required to minimise both the need for mass culling of animals in response to disease occurrences and the associated negative consequences. In addition, where a level of animal depopulation remains the only recourse, it is imperative that the undertaking be conducted in a manner which is socially and environmentally responsible. PMID:20411509

  6. The effect of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on Johne's disease risk in test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Sergeant, E S G; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Kenny, Kevin; Graham, D

    2013-03-01

    Herd classification is a key component of national Johne's disease (JD) control programs. Herds are categorized on the basis of test results, and separate sub-programs are followed for test-positive and test-negative herds. However, a test-negative herd result does not necessarily equate to JD freedom for reasons relating to disease pathogenesis and available diagnostic tests. Thus, in several countries, JD control programs define test-negative herds as having a "low risk" of infection below a specified prevalence. However, the approach is qualitative, and little quantitative work is available on herd-level estimates of probability of freedom in test-negative herds. This paper examines the effect over time of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on JD risk in test-negative herds. A simulation model was developed in the programming language R. Key model inputs included sensitivity and specificity estimates for 3 individual animal diagnostic tests (serum ELISA, milk ELISA, and fecal culture), design prevalence, testing options, and testing costs. Key model outputs included the probability that infection will be detected if present at the design prevalence or greater (herd sensitivity; SeH), the probability that infection in the herd is either absent or at very low prevalence (i.e., less than the design prevalence; ProbF), the probability of an uninfected herd producing a false-positive result [P(False+)], and mean testing cost (HerdCost) for different testing strategies. The output ProbF can be updated periodically, incorporating data from additional herd testing and information on cattle purchases, and could form the basis for an output-based approach to herd classification. A high ProbF is very difficult to achieve, reflecting the low sensitivity of the evaluated tests. Moreover, ProbF is greatly affected by any risk of introduction of infection, decreasing in herds with poor bio-exclusion practices despite ongoing negative test results. The

  7. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle....

  8. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals for slaughter. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test may be moved...

  9. Estimating herd prevalence on the basis of aggregate testing of animals

    OpenAIRE

    Faes, Christel; Aerts, Marc; LITIERE, Saskia; Meroc, Estelle; Van der Stede, Yves; Mintiens, Koen

    2011-01-01

    It is common practice that some or all animals in a group of animals, e. g. a herd, are tested for their health status by using a diagnostic test to investigate whether the herd is infected by a disease. Several obstacles complicate the estimation of herd prevalence on the basis of test results of the animals. First, diagnostic tests are often imperfect, resulting in a misclassification of the animal's disease status. It is well known how to correct the animal's apparent prevalence by using t...

  10. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  11. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  12. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed. PMID:26827492

  13. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; BASKETTER David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; GOCHT Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Cen...

  14. Animal testing, 3R models and regulatory acceptance : Technology transition in a risk-averse context

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffelers, M.J.W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Risk avoidance has resulted in a broad range of regulations to guarantee the safety of products such as pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Many of these regulations rely on animal tests. About 3 million laboratory animals are used annually in Europe to meet such regulatory requirements.Regulatory animal testing raises concerns for scientific, ethical and economic reasons. There are many 3R initiatives to replace, reduce, or refine laboratory animal use. A broad range of 3R models is available and...

  15. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

  16. Assessing inorganic contaminants in alternative phosphorus sources used in animal nutrition - A particular feature for the agricultural policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .6g; POLI: 1370.0g; FMA: 1366.7g; FSS: 1320.5g; SMB: 1016.9g; FSA: 1009.1g - food consumption and conversion, and also the lighter liver weights amongst all animals from the experiment - FSS: 75.2g; BIC: 70.1g; POLI: 69.9 g; FAR: 69.9g; FMA: 64.1g; FST: 60.3g; FSA: 47.0g; SMB: 46.9g what confirms the high toxicity that fluoride presents to this organ. Furthermore, no one of those potentially toxic elements present in phosphates and feeds - i.e. aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cooper, thorium, uranium, vanadium, zinc - was not identified above normal elemental level in the rabbit muscle from any animal tested. In conclusion, it is mandatory to assess the fluorine content in rock and industrial alternative phosphorus to produce a farm animal feed, since fluorine is the most notorious - limiting factor in order to enhance animal meat productivity. (author)

  17. Robust parametric bootstrap test with MOM estimator: An alternative to independent sample t-test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Nurul Hanis; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-12-01

    Normality and homogeneity are two major assumptions that need to be fulfilled when using independent sample t-test. However, not all data encompassed with these assumptions. Consequently, the result produced by independent sample t-test becomes invalid. Therefore, the alternative is to use robust statistical procedure in handling the problems of nonnormality and variances heterogeneity. This study proposed to use Parametric Bootstrap test with popular robust estimators, MADn and Tn which empirically determines the amount of trimming. The Type I error rates produced by each procedure were examined and compared with classical parametric test and nonparametric test namely independent sample t-test and Mann Whitney test, respectively. 5000 simulated data sets are used in this study in order to generate the Type I error for each procedure. The findings of this study indicate that the Parametric Bootstrap test with MADn and Tn produces the best Type I error control compared to the independent sample t-test and the Mann Whitney test under nonnormal distribution, heterogeneous variances and unbalanced design. Then, the performance of each procedure was demonstrated using real data.

  18. Evaluation of new alternative strategies to predict neurotoxicity with human based test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Anne-Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Animal experiments are still the ‘gold standard’ in safety evaluation defined by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) or the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Millions of animals are used each year to assess the risk of chemical toxicities for human health. But animal experiments are expensive, time-consuming and have a restricted prediction capacity regarding human toxicity. Hence the demand for validated alternative strategies is high. Validated differen...

  19. How omics technologies can contribute to the '3R' principles by introducing new strategies in animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Michaela

    2006-08-01

    In Europe, in light of ethical, political and commercial pressure, every effort should be made to replace animals with alternatives (e.g. in vitro models), to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to a minimum and to refine current testing strategies in a way that ensures animals undergo minimum pain and distress. Methods currently used in toxicology for mandatory safety tests rely heavily on the dosing of animals, followed by the detection and pathological evaluation of manifested toxic lesions. Through the integration of so-called 'omics' technologies, a global analysis of treatment-related changes on the molecular level becomes feasible and therefore might provide a means for predicting toxicity before classical toxicological endpoints. This Opinion article summarizes the key features of pushing the '3R' principles in animal testing, discusses the possible impact on safety testing in toxicology and describes the potential of using omics technologies for improved toxicity prediction to meet ethical, political and commercial expectations. PMID:16782220

  20. 77 FR 38751 - Codification of Animal Testing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... the Federal Register on May 30, 1984 (49 FR 22522). These guidelines advised product manufacturers to... enforcement, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, and Toys. For the reasons given above, the Commission... allowing the animal free mobility and access to food and water. (c) Ocular irritation--A...

  1. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; MAGUIRE, TIM J.; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensiti...

  2. Putting it to the test : alternative exploration techniques seek recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2005-06-01

    In the past, remote sensing techniques such as magnetic surveying, geochemical sampling and radiometric surveys, were efficient in hard rock mining exploration but were limited in hydrocarbon detection due to problems such as diurnal and weather variations. This article discussed some of the recent advances in technology that have been developed to overcome many of the drawbacks of older systems. Two Calgary-based companies are currently offering innovative and viable exploration alternatives. The Gore-Sorber module is the most accurate and comprehensive surface geochemical sampling technology currently available to the oil and gas industry. The testing module consists of 2 portions of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene polymer material sealed into a GORE-TEX sheath to prevent water and particle contamination. The module is then inserted into a shallow hole to a depth of 50 centimetres and left there for up to 2 weeks. The sample position is marked and surveyed. Over the course of the 2 weeks, volatile and semi-volatile soil gases in the C2-C15 range are absorbed into the material. The modules are analysed in mass spectrometers and gas chromatographs to determine zone and phase information. Advantages of the system include a reduction in soil contamination; the elimination of day-to-day fluctuations; and the fact that lab analysis allows for higher sensitivity. Costs are approximately $60,000 to $70,000 for an area of 16 square kilometres. Disadvantages include the inability to define the amount of hydrocarbons in place or their depth and the fact that proper field operation and collection of data by trained personnel is critical to the analysis process. The technique has been gaining in popularity in Canada as more exploration is directed towards environmentally sensitive frontier areas. Radiometric surveys record the gamma ray emissions of potassium, uranium and thorium as they decay radioactively. As hydrocarbons leak to the surface, they cause geochemical changes

  3. Animal testing, 3R models and regulatory acceptance : Technology transition in a risk-averse context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, M.J.W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Risk avoidance has resulted in a broad range of regulations to guarantee the safety of products such as pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Many of these regulations rely on animal tests. About 3 million laboratory animals are used annually in Europe to meet such regulatory requirements.Regulatory animal

  4. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  5. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described. PMID:25635647

  6. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described.

  7. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ..., October 11, 2011 Welcome and Overview of Workshop Goals and Objectives Rabies Vaccines for Humans and... Rabies Vaccine Potency Testing WHO World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Incorporating...

  8. Study on the Current Status of Medical Alternative Animal Researches%医学动物替代研究发展现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫茂玲

    2016-01-01

    and eye stimulating toxicology test, thermal hyperalgesia and animal model replace-ment, and etc. The information communication platform of replacement researches had established, part of teachers were in practice using the substitution principle, the related monographs had been published, but the law and regu-lation construction and validation system were lag, the cognitive of replacement researches was not optimistic, and the validation method researches were insufficient. Conclusion: The domestic alternative animal researches were insufficient and lacking of systematic construction. It should strengthen the study on alternative animal research sys-tem, focused on legislation, policy leading, medical education, talent cultivation, and research methods.

  9. 医学动物替代研究发展现状研究%Study on the Current Status of Medical Alternative Animal Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫茂玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the current status of alternative animal researches in China and thus find the problems and put forward countermeasures. Method: This study was carried out by the methods of literature search and qualitative description. The authors precisely searched the medicine databases commonly used in China ( CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data) using the MeSH word, title, or keyword namely"animal alternative","animal decrease" or"animal optimization", and added to find the related researches′references. Then the author included the literature regarding to the organization construction, legislation, medical education, and alternative research methods, and conducted a qualitative description. The deadline was July 20, 2015. Results:There were 219 ini-tial quotations published from 1999 to 2014, and mainly were descriptive researches. The fields of alternative ani-mal researches included skin and eye stimulating toxicology test, thermal hyperalgesia and animal model replace-ment, and etc. The information communication platform of replacement researches had established, part of teachers were in practice using the substitution principle, the related monographs had been published, but the law and regu-lation construction and validation system were lag, the cognitive of replacement researches was not optimistic, and the validation method researches were insufficient. Conclusion: The domestic alternative animal researches were insufficient and lacking of systematic construction. It should strengthen the study on alternative animal research sys-tem, focused on legislation, policy leading, medical education, talent cultivation, and research methods.%目的:了解我国动物替代研究发展现状,发现问题,提出对策。方法文献检索与定性描述法。以主题、篇名或关键词“动物替代”或“动物减少”或“动物优化”精确检索中文医学常用数据库中国知网、维普数据和万方数据库,补充查找相关研

  10. [Animal experimental tests of a new filling material (Isocap)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethe, P; Rotgans, J; Schmalz, G

    1978-09-01

    An experimental investigation with animals (Rhesus monkeys) concerning pulp tolerance to two premeasured dosages of calcium hydroxide cement (Reocap and Reocap-E) as well as a pre-measured dosage of filling material (Isocap) in an injection capsule was carried out (78 class V cavities). As with the negative controls, a very slight reaction, or none at all, developed in response to the two calcium hydroxide cements and the new filling material, with and without application of capping material. When five other accidentally exposed pulpae were dissected, direct capping under the corresponding preconditions (punctate exposed pulpa, longer storage period for calcium hydroxide cement) showed the characteristic formation of reparative dentin. PMID:100305

  11. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  12. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the Ground Demonstration System Alternator Stator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of acceptance tests conducted on the Alternator Stator, S/N 002, for the Kilowatt Isotope Power System. These results show that the Alternator Stator, S/N 002 for the Kilowatt Isotope Power System has satisfactorily completed the testing set forth within Sundstrand Test Specification 2538. Test requirements of TS 2538 were extracted from the Kilowatt Isotope Power System, and Phase I Test Plan

  13. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  14. Alternative methods to safety studies in experimental animals: role in the risk assessment of chemicals under the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienblum, W. [Dr. Lilienblum Consulting Toxicology LiCoTox, Hemmingen/Han (Germany); Dekant, W. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Toxicology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Foth, H. [University of Halle, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Gebel, T. [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Dortmund (Germany); Hengstler, J.G. [University of Dortmund, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany); Kahl, R. [Heinrich-Heine-University, Institute of Toxicology, PO Box 101007, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kramer, P.J. [Merck KGaA, Institute of Toxicology, Darmstadt (Germany); Schweinfurth, H. [Nonclinical Drug Safety, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Wollin, K.M. [Lower Saxony Governmental Institute of Public Health, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. In continuation of this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favours alternative methods to conventional in vivo testing, if validated and appropriate. Even alternative methods in the status of prevalidation or validation, but without scientific or regulatory acceptance may be used under certain conditions. Considerable progress in the establishment of alternative methods has been made in some fields, in particular with respect to methods predicting local toxic effects and genotoxicity. In more complex important fields of safety and risk assessment such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of in silico methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. The main reasons are the complexity and limited knowledge of the biological processes involved on one hand and the long time frame until validation and regulatory acceptance of an alternative method on the other. New approaches in safety testing and evaluation using 'Integrated Testing Strategies' (ITS) (including combinations of existing data, the use of chemical categories/grouping, in vitro tests and QSAR) that have not been validated or not gained wide acceptance in the scientific community and by regulatory authorities will need a thorough justification of their appropriateness for a given purpose. This requires

  15. Neurotoxicity testing: a discussion of in vitro alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    A large number of chemicals may exert adverse effects on the central and/or peripheral nervous system. A commonly recommended strategy for neurotoxicity testing is that of a tiered approach aimed at identifying and characterizing the neurotoxicity of a compound. Guidelines exist in the United States and other countries that define the tests to be utilized in tier 1 testing. To address problems related to the increasing cost and time required for toxicity testing, the increasing number of chem...

  16. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenzwaay, van, B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and targeted animal testing. Replacing complex animal tests may be achieved by a battery of in vitro test addressing the adverse outcome pathway in question. Kinetics models are needed to translate in ...

  17. TEST OF AN ANIMAL DRAWN FIELD IMPLEMENT CART

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Spugnoli; Alessandro Parenti; Piernicola Masella; Esteban Melani

    2008-01-01

    The field performance of a horse-drawn hitch cart equipped with a PTO system powered by the two cart ground wheels have been investigated. For this purpose field tests on clay and turf soil, with varying ballast and PTO torque, have been carried out pulling the cart by a tractor. Preliminary tests were aimed at assessing the traction capability of horse breed. These tests showed that the mean draught force given by two of these horses was 173daN, average working speed was about 1m*s-1, result...

  18. A multi-stakeholder perspective on the use of alternative test strategies for nanomaterial safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre E; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; Deshazo, J R; Hussain, Saber M; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Russell; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2013-08-27

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles, to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis. PMID:23924032

  19. Brinzolamide-induced retinopathy in neonatal rats: an alternative animal model of retinal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    DYOMIN, Y. A.; BILETSKA, P.V.; GAPUNIN, I. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Neovascular retinal pathology is steel uncertain. Thus, there is great need to investigate new modeling, diagnostic and treatment technologies. Brinzolamide induces a metabolic acidosis via an alternative biochemical mechanism (bicarbonate loss). In the present study the influence of brinzolamide-induced acidosis on preretinal neovascularization in neonatal rat was investigated. Materials and Methods. In our study we used newborn Wistar rats raised in two litter...

  20. Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Holger

    2008-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

  1. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals... published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  2. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). EPA will continue to announce... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  3. Finite sample comparison of alternative tests on the rank of a cointegration submatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Paruolo Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the finite sample performance of alternative tests for rank-dficiency of a submatrix of the cointegrating matrix. The paper focuses on the (implementation of the) likelihood ratio test proposed in Paruolo (2007, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics), and compares its finite sample performance with the ones of alternative tests proposed in Saikkonen (1999, Econometric Reviews) and Kurozumi (2005, Econometric Theory). All the tests have well-documented limit distribut...

  4. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36'' diameter x 6' high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20' diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  5. Ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the use of animals for the safety testing of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, household products, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. It reviews changes in safety testing technology and what those changes mean from the perspective of industrial innovation, public policy and public health, economics, and ethics. It concludes that the continuing use of animals for chemical safety testing should end within the decade as cheaper, quicker, and more predictive technologies are developed and applied.

  6. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : Testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  7. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  8. TEST OF AN ANIMAL DRAWN FIELD IMPLEMENT CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performance of a horse-drawn hitch cart equipped with a PTO system powered by the two cart ground wheels have been investigated. For this purpose field tests on clay and turf soil, with varying ballast and PTO torque, have been carried out pulling the cart by a tractor. Preliminary tests were aimed at assessing the traction capability of horse breed. These tests showed that the mean draught force given by two of these horses was 173daN, average working speed was about 1m*s-1, resulting a mean draught power developed by each horse of about 0.86kW. The PTO cart system performance has shown that the torque has not exceeded 2.4daN*m, maximum draught or PTO power was 1.15kW, rotation speed just higher than 400min-1, with mean efficiency of about 50%. These values are consistent with horse performance and small haymaking, fertilizing, seeding and chemical application machine requirements.

  9. Alternative Tests for Correct Specification of Conditional Predictive Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Barbara; Sekhposyan, Tatevik

    2015-01-01

    We propose new methods for evaluating predictive densities in an environment where the estimation error of the parameters used to construct the densities is preserved asymptotically under the null hypothesis. The tests offer a simple way to evaluate the correct specification of predictive densities. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate that our tests are well sized and have good power in detecting misspecifications. An empirical application to the Survey of Professional Fore...

  10. Toxicogenomics-based in vitro alternatives for estrogenicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Testing chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting potential, including interference with estrogen receptor signaling, is an important aspect to assess the safety of currently used and newly developed chemicals. The standard test for disruption of normal estrogen function is the in vivo uterotrophic assay in immature or ovariectomised rodents with uterus weight as a crucial read-out parameter. Due to the high costs, ethical objections and labour intensiveness of the in vivo uterotrophic assay, ...

  11. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  12. Recurrent neuroblastoma: the role of CT and alternative imaging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred twelve CT scans of 52 patients who were receiving treatment for neuroblastoma were reviewed for accuracy, and findings were correlated with data obtained from other imaging tests, physical examinations, laboratory tests, biopsies, surgery, and long-term clinical follow-up. CT was the most sensitive imaging test for tumor recurrence (85% detection rate), and it was also the most versatile in the ability to define recurrent disease in the retroperitoneum, liver, cranium, mediastinum, lymph nodes, and skeleton. All 30 tumor recurrences were detected by the combination of CT, bone-marrow biopsy, and selected spot radiographs at the sites of pain. CT was accurate and clinically useful both for assessing tumor response to therapy and for predicting findings at second look surgery (accuracy, 94%). CT is relatiely cost effective by substituting for a more expensive but less accurate combination of competitive imaging studies

  13. An alternative for teaching and learning the simple diffusion process using Algodoo animations

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Samir L; da Silva, Rodrigo L; Viana, Emilson R; Leal, Fábio F

    2014-01-01

    In this work animations of the random walk movement using a freeware Algodoo were done in order to support teaching the concepts of Brownian Motion. The random walk movement were simulate considering elastic collision between the particles in suspension in a fluid, and the particles which constitute the fluid. The intensity of velocities where defined in an arbitrary range, and we have a random distribution of the velocity directions. Using two methods, the distribution histogram of displacements (DHD) and the mean-square-displacement ${\\langle{\\Delta r^{2}}\\rangle}$ (MSD), it was possible to measure the diffusion coefficient of the system, and determine the regions where the system presents ballistic regime or diffusive transport regime. The ballistic regime was observed graphically when the MSD has a parabolic dependence with time, which differing from the typical diffusive regime where MSD has a linear dependence. The didactical strategy for combining analytical approaches as graphic analysis, and animatio...

  14. A proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin-Capeti, K C; Sepulveda, L; Terra, F; Torres-Pioli, M F; Costa-Casagrande, T; França, S C; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2013-02-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in Brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA). The FMD vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), at 28 days post-vaccination. Biological product testing using large animals is expensive and unwieldy. Thus, alternative testing procedures using laboratory animals have been proposed for quality control of these products. Such biological methods for vaccine evaluation using animals from vivarium facilities can have a significant impact through reduced costs, easier handling, and shorter testing times. The present study was designed to access Balb/C mice's humoral immune responses to a FMDV experimental vaccine, the composition of which contains three virus serotypes of FMDV (O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and C3 Indaial). Balb/C mice were immunized at doses that were 5% and 10% of the vaccine volume administered in cattle. Immunized mice had their antibody titers probed at 14, 21, and 28 DPV (days post vaccination). The results obtained were compared to those previously known from cattle's immune responses to the FMDV vaccine. An adequate immune response to the vaccine was seen with 10% formulation at 21 DPV. The study results are encouraging and indicate that the mouse model can be used for quality control in experimental vaccine testing.

  15. 76 FR 62044 - Alternative Testing Requirements for Small Batch Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... durable infant or toddler products, as defined in section 104(f) of the Consumer Product Safety...-Flame) of Mattress Sets. 1611 Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. 1215 Infant Bath Seats. Sec. 101 of...-08.1). Metal Products. Sec. 108 of CPSIA (Test Method CPSC-CH- Phthalate Content of Children's...

  16. Recruiting Source Effects: A Test of Two Alternative Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaugh, James A.; Mann, Rebecca B.

    The source of employee recruitment has been related to numerous important work outcomes (e.g., turnover, performance), but reasons for this relationship are not known. To test the viability of two possible explanations for recruiting source effects, i.e., employee level of realistic expectation, or individual differences, information was gathered…

  17. An Alternative to the Conventional Tri-Axial Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    A new test for measurement of the mechanical properties of granular powders is proposed, consisting of upsetting the powder inside a metal tube. The radial pressure is found by correlating measurements of radial bulging of the tube with numerical analysis of tube bulging. Estimates of the error o...

  18. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  19. Thin film nitinol covered stents: design and animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Daniel S; Williams, Ryan J; Liu, Jasen; Danon, Saar; Stepan, Lenka L; Panduranga, Mohanchandra K; Fishbein, Michael C; Carman, Greg P

    2008-01-01

    Interventionalists in many specialties have the need for improved, low profile covered stents. Thin films of nitinol (<5-10 microns) could be used to improve current covered stent technology. A "hot target" sputter deposition technique was used to create thin films of nitinol for this study. Covered stents were created from commercially available balloon-inflatable and self-expanding stents. Stents were deployed in a laboratory flow loop and in four swine. Uncovered stent portions served as controls. Postmortem examinations were performed 2-6 weeks after implantation. In short-term testing, thin film nitinol covered stents deployed in the arterial circulation showed no intimal proliferation and were easily removed from the arterial wall postmortem. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thin layer of endothelial cells on the thin film, which covered the entire film by 3 weeks. By contrast, significant neointimal hyperplasia occurred on the luminal side of stents deployed in the venous circulation. Extremely low-profile covered stents can be manufactured using thin films of nitinol. Although long-term studies are needed, thin film nitinol may allow for the development of low-profile, nonthrombogenic covered stents. PMID:18496269

  20. Are there alternative tests for diagnosis of acromegaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, V

    2005-01-01

    In acromegaly, clinical features are of the utmost importance, and biochemical confirmation is rarely difficult. However, some clinically manifest acromegalics have subtle abnormalities in GH secretion resulting in post-glucose GH nadir in the designated "normal" range with high IGF-I levels. Clinical decision may be based on the probability of the disease and elevated IGF-I levels. The TRH test or the frequent GH sampling test may help confirm acromegaly but on their own have no diagnostic advantage. A TRH-GH response is not specific to acromegaly, while frequent sampling is not practical. Other tests rarely add information beyond that obtained by usual investigations. Post-treatment assessment of the disease activity and definition of acromegaly cure, by measuring GH secretion, remain problematic. IGF-I levels seem to differentiate normality less clearly and discordance of GH and IGF-I results is frequent. Post-treatment probability for residual disease activity should include more clinical parameters such as insulin sensitivity, leptin and echocardiography. Furthermore, with efforts to achieve tight biochemical control of the disease it is foreseeable that a proportion of patients may be rendered GH deficient, requiring stimulatory testing. Acromegaly is a disfiguring and disabling illness, in which by definition, the disorder is caused by a pituitary GH-secreting adenoma resulting in high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I. The clinical features of acromegaly include those of GH and IGF-I on tissues and the effects of the pituitary tumor itself. There is no single cut-off value for GH with perfect discrimination between acromegaly and normality. The recommended post-glucose GH nadir value of 1 microg/l is now considered to be inappropriately high, and measurement of IGF-I levels although extremely valuable has its limitations. Furthermore, some acromegalics may have subtle abnormalities in GH secretion, resulting in post-glucose GH nadir in the designated

  1. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  2. Neonatal animal testing paradigms and their suitability for testing infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Edwin G

    2013-02-01

    Due to the ever increasing number of substances added to infant formula, and the fact that the majority of data determining the safety of these substances has been derived from adult animals, a search of the available data was performed to determine if an appropriate neonatal model could be found that could be used for performing toxicological safety studies. This exercise utilized three different forms of media. The first informational source is from a publication from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies. The second form of informational data utilized was from simple YAHOO and Google Scholar searches on the internet. The third source of information was from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), more specifically, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Review (CDER) preclinical guidance document. Following the examination of the above informational sources, it became apparent that neonatal rats and pigs have been the most utilized of the neonatal models. Following the evaluation of the papers, the experimental paradigm which appears to be the most appropriate for testing substances new to infant formula, and could be used as a pivotal study was the neonatal pig utilizing the automated feeding device called the Autosow. PMID:22924893

  3. Strategies for laboratory HIV testing: an examination of alternative approaches not requiring Western blot.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, P. A.; Maskill, W. J.; Tamashiro, H.; Heymann, D L

    1994-01-01

    Advances in laboratory tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have permitted the development of alternative HIV testing strategies that do not require use of the Western blot approach. Three strategies are proposed. In strategy I, sera are tested for HIV antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/rapid/simple (ERS) test; in strategy II, sera reactive in an initial ERS test are retested using a second ERS test; strategy III involves retesting with a third E...

  4. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; V. Galbiati; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.(University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22901, USA); Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitisation potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods –...

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Currie; Jeffrey Brown; Samantha Dozier

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many vaccines are tested for quality in experiments that require the use of large numbers of animals in procedures that often cause significant pain and distress. Newer technologies have fostered the development of vaccine quality control tests that reduce or eliminate the use of animals, but the availability of these newer methods has not guaranteed their acceptance by regulators or use by manufacturers. We discuss a strategic approach that has been used to assess and ultimate...

  6. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones

    OpenAIRE

    Boos Alois; Auer Joerg A; Nuss Katja; Rechenberg Brigitte von

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. Methods A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. Result...

  7. Reduced animal use in efficacy testing in disease models with use of sequential experimental designs.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterton JC, Middleton BJ, Pickford R, Allott CP, Checkley D, Keith RA.

    2000-01-01

    Although the use of animals in efficacy tests has declined substantially, there remains a small number of well-documented disease models which provide essential information about the efficacy of new compounds. Such models are typically used after extensive in vitro testing, to evaluate small numbers of compounds and to select the most promising agents for clinical trial in humans. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of animals required to achieve valid results, without compromising...

  8. Can animal pulmonary function testing provide data for regulatory decision making?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1983-01-01

    The process of setting health standards requires rigorous, scientifically sound data that relate to man's interaction with his environment. Tests of pulmonary function are especially useful, since they may permit some direct comparisons between animals and man. The development of tests to measure pulmonary function in small animals has been important, and research into the health effects of air pollution may be greatly strengthened with the use of data from such measurements.

  9. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  10. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. PMID:24140884

  11. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions.

  12. Transition towards replacing animal tests in safety assessment of cosmetics and chemicals: a combined TIS-MLP framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, M.; van der Meer, P.; Moors, E.H.M.; Schellekens, H; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The urgency of the transition to replace animal tests in safety assessment of chemicals and cosmetics was triggered by societal resistance to animal testing (Rowan, 2007) and the scientific dispute concerning the value of animal testing (Olson et al., 2000). Since the 1980s the European Union (EU) has been developing policies to reduce an-imal studies. However, these policies have not been very successful, since only a few regulatory safety assessments in animals (among which the Draize eye t...

  13. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  14. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. PMID:25802995

  15. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice.

  16. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea;

    2007-01-01

    The 90-day animal study is the core study for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods in the SAFOTEST project. The model compound tested in the 90-day study was a rice variety expressing the kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris lectin agglutinin E-form (PHA-E lectin). Female Wistar rats were...... safety testing of genetically modified foods....

  17. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Groff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review includes examinations of (1 resources used in animal research; (2 waste production in laboratories; (3 sources of pollution; (4 impacts on laboratory workers’ health; and (5 biodiversity impacts. The clear conclusion from the review is that the environmental implications of animal testing must be acknowledged, reported, and taken into account as another factor in addition to ethical and scientific reasons weighing heavily in favor of moving away from allowing and requiring animal use in research and testing.

  18. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals.

  19. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Natalia A; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals. PMID:26823664

  20. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Awogbemi; Omojola; Adeyemo,, Adebowale; Sunday Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective p...

  1. Alternative methods for radiochemical purity testing in radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ideli M. de; Martins, Patricia de A.; Silva, Jose L. da; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Lima, Jose A.S.; Pujatti, Priscilla B.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) testing is as prerequisite for radiopharmaceuticals before the administration to the patient. Because time is critical in nuclear medicine, emphasis should be given to the radiochemical quality control procedures, in order to obtain the maximum amount of information in the minimum period of time. Radiochemical purity is defined as the proportion of the total radioactivity in the product that is present in the specified chemical form. Usually, the RCP is evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The most widely used technique for RCP determination in radiopharmaceutical preparations is TLC-aluminium (TLC-Al), instant thin layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG) and paper chromatography (PC). Indeed, many of the pharmacopeial methods use these techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different chromatographic systems for RCP in {sup 67}Ga-Citrate, {sup 111}In-Octreotide, {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE and {sup 153}Sm-HA. PC was performed with 3MM/1MM Whatman plates, TCL-Al sheets from Merck and ITLC-SG sheets from Pall Corporation and Varian Inc. The mobile phases were 0.16 mol.L{sup -1} sodium acetate, 0.9% sodium chloride (p/v), 0.1 mol.L{sup -1} sodium citrate buffer, 0.2 mol.L{sup -1} EDTA, methanol:0.4 mol.L{sup -1} ammonium acetate (1:1) mixture, and pyridine:ethanol:water (1:2:4) mixture. The samples were placed on plates in triplicate and immediately put into pre-saturated chambers with the mobile phase. After the chromatographic separation, the plates were dried and cut into 7, 10 or 12 segments and each one was separately measured in a gamma counter during 0.20 minutes (set on the radioisotope window). The results in the gamma counter were expressed in counts per minute (cpm). The chromatographic systems for {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE and {sup 153}Sm-HA gave the best performances in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} sodium citrate buffer/TLC-Al and 0.9% (p/v) sodium chloride

  2. The ICLAS/CCAC International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Stokes, William S; Pakes, Steven P; Gauthier, Célement

    2004-06-01

    The first International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare (ISRTAW), held 21-23 June 2001, in Quebec City, Canada, brought together 160 experts from 22 countries from North and South America, Europe and Asia. The experts included representatives from national research and regulatory agencies, universities, and industry involved in chemicals, pesticides and drug safety testing. Representatives from European, Canadian and US animal welfare groups also participated in the discussions. The Symposium was organised by the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), with the support and assistance of many sponsors and advisors. ICLAS is a worldwide organisation whose purpose is to foster the international harmonisation of animal care and use practices. CCAC is the national agency responsible for overseeing the ethical use of animals in Canadian science. Both organisations are committed to fostering an environment in which global efforts to harmonise testing procedures using animals in a more-humane manner can be realised.

  3. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. PMID:19025323

  4. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study.

  5. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A...

  6. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  7. A novel implantable electromechanical ventricular assist device - First acute animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, R; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Elstrodt, J; Nix, C; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1997-01-01

    A novel ventricular assist device (HIA-EMLVAD-AT1, Helmholtz Institute Aachen-electromechanical Left Ventricular Assist Device-Animal Test Version 1), driven by a uniformly and unidirectionally rotating actuator and a patented hypocycloidic pusherplate displacement gear unit, was developed and teste

  8. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Burden; Fiona Sewell; Kathryn Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promis...

  9. No Humans Have Been Injured in the Testing of this Drug: The New Animal Efficacy Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the “Animal Efficacy Rule,†a regulation that provides for the approval of products by the FDA when efficacy testing on humans is ethically impossible. It gives a summary of the history of the enactment of this regulation and outlines its structure and major features. Next, the regulation is analyzed in light of statutory authority, ethics, and practicality. Finally the approval of pyridostigmine bromide under the Animal Efficacy Rule is eval...

  10. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  11. How well do serodiagnostic testes predict the infection or disease status of animals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serodiagnostic test results do not always predict the disease status of an animal as might be expected. When few false negative and few false positive test results are reported for a test (high test sensitivity and specificity), the assumption is that the test is a very accurate predictor of infection/disease status. This assumption is correct if the disease prevalence is high. However, when disease prevalence drops to, for instance, 0.1%, such as may occur after several years of a vaccination campaign, a test having a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 99% becomes a poor predictor of infected animals: in this scenario, a positive test result will be wrong 91% of the time. A negative test result, however, virtually always will correctly identify uninfected animals when prevalence of infection remains low. The purpose of this paper is to offer an intuitive approach toward an understanding of the statistical terminology associated with serodiagnostic test results. It also provides a simplified method for computing the reliability (predictive value) of test results. The differential diagnosis is better served when the strengths and weaknesses of serotest results are fully understood. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  12. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's own initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  13. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

      Background: With a newly developed technique, hearing thresholds can be estimated with a system operated by the test persons themselves. This technique is based on the 2 Alternative Forced Choice paradigm known from the psychoacoustic research theory. Test persons can operate the system very ea...

  14. Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury for the testing of novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian K; Streijger, Femke; Hill, Caitlin E; Anderson, Aileen J; Bacon, Mark; Beattie, Michael S; Blesch, Armin; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Brown, Arthur; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Case, Casey C; Colburn, Raymond W; David, Samuel; Fawcett, James W; Ferguson, Adam R; Fischer, Itzhak; Floyd, Candace L; Gensel, John C; Houle, John D; Jakeman, Lyn B; Jeffery, Nick D; Jones, Linda Ann Truett; Kleitman, Naomi; Kocsis, Jeffery; Lu, Paul; Magnuson, David S K; Marsala, Martin; Moore, Simon W; Mothe, Andrea J; Oudega, Martin; Plant, Giles W; Rabchevsky, Alexander Sasha; Schwab, Jan M; Silver, Jerry; Steward, Oswald; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Guest, James D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-07-01

    Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) are being increasingly utilized for the testing of novel therapies. While these represent intermediary animal species between rodents and humans and offer the opportunity to pose unique research questions prior to clinical trials, the role that such large animal and primate models should play in the translational pipeline is unclear. In this initiative we engaged members of the SCI research community in a questionnaire and round-table focus group discussion around the use of such models. Forty-one SCI researchers from academia, industry, and granting agencies were asked to complete a questionnaire about their opinion regarding the use of large animal and primate models in the context of testing novel therapeutics. The questions centered around how large animal and primate models of SCI would be best utilized in the spectrum of preclinical testing, and how much testing in rodent models was warranted before employing these models. Further questions were posed at a focus group meeting attended by the respondents. The group generally felt that large animal and primate models of SCI serve a potentially useful role in the translational pipeline for novel therapies, and that the rational use of these models would depend on the type of therapy and specific research question being addressed. While testing within these models should not be mandatory, the detection of beneficial effects using these models lends additional support for translating a therapy to humans. These models provides an opportunity to evaluate and refine surgical procedures prior to use in humans, and safety and bio-distribution in a spinal cord more similar in size and anatomy to that of humans. Our results reveal that while many feel that these models are valuable in the testing of novel therapies, important questions remain unanswered about how they should be used and how data derived from them should be interpreted.

  15. Animal Investigation Program: Nevada Test Site and Vicinity. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, chukar, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1979. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were lower than those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to known sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels or the Sedan Crater. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation to those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogra of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 25 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  16. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. PMID:25448812

  17. Features of animal models of complex partial epilepsy established through unilateral, bilateral and alternate-side kindling at hippocampus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongjun Zhang; Guangrun Xu; Shengnian Zhou; Meijuan Yu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation kindling model, having epilepsy-inducing and spontaneous seizure and other advantages, is a very ideal experimental animal model. But the kindling effect might be different at different sites.OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of animal models of complex partial epilepsy established through unilateral, bilateral and alternate-side kindling at hippocampus and successful rate of modeling among these 3 different ways.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University.MATERIALS: Totally 60 healthy adult Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 300 g, of either gender, were used in this experiment. BL-410 biological functional experimental system (Taimeng Science and Technology Co.Ltd, Chengdu) and SE-7102 type electronic stimulator (Guangdian Company, Japan) were used in the experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University from April to June 2004. After rats were anesthetized, electrode was implanted into the hippocampus. From the first day of measurement of afterdischarge threshold value, rats were given two-square-wave suprathreshold stimulation once per day with 400 μA intensity, 1ms wave length, 60 Hz frequency for 1 s duration. Left hippocampus was stimulated in unilateral kindling group, bilateral hippocampi were stimulated in bilateral kindling group, and left and right hippocampi were stimulated alternately every day in the alternate-side kindling group. Seizure intensity was scored: grade 0: normal, 1: wet dog-like shivering, facial spasm, such as, winking, touching the beard, rhythmic chewing and so on; 2: rhythmic nodding; 3: forelimb spasm;4:standing accompanied by bilateral forelimb spasm;5: tumbling, losing balance, four limbs spasm. Modeling was successful when seizure intensity reached grade 5. T test was used for the comparison of mean value between two samples.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of

  18. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT

  19. Conglutinating complex fixation test (CCFR) as a method alternate to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has proved to be the most versatile and sensitive method for the serological diagnosis of infectious animal diseases. However, other assays offer similar advantages. This has been shown by our research through the development of a conglutinating complex fixation test (CCFT). This is analogous to the complement fixation test (CFT) and is based on the phenomenon of conglutination. The limiting factor in this test is the source in cattle blood

  20. A saddlepoint approximation for testing exponentiality against some increasing failure rate alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, R.; Jammalamadaka, SR

    2002-01-01

    In this article we discuss uniformly most powerful unbiased tests for testing exponentiality against a specific class of two-parameter exponential models with increasing failure rate. We show that the optimal test statistic for this problem admits an alternative representation in terms of a spacings statistic. Using the conditional saddlepoint approximation proposed by Gatto and Jammalamadaka (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 94 (1999) 533), we provide highly accurate approximations for the significa...

  1. Alternate but do not swim: a test for executive motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchook, Adam D; Decio, Danilo; Williamson, John B; Okun, Michael S; Malaty, Irene A; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to learn if participants with Parkinson disease (PD), when compared to normal controls, are impaired in making simultaneous but independent right and left hand movements. Participants were tested with Luria's Alternating Hand Postures (AHP) test and modified AHP tests. Twelve PD participants without dementia and twelve matched controls were assessed for their ability to perform the parallel AHP test (both hands remaining in the same coronal plane) and with modifications of this test into swimming (alternative arm extension with finger extension and arm flexion with finger flexion) and reverse swimming (alternative arm extension-finger flexion and arm flexion-finger extension) movements. The participants with PD were significantly impaired when performing the parallel and the reverse swimming movements AHP tests, but not impaired on the swimming movements AHP test. Swimming movements may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically more primitive and not as heavily dependent on frontal-basal ganglia networks; thus performance of swimming movements during the parallel AHP test may decrease this test's sensitivity. PMID:22882811

  2. Animal investigation program 1978 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1978. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring Potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of short-lived radionuclides found in samples from animals collected soon after March 14 (the date of a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were consistent with those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from recent years. However, cattle tissue sampled in the fall were higher than those collected in the spring. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 13 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  3. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p animal models. PMID:27294128

  4. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development. PMID:23896345

  5. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development.

  6. Economic potential of alternative land and natural resource uses at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic potentials of several alternative land uses at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are estimated. Alternatives considered include mining, agriculture, grazing, and hunting. There are two known tungsten ore bodies located in the Oak Spring mining district. The economic potential of the reserves is estimated to be $42,840. It is also possible that there are other economic mineral resources on the NTS whose values are yet unknown. There are an estimated 5000 ha of agricultural land on the Test Site; the cash value of alfalfa grown on this acreage is approximately $564,030. The economic potential of grazing at the Test Site lies somewhere in the range of $10,340 to $41,220. The assumed annual worth of mule deer to hunters is $90,440. The gross potential of hunting at the NTS is probably somewhat higher if trophy species, game birds and fur-bearing animals are also considered. It should be noted that the above values indicate gross worth; no costs are included in the estimates

  7. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  8. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Currie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  9. ANIMAL INVESTIGATION PROGRAM, 1981 ANNUAL REPORT: NEVADA TEST SITE AND VICINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues, collected from animals that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, cesium-137 was the only gamma-emitting radionuclide frequently detected and was within a narrow range of a...

  10. ANIMAL INVESTIGATION PROGRAM 1979 ANNUAL REPORT: NEVADA TEST SITE AND VICINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from animals that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 concentrations in bones were lower than those of recent years. Tritium and plutoni...

  11. Alternative method of determining resilient modulus of subgrade soils using a static triaxial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, G.-C. [Dongeui Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.-H. [Korea Highway Corp., Kyonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The resilient modulus (M{sub R}) is used in pavement design to determine the deformational characteristics of pavement materials. For small strains in particular, it is very important to carefully evaluate the resilient modulus. The results are often affected by compliance problems associated with testing equipment and workmanship. These problems have prevented the cyclic M{sub R} test from being routinely used. This paper presented an alternative M{sub R} testing method for subgrade soils using a static triaxial compression (TX) test. In this comparative evaluation, both the cyclic M{sub R} and static TX tests were conducted on synthetic specimens of various known rigidities to determine their deformational characteristics. Seven representative subgrade soils were collected from pavement sites in Korea to examine in detail the effects of strain amplitude, loading frequency, mean effective stress and number of loading cycles on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils. The newly proposed method was found to be reliable. Moduli obtained from the standard M{sub R} tests were found to be in good agreement with M{sub R} values derived from the proposed alternative M{sub R} test. The 95 per cent confidence interval of the proposed method was {+-}3.59 per cent. It was concluded that this proposed method can be successfully used in pavement design. Results of the alternative M{sub R} testing on subbase materials were also presented in a companion paper published by the same author. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Statistical test of Duane-Hunt's law and its comparison with an alternative law

    CERN Document Server

    Perkovac, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Using Pearson correlation coefficient a statistical analysis of Duane-Hunt and Kulenkampff's measurement results was performed. This analysis reveals that empirically based Duane-Hunt's law is not entirely consistent with the measurement data. The author has theoretically found the action of electromagnetic oscillators, which corresponds to Planck's constant, and also has found an alternative law based on the classical theory. Using the same statistical method, this alternative law is likewise tested, and it is proved that the alternative law is completely in accordance with the measurements. The alternative law gives a relativistic expression for the energy of electromagnetic wave emitted or absorbed by atoms and proves that the empirically derived Planck-Einstein's expression is only valid for relatively low frequencies. Wave equation, which is similar to the Schr\\"odinger equation, and wavelength of the standing electromagnetic wave are also established by the author's analysis. For a relatively low energy...

  13. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  14. A new modified wetting test and an alternative disintegration test for orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Patrick; Lasher, Jason; Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella

    2016-02-20

    Industrial manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms require quality tests, such as friability, hardness, and disintegration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) disintegration test uses 900mL of water. However, recent studies of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have shown that this volume does not accurately portray the oral environment. In our study, various tests were conducted with a more moderate amount of water that accurately resembles the oral environment. A simulated wetting test was performed to calculate the water absorption ratio. Results showed that wetting was comparable to disintegration. Although the wetting test worked for most types of ODTs, it had limitations that produced inaccurate results. This led to the use of a modified shaking water bath test. This test was found to work for all types of ODT products and was not subject to the limitations of the wetting test. The shake test could provide disintegration times rather than water permeation times; however, it could not be used to calculate the water absorption ratio. A strong correlation was observed between the standardized shake test and the USP disintegration times for the tablets. This shake test could be used during the development stages and quality tests for ODTs with relative ease. PMID:26774944

  15. A novel dissolution method for evaluation of polysaccharide based colon specific delivery systems: A suitable alternative to animal sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Prudhviraj, G; Gulati, Monica; Kaur, Puneet; Vaidya, Yogyata

    2015-06-20

    The most extensively used test for predicting in-vivo release kinetics of a drug from its orally administered dosage forms is dissolution testing. For polysaccharide based, colon targeted oral delivery systems, the entire path of the gut traversed by the dosage form needs to be simulated for assessing its in-vivo dissolution pattern. This includes the dissolution testing sequentially in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF). For SGF and SIF, simple and standardized composition is well-known. However, preparation of SCF requires addition of either the colonic contents of rodents or human faecal slurry. A method is proposed, wherein a mixture of five probiotics cultured in the presence of a prebiotic under anaerobic conditions is able to surrogate the colonic fluid. Release profiles of drug from colon targeted delivery systems in this medium were studied and compared to those generated in the conventionally used media containing rodent caecal contents and human faecal slurry. The results from the three studies were found to be quite similar. These findings suggest that the proposed medium may prove to be useful not only as a biorelevant and discriminatory method but may also help in achieving the 3Rs objective regarding the ethical use of animals. PMID:25829049

  16. The current status of alternatives to animal testing and predictive toxicology methods using liver microfluidic biochips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Jean Matthieu; Leclerc, Eric

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we will consider new in vitro cell culture platforms and the progress made, based on the microfluidic liver biochips dedicated to pharmacological and toxicological studies. Particular emphasis will be given to recent developments in the microfluidic tools dedicated to cell culture (more particularly liver cell culture), in silico opportunities for Physiologically Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) modelling, the challenge of the mechanistic interpretations offered by the approaches resulting from "multi-omics" data (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, cytomics) and imaging microfluidic platforms. Finally, we will discuss the critical features regarding microfabrication, design and materials, and cell functionality as the key points for the future development of new microfluidic liver biochips. PMID:22160577

  17. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    More, Simon John; Cameron, A R; Strain, S.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animal...

  18. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  19. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  20. Use of Benkelman Beams for Measuring LTE in Whitetopping: An Alternative Tool to FWD Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jundhare, D. R.; Khare, K. C.; Jain, R. K.

    2012-09-01

    Whitetopping is a rehabilitation or structural strengthening alternative on hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement. It is constructed on the top of existing HMA pavement. Generally, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflection measurements are used to obtain the load transfer efficiency (LTE) of the transverse joints. However, the use of FWD in India has been very limited so far because of its high cost and difficulties encountered in maintaining the equipment. Therefore, a need has been aroused to identify an alternative to FWD test, which can be cost effective and easily available. In this work, Benkelman beam deflection test has been conducted using two Benkelman beams simultaneously placed on two adjacent slabs near transverse joint for measuring LTE of 150 mm thick in-service thin whitetopping constructed at Dahanukar Colony, Kothrud, Pune city. An alternative tool has been developed for measuring LTE in whitetopping.

  1. “Play it Again”: a new method for testing metacognition in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Foote, Allison L.; Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2011-01-01

    Putative metacognition data in animals may be explained by non-metacognition models (e.g., stimulus generalization). The primary objective of the present study was to develop a new method for testing metacognition in animals that may yield data that can be explained by meta-cognition but not by non-metacognition models. Next, we used the new method with rats. Rats were first presented with a brief noise duration which they would subsequently classify as short or long. Rats were sometimes forc...

  2. Report on the international workshop on alternatives to the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) for acellular pertussis vaccines: state of the science and the path forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbrucker, Richard; Arciniega, Juan; McFarland, Richard; Chapsal, Jean-Michel; Xing, Dorothy; Bache, Christina; Nelson, Sue; Costanzo, Angele; Hoonakker, Marieke; Castiaux, Amélie; Halder, Marlies; Casey, Warren; Johnson, Nelson; Jones, Brett; Doelling, Vivian; Sprankle, Cathy; Rinckel, Lori; Stokes, William

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory authorities require safety and potency testing prior to the release of each production lot of acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccines. Currently, the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) is used to evaluate the presence of residual pertussis toxin in aP containing vaccines. However, the testing requires the use of a significant number of mice and results in unrelieved pain and distress. NICEATM, ICCVAM, their partners in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods, and the International Working Group for Alternatives to HIST organized a workshop to discuss recent developments in alternative assays to the HIST, review data from an international collaborative study on non-animal alternative tests that might replace the HIST, and address the path toward global acceptance of this type of method. Currently, there are three potential alternative methods to HIST. Participants agreed that no single in vitro method was sufficiently developed for harmonized validation studies at this time. It is unlikely that any single in vitro method would be applicable to all aP vaccines without modification, due to differences between vaccines. Workshop participants recommended further optimization of cell-based assays under development. Participants agreed that the next international collaborative studies should commence in 2013 based on discussions during this workshop.

  3. Bone defect animal models for testing efficacy of bone substitute biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Large bone defects are serious complications that are most commonly caused by extensive trauma, tumour, infection, or congenital musculoskeletal disorders. If nonunion occurs, implantation for repairing bone defects with biomaterials developed as a defect filler, which can promote bone regeneration, is essential. In order to evaluate biomaterials to be developed as bone substitutes for bone defect repair, it is essential to establish clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo testing models for investigating their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, degradation, and interactional with culture medium or host tissues. The results of the in vitro experiment contribute significantly to the evaluation of direct cell response to the substitute biomaterial, and the in vivo tests constitute a step midway between in vitro tests and human clinical trials. Therefore, it is essential to develop or adopt a suitable in vivo bone defect animal model for testing bone substitutes for defect repair. This review aimed at introducing and discussing the most available and commonly used bone defect animal models for testing specific substitute biomaterials. Additionally, we reviewed surgical protocols for establishing relevant preclinical bone defect models with various animal species and the evaluation methodologies of the bone regeneration process after the implantation of bone substitute biomaterials. This review provides an important reference for preclinical studies in translational orthopaedics.

  4. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to...

  5. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  6. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  7. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt.html... outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals for broadly applicable... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  8. Alternative method of determining resilient modulus of subbase soils using a static triaxial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, G.-C. [Dongeui Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, S. [Kyunghee Univ., Kyonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The resilient modulus (M{sub R}) is used in pavement design to determine the deformational characteristics of pavement materials. M{sub R} testing has often been complicated by problems associated with testing equipment and workmanship. These problems have prevented the cyclic M{sub R} test from being routinely used. This paper presented an alternative M{sub R} testing method for subbase soils using a static triaxial compression (TX) test. Seven representative subbase soils were collected from pavement sites in Korea to examine in detail the effects of particle size on M{sub R}. This was done using standard M{sub R} tests with various maximum particle sizes and specimen diameters. It was shown that the resilient moduli were almost identical from various specimen sizes with the same particle-size distribution, but the value of the slope parameter (k{sub 2}) in the bulk stress model was constant, while the value of k{sub 1} increased with a decreased in maximum particle size. This study examined the effects of mean effective stress, loading frequency and number of loading cycles on the resilient modulus of subbase soils using torsional shear, triaxial and M{sub R} tests. In a companion paper, the author also proposed an alternative M{sub R} testing method for subgrade soils using conventional triaxial tests. The results were similar. The newly proposed method was found to be reliable for subbase soils. Moduli obtained from the standard M{sub R} tests were found to be in good agreement with M{sub R} values derived from the proposed alternative M{sub R} test. The 95 per cent confidence interval of the proposed method was {+-}3.59 per cent. It was concluded that this proposed method can be successfully used in pavement design. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  10. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing. PMID:27010291

  11. What are the best animal models for testing early intervention in cerebral palsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin John Clowry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of conditions. There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery or generalised anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. In this review we consider which animal models best reproduce certain aspects of the condition, and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal system of various animals models human corticospinal system function and development is also explored. Where attempts have already been made to test early intervention in animal models, the outcomes are evaluated in light of the suitability of the model.

  12. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-05-12

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying target condition through considerations of the pathogenesis, and specification of a practical case definition, which can subsequently be used in the DTE for the specific purpose. The process is illustrated by two examples of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle. MAP infections are chronic and can result in different adverse effects at different time points during the incubation period. The description provides input on the process and deductive reasoning which are integral parts to develop a high-quality design of a DTE for chronic infectious diseases.

  13. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  14. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Cachon, Thibaut; Viguier, Eric; Miladi, Lotfi; Odent, Thierry; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Chabrand, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age) of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic) and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical) on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old) tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level), the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout. PMID:26451947

  15. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Cann

    Full Text Available The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level, the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  16. Alternative Forms of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice effects in memory testing complicate the interpretation of score changes over repeated testings, particularly in clinical applications. Consequently, several alternative forms of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT have been developed. Studies of these typically indicate that the forms examined are equivalent. However, the implication that the forms in the literature are interchangeable must be tempered by several caveats. Few studies of equivalence have been undertaken; most are restricted to the comparison of single pairs of forms, and the pairings vary across studies. These limitations are exacerbated by the minimal overlapping across studies in variables reported, or in the analyses of equivalence undertaken. The data generated by these studies are nonetheless valuable, as significant practice effects result from serial use of the same form. The available data on alternative AVLT forms are summarized, and recommendations regarding form development and the determination of form equivalence are offered.

  17. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  18. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternatives R-32, DR-5, and L-41a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares performance of alternative refrigerants R32, DR-5, and L-41A to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. Compressor calorimeter tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the lower-GWP alternative refrigerants in place of the common refrigerant R-410A in a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter using a compressor having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that performance of these three lower-GWP alternative refrigerants is comparable to that of R-410A. For the 20 F superheat and 15 F subcooling test conditions, EERs of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 90% to 99%, 96% to 99%, and 94% to 101%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A. Similarly, cooling capacities of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 98% to 103%, 92% to 96%, and 84% to 92%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A.

  19. Working together to respond to the challenges of EU policy to replace animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentem, Julia H

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a personal perspective on efforts during the past 15 years to replace animal testing for assessing the safety of chemicals and products. It is based on an invited lecture--the FRAME Annual Lecture--given in October 2005, with the theme of "making progress by working together" (government-industry-academia-NGOs). Where we have achieved some successes, these have clearly been due to effective cooperation and collaboration between the relevant stakeholders. In recent times, there has not been this same level of active commitment and coordination. This needs to change, since, if we are to make good progress in the years to come in responding to the new challenges of the EU policy to replace animal testing, this will undoubtedly require us to work together, hopefully facilitated by effective leadership and coordination from the EU policy-makers themselves. PMID:16522146

  20. [Recent development in animal testing to predict the skin and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    The identification of chemicals with skin and/or respiratory sensitizing potential is important for the prevention of allergic diseases in both living and work environments. Although a number of animal models for respiratory allergic diseases have been reported, none of these models meets the goals of broad assessments of chemical sensitizing potential. We are attempting to develop a test for predicting the respiratory sensitization of chemicals. In the evaluation of skin sensitization of chemicals, the mostly used predictive tests are the guinea pig maximization test, Buehler test, and mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, only LLNA has been validated formally and independently. Recent studies have revealed that EC3 estimated by LLNA correlates well with human skin sensitizing potency and the threshold for the induction of skin sensitization in the human repeat patch test. Thus, LLNA can predict the potency of skin sensitizing potential of a chemical and its risk in humans. PMID:20134104

  1. Point-of-care testing for HCV infection: recent advances and implications for alternative screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    Over the last few years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as one of the most significant causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 3.0%. In Italy, approximately 2% of subjects are infected with HCV. Considering that acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic, early diagnosis is rare. Those people who develop chronic infection, even though undiagnosed, may suffer serious liver damage, making chronic HCV infection a major health problem. New initiatives are needed to identify a submerged portion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to propose controls and antiviral treatments to avoid the progression to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since January 2011, the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan has been carrying out a prevention program called "EASY test project", using a new oral test, the OraQuick® HCV rapid antibody test (OraSure technologies, Inc.). The main objective of the project is to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous HCV test offer, available in different settings (Points of Care, STDs Prevention clinics and General Practitioner clinics). From January 2011 to April 2014, 29,600 subjects were approached to inform them about HCV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases; 4,507 (15.2% of the contacted subjects) of them, total eligible volunteers, performed HCV tests on saliva and completed the interview in the alternative POCTs. Twenty-seven subjects (0.6% of the total) turned HCV oral test reactive (27/4.507) during the evaluation period; all of them were confirmed by conventional test. All 27 patients were asymptomatic and without a history of HCV-re- lated symptoms. The results from this analysis suggest that the promotion of alternative HCV test screening has not yet been fully developed as a strategy to increase levels of HCV testing among people at risk for HCV infection. Increasing

  2. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Groff; Eric Bachli; Molly Lansdowne; Theodora Capaldo

    2014-01-01

    Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review in...

  3. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  4. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  5. Protection of the Experimental Animal for Animal Testing%动物试验中的实验动物保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜生; 杨玉; 岳文斌

    2012-01-01

    This paper discussed the basic theory for the position and role of animal testing and for the choice of experimental animal, and put forward corresponding countermeasures and measures for experimental animal protection.%论文论述了动物试验的地位和作用、动物试验中实验动物的选择等基本理论,并对在动物试验中实验动物的保护提出了相应的对策和措施.

  6. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the „Biomation‟ application for an alternative method for the treatment of animal-by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A method alternative to the ones already approved in the current legislation, called ‘Biomation’ process, for the treatment of Category (Cat.) 2 and 3 Animal By-Products (ABP) was assessed. The process consists of an alkaline treatment. The target parameters are: particle size ≤ 5mm, temperature 70...... the material under real scale conditions. Major deficiencies were noticed in the HACCP plan provided. It was concluded that there is no evidence that the proposed alternative method is equivalent to the sterilization process defined in the current legislation....

  7. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI. A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L. has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making the plant extract a potential candidate for preserving liquid animal semen during in vitro storage. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of Drosera extract on the motility, viability and superoxide production of bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6, 12 and 24h of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the SpermVisionTM CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. The CASA analysis revealed that Drosera extract supplementation was able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 mg/mL (P<0.001 with respect to Times 6h, 12h and 24h. At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability throughout short-term (P<0.05 in case of Time 6h as well as long-term periods of the experiment (P<0.01 with respect to Time 12h, and P<0.001 in case of Time 24h. 10 and 5 mg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the intracellular superoxide production, particularly notable at Times 12h (P<0.01 and 24h (P<0.001. The results indicate that the Drosera extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the

  8. Animal Investigation Program 1976 annual report: Nevada test site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle and mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, feral horses, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1976. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of 131I in animal thyroid samples collected after September 25 (the date of a Chinese nuclear test). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep continued the downward trend of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within ambient limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., Sedan Crater, drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels, etc. Analysis of actinide in tissues was emphasized during 1976. Graphs illustrate the 239P levels in lungs, livers, and femurs from Nevada Test Site beef cattle for the years 1971 through 1976. Femur and lung residue data are nearly identical for each year with liver concentrations being a factor of 2 or 3 lower. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak actinide levels. The highest postulated dose was 11 millirem from tritium from tissues for a mule deer. This dose is about 2% of the 500 millirems/year guide for radiation doses to an individual in the general public. All other postulated doses for consumption of the tissue containing other radionuclides are less than 0.1% of this guide. The food habits of desert bighorn sheep were discussed according to the geographic locations of the animals at time of collection. Grasses made up approximately 60% of the diet at all locations, with shrubs content approaching 30%, and the remainder consisting of various forbs. The movement of 13 mule deer fitted with collars containing a radiotransmitter unit was monitored on a weekly basis

  9. Animal investigation program 1980 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, and a horse that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1980. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring 40K, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. 131I was found in the thyroid of a deer 3 weeks after a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China. Concentrations of 90Sr in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were similar to those of recent years. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Surface soil samples from the Area 15 farm contained 238Pu and 239Pu in nanocurie per kilogram concentrations. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 0.4 millirems to whole body for 137Cs in muscle obtained from cattle. This dose is about 0.1 percent of the 500 millirems per year radiation protection guide for individuals in the general population. All other postulated doses for consumption of tissues containing other radionuclides were less than 0.1 percent of the standard

  10. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven. The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site. This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  12. Risk-based testing of imported animals: A case study for bovine tuberculosis in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; van der Goot, Jeanet A; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Swanenburg, Manon; Elbers, Armin R W

    2015-09-01

    In intra-EU trade, the health status of animals is warranted by issuing a health certificate after clinical inspection in the exporting country. This certificate cannot provide guarantee of absence of infection, especially not for diseases with a long incubation period and no overt clinical signs such as bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The Netherlands are officially free from bTB since 1999. However, frequent reintroductions occurred in the past 15 years through importation of infected cattle. Additional testing (AT) of imported cattle could enhance the probability of detecting an imported bTB infection in an early stage. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk-based AT for bTB in cattle imported into The Netherlands. A generic stochastic import risk model was developed that simulates introduction of infection into an importing country through importation of live animals. Main output parameters are the number of infected animals that is imported (Ninf), the number of infected animals that is detected by testing (Ndet), and the economic losses incurred by importing infected animals (loss). The model was parameterized for bTB. Model calculations were optimized to either maximize Ndet or to minimize loss. Model results indicate that the risk of bTB introduction into The Netherlands is very high. For the current situation in which Dutch health checks on imported cattle are limited to a clinical inspection of a random sample of 5-10% of imported animals, the calculated annual Ninf=99 (median value). Random AT of 8% of all imported cattle results in Ndet=7 (median value), while the median Ndet=75 if the sampling strategy for AT is optimized to maximize Ndet. However, in the latter scenario, loss is more than twice as large as in the current situation, because only calves are tested for which cost of detection is higher than the expected gain of preventing a possible outbreak. When optimizing the sampling strategy for AT to minimize loss, only breeding

  13. Performance of an animal-based test of thirst in commercial broiler chicken farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Buijs, S; Federici, J F; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2014-06-01

    Animal-based measures of thirst are currently absent from animal welfare monitoring schemes due to the lack of a well-validated indicator applicable for on-farm use. In the present study, an on-farm test based on voluntary water consumption from an unfamiliar open drinker was validated in a (semi-)commercial setting. To investigate the effect of thirst on water consumption, we subjected 4 flocks of 1,500 broilers to either 0 or 12 h of water deprivation and subsequently measured the amount of water that small subgroups consumed after the deprivation period (first experiment). Broilers that were water deprived before the test drank more than control broilers (P Brazil. After a pretreatment water consumption test, the birds were subjected to 0 or 6 h of water deprivation, and a posttreatment water consumption test was conducted. Only in Brazil, deprived birds drank significantly more than controls in the posttreatment water consumption test (P Brazil than in Belgium (P Brazil, but not in Belgium. These results indicate that the water consumption test is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between control and 12 h deprived flocks, and in Brazil even between control and 6 h deprived birds. The location of the test within the house did not affect the amount of water consumed in either experiment, suggesting that this variable does not have to be standardized. However, the amount of water consumed by broilers able to drink freely for a long period depended on indoor climatic variables (in Brazil only) and possibly genotype. This suggests that these variables need to be considered when interpreting the test outcome in terms of the thirst level experienced by the broilers.

  14. Evaluation of the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for hepatotoxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we showed the applicability of the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for hepatotoxicity testing using analysis of mechanisms through toxicogenomics. By applying a variety of toxicogenomics techniques, we were able to characterize specific responses. NGS revealed that hepatotoxicity-associated gene expression remains detectable even in non-tissue specific analysis in whole body zebrafish embryo homogenates. Gene and protein expression profiling resulted in identification ...

  15. Building on a solid foundation: SAR and QSAR as a fundamental strategy to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K M; Manuppello, J R; Willett, C E

    2014-01-01

    The development of more efficient, ethical, and effective means of assessing the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment was a lifetime goal of Gilman Veith. His work has provided the foundation for the use of chemical structure for informing toxicological assessment by regulatory agencies the world over. Veith's scientific work influenced the early development of the SAR models in use today at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was the driving force behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR Toolbox. Veith was one of a few early pioneers whose vision led to the linkage of chemical structure and biological activity as a means of predicting adverse apical outcomes (known as a mode of action, or an adverse outcome pathway approach), and he understood at an early stage the power that could be harnessed when combining computational and mechanistic biological approaches as a means of avoiding animal testing. Through the International QSAR Foundation he organized like-minded experts to develop non-animal methods and frameworks for the assessment of chemical hazard and risk for the benefit of public and environmental health. Avoiding animal testing was Gil's passion, and his work helped to initiate the paradigm shift in toxicology that is now rendering this feasible. PMID:24773450

  16. Building on a solid foundation: SAR and QSAR as a fundamental strategy to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K M; Manuppello, J R; Willett, C E

    2014-01-01

    The development of more efficient, ethical, and effective means of assessing the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment was a lifetime goal of Gilman Veith. His work has provided the foundation for the use of chemical structure for informing toxicological assessment by regulatory agencies the world over. Veith's scientific work influenced the early development of the SAR models in use today at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was the driving force behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR Toolbox. Veith was one of a few early pioneers whose vision led to the linkage of chemical structure and biological activity as a means of predicting adverse apical outcomes (known as a mode of action, or an adverse outcome pathway approach), and he understood at an early stage the power that could be harnessed when combining computational and mechanistic biological approaches as a means of avoiding animal testing. Through the International QSAR Foundation he organized like-minded experts to develop non-animal methods and frameworks for the assessment of chemical hazard and risk for the benefit of public and environmental health. Avoiding animal testing was Gil's passion, and his work helped to initiate the paradigm shift in toxicology that is now rendering this feasible.

  17. Architecture optimization at IPEN animal facility in order to improve the welfare and the quality of the animals employed at radiopharmaceutical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and the issue of high quality laboratory animals are essentials for the accomplishment of vanguard scientific research, with reproducibility and universality. The quality of those animals depends, largely, of the available facilities for their production and lodging, to assure the demanded sanitary control and animals' well being, in agreement with the ethical principles that control the activity. The facilities also have to fill out other requirements, such as: the functionality of the environments to make possible the suitable and efficient handling of the animals, facilitating the execution of the routine activities; the respect to ergonomic principles to provide a safe environment and the operators' well being. The facilities design is of vital importance so that the mentioned requirements can be reached. The project of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) Animal House Facilities was accomplished in the year of 1964. However, by that time there were not the current recommendations with respect to the sanitary, genetic and environmental controls. The facility was planned with the objective of being a production unit and a local for keeping of defined animals from sanitary, genetic and environmental point of view. Nevertheless, the original unit drawing presents an unsuitable distribution of the area where animals are stockpiled and different activities are performed. The Animal House Facilities occupies an area of 840 m2, with one pavement, where the production areas and the stock of original animal models of the own institution are distributed, as well as the maintenance of animals from other national or foreigner institutions. It supplies rats and mice for biological tests of radiopharmaceutical lots, produced in IPEN, before they be sent to hospitals and clinics spread out in Brazil, for use in Nuclear Medicine. It also supplies rats and mice for tests of odontologic materials, for tests with growth hormones and for researches of

  18. Object recognition test for studying cognitive impairments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Xabier; Rodriguez-Perdigon, Manuel; Ramirez, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are essential resources in basic research and drug discovery in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As the main clinical feature in AD is cognitive failure, the ultimate readout for any interventions or the ultimate goal in research should be measures of learning and memory. Although there is a wealth of genetic and biochemical studies on proposed AD pathogenic pathways, the aetiology of the illness remains unsolved. Therefore, assessment by cognitive assays should target relevant memory systems without assumptions about pathogenesis. The description of several tests that are available for assessing cognitive functioning in animal models can be found in literature. Among the behavioural test, the novel object recognition (NOR) task is a method to measure a specific form of recognition memory. It is based on the spontaneous behaviour of rodents and offers the advantage of not needing external motivation, reward or punishment. Therefore, the NOR test has been increasingly used as an experimental tool in assessing drug effects on memory and investigating the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. This review describes the basic procedure, modifications, practical considerations, and the requirements and caveats of this behavioural paradigm to be considered as appropriate for the study of AD. Altogether, NOR test could be considered as a very useful instrument that allows researchers to explore the cognitive status of rodents, and hence, for studying AD related pathological mechanisms or treatments. PMID:25961683

  19. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain.

  20. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain. PMID:27312268

  1. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  2. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  3. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  4. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  5. Phencyclidine in the social interaction test: an animal model of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a hallucinogenic drug that can mimic several aspects of the schizophrenic symptomatology in healthy volunteers. In a series of studies PCP was administered to rats to determine whether it was possible to develop an animal model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The rats were tested in the social interaction test and it was found that PCP dose-dependently induces stereotyped behaviour and social withdrawal, which may correspond to certain aspects of the positive and negative symptoms, respectively. The effects of PCP could be reduced selectively by antipsychotic drug treatment, whereas drugs lacking antipsychotic effects did not alleviate the PCP-induced behaviours. Together these findings indicate that PCP effects in the rat social interaction test may be a model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity and that it may be useful for the evaluation of novel antipsychotic compounds.

  6. Use of biodiesel co-products (Glycerol as alternative sources of energy in animal nutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VO Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent surge in the use of biodiesel in Brazil and abroad, coupled with the availability of large amounts of glycerol, are generating interest in the use of this co-product in several ways, such as its use in animal feed. The use of glycerol in the formulation of diets caused immediate interest to obtain a highly efficient energy rich product to use in animal production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of glycerol resulting from biodiesel production as an energy supplement in animal feed, as well as establishing appropriate protocols for each species based on previous studies. Most of them using pigs, cows, bulls, sheep, laying hens and broilers. It was possible to infer from these studies that glycerol was a food ingredient suitable for replacement in diets of different animal species.

  7. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Adam, Niklas; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Leticia M.; Lange, Kevin; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This report summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) Integrated Test, conducted from June 2013 until April 2014. The system was comprised of four (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater and a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system to remove large organic and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed into a near potable state and a 64% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However, the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume- and consumable-saving design that does not require toxic pretreatment.

  8. Tests of General Relativity and Alternative Theories of Gravity Using Gravitational Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, K. G.; Pai, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test general relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories such as scalar-tensor theories, dynamical Chern-Simons theory and massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrized gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA configuration. We also compare the expected bounds on alternative theories of gravity from ground-based and space-based detectors and find that space-based GW detectors can test GR and other theories of gravity with unprecedented accuracies. We then focus on a recent proposal to use singular value decomposition of the Fisher information matrix to improve the accuracies with which post-Newtonian theory can be tested. We extend those results to the case of space-based detector eLISA and discuss its implications.

  9. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Alternative procedure for the cold test for soybean seeds Procedimento alternativo para o teste de frio em semente de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guilherme Torres Licursi Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds requires a precise seed quality control system from the seed industry. One way to accomplish this is by improving vigor testing. Cold test has been traditionally employed for corn seeds. However, it has also been used for other seed crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp., soybean (Glycine Max, dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and pea (Pisum sativum. This study was carried out with the objective of adjusting an alternative procedure for the cold test to determine soybean seed vigor. Six commercial soybean seed lots of the cultivar BRS 133 were used. The physiological potential of the seed lots was evaluated by germination on paper towel and sand box, seedling field emergence, tetrazolium, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests. Seed moisture content was also determined. The temperature used for the cold test procedures was 10ºC during five days. Four cold test procedures were evaluated: i plastic boxes with soil; ii rolled paper towel with soil; iii rolled paper towel without soil, and iv an alternative procedure, using rolled paper towel without soil under cold water. A completely randomized experimental design with eight replications was used and the means were compared by the Tukey test (p = 0.05. To verify the dependence between the alternative test and others single linear correlation was used. All cold test procedures had similar coefficients of variation (CV, highlighting that rolled paper towel with soil and the alternative procedure had the best performance, with an average of 94% and 93% normal seedlings and CV of 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The alternative procedure has satisfactory results for estimating soybean seed vigor, yielding consistent results compared to the traditional procedure.A crescente demanda por semente de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] de alta qualidade tem requerido da indústria de sementes um controle de qualidade mais preciso

  11. The Cleveland Sorting Test: a preliminary study of an alternate form of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Pastel, Dan; Miller, Ashley; Levin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies have repeatedly shown that the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) is not as sensitive to prefrontal-lobe functioning as was originally suspected. Specifically, both clinical and brain-imaging studies have shown that several distinct neural circuits contribute to one's ability to successfully complete different aspects of the test. Another limitation of the WCST is its length, which makes it difficult and frustrating for certain clinical populations. To address the above limitations, researchers have proposed the development of new indexes and the integration of an adaptive testing approach that will allow for the premature termination of the test. Unfortunately, given the proprietary nature of the WCST, none of the above recommendations have been adopted. The present preliminary study examined an alternate form of the 64-Item WCST (WCST-64), the Cleveland Sorting Test (CST-64). The normative data of the two measures as well as the total number of errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and categories completed were compared using a repeated-measures design. Overall, the study supports psychometric approximation of the CST-64 and the WCST-64. Suggestions for future studies and modifications of the CST-64, including the use of recently proposed indexes and adaptive administration approaches, are provided.

  12. Reproducibility of toxicity test data as a function of mouse strain, animal lot, and operator. [for bisphenol A polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco was evaluated for reproducibility. The variables addressed were strain of mouse, lot of animals, and operator. There was a significant difference in response between Swiss Webster mice and ICR mice, with the latter exhibiting greater resistance. These two strains of mice are not interchangeable in this procedure. Variation between individual animals was significant and unavoidable. In view of this variation, between-lot and between-operator variations appear to have no practical significance. The significant variation between individual animals stresses the need for average values based on at least four animals, and preferably values based on at least two experiments and eight animals. Efforts to compare materials should be based on the evaluation of relatively simple responses using substantial numbers of animals, rather than on elaborate evaluation of single animals

  13. A new neuroimplantable device: the tulgar implant. Initial results of animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erdal; Arican, Mustafa; Kalkan, S Serpil; Erayman, Ibrahim; Erol, Atila; Tulgar, Ayse Oya; Tulgar, Metin

    2005-10-01

    A new neuroimplant system, namely the Tulgar implant, developed to solve the practical problems encountered with the presently available implants, was tested as a spinal cord stimulator in ten sheep. The response of living tissue and technical performance of the new system were evaluated. Electrodes implanted in the low thoracic (T9-10) vertebral levels by means of hemilaminectomy were subcutaneously connected to the passive coil receiver element located in the anterior-inferior chest wall for 28 days. Laboratory parameters including hematology, biochemistry, and microbiology were investigated over the study, and histopathologic examinations were done by the end of study. Animal tests showed that the new system could reliably be implantable in the living tissue. Intra-operative radicular stimulation of the right dorsal root in T13-L1 levels, by means of burst mode of signals, resulted in observable contractions of hip muscles in the right upper leg. PMID:22151553

  14. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately. PMID:27280352

  15. Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview of animal testing and in vivo responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Misra, Superb K; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Roy, Ipsita

    2006-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have been established as biodegradable polymers since the second half of the twentieth century. Altering monomer composition of PHAs allows the development of polymers with favorable mechanical properties, biocompatibility and desirable degradation rates, under specific physiological conditions. Hence, the medical applications of PHAs have been explored extensively in recent years. PHAs have been used to develop devices, including sutures, nerve repair devices, repair patches, slings, cardiovascular patches, orthopedic pins, adhesion barriers, stents, guided tissue repair/regeneration devices, articular cartilage repair devices, nerve guides, tendon repair devices, bone-marrow scaffolds, tissue engineered cardiovascular devices and wound dressings. So far, various tests on animal models have shown polymers, from the PHA family, to be compatible with a range of tissues. Often, pyrogenic contaminants copurified with PHAs limit their pharmacological application rather than the monomeric composition of the PHAs and thus the purity of the PHA material is critical. This review summarizes the animal testing, tissue response, in vivo molecular stability and challenges of using PHAs for medical applications. In future, PHAs may become the materials of choice for various medical applications. PMID:17280548

  16. Animal investigation program, 1981 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues, collected from animals that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, cesium-137 was the only gamma-emitting radionuclide frequently detected and was within a narrow range of activity. For example, 12 of 14 cattle muscle samples contained 15 to 65 pCi of cesium-137 per kilogram. Strontium-90 and plutonium-238 or -239 tissue concentrations were similar to those of recent years. Nanocurie levels of tritium were found in tissue from two deer that drank contaminated water draining from the tunnel test areas. Annual dose estimates to man were calculated based on the daily consumption of 0.5 kg of tissue with peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 45 millirems to the whole body from ingestion of deer muscle that drank from the tritium contaminated waters. This dose is about 9% of the radiation protection guide. Movement of deer on the NTS is discussed. In general, deer from Pahute Mesa winter in the Timber Mt. area with some movement off the NTS, while deer from Rainier Mesa winter in the Shoshone Mt. area. The sudden death of an offsite goat kid was investigated and death was attributed to enterotoxemia. No gross or microscopic lesions in necropsied animals were found that could be attributed to the effect of ionizing radiation

  17. Testing on novel neutron detectors as alternative to 3He for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear material relies on the detection of the radiation emitted. In the case of plutonium, one of the characteristic signatures derives from neutron emission. For this reason, neutron detectors cover an important role in detection systems. Most current neutron detection systems used for nuclear security are based on the 3He technology. Unfortunately, in the last few years the market of 3He has encountered huge problems in matching the supply and the demand. The need has grown significantly due to the increasing demand of instrumentation for security. This has caused an exponential increase of the price from one side and on the other side a serious strategic problem of resources. In order to guarantee the availability of detection systems for nuclear security, it is necessary to develop alternative detection systems based on technologies different from 3He. Many research projects have been devoted for the development of novel neutron detectors both by research organisations and by industries. Scientists from the PERLA laboratory of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy, and their collaborators have tested several of these novel concepts in the last couple of years. This paper describes the detector systems tested at JRC and preliminary results on detectors that can be considered as promising alternatives to 3He. -- Highlights: ► The paper tackles the problem of lack of He-3 supply. ► This impacts neutron detection for security applications. ► The aim is to test innovative/alternative solutions for neutron detectors. ► Encouraging results obtained with organic and Li-based scintillators.

  18. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrascu I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1 999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific, sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities. It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizootiological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process.

  19. Development and preliminary testing of a computerized Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, Wf; Loos, M; de Vet, Hcw;

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ), based on video animations, for assessing activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (OA), which combines the advantages of self-reported questionnaires and performance-based tests, without many of their limitations,...

  20. The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing: Proceedings of a Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This volume contains the prepared papers and discussions of a National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Symposium on the Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the past, present, and future contributions of animals to human health…

  1. An infrared motion detector system for lossless real-time monitoring of animal preference tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogány, A; Heszberger, J; Szurovecz, Zita; Vincze, E; Székely, T

    2014-12-01

    Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject's visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability. PMID:25475978

  2. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  3. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  4. Tests of General Relativity and Alternative theories of gravity using Gravitational Wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Arun, K G

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational Wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test General Relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories like Scalar-Tensor theories, Dynamical Chern-Simons theory and Massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrised gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA config...

  5. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  6. Workshop overview: scientific and regulatory challenges for the reduction, refinement, and replacement of animals in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, I F; Botham, P A; Bruner, L H; Flint, O P; Frazier, J M; Stokes, W S

    1998-06-01

    Public concern for animal welfare has been expressed through legislative control of animal use for experimental purposes since the first legislation was introduced in 1876 in the United Kingdom. Legislative control of animal use has been introduced in virtually every developed country, with major initiatives in Europe (1986) and the United States (1966 and 1985). Advances in scientific thinking resulted in the development of the concept of the three Rs--refinement, reduction, and replacement--by Russell and Burch in 1959. The field has expanded substantially since, with specialist scientific journals dedicated to alternatives, World Congresses organized to discuss the scientific and philosophical issues, and European and U.S. validation organizations being launched. Current scientific attention is focused on validation of alternative methods. The underlying scientific principles of chemical toxicity are complicated and insufficiently understood for alternative methods for all toxicity endpoints of importance in protecting human health to be available. Important lessons have been learned about how to validate methods, including the need to have prediction models available before the validation is undertaken, the need to understand the variability of the animal-based data which is to be used as the validation standard, and the need to have well-managed validation programs. Future progress will depend on the development of novel methods, which can now be validated through international collaborative efforts. PMID:9710950

  7. Assessment of Etest as an alternative to agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi; Taylor, Thomas H; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

    2014-05-01

    We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest.

  8. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-01-01

    In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI). A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and ant...

  9. Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mess

    2014-01-01

    Here a survey of placental evolution is conducted. Placentation is a key factor for the evolution of placental mammals that had evolved an astonishing diversity. As a temporary organ that does not allow easy access, it is still not well understood. The lack of data also is a restriction for better understanding of placental development, structure, and function in the human. Animal models are essential, because experimental access to the human placenta is naturally restricted. However, there i...

  10. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially as a result of taking non-human (animal or synthetic) insulin, these can interfere with insulin testing. In this case, a C-peptide may be performed as an alternative way to evaluate insulin production. Note also that ...

  11. Field Evaluation of Alternative Testing Strategies for the Detection of HIV Infection in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify a cost-efficient alternative antibody testing strategy for screening and confirmation of HIV infection by rapid simple tests (RSTs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Methods Four RSTs (RST1,RST2, RST3, and RST4 ) and five ELISAs (ELISA1, ELISA2, ELISA3, ELISA4, and ELISA5) were evaluated in two phases by using banked and serum specimens prospectively collected at regional hospitals and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT)centers in Beijing. A total of 200 banked serum specimens were included in the first phase, including 62 HIV-positive, 127 HIV-negative and 11 indeterminate specimens. All specimens were tested by four RSTs and five ELISAs respectively. The second phase involved prospective testing of 389 routine specimens, including 92 HIV-positive, 287 HIV-negative, and 10 indeterminate specimens. All the specimens were tested by two RSTs (RST2 and RST4) and three ELISAs (ELISA1, ELISA3,and ELISA4), which were selected for their respective excellent sensitivity and/or specificity. Western blot (WB) was used as a gold standard for confirming the reactivity of all the specimens. Results Sensitivity, specificity, and efficacy were calculated for each assay in two phases. In the first phase, four assays (ELISA4, RST2, RST3, and RST4) had a specificity of 100%. For the determination of efficacy, ELISA4, RST2, and RST4 were selected in the second phase. ELISA1 and ELISA3 which have a sensitivity of 95.9% and 93.2% respectively also entered this phase. In the second phase, all the five assays (ELISA1, ELISA3, ELISA4, RST2, and RST4) had a sensitivity and specifity of over 90%. ELISA1 had a sensitivity of 99% and ELISA4 a specificity of 99%. Conclusion The sensitivity ELISA1 and the specificit of ELISA4 are comparable to ELISA/WB standard strategy. Application of this alternative testing strategy provides a cost-effective method for determining HIV prevalence in Beijing.

  12. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the „Biomation‟ application for an alternative method for the treatment of animal-by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    A method alternative to the ones already approved in the current legislation, called ‘Biomation’ process, for the treatment of Category (Cat.) 2 and 3 Animal By-Products (ABP) was assessed. The process consists of an alkaline treatment. The target parameters are: particle size ≤ 5mm, temperature 70 °C, pH 12.5, exposure time 20 minutes. According to the application received also Cat. 1 ABP can enter the processing plant and it has then to be removed from the rest of the ABP material and treat...

  13. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate. PMID:22574382

  14. [Overregulation and unnecessary animal testing: requirements for market approval of biopharmaceuticals too rigid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Huub

    2012-01-01

    The first biopharmaceutical was introduced more than 30 years ago. From the beginning, experts have doubted the scientific basis for preclinical safety testing of these products on animals, including non-human primates. Long clinical experience confirms that this has no scientific basis. The many guidelines introduced over the years, including the recent revision of ICH S6, are still based on the principles of the classical safety evaluation of small molecules. The reasons for this conservatism include the risk-averse attitude of regulators in general and, at the European level, the low influx of new scientific insights due to the way the marketing authorisation is organised. The members of the scientific committees of the EMA are almost exclusively selected from within the regulatory systems and there is no limit in the time they can serve in these committees. PMID:23231875

  15. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  16. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal...

  17. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  18. ENIAK. Development of a non-motor injector coking test facility for alternative fuels; ENIAK. Entwicklung eines nichtmotorischen Injektorverkokungspruefstands fuer alternative Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Schloss, Heide vom; Yang, Zhi; Grote, Melanie [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Gruppe Anwendungstechnik

    2013-10-01

    Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, among other things, all additives have to pass a no-harm test. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: the XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine. The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 l per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The main goal of the project ENIAK is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses four complete common rail systems. The injection takes place in four self-designed reactors instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. The project is funded by the the federal ministry of consumer protection, food and agriculture via FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources). (orig.)

  19. Progress in Tissue Specimens Alternative for the Driver Genes Testing of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target treatment based on driver genes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer is very important currently. Tumor tissues is the gold standard for driver genes testing. However, most of patients could not get the gene information for lack of enough tissues. To explore the tissue specimens alternatives is a hot spot in clinical work. This report reviews the tissue specimen alternatives of driver gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed. PMID:27624561

  1. The effects of multiple features of alternatively spliced exons on the KA/KS ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng-Chi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of alternatively spliced exons (ASEs is of primary interest because these exons are suggested to be a major source of functional diversity of proteins. Many exon features have been suggested to affect the evolution of ASEs. However, previous studies have relied on the KA/KS ratio test without taking into consideration information sufficiency (i.e., exon length > 75 bp, cross-species divergence > 5% of the studied exons, leading to potentially biased interpretations. Furthermore, which exon feature dominates the results of the KA/KS ratio test and whether multiple exon features have additive effects have remained unexplored. Results In this study, we collect two different datasets for analysis – the ASE dataset (which includes lineage-specific ASEs and conserved ASEs and the ACE dataset (which includes only conserved ASEs. We first show that information sufficiency can significantly affect the interpretation of relationship between exons features and the KA/KS ratio test results. After discarding exons with insufficient information, we use a Boolean method to analyze the relationship between test results and four exon features (namely length, protein domain overlapping, inclusion level, and exonic splicing enhancer (ESE frequency for the ASE dataset. We demonstrate that length and protein domain overlapping are dominant factors, and they have similar impacts on test results of ASEs. In addition, despite the weak impacts of inclusion level and ESE motif frequency when considered individually, combination of these two factors still have minor additive effects on test results. However, the ACE dataset shows a slightly different result in that inclusion level has a marginally significant effect on test results. Lineage-specific ASEs may have contributed to the difference. Overall, in both ASEs and ACEs, protein domain overlapping is the most dominant exon feature while ESE frequency is the weakest one in affecting

  2. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

  3. Power and sensitivity of alternative fit indices in tests of measurement invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Adam W; Johnson, Emily C; Braddy, Phillip W

    2008-05-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic tests of measurement invariance (MI) based on the chi-square statistic are known to be highly sensitive to sample size. For this reason, G. W. Cheung and R. B. Rensvold (2002) recommended using alternative fit indices (AFIs) in MI investigations. In this article, the authors investigated the performance of AFIs with simulated data known to not be invariant. The results indicate that AFIs are much less sensitive to sample size and are more sensitive to a lack of invariance than chi-square-based tests of MI. The authors suggest reporting differences in comparative fit index (CFI) and R. P. McDonald's (1989) noncentrality index (NCI) to evaluate whether MI exists. Although a general value of change in CFI (.002) seemed to perform well in the analyses, condition specific change in McDonald's NCI values exhibited better performance than a single change in McDonald's NCI value. Tables of these values are provided as are recommendations for best practices in MI testing. PMID:18457487

  4. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment. PMID:27604715

  5. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of a new foot mobility assessment method that utilizes digital images to measure the change in dorsal arch height measured at 50% of the length of the foot during the Sit-to-Stand test. Methods Two hundred – seventy five healthy participants participated in the study. The medial aspect of each foot was photographed with a digital camera while each participant stood with 50% body weight on each foot as well as in sitting for a non-weight bearing image. The dorsal arch height was measured at 50% of the total length of the foot on both weight bearing and non-weight bearing images to determine the change in dorsal arch height. The reliability and validity of the measurements were then determined. Results The mean difference in dorsal arch height between non-weight bearing and weight bearing was 10 millimeters. The change in arch height during the Sit-to-Stand test was shown to have good to high levels of intra- and inter-reliability as well as validity using x-rays as the criterion measure. Conclusion While the navicular drop test has been widely used as a clinical method to assess foot mobility, poor levels of inter-rater reliability have been reported. The results of the current study suggest that the change in dorsal arch height during the Sit-to-Stand test offers the clinician a reliable and valid alternative to the navicular drop test.

  7. Animal Investigation Program 1976 annual report: Nevada test site and vicinity. [Radioanalysis of tissues from animals residing on or near NTS in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Brown, K.W.

    1978-11-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle and mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, feral horses, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1976. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of /sup 131/I in animal thyroid samples collected after September 25 (the date of a Chinese nuclear test). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep continued the downward trend of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within ambient limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., Sedan Crater, drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels, etc. Analysis of actinide in tissues was emphasized during 1976. Graphs illustrate the /sup 239/P levels in lungs, livers, and femurs from Nevada Test Site beef cattle for the years 1971 through 1976. Femur and lung residue data are nearly identical for each year with liver concentrations being a factor of 2 or 3 lower. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak actinide levels. The highest postulated dose was 11 millirem from tritium from tissues for a mule deer. This dose is about 2% of the 500 millirems/year guide for radiation doses to an individual in the general public. All other postulated doses for consumption of the tissue containing other radionuclides are less than 0.1% of this guide. The food habits of desert bighorn sheep were discussed according to the geographic locations of the animals at time of collection. Grasses made up approximately 60% of the diet at all locations, with shrubs content approaching 30%, and the remainder consisting of various forbs. The movement of 13 mule deer fitted with collars containing a radiotransmitter unit was monitored on a weekly basis.

  8. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Chase

    Full Text Available The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders. Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  9. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs. PMID:27410230

  10. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarah; van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals. PMID:26468440

  11. Field Testing of Alternative Cookstove Performance in a Rural Setting of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Muralidharan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three billion people use solid fuels for cooking and heating, which leads to extremely high levels of household air pollution and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Many stove manufacturers have developed alternative cookstoves (ACSs that are aimed at reducing emissions and fuel consumption. Here, we tested a traditional clay chulha cookstove (TCS and five commercially available ACSs, including both natural draft (Greenway Smart Stove, Envirofit PCS-1 and forced draft stoves (BioLite HomeStove, Philips Woodstove HD4012, and Eco-Chulha XXL, in a test kitchen in a rural village of western India. Compared to the TCS, the ACSs produced significant reductions in particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 and CO concentrations (Envirofit: 22%/16%, Greenway: 24%/42%, BioLite: 40%/35%, Philips: 66%/55% and Eco-Chulha: 61%/42%, which persisted after normalization for fuel consumption or useful energy. PM2.5 and CO concentrations were lower for forced draft stoves than natural draft stoves. Furthermore, the Philips and Eco-Chulha units exhibited higher cooking efficiency than the TCS. Despite significant reductions in concentrations, all ACSs failed to achieve PM2.5 levels that are considered safe by the World Health Organization (ACSs: 277–714 μg/m3 or 11–28 fold higher than the WHO recommendation of 25 μg/m3.

  12. Habitat structure mediates predation risk for sedentary prey: Experimental tests of alternative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predation is an important and ubiquitous selective force that can shape habitat preferences of prey species, but tests of alternative mechanistic hypotheses of habitat influences on predation risk are lacking. 2. We studied predation risk at nest sites of a passerine bird and tested two hypotheses based on theories of predator foraging behaviour. The total-foliage hypothesis predicts that predation will decline in areas of greater overall vegetation density by impeding cues for detection by predators. The potential-prey-site hypothesis predicts that predation decreases where predators must search more unoccupied potential nest sites. 3. Both observational data and results from a habitat manipulation provided clear support for the potential-prey-site hypothesis and rejection of the total-foliage hypothesis. Birds chose nest patches containing both greater total foliage and potential nest site density (which were correlated in their abundance) than at random sites, yet only potential nest site density significantly influenced nest predation risk. 4. Our results therefore provided a clear and rare example of adaptive nest site selection that would have been missed had structural complexity or total vegetation density been considered alone. 5. Our results also demonstrated that interactions between predator foraging success and habitat structure can be more complex than simple impedance or occlusion by vegetation. ?? 2008 British Ecological Society.

  13. MST Fitness Index and implicit data narratives: A comparative test on alternative unsupervised algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new methodology for the evaluation of alternative algorithms in capturing the deep statistical structure of datasets of different types and nature, called MST Fitness, and based on the notion of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST). We test this methodology on six different databases, some of which artificial and widely used in similar experimentations, and some related to real world phenomena. Our test set consists of eight different algorithms, including some widely known and used, such as Principal Component Analysis, Linear Correlation, or Euclidean Distance. We moreover consider more sophisticated Artificial Neural Network based algorithms, such as the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and a relatively new algorithm called Auto-Contractive Map (AutoCM). We find that, for our benchmark of datasets, AutoCM performs consistently better than all other algorithms for all of the datasets, and that its global performance is superior to that of the others of several orders of magnitude. It is to be checked in future research if AutoCM can be considered a truly general-purpose algorithm for the analysis of heterogeneous categories of datasets.

  14. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. PMID:26470374

  15. Use of complementary and alternative medicine and self-tests by coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease patients have to learn to manage their condition to maximise quality of life and prevent recurrence or deterioration. They may develop their own informal methods of self-management in addition to the advice they receive as part of formal cardiac rehabilitation programmes. This study aimed to explore the use of complementary and alternative medicines and therapies (CAM, self-test kits and attitudes towards health of UK patients one year after referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Method Questionnaire given to 463 patients attending an assessment clinic for 12 month follow up in four West Midlands hospitals. Results 91.1% completed a questionnaire. 29.1% of patients used CAM and/or self-test kits for self-management but few (8.9% used both methods. CAM was more often used for treating other illnesses than for CHD management. Self-test kit use (77.2%, was more common than CAM (31.7%, with BP monitors being the most prevalent (80.0%. Patients obtained self-test kits from a wide range of sources, for the most part (89.5% purchased entirely on their own initiative. Predictors of self-management were post revascularisation status and higher scores on 'holism', 'rejection of authority' and 'individual responsibility'. Predictors of self-test kit use were higher 'holism' and 'individual responsibility' scores. Conclusion Patients are independently using new technologies to monitor their cardiovascular health, a role formerly carried out only by healthcare practitioners. Post-rehabilitation patients reported using CAM for self-management less frequently than they reported using self-test kits. Reports of CAM use were less frequent than in previous surveys of similar patient groups. Automatic assumptions cannot be made by clinicians about which CHD patients are most likely to self-manage. In order to increase trust and compliance it is important for doctors to encourage all CHD patients to disclose their self

  16. Do real exchange rates have autoregressive unit roots? a test under the alternative of long memory and breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Dueker, Michael J.; Apostolos Serletis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate (by maximum likelihood) the parameters of univariate fractionally integrated real exchange rate time series models, and test for autoregressive unit roots on the alternative of a covariance stationary long-memory process. We use quarterly dollar-based real exchange rates (since 1957) for seventeen OECD countries, and that the finding of unit autoregressive roots does not go away even with this more sophisticated alternative.

  17. Attempts to test an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors by low-temperature scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Peronio, Angelo; Giessibl, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    We perform an experiment to test between two theories of the electrodynamics of superconductors: the standard London theory and an alternative proposed by J. E. Hirsch. The two alternatives give different predictions with respect to the screening of an electric field by a superconductor, and we try to detect this effect using atomic force microscopy on a niobium sample. We also perform the reverse experiment, where we demonstrate that a superconductive tip mounted on a qPlus force sensor with...

  18. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards conventional and complementary and alternative medicine treatments: Introduction of an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A; Hohmann, Cynthia; Lister, Kelsi; Albertyn, Riani; Bradshaw, Renee; Johnson, Christine

    2016-06-01

    This study examined associations between anticipated future health behaviour and participants' attitudes. Three Implicit Association Tests were developed to assess safety, efficacy and overall attitude. They were used to examine preference associations between conventional versus complementary and alternative medicine among 186 participants. A structural equation model suggested only a single implicit association, rather than three separate domains. However, this single implicit association predicted additional variance in anticipated future use of complementary and alternative medicine beyond explicit. Implicit measures should give further insight into motivation for complementary and alternative medicine use.

  19. Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the NASA Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) Avoid duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate hazardous materials through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. The objective of this project was to qualify candidate alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel applications at NASA facilities. This project compares the surface preparation/depainting performance of the proposed alternatives to existing surface preparation/depainting systems or standards. This Joint Test Report (JTR) contains the results of testing as per the outlines of the Joint Test Protocol (JTP), Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Test Plan (FTP), Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, for critical requirements and tests necessary to qualify alternatives for coating removal systems. These tests were derived from engineering, performance, and operational impact (supportability) requirements defined by a consensus of government and industry participants. This JTR documents the results of the testing as well as any test modifications made during the execution of the project. This JTR is made available as a reference for future pollution prevention endeavors by other NASA Centers, the Department of Defense and commercial users to minimize duplication of effort. The current coating removal processes

  20. Standardization and the 3Rconcept in animal testing - effects and benefits of refinement in two test protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Verwer, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the impact of housing- and husbandry conditions and experimental procedures on the outcome of animal studies. The aim was 1) to improve the quality of experimental data by limiting confounding factors, either in a qualitative or quantitative way, and 2) to reduce the variance of experimental results. The ultimate goal was to suggest ways by which these variables can be eliminated or minimized, to improve quality of research and to allow for a reduction in animal nu...

  1. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  2. Testing multi-alternative decision models with non-stationary evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eTsetsos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has investigated the process of integrating perceptual evidence towards a decision, converging on a number of sequential sampling choice models, such as variants of race and diffusion models and the non-linear leaky competing accumulator (LCA model. Here we study extensions of these models to multi-alternative choice, considering how well they can account for data from a psychophysical experiment in which the evidence supporting each of the alternatives changes dynamically during the trial, in a way that creates temporal correlations. We find that participants exhibit a tendency to choose an alternative whose evidence profile is temporally anti-correlated with (or dissimilar from that of other alternatives. This advantage of the anti-correlated alternative is well accounted for in the LCA, and provides constraints that challenge several other models of multi-alternative choice.

  3. Report on noninvasive prenatal testing: classical and alternative approaches [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna S. Pantiukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT. These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing. Two alternative approaches are ascertained: one based on maternal/fetal differential methylation and another based on allelic difference. While the former failed to provide stable results, the latter was found to be promising and worthy of conducting a large-scale trial. One critical point in any NIPT approach is the determination of fetal cell-free DNA fraction, which dictates the reliability of obtained results for a given sample. We show that two different chromosome Y representation measures—by real-time PCR and by whole-genome massive parallel sequencing—are practically interchangeable (r=0.94. We also propose a novel method based on maternal/fetal allelic difference which is applicable in pregnancies with fetuses of either sex. Even in its pilot form it correlates well with chromosome Y coverage estimates (r=0.74 and can be further improved by increasing the number of polymorphisms.

  4. Inductance plethysmography: an alternative signal to servocontrol the airway pressure during proportional assist ventilation in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Suguihara, C; Gerhardt, T; Schaller, P; Claure, N; Everett, R; Devia, C; Hehre, D; Bancalari, E

    2001-02-01

    During proportional assist ventilation (PAV), the ventilator pressure is servocontrolled throughout each spontaneous inspiration such that it instantaneously increases in proportion to the airflow (resistive unloading mode), or inspired volume (elastic unloading mode), or both (combined unloading mode). The PAV pressure changes are generated in a closed-loop feedback circuitry commonly using a pneumotachographic signal. In neonates, however, a pneumotachograph increases dead space ventilation, and its signal may include a substantial endotracheal tube leak component. We hypothesized that respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) can replace pneumotachography to drive the ventilator during PAV without untoward effects on ventilation or respiratory gas exchange. Ten piglets and five rabbits were supported for 10-min (normal lungs) or 20-min (meconium injured lungs) periods by each of the three PAV modes. In each mode, three test periods were applied in random order with the ventilator driven by the pneumotachograph signal, or the RIP abdominal band signal, or the RIP sum signal of rib cage and abdomen. Interchanging the three input signals did not affect the regularity of spontaneous breathing, and gas exchange was achieved with similar peak and mean airway pressures (ANOVA). However, the RIP sum signal worked adequately only when the relative gains of rib cage and abdominal band signal were calibrated. We conclude that an RIP abdominal band signal can be used to generate PAV, avoiding increased dead space and endotracheal tube leak problems.

  5. 77 FR 61610 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods Evaluation Report and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing and the Japanese Center for the... equivalent to that provided by current testing procedures, while using up to 50% to 83% fewer animals. ICCVAM... animals used for eye safety testing across U.S. regulatory agencies and international test guidelines....

  6. [The role of animal testing advisory committees in biomedical research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the German Animal Welfare Act, animal experiments in fundamental biomedical research may only be performed after licensing by the responsible authority. This license may only be granted if the experiments are considered indispensable and if the distress of the animals seems ethically acceptable in relation to the purpose of the study. Since 1987 advisory committees have been established to support the authorities in the evaluation of these provisions. Animal welfare organisations had expected case-by-case evaluations of the in-dispensability of research proposals and of the distress of the animals and the scientific benefit of the experiments to take place in these committees, so that such projects that would not meet the criteria of ethical acceptability could be prevented. However, already the lack of parity in the advisory committees alone, in which as a rule four scientists counterpart two representatives from animal welfare organisations, often-times prevents a balanced discussion of these provisions from taking place. Additionally, due to the freedom of science granted in the German Constitution without reservations, until 2002 also the licensing authorities were merely permitted to perform a formal examination of the applications. In the mean time, by including animal welfare as a national objective in the Constitution, the preconditions were made to enable an examination of the contents. From the point of view of animal welfare it therefore is to be requested that now also the advisory committees are ascribed more importance in the course of the licensing procedure and to establish the legal framework for this, if necessary by a revision of the Animal Welfare Act. PMID:16477346

  7. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternative: R-32/134a Mixture Using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of lower-GWP alternative refrigerant R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-410A and having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that the discharge temperature of the alternative refrigerant was higher than that of R-410A at all test conditions. Also, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of compressor using the alternative refrigerant were slightly lower in comparison to that of R-410A.

  8. Testing alternative uses of electromagnetic data to reduce the prediction error of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse Christensen, Nikolaj; Christensen, Steen; Ferre, Ty Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    In spite of geophysics being used increasingly, it is often unclear how and when the integration of geophysical data and models can best improve the construction and predictive capability of groundwater models. This paper uses a newly developed HYdrogeophysical TEst-Bench (HYTEB) that is a collection of geological, groundwater and geophysical modeling and inversion software to demonstrate alternative uses of electromagnetic (EM) data for groundwater modeling in a hydrogeological environment consisting of various types of glacial deposits with typical hydraulic conductivities and electrical resistivities covering impermeable bedrock with low resistivity (clay). The synthetic 3-D reference system is designed so that there is a perfect relationship between hydraulic conductivity and electrical resistivity. For this system it is investigated to what extent groundwater model calibration and, often more importantly, model predictions can be improved by including in the calibration process electrical resistivity estimates obtained from TEM data. In all calibration cases, the hydraulic conductivity field is highly parameterized and the estimation is stabilized by (in most cases) geophysics-based regularization. For the studied system and inversion approaches it is found that resistivities estimated by sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI) or joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI) should be used with caution as estimators of hydraulic conductivity or as regularization means for subsequent hydrological inversion. The limited groundwater model improvement obtained by using the geophysical data probably mainly arises from the way these data are used here: the alternative inversion approaches propagate geophysical estimation errors into the hydrologic model parameters. It was expected that JHI would compensate for this, but the hydrologic data were apparently insufficient to secure such compensation. With respect to reducing model prediction error, it depends on the type

  9. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  10. Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of Animal Testing in the Quality Control of Human Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    HALDER MARIA ELISABETH

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are recognised as a highly cost effective tool for preventing infectious diseases. They are derived from biological sources and due to the complexity of composition and heterogeneity of products, vaccine lots undergo legally required quality control before they are released. Traditionally, laboratory animals have played an important role in quality control of vaccines and still, many laboratory animals are used in Europe for this purpose. Over the last decades, Replacement, Reduction...

  11. What are the Best Animal Models for Testing Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Clowry, Gavin John; Basuodan, Reem; Chan, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of c...

  12. The Hidden Costs of Sexier Lipstick: Animal Testing in the Cosmetic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    William L. Davis

    1999-01-01

    This paper does not argue, as the opening paragraphs of this section may seem to suggest, that animals should be seen as devoid of rights. On the contrary, it is filled with strong arguments pointing the other way. Its final assertion, however, is that those seeking to secure protection for animals in cosmetic laboratories should not allow themselves to become entangled in the emotional side of this old and ongoing debate. To do so invites an ultimately inconclusory, and perhaps violent, disc...

  13. In Testing Times: Conducting an Ethnographic Study of UK Animal Rights Protesters

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Upton

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects upon the experience of conducting research into a UK-based, though internationally-renowned, animal rights group. The article firstly rationalizes the ethnographic research methodology used to approach Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC). Secondly, it describes the effect of unforeseen factors (from adverse media attention to ongoing criminal investigations) on the Author's ability to forge research relationships with informants within the movement, and how these chall...

  14. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat;

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass...... the test. The results of the experiments confirm previous results in psychophysics and show that the Graphics Turing Test is a useful tool in computer graphics. Even with simulated motion blur, our Graphics Turing Test could not be passed with frame rates of 30 and 20 frames per second. Our results suggest...

  15. An Alternative Corrosion Resistance Test Method for Solar Cells and Interconnection Materials Limiting the Number of Long-lasting and Expensive Damp-Heat Climate Chamber Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Gouwen, R.J.; Veldman, D.; Bende, E.E.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Damp-heat testing of PV modules is a time-consuming process, taking months. We present an alternative test method: electrochemical noise (EcN) measurements. Data acquisition times vary between minutes for direct exposure to several tens of hours for encapsulated samples. EcN measurements are presented for several solar cell concepts and different environments. We have found that the degradation in damp-heat testing is proportional to the electrochemical noise signal. In conclusion, the electrochemical noise measurements are a fast, versatile tool to test the corrosion resistance of solar cells, which can be tested for different environments including encapsulation.

  16. Standardization and the 3Rconcept in animal testing - effects and benefits of refinement in two test protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the impact of housing- and husbandry conditions and experimental procedures on the outcome of animal studies. The aim was 1) to improve the quality of experimental data by limiting confounding factors, either in a qualitative or quantitative way, and 2) to reduce the vari

  17. Labelled T3, T4 and TBP for In Vitro Testing of Thyroid Function in Man and Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodothyronines are bound to determined electrophoretic fractions of serum proteins - TBP (TBG, TBA, TBPA). Radioiodine labelled T3 and T4 complex the free TBP fractions until saturation. The excess of added in vitro thyronines is then absorbed by the RBC. The changes described can be detected and quantitatively determined by radioisotope tests: radioelectrophoresis - T3/4 BP test, and RBC - 125I T3 test (Hamolsky test). The in vitro tests of the thyroid function can be clinically reliable if the protein fractions are normal, and they may be altered without thyroid pathology if the TBG fractions are abnormal. The electrophoretic fractions vary quantitatively and qualitatively in animals of different classes and orders. We chose these features to study the correlation between iodothyronines, plasma proteins and the above-mentioned thyroid tests. Twenty-two animal species (arranged according to the increasing percentage of the Hamolsky test) were examined: goat (8.6%, cow, lamb, calf, man, camel, goose, hamster, rat, turkey, marmot, duck, horse, donkey, hen, dog, pigeon, rabbit, guinea-pig, mouse, fish and frog (91.5%). The following additional parameters were examined: PBI, serum quantitative electrophoresis, T3 BP studies. All the tests were performed under identical technical conditions. Results and conclusions: (1) The Hamolsky test in the examined animals ranges from 9% to 92%. It is highest in the poicolothermics, in which much prealbumin and few glubulins are found on electrophoresis. The T3 BP is low, and about a half of the added 125I T3 remains unbound. (2) T3 and T4 are complexed with T3 BP and T4 BP fractions, which correspond to prealbumin, albumin, alpha 1-2, beta and exceptionally gamma globulin. The fractions are variable but characteristic for each animal species. T3 BP does not correlate exactly with T4 BP, and seems to be distributed over more fractions. Diminution of T3 BP in the serum of a given animal results in an elevated Hamolsky test (frog

  18. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  19. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change. PMID:21209877

  20. Testing of Early Ripening Strawberry Cultivars Tolerant to Soil-Borne Pathogens as Alternative to 'Elsanta'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spornberger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne pathogens, above all Verticillium sp., cause plant loss and yield decrease in many Austrian strawberry regions. As part of a research project 13 cultivars were planted in 2005 at 11 sites on nine farms in five different Austrian regions. The aim was to test early ripening Verticillium tolerant cultivars which are winter hardy, with high yield and good fruit characteristics as alternative to the highly susceptible cultivar ‘Elsanta’. Although in 2005 climatic conditions where not favorable for wilt development, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Sonata’, ‘Dora’, ‘Eva’ and ‘Divine’ showed typical symptoms on several sites. ‘Darselect’, ‘Clery’ and ‘Queen Elisa’ were less susceptible than ‘Elsanta’. No indication of wilt on the several sites was observed on ‘Alba’ (except at one site, ‘Alice’, ‘Daroyal’, ‘Record’ and ‘Salsa’. The results of yield and fruit quality have to be interpreted carefully, because they were obtained only at one site in the year of planting. ‘Alba’, ‘Clery’ and ‘Daroyal’ started ripening two days before ‘Elsanta’; ‘Queen Elisa’ and ‘Dora’ at the same day as ‘Elsanta’ and all other cultivars started later. High yield per m2 had ‘Elsanta’, ‘Salsa’, ‘Record’ and ‘Sonata’. High average fruit weight showed ‘Salsa’, ‘Record’ and ‘Darselect’, while ‘Divine’, ‘Clery’ and ‘Queen Elisa’ had rather small fruits. Some new cultivars (e.g. ‘Eva’, ‘Queen Elisa’, ‘Alba’ and ‘Record’ had a much higher fruit firmness in comparison to ‘Elsanta’; nevertheless this was not favourable in the tasting experiment. Further examinations are planned in future.

  1. Testing of Early Ripening Strawberry Cultivars Tolerant to Soil-Borne Pathogens as Alternative to 'Elsanta'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spornberger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne pathogens, above all Verticillium sp., cause plant loss and yield decrease in many Austrian strawberry regions. As part of a research project 13 cultivars were planted in 2005 at 11 sites on nine farms in five different Austrian regions. The aim was to test early ripening Verticillium tolerant cultivars which are winter hardy, with high yield and good fruit characteristics as alternative to the highly susceptible cultivar ‘Elsanta’. Although in 2005 climatic conditions where not favorable for wilt development, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Sonata’, ‘Dora’, ‘Eva’ and ‘Divine’ showed typical symptoms on several sites. ‘Darselect’, ‘Clery’ and ‘Queen Elisa’ were less susceptible than ‘Elsanta’. No indication of wilt on the several sites was observed on ‘Alba’ (except at one site, ‘Alice’, ‘Daroyal’, ‘Record’ and ‘Salsa’. The results of yield and fruit quality have to be interpreted carefully, because they were obtained only at one site in the year of planting. ‘Alba’, ‘Clery’ and ‘Daroyal’ started ripening two days before ‘Elsanta’; ‘Queen Elisa’ and ‘Dora’ at the same day as ‘Elsanta’ and all other cultivars started later. High yield per m2 had ‘Elsanta’, ‘Salsa’, ‘Record’ and ‘Sonata’. High average fruit weight showed ‘Salsa’, ‘Record’ and ‘Darselect’, while ‘Divine’, ‘Clery’ and ‘Queen Elisa’ had rather small fruits. Some new cultivars (e.g. ‘Eva’, ‘Queen Elisa’, ‘Alba’ and ‘Record’ had a much higher fruit firmness in comparison to ‘Elsanta’; nevertheless this was not favourable in the tasting experiment. Further examinations are planned in future.

  2. Whiteboard animation for knowledge mobilization: a test case from the Slave River and Delta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. A. Bradford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the co-creation of a whiteboard animation video, an enhanced e-storytelling technique for relaying traditional knowledge interview results as narratives. Design: We present a design for translating interview results into a script and accompanying series of figures, followed by technical steps to create a whiteboard animation product. Method: Our project used content analysis and researcher triangulation, followed by a collaborative process to develop an animated video to disseminate research findings. A 13-minute long whiteboard animation video was produced from a research study about changing environments in northern Canadian communities and was distributed to local people. Three challenging issues in the video creation process including communication issues, technical difficulties and contextual debate were resolved among the supporting agencies and researchers. Conclusions: Dissemination of findings is a crucial step in the research process. Whiteboard animation video products may be a viable and culturally-appropriate form of relaying research results back to Indigenous communities in a storytelling format.

  3. The importance of pre-clinical animal testing in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Yeung, Alan C; Ikeno, Fumiaki

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of cardiovascular disease has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, allowing patients to live longer and better quality lives. The introduction of new therapies has contributed much to this success. Nowhere has this been more evident than in interventional cardiology, where percutaneous cardiovascular intervention has evolved in the past 2 decades from a quirky experimental procedure to a therapeutic cornerstone for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The development of these technologies from the earliest stages requires preclinical experiments using animal models. Once introduced into the clinical arena, an understanding of therapeutic mechanisms of these devices can be ascertained through comparisons of animal model research findings with clinical pathological specimens. This review provides an overview of the emerging role, results of preclinical studies and development, and evaluation of animal models for percutaneous cardiovascular intervention technologies for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. PMID:19142381

  4. Preparation, quality control and animal testing of Re-188 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium-188 is an attractive therapeutic radioisotope obtained by elution from tungsten 188/rhenium 188-generator system. We used this eluate to label HEDP and lanreotide to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for experimental use. The results of our studies showed that using methods worked out under the framework of the CRP allowed us to prepare 188Re-HEDP and 188Re-lanreotide with high yield and favourable biodistribution in animals. In animal studies 188Re-HEDP was successfully used for localizing osteosarcoma in dog. (author)

  5. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat; Thomsen, Dennis Lundgaard; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the test. The results of the experiments confirm previous results in psychophysics and show that the Graphics Turing Test is a useful tool in computer graphics. Even with simulated motion blur, our Graphic...

  6. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, 72060 Batman (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO{sub x} emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  7. Soil test and bermudagrass forage yield responses to animal waste and FGD gypsum ammendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of soil and plant responses to animal or industrial byproducts is needed for effective use of these potential amendments on reclaimed mine soil. This study compared seven treatments of 11.2 Mg ha-1 flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum (control), 896 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer (13-13-13), 22.4 M...

  8. Potential for tumor therapy with tritiated tetracycline. Summary evaluation. [Animal tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.; Wood, P.; Wood, L.L.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1976-10-26

    Reports of tetracycline accumulation in human and animal tumors have led a number of investigators to postulate that this drug, if radio-labeled, might have potential as a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. This paper describes attempts to investigate this potential for tritiated tetracycling. The therapeutic studies demonstrated that while a significant reduction in the growth rates of transplanted tumors could be obtained by the administration of heavy doses of TTC relative to uninjected controls, similar reductions were observed in the growth rates of tumors in animals receiving unlabeled TC. In the localization studies in rodents, the concentrations of TTC in normal tissues and tumors were compared and were correlated with the corresponding concentrations of /sup 14/C-thymidine, a measure of proliferative activity.

  9. Safety testing of VIROTECTO as a bio insecticide on animal health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal's health. Fifty-four male albino rats (100-110 g) were randomly divided into three equal groups, eighteen in each, the first group served as control, the second group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% normal potato and the third group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% potato sprayed with 0.15 g/kg potato virotecto. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals of 15, 35 and 45 days. Results of the present study showed that viral uses led to a significant decrease in final body weight and organs weight. Hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb, Ht, MCU, MCH and MCHC), biochemical (testosterone, lipid peroxide, total lipid, total protein and albumin) and histopathological examination of testis revealed that there were different disorders as a result of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal health

  10. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cann, Sophie; Cachon, Thibaut; Viguier, Eric; MILADI, Lotfi; Odent, Thierry; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Chabrand, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pull-outs during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight...

  11. Testing electromagnetic fields for potential carcinogenic activity: a critical review of animal models.

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, J; Kavet, R; Rafferty, C N

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the potential of electromagnetic fields (EMF) to influence the process of carcinogenesis, it will be necessary to supplement epidemiological studies with controlled laboratory studies in animals. There are now a number of suitable assays available that focus on different histopathological forms of cancer and on different stages of carcinogenesis--induction, promotion, progression. In this review we discuss eight major systems in the context of this generalized carcinogenesi...

  12. Food for thought on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    There is something brewing in the field of toxicology: Last year's vision and strategy document published by the US National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 2007) has excited many toxicologists on both sides of the Atlantic. In February 2008 several American agencies announced a coalition to set this into practice (www.sciencemag.org/content/vol319/issue 5865/index.dtl): We propose a shift from primarily in vivo animal studies to in vitro assays, in vivo assays with lower organisms, and computatio...

  13. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  14. Screening methods for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: comparison of ther european union Four-Plate Test, the Nouws Antibiotic Test and the Premi Test (applied to muscle and kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Rapallini, M.L.B.A.; Zuidema, T.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Oostra, S.; Driessen, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth inhibition tests are widely used as the primary screening approach for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals. In this study we evaluated and compared the performance of the European Union Four-Plate Test (EU4pt), the Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), and a commercial

  15. PEGDA hydrogels as a replacement for animal tissues in mucoadhesion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Eliyahu, Shaked; Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-06-15

    Utilization of animal parts in ex-vivo mucoadhesion assays is a common approach that presents many difficulties due to animal rights issues and large variance between animals. This study examines the suitability of two PEGDA (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) based hydrogels to serve as tissue mimetics for mucoadhesion evaluation. One hydrogel, termed PEGDA-QT, was composed of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) and PEG and contained free thiol groups mimicking those found in natural mucosa. The other hydrogel was formed by UV (ultraviolet) curing of PEGDA and mimicked the mechanical property of mucosa but not its chemical constitute. When ranking different first generation mucoadhesive polymers using a tensile assay, both hydrogels showed good agreement with the ranking achieved for porcine small intestine. However, only PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine shared a similar displacement curve. The same ranking for PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine was also observed when comparing a second-generation mucoadhesive polymer, thiolated alginate, to native alginate. Our findings suggest that PEGDA-QT could serve as a replacement for porcine small intestine in both mucoadhesion evaluations using a tensile machine and the flow-through method for first and second-generation mucoadhesive polymers.

  16. PEGDA hydrogels as a replacement for animal tissues in mucoadhesion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Eliyahu, Shaked; Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-06-15

    Utilization of animal parts in ex-vivo mucoadhesion assays is a common approach that presents many difficulties due to animal rights issues and large variance between animals. This study examines the suitability of two PEGDA (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) based hydrogels to serve as tissue mimetics for mucoadhesion evaluation. One hydrogel, termed PEGDA-QT, was composed of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) and PEG and contained free thiol groups mimicking those found in natural mucosa. The other hydrogel was formed by UV (ultraviolet) curing of PEGDA and mimicked the mechanical property of mucosa but not its chemical constitute. When ranking different first generation mucoadhesive polymers using a tensile assay, both hydrogels showed good agreement with the ranking achieved for porcine small intestine. However, only PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine shared a similar displacement curve. The same ranking for PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine was also observed when comparing a second-generation mucoadhesive polymer, thiolated alginate, to native alginate. Our findings suggest that PEGDA-QT could serve as a replacement for porcine small intestine in both mucoadhesion evaluations using a tensile machine and the flow-through method for first and second-generation mucoadhesive polymers. PMID:27084292

  17. Alternatives to the six-minute walk test in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mainguy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The physiological response during the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT, the cycle endurance test (CET and the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT remains unknown in PAH. We tested the hypothesis that endurance tests induce a near-maximal physiological demand comparable to incremental tests. We also hypothesized that differences in respiratory response during exercise would be related to the characteristics of the exercise tests. METHODS: Within two weeks, twenty-one PAH patients (mean age: 54(15 years; mean pulmonary arterial pressure: 42(12 mmHg completed two cycling exercise tests (incremental cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test (CPET and CET and three field tests (ISWT, ESWT and six-minute walk test (6MWT. Physiological parameters were continuously monitored using the same portable telemetric device. RESULTS: Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak was similar amongst the five exercise tests (p = 0.90 by ANOVA. Walking distance correlated markedly with the VO(2peak reached during field tests, especially when weight was taken into account. At 100% exercise, most physiological parameters were similar between incremental and endurance tests. However, the trends overtime differed. In the incremental tests, slopes for these parameters rose steadily over the entire duration of the tests, whereas in the endurance tests, slopes rose sharply from baseline to 25% of maximum exercise at which point they appeared far less steep until test end. Moreover, cycling exercise tests induced higher respiratory exchange ratio, ventilatory demand and enhanced leg fatigue measured subjectively and objectively. CONCLUSION: Endurance tests induce a maximal physiological demand in PAH. Differences in peak respiratory response during exercise are related to the modality (cycling vs. walking rather than the progression (endurance vs. incremental of the exercise tests.

  18. Intrinsic steady alternate bars in alluvial channels. Part 1: experimental observations and numerical tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    Alternate bars in straight alluvial channels are migrating or steady. The currently accepted view is that they are steady only if the width-to-depth ratio is at the value of resonance or if the bars are forced by a steady local perturbation. Experimental observations, however, seem to indicate that

  19. Alternatives to Kronig-Kramers Transformation and Testing, and Estimation of Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; Ross Macdonald, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two alternatives to Kronig-Kramers analysis of small-signal ac immittance data are discussed and illustrated using both synthetic and experimental data. The first, a derivative method of approximating imaginary-part response from real-part data, is found to be too approximate in regions where the im

  20. Quantitative Differences in Retest Effects across Different Methods Used to Construct Alternate Test Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Allowing respondents to retake a cognitive ability test has shown to increase their test scores. Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain this effect, which make distinct assumptions regarding the measurement invariance of psychometric tests across test administration sessions with regard to narrower cognitive abilities and general…