WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal testing alternatives

  1. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  2. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  3. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  4. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  5. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  6. Alternatives to animal testing in the safety evaluation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Derek J; Breheny, Damien

    2002-01-01

    The conventional method for assessing the safety of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals, biocides and industrial and household chemicals - including cosmetics - involves determining their toxicological properties by using experimental animals. The aim is to identify any possible adverse effects in humans by using these animal models. Providing safe products is undoubtedly of the utmost importance but, over the last decade or so, this aim has come into conflict with strong public opinion, especially in Europe, against animal testing. Industry, academia and the regulators have worked in partnership to find other ways of evaluating the safety of products, by non-animal testing, or at least by reducing the numbers of animals required and the severity of the tests in which they are used. There is a long way to go before products can be evaluated without any animal studies, and it may be that this laudable aim is an impossible dream. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made by using a combination of in vitro tests and the prediction of properties based on chemical structure. The aim of this review is to describe these important and worthwhile developments in various areas of toxicological testing, with a focus on the European regulatory framework for general industrial and household chemicals.

  7. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  8. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.

  9. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  10. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  11. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...... methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take...... on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated...

  12. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  13. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  14. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  15. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them.

  16. E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes have become within only one decade an important commodity, changing the market of the most mass-killing commercial product. While a few years ago estimates suggested that in the course of the 21st century one billion people would die prematurely from tobacco consumption, e-cigarettes continuously gaining popularity promise 10-30fold lower health effects, possibly strongly changing this equation. However, they still are not a harmless life-style drug. Acceptability simply depends on whether we compare their use to smoking or to not-smoking. In the absence of long-term follow-up health data of users, additional uncertainty comes from the lack of safety data, though this uncertainty likely only is whether they represent 3 or 10% of the risk of their combustible counterpart. This means that there is little doubt that they represent a prime opportunity for smokers to switch, but also that their use by non-smokers should be avoided where possible. The real safety concerns, however, are that e-cigarettes expose their users to many compounds, contaminants and especially flavors (more than 7,000 according to recent counts), which have mostly not been tested, especially not for long-term inhalation exposure. Neither the precautionary traditional animal testing nor post-marketing surveillance will offer us data of sufficient quality or sufficiently fast to support product development and regulatory decisions. Thus, alternative methods lend themselves to fill this gap, making this new product category a possible engine for new method development and its implementation and validation.

  17. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  18. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  20. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  1. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  2. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, Michelle R; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas A; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E; Léonard, Marc A; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  3. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  4. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  5. In vitro pituitary and thyroid cell proliferation assays and their relevance as alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Barae; Aarts, Jac M M J G; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro effect of eleven thyroid-active compounds known to affect pituitary and/or thyroid weights in vivo, using the proliferation of GH3 rat pituitary cells in the so-called "T-screen," and of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in a newly developed test denoted "TSH-screen" to gain insight into the relative value of these in vitro proliferation tests for an integrated testing strategy (ITS) for thyroid activity. Pituitary cell proliferation in the T-screen was stimulated by three out of eleven tested compounds, namely thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Of these three compounds, only T4 causes an increase in relative pituitary weight, and thus T4 was the only compound for which the effect in the in vitro assay correlated with a reported in vivo effect. As to the newly developed TSH-screen, two compounds had an effect, namely, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced and T4 antagonized FRTL-5 cell proliferation. These effects correlated with in vivo changes induced by these compounds on thyroid weight. Altogether, the results indicate that most of the selected compounds affect pituitary and thyroid weights by modes of action different from a direct thyroid hormone receptor (THR) or TSH receptor (TSHR)-mediated effect, and point to the need for additional in vitro tests for an ITS. Additional analysis of the T-screen revealed a positive correlation between the THR-mediated effects of the tested compounds in vitro and their effects on relative heart weight in vivo, suggesting that the T-screen may directly predict this THR-mediated in vivo adverse effect.

  6. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Rachel; Fuchs, Horst; Wever, Bart De; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of th

  7. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940’s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that ...

  8. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicit...

  9. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanopa

  10. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity.

  11. Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animal Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored and documented Taiwanese students' alternative conceptions of animal classification. We examined the understanding of the "animal", "vertebrate" and "invertebrate", "fish", "amphibian", "reptile", "bird", and "mammal" concepts among elementary,…

  12. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  13. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  14. Electrochemistry of Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 with gold nanoparticles: An alternative to animal testing in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-10-01

    This work reports for the first time the direct electron transfer of the Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on glassy carbon electrodes to provide an analytical tool as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process. Cytochrome P450 2D15, that corresponds to the human homologue P450 2D6, was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and entrapped on glassy carbon electrodes (GC) either with the cationic polymer polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) or in the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Reversible electrochemical signals of P450 2D15 were observed with calculated midpoint potentials (E1/2) of −191 ± 5 and −233 ± 4 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for GC/PDDA/2D15 and GC/AuNPs/2D15, respectively. These experiments were then followed by the electro-catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in the presence of metoprolol. The latter drug is a beta-blocker used for the treatment of hypertension and is a specific marker of the human P450 2D6 activity. Electrocatalysis data showed that only in the presence of AuNps the expected α-hydroxy-metoprolol product was present as shown by HPLC. The successful immobilization of the electroactive C. familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on electrode surfaces addresses the ever increasing demand of developing alternative in vitromethods for amore detailed study of animal P450 enzymes' metabolism, reducing the number of animals sacrificed in preclinical tests.

  15. The classification of motor neuron defects in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) as an animal alternative approach to assess developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Wichmann, Arne; Delov, Vera; Fenske, Martina

    2012-07-01

    Rodents are widely used to test the developmental neurotoxicity potential of chemical substances. The regulatory test procedures are elaborate and the requirement of numerous animals is ethically disputable. Therefore, non-animal alternatives are highly desirable, but appropriate test systems that meet regulatory demands are not yet available. Hence, we have developed a new developmental neurotoxicity assay based on specific whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons (using the monoclonal antibodies znp1 and zn8) in zebrafish embryos. By classifying the motor neuron defects, we evaluated the severity of the neurotoxic damage to individual primary and secondary motor neurons caused by chemical exposure and determined the corresponding effect concentration values (EC₅₀). In a proof-of-principle study, we investigated the effects of three model compounds thiocyclam, cartap and disulfiram, which show some neurotoxicity-indicating effects in vertebrates, and the positive controls ethanol and nicotine and the negative controls 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and triclosan. As a quantitative measure of the neurotoxic potential of the test compounds, we calculated the ratios of the EC₅₀ values for motor neuron defects and the cumulative malformations, as determined in a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (zFET). Based on this index, disulfiram was classified as the most potent and thiocyclam as the least potent developmental neurotoxin. The index also confirmed the control compounds as positive and negative neurotoxicants. Our findings demonstrate that this index can be used to reliably distinguish between neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic chemicals and provide a sound estimate for the neurodevelopmental hazard potential of a chemical. The demonstrated method can be a feasible approach to reduce the number of animals used in developmental neurotoxicity evaluation procedures.

  16. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  17. A FRAME response to the Draft Report on Alternative (Non-animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Michael; Clothier, Richard

    2010-10-01

    This response on behalf of FRAME to the European Commission's consultation on the five chapters of the Draft Report on Alternative (Non-animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects--2010, is via a Comment in ATLA, rather than via the template supplied by the Commission. This is principally so that a number of general points about cosmetic ingredient testing can be made. It is concluded that the five draft chapters do not provide a credible basis for the Commission's forthcoming report to the European Parliament and the European Council on the five cosmetic ingredient safety issues for which the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive's ban on animal testing was postponed until 2013. This is mainly because there is insufficient focus in the draft chapters on the specific nature of cosmetic ingredients, their uses, their local effects and metabolism at their sites of application, and, in particular, on whether their possible absorption into the body would be likely to lead to their accumulation in target sites at levels approaching Thresholds of Toxicological Concern. Meanwhile, there continues to be uncertainty about how the provisions of the Cosmetics Directive should be applied, given the requirements of the REACH system and directives concerned with the safety of other chemicals and products.

  18. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  19. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D

    2013-11-01

    Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed. Scientific problems with the animal models include the use of crude, uncontrolled and non-standardised methods for traumatisation, an inability to model all key trauma mechanisms, and complex modulating effects of general anaesthesia on target organ physiology. Such effects depend on the anaesthetic and influence the cardiovascular system, respiration, breathing, cerebral haemodynamics, neuroprotection, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Some anaesthetics also bind to the NMDA brain receptor with possible differential consequences in control and anaesthetised animals. There is also some evidence for gender-specific effects. Despite the fact that these issues are widely known, there is little published information on their potential, at best, to complicate data interpretation and, at worst, to invalidate animal models. There is also a paucity of detail on the anaesthesiology used in studies, and this can hinder correct data evaluation. Welfare issues relate mainly to the possibility of acute pain as a side-effect of traumatisation in recovered animals. Moreover, there is the increased potential for animals to suffer when anaesthesia is temporary, and the procedures invasive. These dilemmas can be addressed, however, as a diverse range of replacement approaches exist, including computer and mathematical

  20. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins.

  1. Progress in alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing on animals%神经发育毒性动物实验替代方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 梁锦锋; 宋淑亮; 吉爱国

    2012-01-01

    Industrial chemical exposure during early embryonic development can cause fetal brain damage, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and sub-clinical brain dysfunction. Although the safety evaluation of chemicals based on animal toxicity tests is relatively reliable, many of these tests are expensive in terms of scientific resources and time and do not fit in with the current trend of reduced use of laboratory animals. As a result, alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity(DNT) testing attract more attention. The paper reviews establishment and improvement of alternatives, including sensitivity, low consumption and adaptability to high throughput screening, advantages, and current applications of cell-based models and non-mammalian models and finally the challenges existing. The alternatives will not completely replace a paradigm that involves in vivo testing in mammals, but they will be of great value in prioritizing chemicals and in identifying mechanisms of DNT.%胚胎早期暴露于某些工业化学物中,即使是很小剂量,也可导致胚胎脑损伤,引起神经发育性疾病和亚临床脑功能不良.虽然化学物基于动物毒性实验的安全性评价是较可靠的,但这种方法耗时长、成本高,而且不符合目前减少实验动物使用的趋势,因此神经发育毒性(DNT)实验的替代模型逐步引起重视.为建立和完善快速、经济又可高通量筛选受试物的替代方法,本文分别介绍了体外细胞模型和非哺乳动物模型的优势、现阶段应用以及所面临的挑战.这些替代法虽不能完全取代包括哺乳动物在内的体内实验,但它们在区分化合物和识别DNT机制方面将发挥巨大的作用.

  2. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  3. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  4. T4 report. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: Current status and future prospects - 2010"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartung, T.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bosgra, S.; Carney, E.; Coenen, J.; Conolly, R.B.; Corsini, E.; Green, S.; Faustman, E.M.; Gaspari, A.; Hayashi, M.; Hayes, A.W.; Hengstler, J.G.; Knudsen, L.E.; Knudsen, T.B.; McKim, J.M.; Pfaller, W.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group o

  5. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...... of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding...... the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near...

  6. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    (Pcritical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (PResearchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  7. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto; Carney, Edward; Coenen, Joachim; Conolly, Rory B; Corsini, Emanuela; Green, Sidney; Faustman, Elaine M; Gaspari, Anthony; Hayashi, Makoto; Wallace Hayes, A; Hengstler, Jan G; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James M; Pfaller, Walter; Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near future pending validation. Various recommendations expand the original report. The reviewers agree with the report that there is greater promise in the short term for the areas of sensitization and toxicokinetics. Additional opportunities lie in more global collaborations and the inclusion of other industry sectors.

  8. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  9. Alternatives to animal experimentation for hormonal compounds research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, M; Jeremic, M; Montani, C; Unkila, M; Caimi, L; Mazzoleni, G; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2009-09-01

    Alternatives to animal testing and the identification of reliable methods that may decrease the need for animals are currently the subject of intense investigation worldwide. Alternative testing procedures are particularly important for synthetic and natural chemicals that exert their biological actions through binding nuclear receptors, called nuclear receptors-interacting compounds (NR-ICs), for which research is increasingly emphasizing the limits of several models in the accurate estimation of the physiological consequences of exposure to these compounds. In particular, estrogen receptor interacting compounds (ER-ICs) have a great impact on human health from the therapeutic, nutritional, and toxicological point of view due to the highly permissive nature of the estrogen receptors towards a large number of natural and synthetic compounds. Similar to in vitro systems, recently generated animal models (e.g., animal models generated for the study of estrogen receptor ligands) may fulfill the 3R principles: refine, reduce, and replace. If used correctly, NR-regulated models, such as reporter mice, xenopus, or zebrafish, and models obtained by somatic gene transfer in reporter systems, combined with imaging technologies, may contribute to strongly decreasing the overall number of animals required for NR-IC testing and research. With these models, flexible and highly standardized parameters and reporter marker quantification can be obtained. Here, we highlight the need for the substitution of currently used testing models with more appropriate ones that can reproduce the features and reactivity of specific mammalian target tissue/organs. We consider the promotion of this advancement a research priority bearing scientific, economic, social, and ethical relevance.

  10. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  11. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  12. Treatment, promotion, commotion: Antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture are urgently needed but present a complex problem because of their various uses: disease treatment, disease prevention, and feed efficiency improvement. Numerous antibiotic alternatives, such as feed amended with pre- and probiotics, have been propos...

  13. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  14. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  15. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  16. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  17. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  18. Simulation of physiology experiments--an alternative to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswari, K Sri; Devi, M Syamala; Sharma, Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    Amphibian experiments on nerve-muscle preparation and heart are essential as per first year MBBS practical syllabus, for learning basic concepts in Physiology. Need was felt to design and develop computer based simulation software as an alternative to animal use, due to growing concern and stringent laws imposed by animal ethical bodies. Computer algorithms were developed for 13 amphibian experiments, by manually tracing the graphs obtained through mechanical experimentation and storing the X, Y coordinates for the end points of each line segment as data base tables. By retrieving the data base tables, one for each experiment, the computer simulated graphs were drawn using Visual Basic 6 with timer control and Macromedia Flash for animation effects. A CD-ROM consisting of the software for computer simulation of all the amphibian experiments, as an alternative to the conventional animal experiments, has been developed for the benefit of medical students across the country, as a useful active learning tool.

  19. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  20. Russia: update on animal experiments and alternatives in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Progress continues in Russia with growing awareness and implementation of alternatives in education. Further outreach visits and negotiations for replacement have been made by InterNICHE campaigners. Russian language information resources have been complemented by the distribution of translated freeware physiology and pharmacology alternatives; and the InterNICHE Alternatives Loan Systems continue to provide valuable hands-on access to a range of learning tools. Donations of computers and alternatives have established exemplary multimedia laboratories, with software having directly replaced the annual use of several thousand animals. New agreements have been made with institutes to abandon animal experiments for teaching purposes. Work to consolidate the successes is being done, and Russian teachers have begun to present at conferences to share their experiences of implementation. Further development and implementation of alternatives is being achieved through grant funding from the InterNICHE Humane Education Award. Using a different approach, cases of determined conscientious objection have included a campaign against the use of stolen companion animals for surgery practice in the Russian Far East, and a continuing legal challenge to experiments at Moscow State University. This multi-pronged, decentralised and culturally appropriate campaigning strategy has proved to be an effective approach to achieving sustainable change in Russia.

  1. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  2. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ecological and immunological interactions. Most previous reviews of antibiotic resistance focus on resisters but overlook persisters, although both are fundamental to bacteria survival through antibiosis. Here, we discuss resisters and persisters together to contrast the distinct ecological responses of persisters during antibiotic stress and propose different regimens to eradicate persisters. Our intention is not only to provide an ecoimmunological interpretation, but also to use an ecoimmunological system to categorize available alternatives and promote the discovery of prospective approaches to relieve ART problems within the general scope of improving animal health. Thus, we will categorize available alternatives to antibiotics and envision applications of ecoimmunological tenets to promote related studies in animal production.

  3. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  4. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  5. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Molahally, Subramanya Shetty; Salwaji, Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective. PMID:28298815

  6. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  7. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  8. Alternatives to Standardized Tests. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    Five alternatives to standardized testing of student achievement are described in this brief overview. The first, criterion-referenced tests, are designed to evaluate the accomplishment of specifically stated instructional objectives. Student performance is judged on the basis of the objectives, rather than in comparison to other students taking…

  9. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  10. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing.

  11. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to

  12. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if activa

  13. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Boorsma, J.; Bosgra, S.; Caiment, F.; Ezendam, J.; Greuping, R.; Hendriksen, P.; Soeteman-Hernandez, L.G.; Jennen, D.; Kleinjans, J.; Kroese, D.; Kuper, F.; Loveren, van H.; Monshouwer, M.; Russel, F.; Someren, van E.; Tsamou, M.; Groothuis, G.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617–623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if activa

  14. Hypothesis testing in animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Darren P; Madden, Joah R; Franks, Daniel W; James, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural ecologists are increasingly using social network analysis to describe the social organisation of animal populations and to test hypotheses. However, the statistical analysis of network data presents a number of challenges. In particular the non-independent nature of the data violates the assumptions of many common statistical approaches. In our opinion there is currently confusion and uncertainty amongst behavioural ecologists concerning the potential pitfalls when hypotheses testing using social network data. Here we review what we consider to be key considerations associated with the analysis of animal social networks and provide a practical guide to the use of null models based on randomisation to control for structure and non-independence in the data.

  15. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use.

  16. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  17. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

  18. Alternative methodology for Scott-Knott test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lopes Bhering

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The test proposed by Scott Knott (1974, a procedure of means grouping, is an effective alternative to performprocedures of multiple comparisons without ambiguity. This study aimed to propose a modification related to the partitioningand means grouping in the said procedure, to obtain results without ambiguity among treatments, organized in morehomogeneous groups. In the proposed methodology, treatments that did not participate in the initial group are joined for a newanalysis, which allows for a better group distribution. In a comparative study, four experiments were simulated in a randomizedcomplete block design. The first consisted of 10 and the other 3 of 100 treatments. All experiments were performed in threereplications at a significance level of 0.05 for the means grouping test. Only in the third experiment of those of 100 treatmentsthe groups formed by Scott-Knott did not differ from the methodology proposed here. The proposed methodology is consideredeffective, aiming at the identification of elite cultivar groups for recommendation.

  19. Animal model and alternative test to skin antioxidant efficacy assessment%皮肤抗氧化功效评价动物模型及替代方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步犁; 程树军; 秦瑶; 谈伟君

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and damage is closely related to skin functional decreased and diseases.Traditional biological evaluation of the skin antioxidant often use animal model through creative a model of local skin injury or disease.With the deepening understanding of the mechanism of skin oxidative damage and the development of in vitro culture techniques,using cultured skin cells or reconstructive skin model test system can be establish a new rapid testing method which can be used in the evaluation and screening of antioxidant effects,as well as mechanisms research and product development.%氧化应激和损伤与多种皮肤功能下降和皮肤疾病密切相关.传统皮肤抗氧化剂的生物学评价多采用局部皮肤损伤模型或疾病动物模型,随着皮肤氧化损伤机制的认识不断深入和体外培养技术的发展,利用体外培养的皮肤细胞或重建的皮肤模型为测试系统,建立新型快速检测方法,可用于抗氧化效应评价和筛查,以及机制研究和产品开发.

  20. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  1. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de; Leenaars, M.; Tra, J.; Huijbregtse, R.; Bongers, E.; Jansen, J.A.; Gordijn, B.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiment

  2. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity....... To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient...... administered bovine immunoglobulin is currently being tested in a calf herd with persistent diarrhea problems. Furthermore, it was shown in a Campylobacter challenge model in chickens that caecal and faecal counts of Campylobacter were between 0.5 and 1.0 logs lower in birds when given 200 mg avian...

  3. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Bruce S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Donovan, David M; Gay, Cyril G

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their extensive use in food animals has garnered global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Yet, limiting the availability of medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases on the farm will directly impact global food security and safety as well as animal and human health. Insufficient attention has been given to the scientific breakthroughs and novel technologies that provide alternatives to antibiotics. The objectives of the symposium 'Alternatives to Antibiotics' were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that could potentially lead to alternatives to conventional antibiotics, and assess challenges associated with their commercialization, and provide actionable strategies to support development of alternative antimicrobials. The symposium focused on the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies that could provide new options and alternative strategies for preventing and treating diseases of animals. Some of these new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium was animal production, animal health and food safety during food-animal production. Five subject areas were explored in detail through scientific presentations and expert panel discussions, including: (1) alternatives to antibiotics, lessons from nature; (2) immune modulation approaches to enhance disease resistance and to treat animal diseases; (3) gut microbiome and immune development, health and diseases; (4) alternatives to antibiotics for animal production; and (5) regulatory pathways to enable the licensure of alternatives to antibiotics.

  4. 77 FR 38751 - Codification of Animal Testing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Codification of Animal Testing Policy AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Proposed Statement of Policy on Animal Testing SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) proposes to codify its statement of policy on animal testing, as amended, which...

  5. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the... approaches that may reduce, refine, or replace animal use in human and veterinary rabies vaccine...

  6. A written test as an alternative to performance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vleuten, C P; Van Luyk, S J; Beckers, H J

    1989-01-01

    Performance tests are logistically complex and time consuming. To reach adequate reliability long tests are imperative. Additionally, they are very difficult to adapt to the individual learning paths of students, which is necessary in problem-based learning. This study investigates a written alternative to performance-based tests. A Knowledge Test of Skills (KTS) was developed and administered to 380 subjects of various educational levels, including both first-year students and recently graduated doctors. By comparing KTS scores with scores on performance tests strong convergent validity was demonstrated. The KTS failed discriminant validity when compared with a general medical knowledge test. Also the identification of sub-tests discriminating between behavioural and cognitive aspects was not successful. This was due to the interdependence of the constructs measured. The KTS was able to demonstrate differences in ability level and showed subtle changes in response patterns over items, indicating construct validity. It was concluded that the KTS is a valid instrument for predicting performance scores and could very well be applied as supplementary information to performance testing. The relative ease of construction and efficiency makes the KTS a suitable substitute instrument for research purposes. The study also showed that in higher ability levels the concepts which were meant to be measured were highly related, giving evidence to the general factor theory of competence. However, it appeared that this general factor was originally non-existent in first-year students and that these competencies integrate as the educational process develops.

  7. 77 FR 73286 - Codification of Animal Testing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Codification of Animal Testing Policy AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission... statement of policy on animal testing that provides guidance for manufacturers of products subject to the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) regarding replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal...

  8. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  9. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  10. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  11. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  12. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  13. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  14. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  15. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

    1999-04-01

    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  16. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  17. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  18. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  19. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Burden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  20. Developing a list of reference chemicals for testing alternatives to whole fish toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Kramer, Nynke I; Völker, Doris; Scholz, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Lee, Lucy E J; Bols, Niels C; Hermens, Joop L M

    2008-11-11

    This paper details the derivation of a list of 60 reference chemicals for the development of alternatives to animal testing in ecotoxicology with a particular focus on fish. The chemicals were selected as a prerequisite to gather mechanistic information on the performance of alternative testing systems, namely vertebrate cell lines and fish embryos, in comparison to the fish acute lethality test. To avoid the need for additional experiments with fish, the U.S. EPA fathead minnow database was consulted as reference for whole organism responses. This database was compared to the Halle Registry of Cytotoxicity and a collation of data by the German EPA (UBA) on acute toxicity data derived from zebrafish embryos. Chemicals that were present in the fathead minnow database and in at least one of the other two databases were subject to selection. Criteria included the coverage of a wide range of toxicity and physico-chemical parameters as well as the determination of outliers of the in vivo/in vitro correlations. While the reference list of chemicals now guides our research for improving cell line and fish embryo assays to make them widely applicable, the list could be of benefit to search for alternatives in ecotoxicology in general. One example would be the use of this list to validate structure-activity prediction models, which in turn would benefit from a continuous extension of this list with regard to physico-chemical and toxicological data.

  1. Testing Alternative Theories of Gravity using LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on alternative theories of gravity using gravitational wave detection from inspiralling compact binaries with the proposed LISA space interferometer. Specifically, we estimate lower bounds on the coupling parameter \\omega of scalar-tensor theories of the Brans-Dicke type and on the Compton wavelength of the graviton \\lambda_g in hypothetical massive graviton theories. In these theories, modifications of the gravitational radiation damping formulae or of the propagation of the waves translate into a change in the phase evolution of the observed gravitational waveform. We obtain the bounds through the technique of matched filtering, employing the LISA Sensitivity Curve Generator (SCG), available online. For a neutron star inspiralling into a 10^3 M_sun black hole in the Virgo Cluster, in a two-year integration, we find a lower bound \\omega > 3 * 10^5. For lower-mass black holes, the bound could be as large as 2 * 10^6. The bound is independent of LISA arm...

  2. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  3. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  4. Alternatives to in vivo Tests to Detect Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Fish and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of current research in risk assessment of chemicals is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, replace or refine the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. In 2009, the US EPA began implementation of t...

  5. An Alternative to the Use of Animals to Teach Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Paulo José; Tazinafo, Lucas Favaretto; Silva, Mauro Ferreira; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alternative approach to teach diabetes mellitus in our practical classes, replacing laboratory animals. We used custom rats made of cloth, which have a ventral zipper that allows stuffing with glass marbles to reach different weights. Three mock rats per group were placed into metabolic cages with real food and water and with test…

  6. Science Teachers and the Dissection Debate: Perspectives on Animal Dissection and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Ontario science and biology teachers' practices and attitudes toward animal dissection and dissection alternatives. The data was collected through a mixed methods approach involving online surveys (n = 153) and subsequent telephone interviews (n = 9) with secondary school science and biology teachers. The findings indicate…

  7. [Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test as an Alternative for the Mouse Inoculation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, R.; Hörnlimann, B.; Wandeler, A. I.; Kappeler, A.; Kipfer, R.; Peterhans, E.

    1990-01-01

    Rabies has disappeared from large parts of Switzerland. Due to systematic oral fox-vaccination campaings that started in 1987, cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals have been confined to the western frontier with France in the last three years. Nevertheless, some cases of severe exposition of man by rabid or rabies-suspect animals still occur. Rabies can be diagnosed in brain smears of infected animals with high specificity and sensitivity by a direct immunofluorescence method. According to WHO recommendations, negative results are to be confirmed in cases of a human exposition by intracerebral inoculation of brain suspensions in three-weeks-old mice. This method has an excellent sensitivity and is able to detect false-negative results in immunofluorescence, which occur in a very small percentage (0.043%). The disadvantage of this confirmatory assay is the sacrification of relatively high numbers of mice (in the Swiss rabies center about 1,300 animals each year), and the long time required for a final diagnosis: 7-20 days in positive, 21 days in negative cases. The cultivation of virus from brain suspensions on a mouse neuroblastoma cell line is a tempting alternative to the mouse inoculation test. This method usually provides a conclusive diagnosis within a few days. However, in our hands it showed in preliminary experiments an unsatisfactory sensitivity (80.7%). The necessity to carry out strict reproducibility controls in this assay has to be emphasized. Further work must be invested in the improvement of the rabies tissue culture infection test and a careful long-term comparison with the mouse inoculation test will be necessary before the mouse inoculation test can be replaced.

  8. CNAL Held International Proficiency Testing Workshop On Animal Quarantine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ From 14th to 16th, July 2004, CNAL held International Proficiency Testing Workshop on Animal Quarantine in TianJin, China. Approximately 50 experts from AQSIQ (General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection & Quarantine of the People's Republic of China) and Ministry of Agriculture who are engaged in the technical and management activities of animal quarantine laboratories attended the workshop.

  9. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is

  10. Conceptual Approaches to Alternate Methods in Toxicological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Goldberg

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to public pressure, in vivo methods of toxicity testing is being attempted to be replaced by in vitro methods, such as cell and organ culture, computer modelling and modified LD50 tests using lesser number of animals. Specifically in the case of Draize eye irritancy test using rabbits, a number of refinements have been incorporated by different workers, mainly use of a local anaesthetic which will reduce animal distress without vitiating the test results. The author recommends exploration of new avenues for testing based on the advances in cell biology.

  11. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies.

  12. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because...

  13. [Non-animal toxicology in the safety testing of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Tähti, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop predictive test methods better than animal experiments for assessing the safety of chemical substances to man. According to today's vision this is achieved by using human cell based tissue and organ models. In the new testing strategy the toxic effects are assessed by the changes in the critical parameters of the cellular biochemical routes (AOP, adverse toxic outcome pathway-principle) in the target tissues. In vitro-tests are rapid and effective, and with them automation can be applied. The change in the testing paradigm is supported by all stakeholders: scientists, regulators and people concerned on animal welfare.

  14. A first vascularized skin equivalent for as an alternative to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, Florian; Engelhardt, Lisa; Lange, Julia; Kurdyn, Szymon; Schmid, Freia F; Rücker, Christoph; Mielke, Stephan; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents mimic key aspects of the human skin, and can thus be employed as wound coverage for large skin defects or as in vitro test systems as an alternative to animal models. However, current skin equivalents lack a functional vasculature limiting clinical and research applications. This study demonstrates the generation of a vascularized skin equivalent with a perfused vascular network by combining a biological vascularized scaffold (BioVaSc) based on a decellularized segment of a porcine jejunum and a tailored bioreactor system. Briefly, the BioVaSc was seeded with human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and human microvascular endothelial cells. After 14 days at the air-liquid interface, hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistological staining revealed a specific histological architecture representative of the human dermis and epidermis including a papillary-like architecture at the dermal-epidermal-junction. The formation of the skin barrier was measured non-destructively using impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, endothelial cells lined the walls of the formed vessels that could be perfused with a physiological volume flow. Due to the presence of a complex in-vivo-like vasculature, the here shown skin equivalent has the potential for skin grafting and represents a sophisticated in vitro model for dermatological research.

  15. Food for Thought... on the Economics of Animal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bottini, Annamaria; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    "Money makes the world go around". We all have heard this, but in the field of alternative methods, we use to talk about ethics, scientific progress, politics, animal welfare or consumer and environment safety. In this series of articles, however, we have occasionally come to issues which were difficult to separate from economical reasoning. Most obviously, the article on globalisation [Bottini et al. 2007] showed the resonance of a major economical trend and recent developments in the field ...

  16. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  17. Political incentives towards replacing animal testing in nanotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2009-01-01

    The Treaty of Lisbon requests the European Union and the Member States to pay full regard to animal welfare issues when implementing new policies. The present article discusses how these provisions are met in the emerging area of nanotechnology. Political action plans in Europe take into account animal welfare issues to some extent. Funding programmes promote the development of non-animal test methods, however only in the area of nanotoxicology and also here not sufficiently to "pay full regard" to preventing animal testing, let alone to bring about a paradigm change in toxicology or in biomedical research as such. Ethical deliberations on nanotechnology, which influence future policies, so far do not address animal welfare at all. Considering that risk assessment of nanoproducts is conceived as a key element to protect human dignity, ethical deliberations should address the choice of the underlying testing methods and call for basing nanomaterial safety testing upon the latest scientific--and ethically acceptable--technologies. Finally, public involvement in the debate on nanotechnology should take into account information on resulting animal experiments.

  18. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  19. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  20. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  1. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  2. Participation of Brazil in the World Congresses on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: an increase in commitment to the Three Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presgrave, Octavio; Caldeira, Cristiane; Moura, Wlamir; Cruz, Mayara; Méier, Gisele; Dos Santos, Elisabete; Boas, Maria H V

    2015-03-01

    Many Brazilian researchers have long been interested in the development and use of alternative methods. Most of their research groups work in isolation, due to the lack of funding for collaborative studies. Despite these problems, since the Third World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Brazilian researchers have strongly participated, not only by presenting posters and oral presentations, but also by being involved in the World Congress Committees. The Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM) must play an important role in the development and validation of alternative methods, through the active participation of the National Network of Alternative Methods (ReNaMA). In Brazil, Law 11,794/2008 regulates the use of animals in experimentation and education, and Law 9,605/1998 clearly states that use of the original animal test is not permitted, if an alternative method is available. Therefore, given the current legal framework, it is very important that all the Ministries involved with animal use, and the organisations responsible for funding researchers, strive to increase the financial support of those groups that are involved in the development and use of alternative methods in Brazil.

  3. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  4. p-Values and Alternative Boundaries for CUSUM Tests

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Firstly rather accurate approximations to the p value functions of the common Standard CUSUM test and the OLS-based CUSUM test for structural change are derived. Secondly alternative boundaries for both tests are suggested and their properties are examined by simulation of expected p values. It turns out that the power of the OLS-based CUSUM test for early and late structural changes can be improved, whereas this weakness of the Standard CUSUM test cannot be repaired by the new boundaries. (a...

  5. Recursive Algorithm and Alternate Operation Strategy in Sequential Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-lin; CHEN Zhan-qi; GUO Lue

    2009-01-01

    Based on the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) developed by Wald, an improved method for successful probability test of missile flight is proposed. A recursive algorithm and its program in Matlab are designed to calculate the real risk level of the sequential test decision and the average number of samples under various test conditions. A concept, that is "rejecting as soon as possible", is put forward and an alternate operation strategy is conducted. The simulation results show that it can reduce the test expenses.

  6. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs.

  7. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified.

  8. Farm animals's cognition and the tests used on its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Priscila Bueno Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognition is a set of activities and processes whereby an animal acquires information and develops knowledge. The most common cognitive processes are: memory, categorization , attention, reasoning and language.  This present research was aimed to study the cognitive ability of livestock based on results of cognitive tests described in the literature, as well to expose the various types of tests applied to make such an assessment, in the periods from 1969 until nowadays. Through this bibliographic study, It was discussed issues related to cognition , sentience and animal consciousness, through preference tests, learning, recognition and memorization applied to domestic animals. In general they show a cognitive ability to evaluate the environment for themselves, based on their preferences and motivations. Cognitive tests have shown the high ability of some species to memorize their handlers's faces, and recognize who is aversively dealing with. Furthermore, it was possible to prove that some producing species are sentient and their choices able to imply physical sensations that can affect your mental state. Thus, it is important to point out measures to help improve the well-being of the animals.

  9. On hypothesis testing with a partitioned random alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is common in statistical practice that one needs to make a choice among m + 1 mutually exclusive claims on distributions.When m=1,it is done by the (traditional) hypothesis test.In this paper,a generalization to the case m > 1 is proposed.The fundamental difference with the case m=1 is that the new alternative hypothesis is a partition of m multiple claims and is data-dependent.Data is used to decide which claim in the partition is to be tested as the alternative.Thus,a random alternative is involved.The conditional and overall type I errors of the proposed test are controlled at a given level,and this test can be used as a new solution for the general multiple test problem.Several classical problems,including the one-sample problem,model selection in multiple linear regression,and multi-factor analysis,are revisited,and new tests are provided correspondingly.Consequently,the famous two-sided t-test should be replaced by the proposed.

  10. SkinEthic Laboratories, a company devoted to develop and produce in vitro alternative methods to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brugerolle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    SkinEthic Laboratories is a France-based biotechnology company recognised as the world leader in tissue engineering. SkinEthic is devoted to develop and produce reliable and robust in vitro alternative methods to animal use in cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. SkinEthic models provide relevant tools for efficacy and safety screening tests in order to support an integrated decision-making during research and development phases. Some screening tests are referenced and validated as alternatives to animal use (Episkin), others are in the process of validation under ECVAM and OECD guidelines. SkinEthic laboratories provide a unique and joined experience of more than 20 years from Episkin SNC and SkinEthic SA. Their unique cell culture process allows in vitro reconstructed human tissues with well characterized histology, functionality and ultrastructure features to be mass produced. Our product line includes skin models: a reconstructed human epidermis with a collagen layer, Episkin, reconstructed human epidermis without or with melanocytes (with a tanning degree from phototype II to VI) and a reconstructed human epithelium, i.e. cornea, and other mucosa, i.e. oral, gingival, oesophageal and vaginal. Our philosophy is based on 3 main commitments: to support our customers by providing robust and reliable models, to ensure training and education in using validated protocols, allowing a large array of raw materials, active ingredients and finished products in solid, liquid, powder, cream or gel form to be screened, and, to provide a dedicated service to our partners.

  11. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  12. Design, construction and testing of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small animals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, M J; Preache, M M

    1980-11-01

    This final report describes both the engineering development of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small laboratory animals, and the biological protocol for the use of such enclosures in the testing of animals to determine possible biological effects of the environment associated with HVDC transmission lines. The test enclosure which has been designed is a modular unit, which will house up to eight rat-sized animals in individual compartments. Multiple test enclosures can be used to test larger numbers of animals. A prototype test enclosure has been fabricated and tested to characterize its electrical performance characteristics. The test enclosure provides a simulation of the dominant environment associated with HVDC transmission lines; namely, a static electric field and an ion current density. A biological experimental design has been developed for assessing the effects of the dominant components of the HVDC transmission line environment.

  13. Histopathological Analogies in Chronic Pulmonary Lesions between Cattle and Humans: Basis for an Alternative Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Wong-González, Alfredo; Ledezma-Torres, Rogelio A.; Hernández-Vidal, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model. PMID:22629176

  14. Histopathological Analogies in Chronic Pulmonary Lesions between Cattle and Humans: Basis for an Alternative Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramírez-Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model.

  15. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further

  16. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  17. Report and recommendations of the international workshop "Retrieval approaches for information on alternative methods to animal experiments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune, Barbara; Fallon, Michael; Howard, Carol; Hudson, Vera; Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie A; Larson, Jean; Leary, Sue; Roi, Annett; van der Valk, Jan; Wood, Mary; Dörendahl, Antje; Köhler-Hahn, Dorothea; Box, Rainer; Spielmann, Horst

    2004-01-01

    In the member states of the EU and in the USA, scientists are obliged by animal welfare legislation not to conduct an animal experiment if another scientifically satisfactory method is reasonably and practicably available. To meet the regulatory obligation to use alternatives to animal experiments, scientists should consult literature and other relevant sources on alternatives prior to any experimental study on laboratory animals. It is the responsibility of the individual scientist to select the most appropriate database to obtain information on alternatives, which have been defined as methods that refine, reduce or replace animal experiments (the 3 Rs concept of Russell and Burch (1959)). Specialised information services provide support to scientists searching for publications on alternative methods. On occasion of a workshop in Berlin in November 2003, representatives of animal welfare information centres discussed currently available information sources on alternative methods, index terms for alternative methods, and search strategies based on index terms for alternative methods. ZEBET presented an investigation on the current status of indexing systems on alternative methods in established literature databases. The project analysed how the results of a search for publications on alternatives was influenced by the indexing procedure. The results of the study were exemplified by a typical search result. The results of the study indicated that the current indexing systems do not provide the required information, since not all of the relevant information is indexed under "alternative methods". The workshop participants developed recommendations for ad hoc working groups and research projects, e.g. development of suitable search strategies on alternative methods for scientists.

  18. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... by simulation. Furthermore, our own simulation results suggest that the user-specied adjustment scheme for deterministic components (e.g. OLS, GLS, or recursive adjustment) has a much higher impact on the power of unit root tests than accounting for nonlinearity, at least under local (linear or nonlinear......This article extends the analysis of local power of unit root tests in a nonlinear direction by considering local nonlinear alternatives and tests built specically against stationary nonlinear models. In particular, we focus on the popular test proposed by Kapetanios et al. (2003, Journal...

  19. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2007-07-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) and alternate-day fasting (ADF) represent 2 different forms of dietary restriction. Although the effects of CR on chronic disease prevention were reviewed previously, the effects of ADF on chronic disease risk have yet to be summarized. Accordingly, we review here animal and human evidence concerning ADF and the risk of certain chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We also compare the magnitude of risk reduction resulting from ADF with that resulting from CR. In terms of diabetes risk, animal studies of ADF find lower diabetes incidence and lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, effects that are comparable to those of CR. Human trials to date have reported greater insulin-mediated glucose uptake but no effect on fasting glucose or insulin concentrations. In terms of cardiovascular disease risk, animal ADF data show lower total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, a lower heart rate, improved cardiac response to myocardial infarction, and lower blood pressure. The limited human evidence suggests higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower triacylglycerol concentrations but no effect on blood pressure. In terms of cancer risk, there is no human evidence to date, yet animal studies found decreases in lymphoma incidence, longer survival after tumor inoculation, and lower rates of proliferation of several cell types. The findings in animals suggest that ADF may effectively modulate several risk factors, thereby preventing chronic disease, and that ADF may modulate disease risk to an extent similar to that of CR. More research is required to establish definitively the consequences of ADF.

  20. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineyard, E. A.; Sand, J. R.; Miller, W. A.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising, changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve performance.

  1. Genetic parameters and alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Oliveira Fragomeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate (covariance components for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and an index with both traits, and to compare alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests. The heritability estimates were 0.73, 0.31 and 0.44 for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and index, respectively. Animals were ranked according to their predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations in relation to the mean of the test. Although the correlations between breeding values and phenotypic deviations were high, there were differences in the number of animals selected in common when the selection criteria were the predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations. Mixed models are more appropriate than the least squares method and should be utilized in the evaluation of young bulls in performance tests.

  2. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable.

  3. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge.

  4. Improved animal models for testing gene therapy for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Flynn, Rowan; Dichek, David A

    2014-04-01

    Gene therapy delivered to the blood vessel wall could augment current therapies for atherosclerosis, including systemic drug therapy and stenting. However, identification of clinically useful vectors and effective therapeutic transgenes remains at the preclinical stage. Identification of effective vectors and transgenes would be accelerated by availability of animal models that allow practical and expeditious testing of vessel-wall-directed gene therapy. Such models would include humanlike lesions that develop rapidly in vessels that are amenable to efficient gene delivery. Moreover, because human atherosclerosis develops in normal vessels, gene therapy that prevents atherosclerosis is most logically tested in relatively normal arteries. Similarly, gene therapy that causes atherosclerosis regression requires gene delivery to an existing lesion. Here we report development of three new rabbit models for testing vessel-wall-directed gene therapy that either prevents or reverses atherosclerosis. Carotid artery intimal lesions in these new models develop within 2-7 months after initiation of a high-fat diet and are 20-80 times larger than lesions in a model we described previously. Individual models allow generation of lesions that are relatively rich in either macrophages or smooth muscle cells, permitting testing of gene therapy strategies targeted at either cell type. Two of the models include gene delivery to essentially normal arteries and will be useful for identifying strategies that prevent lesion development. The third model generates lesions rapidly in vector-naïve animals and can be used for testing gene therapy that promotes lesion regression. These models are optimized for testing helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd)-mediated gene therapy; however, they could be easily adapted for testing of other vectors or of different types of molecular therapies, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall. Our data also supports the promise of HDAd to deliver long

  5. Testing episodic memory in animals: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D P; Clayton, N S

    2001-08-01

    Episodic memory involves the encoding and storage of memories concerned with unique personal experiences and their subsequent recall, and it has long been the subject of intensive investigation in humans. According to Tulving's classical definition, episodic memory "receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes or events and temporal-spatial relations among these events." Thus, episodic memory provides information about the 'what' and 'when' of events ('temporally dated experiences') and about 'where' they happened ('temporal-spatial relations'). The storage and subsequent recall of this episodic information was thought to be beyond the memory capabilities of nonhuman animals. Although there are many laboratory procedures for investigating memory for discrete past episodes, until recently there were no previous studies that fully satisfied the criteria of Tulving's definition: they can all be explained in much simpler terms than episodic memory. However, current studies of memory for cache sites in food-storing jays provide an ethologically valid model for testing episodic-like memory in animals, thereby bridging the gap between human and animal studies memory. There is now a pressing need to adapt these experimental tests of episodic memory for other animals. Given the potential power of transgenic and knock-out procedures for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of learning and memory in laboratory rodents, not to mention the wealth of knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the rodent hippocampus (a brain area heavily implicated in episodic memory), an obvious next step is to develop a rodent model of episodic-like memory based on the food-storing bird paradigm. The development of a rodent model system could make an important contribution to our understanding of the neural, molecular, and behavioral mechanisms of mammalian episodic memory.

  6. Animal welfare versus food quality: factors influencing organic consumers' preferences for alternatives to piglet castration without anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers. Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries.

  8. Implementation of alternative test strategies for the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, A E

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology introduces a new field that requires novel approaches and methods for hazard and risk assessment. For an appropriate scientific platform for safety assessment, nanoscale properties and functions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including how the physicochemical properties of the materials relate to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface, must be considered. Moreover, this rapidly advancing new field requires novel test strategies that allow multiple toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use and is based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease. First, a predictive toxicological approach for the safety assessment of ENMs will be discussed against the background of a '21st-century vision' for using alternative test strategies (ATSs) to perform toxicological assessment of large numbers of untested chemicals, thereby reducing a backlog that could otherwise become a problem for nanotechnology. An ATS is defined here as an alternative to animal experiments or refinement/reduction alternative to traditional animal testing. Secondly, the approach of selecting pathways of toxicity to screen for the pulmonary hazard potential of carbon nanotubes and metal oxides will be discussed, as well as how to use these pathways to perform high-content or high-throughput testing and how the data can be used for hazard ranking, risk assessment, regulatory decision-making and 'safer-by-design' strategies. Finally, the utility and disadvantages of this predictive toxicological approach to ENM safety assessment, and how it can assist the 21st-century vision, will be addressed.

  9. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  10. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  11. How to assess the mutagenic potential of cosmetic products without animal tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter

    2009-08-01

    new in vitro genotoxicity testing will become much more complex and will require greater mechanistic understanding to build a weight of evidence decision, which will be demanding and time-consuming. At present, no validated alternative methods for the follow-up of positive results from the standard genotoxicity battery are available and an appropriate evaluation of the mutagenic potential of cosmetic ingredients without animal experiments is therefore not possible in many cases.

  12. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  13. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  15. Perceived game realism: a test of three alternative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbens, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    Perceived realism is considered a key concept in explaining the mental processing of media messages and the societal impact of media. Despite its importance, little is known about its conceptualization and dimensional structure, especially with regard to digital games. The aim of this study was to test a six-factor model of perceived game realism comprised of simulational realism, freedom of choice, perceptual pervasiveness, social realism, authenticity, and character involvement and to assess it against an alternative single- and five-factor model. Data were collected from 380 male digital game users who judged the realism of the first-person shooter Half-Life 2 based upon their previous experience with the game. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to investigate which model fits the data best. The results support the six-factor model over the single- and five-factor solutions. The study contributes to our knowledge of perceived game realism by further developing its conceptualization and measurement.

  16. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  17. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S; Jyoti, S

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  18. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  19. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  20. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  1. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao

    as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference animal......This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls...... resulted in a lower reliability. Therefore, the design of reference population is important for improving the reliability of genomic prediction. With regard to model, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to slightly a higher reliability of genomic prediction than the GBLUP model....

  2. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao

    as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference animal......This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls...... resulted in a lower reliability. Therefore, the design of reference population is important for improving the reliability of genomic prediction. With regard to model, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to slightly a higher reliability of genomic prediction than the GBLUP model...

  3. Second Life, a 3-D Animated Virtual World: An Alternative Platform for (Art) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    3-D animated virtual worlds are no longer only for gaming. With the advance of technology, animated virtual worlds not only are found on every computer, but also connect users with the internet. Today, virtual worlds are created not only by companies, but also through the collaboration of users. Online 3-D animated virtual worlds provide a new…

  4. "Play it Again": a new method for testing metacognition in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Allison L; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2012-03-01

    Putative metacognition data in animals may be explained by non-metacognition models (e.g., stimulus generalization). The primary objective of the present study was to develop a new method for testing metacognition in animals that may yield data that can be explained by metacognition but not by non-metacognition models. Next, we used the new method with rats. Rats were first presented with a brief noise duration which they would subsequently classify as short or long. Rats were sometimes forced to take an immediate duration test, forced to repeat the same duration, or had the choice to take the test or repeat the duration. Metacognition, but not an alternative non-metacognition model, predicts that accuracy on difficult durations is higher when subjects are forced to repeat the stimulus compared to trials in which the subject chose to repeat the stimulus, a pattern observed in our data. Simulation of a non-metacognition model suggests that this part of the data from rats is consistent with metacognition, but other aspects of the data are not consistent with metacognition. The current results call into question previous findings suggesting that rats have metacognitive abilities. Although a mixed pattern of data does not support metacognition in rats, we believe the introduction of the method may be valuable for testing with other species to help evaluate the comparative case for metacognition.

  5. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Developed as an Alternative Animal Model for Focal Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinge; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of mortality and chronic disability. Animal models provide an essential tool for understanding the complex cellular and molecular pathophysiology of ischemia and for improving treatment and testing novel neuroprotective drugs in the preclinical setting. In this study, we tested zebrafish as a novel model for thrombotic ischemic brain damage. Zebrafish were intraperitoneally injected with Rose Bengal and light exposure was directed onto the optic tectum region of the brain to induce photothrombosis. After full recovery from anesthesia, zebrafish consistently exhibited abnormal swimming patterns, indicating brain injury from the procedure. The staining of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) 24 h after the treatment showed lack of staining of the exposed area of the brain, which further confirmed the ischemic injury. Application of Activase®-tPA improved viability of the brain. The tPA treatment also reduced the occurrence of moving disability as well as the mortality rate, demonstrating that the zebrafish model not only showed focal ischemic injury but also responded well to tPA therapy. Our results suggest that the current photothrombotic method induced focal ischemia in zebrafish and produced consistent brain damage that can be measured by behavioral changes and quantified by histological staining.

  6. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K; Stokes, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a program under which the use of animals for requalification of in vitro potency tests could be eliminated. Standard References (USDA/CVB nomenclature) would be developed, characterized, stored and monitored by selected reference laboratories worldwide. These laboratories would employ scientists skilled in protein and glycoprotein chemistry and equipped with state-of-the-art instruments for required analyses. After Standard References are established, the reference laboratories would provide them to the animal health industry as "gold standards". Companies would then establish and validate a correlation between the Standard Reference and the company Master Reference (USDA/CVB nomenclature) using an internal in vitro assay. After this correlation is established, the company could use the Standard References for qualifying, monitoring and requalifying company Master References without the use of animals. Such a program would eliminate the need for animals for requalification of Master References and the need for each company to develop and validate a battery of Master Reference Monitoring assays. It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing.

  7. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  8. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  9. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  10. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests.

  11. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Animal and other test system care. 792... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the...

  12. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  13. Animal testing, 3R models and regulatory acceptance : Technology transition in a risk-averse context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, M.J.W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Risk avoidance has resulted in a broad range of regulations to guarantee the safety of products such as pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Many of these regulations rely on animal tests. About 3 million laboratory animals are used annually in Europe to meet such regulatory requirements.Regulatory animal

  14. Testing Refrigeration Trucks for the Emergency Evacuation of Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Ellifrit, Nancy; Sime, Debra; Rowe, Mike; Hogue, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight = 1,248 kg) housed in individual crates were loaded into a 16-m refrigeration truck. Once they were loaded, the doors were closed and the percentages of O2 and CO2 were measured every 5 min by O2 and CO2 analyzers, and they were used to quantify the changes in gas pressure in the sealed truck. CO2 had a much higher-than-predicted increase, and O2 had a higher-than-predicted decrease. These 2 pressures in combination with the functionality of the respiratory system will limit the animal's ability to load O2, and over time, they will initiate asphyxia or suffocation. Over time, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the sealed truck will decrease, causing hypoxia, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) will increase, causing hypercapnia.

  15. 医学动物替代研究发展现状研究%Study on the Current Status of Medical Alternative Animal Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫茂玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the current status of alternative animal researches in China and thus find the problems and put forward countermeasures. Method: This study was carried out by the methods of literature search and qualitative description. The authors precisely searched the medicine databases commonly used in China ( CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data) using the MeSH word, title, or keyword namely"animal alternative","animal decrease" or"animal optimization", and added to find the related researches′references. Then the author included the literature regarding to the organization construction, legislation, medical education, and alternative research methods, and conducted a qualitative description. The deadline was July 20, 2015. Results:There were 219 ini-tial quotations published from 1999 to 2014, and mainly were descriptive researches. The fields of alternative ani-mal researches included skin and eye stimulating toxicology test, thermal hyperalgesia and animal model replace-ment, and etc. The information communication platform of replacement researches had established, part of teachers were in practice using the substitution principle, the related monographs had been published, but the law and regu-lation construction and validation system were lag, the cognitive of replacement researches was not optimistic, and the validation method researches were insufficient. Conclusion: The domestic alternative animal researches were insufficient and lacking of systematic construction. It should strengthen the study on alternative animal research sys-tem, focused on legislation, policy leading, medical education, talent cultivation, and research methods.%目的:了解我国动物替代研究发展现状,发现问题,提出对策。方法文献检索与定性描述法。以主题、篇名或关键词“动物替代”或“动物减少”或“动物优化”精确检索中文医学常用数据库中国知网、维普数据和万方数据库,补充查找相关研

  16. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  17. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described.

  18. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  19. Diagnostic testing in first opinion small animal consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, N. J.; Dean, R. S.; Cobb, M.; Brennan, Marnie L.

    2014-01-01

    DIAGNOSTIC testing is a vital part of the decision-making process, which aims to increase diagnostic certainty, assist management and treatment decisions and provide a prognosis (Radostits and others 2000). A wide range of tests are available, with variable accuracy, expense and risk to the patient, but it is currently unclear how veterinary surgeons are making decisions about which tests to carry out. Understanding the decision-making process is vital in order to ensure that the decisions ma...

  20. Medical records for animals used in research, teaching, and testing: public statement from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Karl; Bailey, Michele; Foresman, Larry L; Harris, Robert L; Motzel, Sherri L; Rockar, Richard A; Ruble, Gaye; Suckow, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Medical records are considered to be a key element of a program of adequate veterinary care for animals used in research, teaching, and testing. However, prior to the release of the public statement on medical records by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), the guidance that was available on the form and content of medical records used for the research setting was not consistent and, in some cases, was considered to be too rigid. To address this concern, ACLAM convened an ad hoc Medical Records Committee and charged the Committee with the task of developing a medical record guideline that was based on both professional judgment and performance standards. The Committee provided ACLAM with a guidance document titled Public Statements: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching, and Testing, which was approved by ACLAM in late 2004. The ACLAM public statement on medical records provides guidance on the definition and content of medical records, and clearly identifies the Attending Veterinarian as the individual who is charged with authority and responsibility for oversight of the institution's medical records program. The document offers latitude to institutions in the precise form and process used for medical records but identifies typical information to be included in such records. As a result, the ACLAM public statement on medical records provides practical yet flexible guidelines to assure that documentation of animal health is performed in research, teaching, and testing situations.

  1. Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Holger

    2008-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

  2. A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective on the Use of Alternative Test Strategies for Nanomaterial Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre E.; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C.; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; DeShazo, J. R.; Hussain, Saber M.; Kane, Agnes B.; Klaessig, Fred; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C.; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Rusty; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis. PMID:23924032

  3. A multi-stakeholder perspective on the use of alternative test strategies for nanomaterial safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre E; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; Deshazo, J R; Hussain, Saber M; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Russell; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2013-08-27

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles, to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis.

  4. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices including, but not limited...

  5. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition; Analise por ativacao neutronica por fontes alternativas de fosforo para a nutricao animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Artur A.; Ferreira, Walter M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria]. E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  6. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  7. An alternative for teaching and learning the simple diffusion process using Algodoo animations

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Samir L; da Silva, Rodrigo L; Viana, Emilson R; Leal, Fábio F

    2014-01-01

    In this work animations of the random walk movement using a freeware Algodoo were done in order to support teaching the concepts of Brownian Motion. The random walk movement were simulate considering elastic collision between the particles in suspension in a fluid, and the particles which constitute the fluid. The intensity of velocities where defined in an arbitrary range, and we have a random distribution of the velocity directions. Using two methods, the distribution histogram of displacements (DHD) and the mean-square-displacement ${\\langle{\\Delta r^{2}}\\rangle}$ (MSD), it was possible to measure the diffusion coefficient of the system, and determine the regions where the system presents ballistic regime or diffusive transport regime. The ballistic regime was observed graphically when the MSD has a parabolic dependence with time, which differing from the typical diffusive regime where MSD has a linear dependence. The didactical strategy for combining analytical approaches as graphic analysis, and animatio...

  8. Testing alternative models of climate-mediated extirpations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Chris, R.A.Y.; Mote, P.W.; Wilkening, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biotic responses to climate change will vary among taxa and across latitudes, elevational gradients, and degrees of insularity. However, due to factors such as phenotypic plasticity, ecotypic variation, and evolved tolerance to thermal stress, it remains poorly understood whether losses should be greatest in populations experiencing the greatest climatic change or living in places where the prevailing climate is closest to the edge of the species' bioclimatic envelope (e.g., at the hottest, driest sites). Research on American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in montane areas of the Great Basin during 1994-1999 suggested that 20th-century population extirpations were predicted by a combination of biogeographic, anthropogenic, and especially climatic factors. Surveys during 2005-2007 documented additional extirpations and within-site shifts of pika distributions at remaining sites. To evaluate the evidence in support of alternative hypotheses involving effects of thermal stress on pikas, we placed temperature sensors at 156 locations within pika habitats in the vicinity of 25 sites with historical records of pikas in the Basin. We related these time series of sensor data to data on ambient temperature from weather stations within the Historical Climate Network. We then used these highly correlated relationships, combined with long-term data from the same weather stations, to hindcast temperatures within pika habitats from 1945 through 2006. To explain patterns of loss, we posited three alternative classes of direct thermal stress: (1) acute cold stress (number of days below a threshold temperature); (2) acute heat stress (number of days above a threshold, temperature); and. (3) chronic heat stress (average summer temperature). Climate change was defined as change in our thermal metrics between two 31-y.r periods: 1945-1975 and 1976-2006. We found that patterns of persistence were well predicted by metrics of climate. Our best models suggest some effects of climate change

  9. TEST OF AN ANIMAL DRAWN FIELD IMPLEMENT CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performance of a horse-drawn hitch cart equipped with a PTO system powered by the two cart ground wheels have been investigated. For this purpose field tests on clay and turf soil, with varying ballast and PTO torque, have been carried out pulling the cart by a tractor. Preliminary tests were aimed at assessing the traction capability of horse breed. These tests showed that the mean draught force given by two of these horses was 173daN, average working speed was about 1m*s-1, resulting a mean draught power developed by each horse of about 0.86kW. The PTO cart system performance has shown that the torque has not exceeded 2.4daN*m, maximum draught or PTO power was 1.15kW, rotation speed just higher than 400min-1, with mean efficiency of about 50%. These values are consistent with horse performance and small haymaking, fertilizing, seeding and chemical application machine requirements.

  10. 40 CFR 136.5 - Approval of alternate test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data submitted by the applicant and any available EPA analysis of those data. (4) Following a period of... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS § 136.5... is complete. If the application is incomplete, the applicant shall be informed of the...

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  12. LM-Tests for Linearity Against Smooth Transition Alternatives: A Bootstrap Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The universal method for testing linearity against smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) alternatives is the linearization of the STAR model around the null nuisance parameter value, and performing F-tests on polynomial regressions in the spirit of the RESET test. Polynomial regressors, however, are poor proxies for the nonlinearity associated with STAR processes, and are not consistent (asymptotic power of one) against STAR alternatives, let alone general deviations from the null. Moreover...

  13. A proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin-Capeti, K C; Sepulveda, L; Terra, F; Torres-Pioli, M F; Costa-Casagrande, T; França, S C; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2013-02-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in Brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA). The FMD vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), at 28 days post-vaccination. Biological product testing using large animals is expensive and unwieldy. Thus, alternative testing procedures using laboratory animals have been proposed for quality control of these products. Such biological methods for vaccine evaluation using animals from vivarium facilities can have a significant impact through reduced costs, easier handling, and shorter testing times. The present study was designed to access Balb/C mice's humoral immune responses to a FMDV experimental vaccine, the composition of which contains three virus serotypes of FMDV (O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and C3 Indaial). Balb/C mice were immunized at doses that were 5% and 10% of the vaccine volume administered in cattle. Immunized mice had their antibody titers probed at 14, 21, and 28 DPV (days post vaccination). The results obtained were compared to those previously known from cattle's immune responses to the FMDV vaccine. An adequate immune response to the vaccine was seen with 10% formulation at 21 DPV. The study results are encouraging and indicate that the mouse model can be used for quality control in experimental vaccine testing.

  14. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate or...

  15. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Esther; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Bessems, Jos G M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds,(1) flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  16. An Alternative to the Conventional Tri-Axial Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A new test for measurement of the mechanical properties of granular powders is proposed, consisting of upsetting the powder inside a metal tube. The radial pressure is found by correlating measurements of radial bulging of the tube with numerical analysis of tube bulging. Estimates of the error...... on the determination of the radial pressure are given along with an evaluation of the coefficient of friction for a specific case. New data for the yield surfaces for BSCCO are given and found to be in good agreement with previously published data....

  17. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  18. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Alternative Approaches to Causality Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehdanz, Katrin (Christian-Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany)); Maddison, David J. (Univ. of Birmingham, Dept. of Economics, Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. More recently this technique has been extended to looking at the relationship between carbon emissions and GDP per capita. These analyses frequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper compares the standard fixed-dynamic-effects approach to a heterogenous panel approach testing for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP per capita and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity. Overall there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita

  19. Performance Testing of a High Temperature Linear Alternator for Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted performance testing of a high temperature linear alternator (HTLA) in support of Stirling power convertor development for potential future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). The high temperature linear alternator is a modified version of that used in Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and is capable of operation at temperatures up to 200 deg. Increasing the temperature capability of the linear alternator could expand the mission set of future Stirling RPS designs. High temperature Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets were selected for the HTLA application, and were fully characterized and tested prior to use. Higher temperature epoxy for alternator assembly was also selected and tested for thermal stability and strength. A characterization test was performed on the HTLA to measure its performance at various amplitudes, loads, and temperatures. HTLA endurance testing at 200 deg is currently underway.

  20. Update on the validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative tests for skin corrosion and irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentem, Julia H; Botham, Philip A

    2004-06-01

    The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) has supported validation studies on in vitro tests for skin corrosion, resulting in the validities of four alternative tests being endorsed. The US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has also evaluated the validity of these alternative methods for skin corrosion testing. In the European Union, a new Test Method on Skin Corrosion (B.40), incorporating the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance and human skin model assays, was included in Annex V of Directive 67/548/EEC in mid-2000. At an international level, two OECD Test Guidelines (430 and 431) on these alternative methods have been approved as of May 2002. To date, there are no validated in vitro tests for predicting the dermal irritancy of chemicals. ECVAM supported prevalidation studies on five in vitro tests for acute skin irritation during 1999-2001. These tests were based on human, pig and mouse skin. However, none of them met the criteria set for inclusion in a large-scale formal validation study. Following additional work on the test protocols and/or prediction models, it appears that several modified tests could now be ready for validation in 2003.

  1. Establishment of alternative potency test for botulinum toxin type A using compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Nakahira, Shinji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2014-11-01

    The biological activity of botulinum toxin type A has been evaluated using the mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD50 test. This method requires a large number of mice to precisely determine toxin activity, and, as such, poses problems with regard to animal welfare. We previously developed a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) assay using rats as an alternative method to the mouse ip LD50 test. In this study, to evaluate this quantitative method of measuring toxin activity using CMAP, we assessed the parameters necessary for quantitative tests according to ICH Q2 (R1). This assay could be used to evaluate the activity of the toxin, even when inactive toxin was mixed with the sample. To reduce the number of animals needed, this assay was set to measure two samples per animal. Linearity was detected over a range of 0.1-12.8 U/mL, and the measurement range was set at 0.4-6.4 U/mL. The results for accuracy and precision showed low variability. The body weight was selected as a variable factor, but it showed no effect on the CMAP amplitude. In this study, potency tests using the rat CMAP assay of botulinum toxin type A demonstrated that it met the criteria for a quantitative analysis method.

  2. Stressful events and psychological difficulties: testing alternative candidates for sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that may make children more sensitive to stressful life events. Analyses were based on data from 10,417 children from a prospective, longitudinal study of child development. At ages 4, 7, 9, 11, and 16 years, stressful events and psychological difficulties were measured. Prenatal anxiety was measured at 32 weeks of gestation and difficult temperament was measured at 6 months. Children exposed to stressful events showed significantly increased psychological difficulties at ages 7 and 11 years; there was consistent evidence of a reciprocal pattern: psychological difficulties predicted stressful events at each stage. Analyses also indicated that the associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties were stronger in girls than in boys. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that prenatal anxiety or difficult temperament increased stress sensitivity, that is, moderated the link between life events and psychological difficulties. The findings extend prior work on stress exposure and psychological difficulties and highlight the need for additional research to investigate sources of sensitivity and the mechanisms that might underlie differences in sensitivity to stressful events.

  3. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals.

  4. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  5. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions.

  6. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice.

  7. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The 90-day animal study is the core study for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods in the SAFOTEST project. The model compound tested in the 90-day study was a rice variety expressing the kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris lectin agglutinin E-form (PHA-E lectin). Female Wistar rats were...... safety testing of genetically modified foods....

  8. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy.

  10. Quantification of the borderline range and implications for evaluating non-animal testing methods' precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontaridou, Maria; Urbisch, Daniel; Kolle, Susanne N; Ott, Katharina; Mulliner, Denis S; Gabbert, Silke; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-02-23

    Testing methods to assess the skin sensitisation potential of a substance usually use threshold criteria to dichotomise continuous experimental read-outs into yes/no conclusions. The threshold criteria are prescribed in the respective OECD test guidelines and the conclusion is used for regulatory hazard assessment, i.e. classification and labelling of the substance. We can identify a borderline range (BR) around the classification threshold within which test results are non-conclusive due to a testing method's biological and technical variability. We quantify BRs in the prediction models of the non-animal testing methods DPRA, LuSens and h-CLAT, and of the animal test LLNA, respectively. Depending on the size of the BR we find that between 6% and 28% of the substances in the sets tested with these methods were considered borderline. If the results of individual non-animal test methods are combined into integrated testing strategies (ITS), borderline test results of individual tests can also affect the overall assessment of the skin sensitisation potential of the testing strategy. This was analysed for the '2-out-of-3' ITS: Four out of 40 substances (10%) were considered borderline. Based on our findings we propose expanding the standard binary classification of substances into 'positive'/'negative' or 'hazardous'/'non-hazardous' by adding a 'borderline' or 'non-conclusive' alert for cases where test results fall within the borderline range.

  11. The ICLAS/CCAC International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Stokes, William S; Pakes, Steven P; Gauthier, Célement

    2004-06-01

    The first International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare (ISRTAW), held 21-23 June 2001, in Quebec City, Canada, brought together 160 experts from 22 countries from North and South America, Europe and Asia. The experts included representatives from national research and regulatory agencies, universities, and industry involved in chemicals, pesticides and drug safety testing. Representatives from European, Canadian and US animal welfare groups also participated in the discussions. The Symposium was organised by the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), with the support and assistance of many sponsors and advisors. ICLAS is a worldwide organisation whose purpose is to foster the international harmonisation of animal care and use practices. CCAC is the national agency responsible for overseeing the ethical use of animals in Canadian science. Both organisations are committed to fostering an environment in which global efforts to harmonise testing procedures using animals in a more-humane manner can be realised.

  12. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study.

  13. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  14. A novel implantable electromechanical ventricular assist device - First acute animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, R; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Elstrodt, J; Nix, C; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1997-01-01

    A novel ventricular assist device (HIA-EMLVAD-AT1, Helmholtz Institute Aachen-electromechanical Left Ventricular Assist Device-Animal Test Version 1), driven by a uniformly and unidirectionally rotating actuator and a patented hypocycloidic pusherplate displacement gear unit, was developed and teste

  15. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  16. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A...

  17. A Simple Alternative to the IMViC Test in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a singular alternative to the Indole Methyl-red Voges-Proskauer Citrate (IMViC) test that uses bile-esculin agar to distinguish between the Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. Includes materials and methods, results, and conclusions for the test. (MDH)

  18. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  19. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, p<0.001) but a considerably higher sensitivity (98.1% versus 84.4%, χ(2)=33.39, p<0.001). We conclude that the Surra Sero K-SeT may become an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi for sensitive detection of antibodies against T. evansi in domestic animals.

  20. Features of animal models of complex partial epilepsy established through unilateral, bilateral and alternate-side kindling at hippocampus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongjun Zhang; Guangrun Xu; Shengnian Zhou; Meijuan Yu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation kindling model, having epilepsy-inducing and spontaneous seizure and other advantages, is a very ideal experimental animal model. But the kindling effect might be different at different sites.OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of animal models of complex partial epilepsy established through unilateral, bilateral and alternate-side kindling at hippocampus and successful rate of modeling among these 3 different ways.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University.MATERIALS: Totally 60 healthy adult Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 300 g, of either gender, were used in this experiment. BL-410 biological functional experimental system (Taimeng Science and Technology Co.Ltd, Chengdu) and SE-7102 type electronic stimulator (Guangdian Company, Japan) were used in the experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University from April to June 2004. After rats were anesthetized, electrode was implanted into the hippocampus. From the first day of measurement of afterdischarge threshold value, rats were given two-square-wave suprathreshold stimulation once per day with 400 μA intensity, 1ms wave length, 60 Hz frequency for 1 s duration. Left hippocampus was stimulated in unilateral kindling group, bilateral hippocampi were stimulated in bilateral kindling group, and left and right hippocampi were stimulated alternately every day in the alternate-side kindling group. Seizure intensity was scored: grade 0: normal, 1: wet dog-like shivering, facial spasm, such as, winking, touching the beard, rhythmic chewing and so on; 2: rhythmic nodding; 3: forelimb spasm;4:standing accompanied by bilateral forelimb spasm;5: tumbling, losing balance, four limbs spasm. Modeling was successful when seizure intensity reached grade 5. T test was used for the comparison of mean value between two samples.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of

  1. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT

  2. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eReato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (~1 Hz and gamma oscillations (~30 Hz. We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms.

  3. Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury for the testing of novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian K; Streijger, Femke; Hill, Caitlin E; Anderson, Aileen J; Bacon, Mark; Beattie, Michael S; Blesch, Armin; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Brown, Arthur; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Case, Casey C; Colburn, Raymond W; David, Samuel; Fawcett, James W; Ferguson, Adam R; Fischer, Itzhak; Floyd, Candace L; Gensel, John C; Houle, John D; Jakeman, Lyn B; Jeffery, Nick D; Jones, Linda Ann Truett; Kleitman, Naomi; Kocsis, Jeffery; Lu, Paul; Magnuson, David S K; Marsala, Martin; Moore, Simon W; Mothe, Andrea J; Oudega, Martin; Plant, Giles W; Rabchevsky, Alexander Sasha; Schwab, Jan M; Silver, Jerry; Steward, Oswald; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Guest, James D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-07-01

    Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) are being increasingly utilized for the testing of novel therapies. While these represent intermediary animal species between rodents and humans and offer the opportunity to pose unique research questions prior to clinical trials, the role that such large animal and primate models should play in the translational pipeline is unclear. In this initiative we engaged members of the SCI research community in a questionnaire and round-table focus group discussion around the use of such models. Forty-one SCI researchers from academia, industry, and granting agencies were asked to complete a questionnaire about their opinion regarding the use of large animal and primate models in the context of testing novel therapeutics. The questions centered around how large animal and primate models of SCI would be best utilized in the spectrum of preclinical testing, and how much testing in rodent models was warranted before employing these models. Further questions were posed at a focus group meeting attended by the respondents. The group generally felt that large animal and primate models of SCI serve a potentially useful role in the translational pipeline for novel therapies, and that the rational use of these models would depend on the type of therapy and specific research question being addressed. While testing within these models should not be mandatory, the detection of beneficial effects using these models lends additional support for translating a therapy to humans. These models provides an opportunity to evaluate and refine surgical procedures prior to use in humans, and safety and bio-distribution in a spinal cord more similar in size and anatomy to that of humans. Our results reveal that while many feel that these models are valuable in the testing of novel therapies, important questions remain unanswered about how they should be used and how data derived from them should be interpreted.

  4. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski [Technical University of Ostrava (VSB), Ostrava (Czech Republic). Department of Energy Engineering

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. The animal models of dementia and Alzheimer's disease for pre-clinical testing and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akshay; Banik, Avijit; Thakur, Keshav; Masters, Colin L

    2012-11-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome with abnormal degree of memory loss and impaired ability to recall events from the past often characterized by Alzheimer's disease. The various strategies to treat dementia need validation of novel compounds in suitable animal models for testing their safety and efficacy. These may include novel anti-amnesic drugs derived from synthetic chemistry or those derived from traditional herbal sources. Multiple approaches have been adopted to create reliable animal models ranging from rodents to non-human primates, where the animals are exposed to a predetermined injury or causing genetic ablation across specific regions of brain suspected to affect learning functions. In this review various animal models for Alzheimer's disease and treatment strategies in development of anti dementia drugs are discussed and an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive report of the latest developments in the field.

  6. Statistical test of Duane-Hunt's law and its comparison with an alternative law

    CERN Document Server

    Perkovac, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Using Pearson correlation coefficient a statistical analysis of Duane-Hunt and Kulenkampff's measurement results was performed. This analysis reveals that empirically based Duane-Hunt's law is not entirely consistent with the measurement data. The author has theoretically found the action of electromagnetic oscillators, which corresponds to Planck's constant, and also has found an alternative law based on the classical theory. Using the same statistical method, this alternative law is likewise tested, and it is proved that the alternative law is completely in accordance with the measurements. The alternative law gives a relativistic expression for the energy of electromagnetic wave emitted or absorbed by atoms and proves that the empirically derived Planck-Einstein's expression is only valid for relatively low frequencies. Wave equation, which is similar to the Schr\\"odinger equation, and wavelength of the standing electromagnetic wave are also established by the author's analysis. For a relatively low energy...

  7. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  8. Proceedings of the Symposium on Current Concepts and Approaches on Animal Test Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    and Simionescu, M. editors. Plenum Press, New York, 105-120, 1988. 5 Staub , N.C. Pathways for fluid and solute fluxes in pulmonary edema. In Pulmonary...Burrows, W.R. Mitchell, and D.L.Parmer. Explosives and Related Compounds. In ThB Handbooko9 fEnvironmenta ChmistrX. Volume 3, part G. Anthropogenic

  9. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development.

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Currie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  11. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapin, R.E.; Boekelheide, K.; Cortvrindt, R.; Duursen, van M.; Gant, T.; Jegou, B.; Marczylo, E.; Pelt, van A.M.; Post, J.N.; Roelofs, M.J.; Schlatt, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Toppari, J.; Piersma, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at p

  12. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  13. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-11-29

    In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  14. Zebrafish embryos as an alternative to animal experiments--a commentary on the definition of the onset of protected life stages in animal welfare regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strähle, Uwe; Scholz, Stefan; Geisler, Robert; Greiner, Petra; Hollert, Henner; Rastegar, Sepand; Schumacher, Axel; Selderslaghs, Ingrid; Weiss, Carsten; Witters, Hilda; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, the zebrafish has become a popular model for biomedical research and (eco)toxicology. Particularly the use of embryos is receiving increasing attention, since they are considered as replacement method for animal experiments. Zebrafish embryos allow the analysis of multiple endpoints ranging from acute and developmental toxicity determination to complex functional genetic and physiological analysis. Particularly the more complex endpoints require the use of post-hatched eleutheroembryo stages. According to the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, the earliest life-stages of animals are not defined as protected and, therefore, do not fall into the regulatory frameworks dealing with animal experimentation. Independent feeding is considered as the stage from which free-living larvae are subject to regulations for animal experimentation. However, despite this seemingly clear definition, large variations exist in the interpretation of this criterion by national and regional authorities. Since some assays require the use of post-hatched stages up to 120 h post fertilization, the literature and available data are reviewed in order to evaluate if this stage could still be considered as non-protected according to the regulatory criterion of independent feeding. Based on our analysis and by including criteria such as yolk consumption, feeding and swimming behavior, we conclude that zebrafish larvae can indeed be regarded as independently feeding from 120 h after fertilization. Experiments with zebrafish should thus be subject to regulations for animal experiments from 120 h after fertilization onwards.

  15. Pattern of antimicrobial usage in livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: The need for alternative plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics has continued to increase, placing future animal and human disease management in real danger. The developing countries characterised by widespread indiscriminate antibiotic use and in which ‘third-generation’ antibiotics are not readily available or affordable are the worst affected. A 3-year (2010–2012 retrospective survey of antibiotic usage in livestock production in three selected states of south-western Nigeria was conducted. Data obtained from eight purposively selected licensed veterinary pharmaceutical sales establishments in the area, based on keeping detailed sales records for the study period, were analysed using Stata Version 12. Results showed that tetracyclines (33.6%, fluoroquinolones (26.5% and beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (20.4% constituted the majority of the antibiotics used over the 3 years. The differences in the quantities of antibiotic types used within each antimicrobial class were statistically significant for tetracyclines (F = 59.87; p < 0.0001 and fluoroquinolones (F = 43.97; p < 0.0001 but not for beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (F = 3.21; p = 0.148. Furthermore, antibiotic consumption increased by 40.4% between 2010 and 2012. Although statistically insignificant (F = 0.277; p = 0.762, the increasing trend across the years was at rates of 23.5% between 2010 and 2011 and 13.8% between 2011 and 2012. In addition, the findings show a significantly higher consumption rate (t = 15.21; df = 5; p < 0.0001 during the rainy (52.5% than the dry (47.5% seasons. The current increasing trend in antibiotic usage holds a serious danger for the future and therefore calls for alternative plans to safeguard future livestock production, food security and human health. This becomes more imperative considering emerging resistance against tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, the foremost remedies for livestock diseases in most developing countries.

  16. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    as a comparison with traditional audiometry. A series of 30 persons (60 ears) have conducted traditional audiometry as well as self-operated 2AFC-audiometry. Test subjects are normal as well as moderately hearing impaired people. The different thresholds are compared.   Results: 2 AFC Audiometry is reliable...... and comparable to traditional audiometry. 2AFC audiometry tends to give thresholds 1-2 dB lower compared to traditional audiometry. In general standard deviations between the two test methods are below 4.5 dB for frequencies from (250-4000 Hz) and up to 6.7 dB for frequencies above 4000 Hz. Results from test......-retest studies of 2AFC audiometry are comparable to test-retest results known from traditional audiometry under standard clinical settings.   Conclusions 2 Alternative Forced Choice audiometry can be a reliable alternative to traditional audiometry especially under certain circumstances, where it can...

  17. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations. 86.162-03 Section 86.162-03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977...

  18. Report on the international workshop on alternatives to the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) for acellular pertussis vaccines: state of the science and the path forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbrucker, Richard; Arciniega, Juan; McFarland, Richard; Chapsal, Jean-Michel; Xing, Dorothy; Bache, Christina; Nelson, Sue; Costanzo, Angele; Hoonakker, Marieke; Castiaux, Amélie; Halder, Marlies; Casey, Warren; Johnson, Nelson; Jones, Brett; Doelling, Vivian; Sprankle, Cathy; Rinckel, Lori; Stokes, William

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory authorities require safety and potency testing prior to the release of each production lot of acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccines. Currently, the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) is used to evaluate the presence of residual pertussis toxin in aP containing vaccines. However, the testing requires the use of a significant number of mice and results in unrelieved pain and distress. NICEATM, ICCVAM, their partners in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods, and the International Working Group for Alternatives to HIST organized a workshop to discuss recent developments in alternative assays to the HIST, review data from an international collaborative study on non-animal alternative tests that might replace the HIST, and address the path toward global acceptance of this type of method. Currently, there are three potential alternative methods to HIST. Participants agreed that no single in vitro method was sufficiently developed for harmonized validation studies at this time. It is unlikely that any single in vitro method would be applicable to all aP vaccines without modification, due to differences between vaccines. Workshop participants recommended further optimization of cell-based assays under development. Participants agreed that the next international collaborative studies should commence in 2013 based on discussions during this workshop.

  19. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Andersen, Ture; Bælum, Jesper; Poulsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Background:With a newly developed technique, hearing thresholds can be estimated with a system operated by the test persons themselves. This technique is based on the 2 Alternative Forced Choice paradigm known from the psychoacoustic research theory. Test persons can operate the system very easily themselves. Furthermore the system uses the theories behind the methods of maximum-likelihood fitting of the most probable psychometric function and a modification of the well known up-down method...

  20. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  1. Alternatives to animal disposal including the use of foresight technology and agri-intelligence, Norman G. Willis (Ed. : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach to control of outbreaks of serious animal diseases by massive destruction of animals is increasingly being questioned. While this approach has been reasonably successful in achieving outbreak control, intensification of animal production has resulted in ever larger numbers of animals having to be destroyed in as short a period of time as possible. In order to control highly contagious diseases, the culling involves not only infected and in-contact herds but at-risk herds within a defined area, which results in the destruction of large numbers of healthy animals.

  2. Bone defect animal models for testing efficacy of bone substitute biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Large bone defects are serious complications that are most commonly caused by extensive trauma, tumour, infection, or congenital musculoskeletal disorders. If nonunion occurs, implantation for repairing bone defects with biomaterials developed as a defect filler, which can promote bone regeneration, is essential. In order to evaluate biomaterials to be developed as bone substitutes for bone defect repair, it is essential to establish clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo testing models for investigating their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, degradation, and interactional with culture medium or host tissues. The results of the in vitro experiment contribute significantly to the evaluation of direct cell response to the substitute biomaterial, and the in vivo tests constitute a step midway between in vitro tests and human clinical trials. Therefore, it is essential to develop or adopt a suitable in vivo bone defect animal model for testing bone substitutes for defect repair. This review aimed at introducing and discussing the most available and commonly used bone defect animal models for testing specific substitute biomaterials. Additionally, we reviewed surgical protocols for establishing relevant preclinical bone defect models with various animal species and the evaluation methodologies of the bone regeneration process after the implantation of bone substitute biomaterials. This review provides an important reference for preclinical studies in translational orthopaedics.

  3. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.......Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel test...... interpretation and a positive dependence in test specificity reduces the specificity of serial interpretation. We calculate conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and show their relationship to kappa (a chance-corrected measure of test agreement). We use published data...

  4. Alternative Forms of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice effects in memory testing complicate the interpretation of score changes over repeated testings, particularly in clinical applications. Consequently, several alternative forms of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT have been developed. Studies of these typically indicate that the forms examined are equivalent. However, the implication that the forms in the literature are interchangeable must be tempered by several caveats. Few studies of equivalence have been undertaken; most are restricted to the comparison of single pairs of forms, and the pairings vary across studies. These limitations are exacerbated by the minimal overlapping across studies in variables reported, or in the analyses of equivalence undertaken. The data generated by these studies are nonetheless valuable, as significant practice effects result from serial use of the same form. The available data on alternative AVLT forms are summarized, and recommendations regarding form development and the determination of form equivalence are offered.

  5. The Effect Of Portfolio Assessment Application On Academic Achievement and Test Anxiety in Teaching Animal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Handan GÜNEŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of portfolio assessment application on student success in teaching animal tissue covered in General Biology 1 and General Biology Laboratory 1 courses in Science and Technology Education curriculum was investigated. For this purpose, portfolio assessment application was administered to the second grade students who were attending Education Faculty, Science and Technology Education Department. A multiple choice achievement test was applied as pre-test and post-test to control (n=28 and experimental group (n=29 students who were randomly chosen from A and B class. Additionally, a test anxiety scale was applied to the students to obtain their opinions about test anxiety. Research results revealed that portfolio assessment application has positive effects on improving the success level of teacher candidates and reducing their test anxiety level in both education process and assessment and evaluation processes. Study results also revealed that portfolio assessment may be effective in teaching subjects too.

  6. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternatives R-32, DR-5, and L-41a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares performance of alternative refrigerants R32, DR-5, and L-41A to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. Compressor calorimeter tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the lower-GWP alternative refrigerants in place of the common refrigerant R-410A in a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter using a compressor having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that performance of these three lower-GWP alternative refrigerants is comparable to that of R-410A. For the 20 F superheat and 15 F subcooling test conditions, EERs of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 90% to 99%, 96% to 99%, and 94% to 101%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A. Similarly, cooling capacities of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 98% to 103%, 92% to 96%, and 84% to 92%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A.

  7. The zinc test as an alternative for acid phosphatase spot tests in the primary identification of seminal traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, P J; van de Voorde, H P

    1990-10-01

    The value of the acid phosphatase spot test in the primary visualization and identification of seminal traces is hampered by the sensitiveness of the enzyme to biodegradation. An alternative spot test is proposed, based on the high concentration of the more stable zinc metal in seminal plasma. The proposed zinc spot test is simple and suitable for on site investigation. Although the sensitivity in fresh stains is lower than that of the acid phosphatase spot test, this is largely compensated by the lower sensitiveness to biodegradation. The specificity for semen is higher than that of the acid phosphatase spot test. In vaginal swabs it was nevertheless seen, that samples should be taken within 24 h after alleged sexual assault to give reliable results.

  8. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  9. What are the best animal models for testing early intervention in cerebral palsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin John Clowry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of conditions. There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery or generalised anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. In this review we consider which animal models best reproduce certain aspects of the condition, and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal system of various animals models human corticospinal system function and development is also explored. Where attempts have already been made to test early intervention in animal models, the outcomes are evaluated in light of the suitability of the model.

  10. Point-of-care testing for HCV infection: recent advances and implications for alternative screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    Over the last few years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as one of the most significant causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 3.0%. In Italy, approximately 2% of subjects are infected with HCV. Considering that acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic, early diagnosis is rare. Those people who develop chronic infection, even though undiagnosed, may suffer serious liver damage, making chronic HCV infection a major health problem. New initiatives are needed to identify a submerged portion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to propose controls and antiviral treatments to avoid the progression to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since January 2011, the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan has been carrying out a prevention program called "EASY test project", using a new oral test, the OraQuick® HCV rapid antibody test (OraSure technologies, Inc.). The main objective of the project is to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous HCV test offer, available in different settings (Points of Care, STDs Prevention clinics and General Practitioner clinics). From January 2011 to April 2014, 29,600 subjects were approached to inform them about HCV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases; 4,507 (15.2% of the contacted subjects) of them, total eligible volunteers, performed HCV tests on saliva and completed the interview in the alternative POCTs. Twenty-seven subjects (0.6% of the total) turned HCV oral test reactive (27/4.507) during the evaluation period; all of them were confirmed by conventional test. All 27 patients were asymptomatic and without a history of HCV-re- lated symptoms. The results from this analysis suggest that the promotion of alternative HCV test screening has not yet been fully developed as a strategy to increase levels of HCV testing among people at risk for HCV infection. Increasing

  11. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-05-12

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying target condition through considerations of the pathogenesis, and specification of a practical case definition, which can subsequently be used in the DTE for the specific purpose. The process is illustrated by two examples of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle. MAP infections are chronic and can result in different adverse effects at different time points during the incubation period. The description provides input on the process and deductive reasoning which are integral parts to develop a high-quality design of a DTE for chronic infectious diseases.

  12. Quality standards are needed for reporting of test accuracy studies for animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A

    2010-12-01

    The STARD statement (www.stard-statement.org) emphasizes complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies. Guidelines for authors in many biomedical journals recommend adherence to these standards but explicit recommendations by editors of veterinary journals are limited. Adherence to standards benefits end-users of tests including doctors, veterinarians and other healthcare professionals and the human and animal patients in which the tests are used. Reporting standards also provide a structured basis for researchers and graduate students to prepare manuscripts, and subsequently can be a useful adjunct to the peer-review process. This paper discusses the purpose of STARD and its possible modification for animal disease studies, variation in reporting and design quality in human and animal disease studies, use of a different instrument (QUADAS) for assessing methodological quality, and provides some recommendations for the future. Finally, the contributions of Dr. Hollis Erb to improvements in methodological and reporting qualities of test accuracy studies in Preventive Veterinary Medicine are described.

  13. Cartilage regeneration and repair testing in a surrogate large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Timothy M; Aberman, Harold M

    2010-02-01

    The aging human population is experiencing increasing numbers of symptoms related to its degenerative articular cartilage (AC), which has stimulated the investigation of methods to regenerate or repair AC. However, the seemingly inherent limited capacity for AC to regenerate persists to confound the various repair treatment strategies proposed or studied. Animal models for testing AC implant devices and reparative materials are an important and required part of the Food and Drug Administration approval process. Although final testing is ultimately performed in humans, animal testing allows for a wider range of parameters and combinations of test materials subjected to all the biological interactions of a living system. We review here considerations, evaluations, and experiences with selection and use of animal models and describe two untreated lesion models useful for testing AC repair strategies. These created lesion models, one deep (6 mm and through the subchondral plate) the other shallow (to the level of the subchondral bone plate) were placed in the middle one-third of the medial femoral condyle of the knee joints of goats. At 1-year neither the deep nor the shallow full-thickness chondral defects generated a repair that duplicated natural AC. Moreover, progressive deleterious changes occurred in the AC surrounding the defects. There are challenges in translation from animals to humans as anatomy and structures are different and immobilization to protect delicate repairs can be difficult. The tissues potentially generated by proposed cartilage repair strategies must be compared with the spontaneous changes that occur in similarly created untreated lesions. The prevention of the secondary changes in the surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone described in this article should be addressed with the introduction of treatments for repairs of the articulating surface.

  14. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures.

  15. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing.

  16. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  17. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  18. Protection of the Experimental Animal for Animal Testing%动物试验中的实验动物保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜生; 杨玉; 岳文斌

    2012-01-01

    This paper discussed the basic theory for the position and role of animal testing and for the choice of experimental animal, and put forward corresponding countermeasures and measures for experimental animal protection.%论文论述了动物试验的地位和作用、动物试验中实验动物的选择等基本理论,并对在动物试验中实验动物的保护提出了相应的对策和措施.

  19. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven. The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site. This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss;

    2017-01-01

    chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA...... “selective ignorance” and that, through an iterative process with low-tier and high-tier testing, data-generation can be validated to ensure relevant endpoints. Furthermore, simplified screening of ENMs could enable early decision-making on material design, while complex multispecies studies should...

  1. Building on a solid foundation: SAR and QSAR as a fundamental strategy to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K M; Manuppello, J R; Willett, C E

    2014-01-01

    The development of more efficient, ethical, and effective means of assessing the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment was a lifetime goal of Gilman Veith. His work has provided the foundation for the use of chemical structure for informing toxicological assessment by regulatory agencies the world over. Veith's scientific work influenced the early development of the SAR models in use today at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was the driving force behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR Toolbox. Veith was one of a few early pioneers whose vision led to the linkage of chemical structure and biological activity as a means of predicting adverse apical outcomes (known as a mode of action, or an adverse outcome pathway approach), and he understood at an early stage the power that could be harnessed when combining computational and mechanistic biological approaches as a means of avoiding animal testing. Through the International QSAR Foundation he organized like-minded experts to develop non-animal methods and frameworks for the assessment of chemical hazard and risk for the benefit of public and environmental health. Avoiding animal testing was Gil's passion, and his work helped to initiate the paradigm shift in toxicology that is now rendering this feasible.

  2. Implementation of an approach to replacing the construction hydrostatic test with an alternative integrity validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, Alan; Purcell, Jennifer; Rudge, Paul; Hudson, Bob [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Hydrostatic testing has been an accepted method of verifying the integrity of newly constructed pipelines prior to putting them in-service since the mid 1950s. Since that time many things have changed that have reduced the incidence of hydrostatic test failures both during the strength and leak testing portion. Critical to these changes have been improvements in pipeline design, materials and construction technology. Using these advancements TransCanada developed an Alternative Integrity Validation (AIV) approach that could be used to replace the field hydrostatic test on natural gas pipelines. This process was validated with key stake holders and the regulatory body (Alberta Energy Utilities Board) and experimental approval was given to apply the approach on a recent pipeline project. The paper will describe the background to the approach, the AIV process and its successful application on an onshore pipeline project completed in March 2005. The paper will also describe the current limitations in applying the approach and path forward. (author)

  3. Development of an alternative method for testing the immunogenicity of diphtheria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghi, M A; Pasetti, M F; Brero, M L; Deluchi, S; di Paola, G; Mathet, V; Eriksson, P V

    1995-04-01

    The immunogenicity of the diphtheria component of 73 commercial vaccines from five different manufacturers was tested by the toxin neutralization test (TNT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in our laboratory. A comparison of the antibody levels measured by both assays showed a very good correlation (r = 0.95, p antibody levels as low as 5.5 x 10(-5) IU ml-1. To evaluate the possibility of accelerating the active immunization during the activity test of vaccines, an alternative schedule using one single human dose was assayed. A very good correlation was observed between the IgG antibody response obtained with this schedule and with the traditional programme. Therefore, the cost and the time required to perform the activity test may be considerably reduced when both the rapid immunization schedule and the ELISA are used.

  4. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain.

  5. Alternative approaches to vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Adam; Belanger, Scott; Burden, Natalie; Du Pasquier, David; Embry, Michelle; Halder, Marlies; Lampi, Mark; Lee, Lucy; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schirmer, Kristin; Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessment of chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimized wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments has been banned; in other situations, the number of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve a complete replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is based not just on ethical considerations but also on reducing the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases on providing better information aimed at improving environmental risk assessments. The present Focus article provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made toward alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades.

  6. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  7. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    The EuropeanAspergillusPCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated "in vivo" specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protocols at this stage would require reassessment of methods before clinical trials are performed and utility assessed. The manuscript describes the performance of EAPCRI protocols in an animal model of invasive aspergillosis. Blood samples taken from a guinea pig model of IA were used for WB and serum PCR. Galactomannan and β-d-glucan detection were evaluated, with particular focus on the timing of positivity and on the interpretation of combination testing. The overall sensitivities for WB PCR, serum PCR, galactomannan, and β-d-glucan were 73%, 65%, 68%, and 46%, respectively. The corresponding specificities were 92%, 79%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. PCR provided the earliest indicator of IA, and increasing galactomannan and β-d-glucan values were indicators of disease progression. The combination of WB PCR with galactomannan and β-d-glucan proved optimal (area under the curve [AUC], 0.95), and IA was confidently diagnosed or excluded. The EAPRCI-recommended PCR protocols provide performance comparable to commercial antigen tests, and clinical trials are warranted. By combining multiple tests, IA can be excluded or confirmed, highlighting the need for a combined diagnostic strategy. However, this approach must be balanced against the practicality and cost of using multiple tests.

  8. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  9. Annular phased array transducer for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drug efficacy on small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Secomski, Wojciech; Byra, Michał; Postema, Michiel; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    A technique using pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to destroy deep-seated solid tumors is a promising noninvasive therapeutic approach. A main purpose of this study was to design and test a HIFU transducer suitable for preclinical studies of efficacy of tested, anti-cancer drugs, activated by HIFU beams, in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors implanted to various organs of small animals at the depth of the order of 1-2cm under the skin. To allow focusing of the beam, generated by such transducer, within treated tissue at different depths, a spherical, 2-MHz, 29-mm diameter annular phased array transducer was designed and built. To prove its potential for preclinical studies on small animals, multiple thermal lesions were induced in a pork loin ex vivo by heating beams of the same: 6W, or 12W, or 18W acoustic power and 25mm, 30mm, and 35mm focal lengths. Time delay for each annulus was controlled electronically to provide beam focusing within tissue at the depths of 10mm, 15mm, and 20mm. The exposure time required to induce local necrosis was determined at different depths using thermocouples. Location and extent of thermal lesions determined from numerical simulations were compared with those measured using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and verified by a digital caliper after cutting the tested tissue samples. Quantitative analysis of the results showed that the location and extent of necrotic lesions on the magnetic resonance images are consistent with those predicted numerically and measured by caliper. The edges of lesions were clearly outlined although on ultrasound images they were fuzzy. This allows to conclude that the use of the transducer designed offers an effective noninvasive tool not only to induce local necrotic lesions within treated tissue without damaging the surrounding tissue structures but also to test various chemotherapeutics activated by the HIFU beams in preclinical studies on small animals.

  10. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Adam, Niklas; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Leticia M.; Lange, Kevin; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This report summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) Integrated Test, conducted from June 2013 until April 2014. The system was comprised of four (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater and a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system to remove large organic and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed into a near potable state and a 64% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However, the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume- and consumable-saving design that does not require toxic pretreatment.

  11. Tests of General Relativity and Alternative Theories of Gravity Using Gravitational Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, K. G.; Pai, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test general relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories such as scalar-tensor theories, dynamical Chern-Simons theory and massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrized gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA configuration. We also compare the expected bounds on alternative theories of gravity from ground-based and space-based detectors and find that space-based GW detectors can test GR and other theories of gravity with unprecedented accuracies. We then focus on a recent proposal to use singular value decomposition of the Fisher information matrix to improve the accuracies with which post-Newtonian theory can be tested. We extend those results to the case of space-based detector eLISA and discuss its implications.

  12. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.;

    Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more-quantitative...... exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...... the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed ingredient and product parameter categorization to support comparisons between chemicals and methodology to address data quality. The ingredient parameters include a range of physicochemical...

  13. Phencyclidine in the social interaction test: an animal model of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a hallucinogenic drug that can mimic several aspects of the schizophrenic symptomatology in healthy volunteers. In a series of studies PCP was administered to rats to determine whether it was possible to develop an animal model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The rats were tested in the social interaction test and it was found that PCP dose-dependently induces stereotyped behaviour and social withdrawal, which may correspond to certain aspects of the positive and negative symptoms, respectively. The effects of PCP could be reduced selectively by antipsychotic drug treatment, whereas drugs lacking antipsychotic effects did not alleviate the PCP-induced behaviours. Together these findings indicate that PCP effects in the rat social interaction test may be a model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity and that it may be useful for the evaluation of novel antipsychotic compounds.

  14. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days.

  16. Alternative procedure for the cold test for soybean seeds Procedimento alternativo para o teste de frio em semente de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guilherme Torres Licursi Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds requires a precise seed quality control system from the seed industry. One way to accomplish this is by improving vigor testing. Cold test has been traditionally employed for corn seeds. However, it has also been used for other seed crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp., soybean (Glycine Max, dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and pea (Pisum sativum. This study was carried out with the objective of adjusting an alternative procedure for the cold test to determine soybean seed vigor. Six commercial soybean seed lots of the cultivar BRS 133 were used. The physiological potential of the seed lots was evaluated by germination on paper towel and sand box, seedling field emergence, tetrazolium, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests. Seed moisture content was also determined. The temperature used for the cold test procedures was 10ºC during five days. Four cold test procedures were evaluated: i plastic boxes with soil; ii rolled paper towel with soil; iii rolled paper towel without soil, and iv an alternative procedure, using rolled paper towel without soil under cold water. A completely randomized experimental design with eight replications was used and the means were compared by the Tukey test (p = 0.05. To verify the dependence between the alternative test and others single linear correlation was used. All cold test procedures had similar coefficients of variation (CV, highlighting that rolled paper towel with soil and the alternative procedure had the best performance, with an average of 94% and 93% normal seedlings and CV of 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The alternative procedure has satisfactory results for estimating soybean seed vigor, yielding consistent results compared to the traditional procedure.A crescente demanda por semente de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] de alta qualidade tem requerido da indústria de sementes um controle de qualidade mais preciso

  17. The Cleveland Sorting Test: a preliminary study of an alternate form of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Pastel, Dan; Miller, Ashley; Levin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies have repeatedly shown that the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) is not as sensitive to prefrontal-lobe functioning as was originally suspected. Specifically, both clinical and brain-imaging studies have shown that several distinct neural circuits contribute to one's ability to successfully complete different aspects of the test. Another limitation of the WCST is its length, which makes it difficult and frustrating for certain clinical populations. To address the above limitations, researchers have proposed the development of new indexes and the integration of an adaptive testing approach that will allow for the premature termination of the test. Unfortunately, given the proprietary nature of the WCST, none of the above recommendations have been adopted. The present preliminary study examined an alternate form of the 64-Item WCST (WCST-64), the Cleveland Sorting Test (CST-64). The normative data of the two measures as well as the total number of errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and categories completed were compared using a repeated-measures design. Overall, the study supports psychometric approximation of the CST-64 and the WCST-64. Suggestions for future studies and modifications of the CST-64, including the use of recently proposed indexes and adaptive administration approaches, are provided.

  18. Testing on novel neutron detectors as alternative to {sup 3}He for security applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerani, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, ITU, Ispra, VA (Italy); Tomanin, Alice [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, ITU, Ispra, VA (Italy); University of Gent, Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Gent (Belgium); Pozzi, Sara; Dolan, Jennifer; Miller, Eric; Flaska, Marek [University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Battaglieri, Marco; De Vita, Raffaella [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Ficini, Luisa [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Ottonello, Giacomo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Ricco, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Dermody, Geraint; Giles, Calvin [Symetrica Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-22

    Detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear material relies on the detection of the radiation emitted. In the case of plutonium, one of the characteristic signatures derives from neutron emission. For this reason, neutron detectors cover an important role in detection systems. Most current neutron detection systems used for nuclear security are based on the {sup 3}He technology. Unfortunately, in the last few years the market of {sup 3}He has encountered huge problems in matching the supply and the demand. The need has grown significantly due to the increasing demand of instrumentation for security. This has caused an exponential increase of the price from one side and on the other side a serious strategic problem of resources. In order to guarantee the availability of detection systems for nuclear security, it is necessary to develop alternative detection systems based on technologies different from {sup 3}He. Many research projects have been devoted for the development of novel neutron detectors both by research organisations and by industries. Scientists from the PERLA laboratory of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy, and their collaborators have tested several of these novel concepts in the last couple of years. This paper describes the detector systems tested at JRC and preliminary results on detectors that can be considered as promising alternatives to {sup 3}He. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper tackles the problem of lack of He-3 supply. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This impacts neutron detection for security applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aim is to test innovative/alternative solutions for neutron detectors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Encouraging results obtained with organic and Li-based scintillators.

  19. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Animated models explicating how a problem is solved and why a particular method is chosen are expected to be effective learning tools for novices, especially when abstract cognitive processes or concepts are involved. Cognitive load theory was used to investigate how learners could be stimulated to engage in genuine learning activities. It was…

  20. Resazurin metabolism assay is a new sensitive alternative test in isolated pig cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Sébastien; Dutertre-Catella, Hélène; Martin, Chantal; Rat, Patrice; Warnet, Jean-Michel

    2003-03-01

    The main object of our study was to investigate whether the resazurin metabolism assay is a sensitive surfactant and alcohol toxicity test in isolated pig cornea and to compare this recently developed fluorometric assay with the data collected in the eye irritation reference chemical data bank. Resazurin is a substrate that changes color in response to metabolic activity. Isolated pig corneas were immersed for 10 min in surfactants and alcohol irritant solutions. After incubation, resorufin fluorescence was read and corneal viability was assessed. This corneal viability was compared with the maximal modified average score published in the report of ECETOC. This assay highlighted different concentration-dependent irritation potentials of the three surfactants tested, and the same results were obtained with corneas treated with the alcohols. We observed that the degree of surfactant- and alcohol-induced decrease in corneal viability, using the resazurin reduction test, was correlated with the in vivo irritancy measurements as determined by the Draize test and scored with the Modified Maximum Average Score (MMAS). This assay allowed us to classify the ocular irritancy of the tested surfactants and alcohols in the same ranking order as the Draize classification. Corneal viability measurement can be used as a potential alternative for the toxicological assessment of surfactants and alcohols. The nontoxic, nonradioactive resazurin metabolism assay allows rapid assessment of many samples with simple equipment and at reduced cost for continuous monitoring of corneal viability. This assay seems to be suitable as a toxicological screening test for eye irritation determination.

  1. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrascu I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1 999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific, sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities. It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizootiological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process.

  2. Animal testing is still the best way to find new treatments for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Silvio; Grignaschi, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    Experimental research proceeds by hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous or new knowledge and then tested. If they are accepted, they serve as the basis for further hypotheses, and if they are rejected new hypotheses can be developed. In other words, when we are at the frontiers of knowledge the path is forged by "trial and error". When a trial shows a hypothesis is wrong, this is a step toward making fewer errors. This process also applies to drug development. There is no magic formula at present to predict - at the pre-clinical level - the therapeutic value of a drug for people with a disease. However, pre-clinical studies are needed in order to formulate hypotheses that justify clinical trials. Without these preliminary studies in vitro and in vivo in selected animal species it would be unethical to test still unproven chemicals in humans.

  3. Implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement: testing alternative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonida, Eleftheria; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris; Leondari, Angeliki

    2006-01-01

    In the present study 3 alternative causal models concerning the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement were tested. The direction of changes in implicit theories and perceived competence during early adolescence also was examined. A total of 187 fifth and sixth graders were tested and retested a year later, when they were sixth and seventh graders, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that school achievement determined the adoption of a particular implicit theory through the mediation of perceived competence. Implicit theories were found to change toward the adoption of more incremental beliefs and perceived academic competence declined; however, high achievers, as compared with their low- and middle-level classmates, adopted more incremental beliefs and had significantly higher perceived competence.

  4. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  5. Tests of General Relativity and Alternative theories of gravity using Gravitational Wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Arun, K G

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational Wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test General Relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories like Scalar-Tensor theories, Dynamical Chern-Simons theory and Massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrised gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA config...

  6. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  7. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  8. Assessment of Etest as an alternative to agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi; Taylor, Thomas H; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

    2014-05-01

    We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest.

  9. The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing: Proceedings of a Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This volume contains the prepared papers and discussions of a National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Symposium on the Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the past, present, and future contributions of animals to human health…

  10. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the „Biomation‟ application for an alternative method for the treatment of animal-by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A method alternative to the ones already approved in the current legislation, called ‘Biomation’ process, for the treatment of Category (Cat.) 2 and 3 Animal By-Products (ABP) was assessed. The process consists of an alkaline treatment. The target parameters are: particle size ≤ 5mm, temperature 70...... to be used as an organic fertiliser and soil improver. According to the legislation in force, before being used as an organic fertiliser, Cat. 2 (and mixes of Cat. 2 and 3) material should be treated with a sterilisation process (i.e. 133 °C / 20 min / 3 bars / 50 mm particle size). The hazard identification...

  11. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  12. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  13. Field Evaluation of Alternative Testing Strategies for the Detection of HIV Infection in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify a cost-efficient alternative antibody testing strategy for screening and confirmation of HIV infection by rapid simple tests (RSTs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Methods Four RSTs (RST1,RST2, RST3, and RST4 ) and five ELISAs (ELISA1, ELISA2, ELISA3, ELISA4, and ELISA5) were evaluated in two phases by using banked and serum specimens prospectively collected at regional hospitals and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT)centers in Beijing. A total of 200 banked serum specimens were included in the first phase, including 62 HIV-positive, 127 HIV-negative and 11 indeterminate specimens. All specimens were tested by four RSTs and five ELISAs respectively. The second phase involved prospective testing of 389 routine specimens, including 92 HIV-positive, 287 HIV-negative, and 10 indeterminate specimens. All the specimens were tested by two RSTs (RST2 and RST4) and three ELISAs (ELISA1, ELISA3,and ELISA4), which were selected for their respective excellent sensitivity and/or specificity. Western blot (WB) was used as a gold standard for confirming the reactivity of all the specimens. Results Sensitivity, specificity, and efficacy were calculated for each assay in two phases. In the first phase, four assays (ELISA4, RST2, RST3, and RST4) had a specificity of 100%. For the determination of efficacy, ELISA4, RST2, and RST4 were selected in the second phase. ELISA1 and ELISA3 which have a sensitivity of 95.9% and 93.2% respectively also entered this phase. In the second phase, all the five assays (ELISA1, ELISA3, ELISA4, RST2, and RST4) had a sensitivity and specifity of over 90%. ELISA1 had a sensitivity of 99% and ELISA4 a specificity of 99%. Conclusion The sensitivity ELISA1 and the specificit of ELISA4 are comparable to ELISA/WB standard strategy. Application of this alternative testing strategy provides a cost-effective method for determining HIV prevalence in Beijing.

  14. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed.

  15. The effects of multiple features of alternatively spliced exons on the KA/KS ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng-Chi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of alternatively spliced exons (ASEs is of primary interest because these exons are suggested to be a major source of functional diversity of proteins. Many exon features have been suggested to affect the evolution of ASEs. However, previous studies have relied on the KA/KS ratio test without taking into consideration information sufficiency (i.e., exon length > 75 bp, cross-species divergence > 5% of the studied exons, leading to potentially biased interpretations. Furthermore, which exon feature dominates the results of the KA/KS ratio test and whether multiple exon features have additive effects have remained unexplored. Results In this study, we collect two different datasets for analysis – the ASE dataset (which includes lineage-specific ASEs and conserved ASEs and the ACE dataset (which includes only conserved ASEs. We first show that information sufficiency can significantly affect the interpretation of relationship between exons features and the KA/KS ratio test results. After discarding exons with insufficient information, we use a Boolean method to analyze the relationship between test results and four exon features (namely length, protein domain overlapping, inclusion level, and exonic splicing enhancer (ESE frequency for the ASE dataset. We demonstrate that length and protein domain overlapping are dominant factors, and they have similar impacts on test results of ASEs. In addition, despite the weak impacts of inclusion level and ESE motif frequency when considered individually, combination of these two factors still have minor additive effects on test results. However, the ACE dataset shows a slightly different result in that inclusion level has a marginally significant effect on test results. Lineage-specific ASEs may have contributed to the difference. Overall, in both ASEs and ACEs, protein domain overlapping is the most dominant exon feature while ESE frequency is the weakest one in affecting

  16. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  17. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daneshian, Mardas; Fritsche, Ellen; Hasiwa, Nina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T; Leist, Marcel; Li, Abby; Mundi, William R; Padilla, Stephanie; Piersma, Aldert H; Bal-Price, Anna; Seiler, Andrea; Westerink, Remco H; Zimmer, Bastian; Lein, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the modulation of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes (such as neuronal differentiation, precursor cell migration or neuronal network formation) by chemicals, the first generation of alternative DNT tests target these processes. The advantage of such types of assays is that they capture toxicants with multiple targets and modes-of-action. Moreover, the processes modelled by the assays can be linked to toxicity endophenotypes, i.e., alterations in neural connectivity that form the basis for neurofunctional deficits in man. The authors of this review convened in a workshop to define criteria for the selection of positive/negative controls, to prepare recommendations on their use, and to initiate the setup of a directory of reference chemicals. For initial technical optimization of tests, a set of > 50 endpoint-specific control compounds was identified. For further test development, an additional "test" set of 33 chemicals considered to act directly as bona fide DNT toxicants is proposed, and each chemical is annotated to the extent it fulfills these criteria. A tabular compilation of the original literature used to select the test set chemicals provides information on statistical procedures, and toxic/non-toxic doses (both for pups and dams). Suggestions are provided on how to use the > 100 compounds (including negative controls) compiled here to address specificity, adversity and use of alternative test systems.

  18. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Animal Investigation Program 1976 annual report: Nevada test site and vicinity. [Radioanalysis of tissues from animals residing on or near NTS in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Brown, K.W.

    1978-11-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle and mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, feral horses, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1976. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of /sup 131/I in animal thyroid samples collected after September 25 (the date of a Chinese nuclear test). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep continued the downward trend of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within ambient limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., Sedan Crater, drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels, etc. Analysis of actinide in tissues was emphasized during 1976. Graphs illustrate the /sup 239/P levels in lungs, livers, and femurs from Nevada Test Site beef cattle for the years 1971 through 1976. Femur and lung residue data are nearly identical for each year with liver concentrations being a factor of 2 or 3 lower. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak actinide levels. The highest postulated dose was 11 millirem from tritium from tissues for a mule deer. This dose is about 2% of the 500 millirems/year guide for radiation doses to an individual in the general public. All other postulated doses for consumption of the tissue containing other radionuclides are less than 0.1% of this guide. The food habits of desert bighorn sheep were discussed according to the geographic locations of the animals at time of collection. Grasses made up approximately 60% of the diet at all locations, with shrubs content approaching 30%, and the remainder consisting of various forbs. The movement of 13 mule deer fitted with collars containing a radiotransmitter unit was monitored on a weekly basis.

  20. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Chase

    Full Text Available The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders. Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  1. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Ivan D; Lindquist, W Brent

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  2. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... and represents a supplement and alternative to animal testing, bypassing the animal to human extrapolation. Placentas are readily obtainable from most births upon informed consent from the mothers and are considered a promising tissue alternative/supplement to animal experiments. The system is validated...

  3. Field testing of alternative cookstove performance in a rural setting of western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Veena; Sussan, Thomas E; Limaye, Sneha; Koehler, Kirsten; Williams, D'Ann L; Rule, Ana M; Juvekar, Sanjay; Breysse, Patrick N; Salvi, Sundeep; Biswal, Shyam

    2015-02-03

    Nearly three billion people use solid fuels for cooking and heating, which leads to extremely high levels of household air pollution and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Many stove manufacturers have developed alternative cookstoves (ACSs) that are aimed at reducing emissions and fuel consumption. Here, we tested a traditional clay chulha cookstove (TCS) and five commercially available ACSs, including both natural draft (Greenway Smart Stove, Envirofit PCS-1) and forced draft stoves (BioLite HomeStove, Philips Woodstove HD4012, and Eco-Chulha XXL), in a test kitchen in a rural village of western India. Compared to the TCS, the ACSs produced significant reductions in particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and CO concentrations (Envirofit: 22%/16%, Greenway: 24%/42%, BioLite: 40%/35%, Philips: 66%/55% and Eco-Chulha: 61%/42%), which persisted after normalization for fuel consumption or useful energy. PM2.5 and CO concentrations were lower for forced draft stoves than natural draft stoves. Furthermore, the Philips and Eco-Chulha units exhibited higher cooking efficiency than the TCS. Despite significant reductions in concentrations, all ACSs failed to achieve PM2.5 levels that are considered safe by the World Health Organization (ACSs: 277-714 μg/m³ or 11-28 fold higher than the WHO recommendation of 25 μg/m³).

  4. Field Testing of Alternative Cookstove Performance in a Rural Setting of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Muralidharan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three billion people use solid fuels for cooking and heating, which leads to extremely high levels of household air pollution and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Many stove manufacturers have developed alternative cookstoves (ACSs that are aimed at reducing emissions and fuel consumption. Here, we tested a traditional clay chulha cookstove (TCS and five commercially available ACSs, including both natural draft (Greenway Smart Stove, Envirofit PCS-1 and forced draft stoves (BioLite HomeStove, Philips Woodstove HD4012, and Eco-Chulha XXL, in a test kitchen in a rural village of western India. Compared to the TCS, the ACSs produced significant reductions in particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 and CO concentrations (Envirofit: 22%/16%, Greenway: 24%/42%, BioLite: 40%/35%, Philips: 66%/55% and Eco-Chulha: 61%/42%, which persisted after normalization for fuel consumption or useful energy. PM2.5 and CO concentrations were lower for forced draft stoves than natural draft stoves. Furthermore, the Philips and Eco-Chulha units exhibited higher cooking efficiency than the TCS. Despite significant reductions in concentrations, all ACSs failed to achieve PM2.5 levels that are considered safe by the World Health Organization (ACSs: 277–714 μg/m3 or 11–28 fold higher than the WHO recommendation of 25 μg/m3.

  5. Habitat structure mediates predation risk for sedentary prey: Experimental tests of alternative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predation is an important and ubiquitous selective force that can shape habitat preferences of prey species, but tests of alternative mechanistic hypotheses of habitat influences on predation risk are lacking. 2. We studied predation risk at nest sites of a passerine bird and tested two hypotheses based on theories of predator foraging behaviour. The total-foliage hypothesis predicts that predation will decline in areas of greater overall vegetation density by impeding cues for detection by predators. The potential-prey-site hypothesis predicts that predation decreases where predators must search more unoccupied potential nest sites. 3. Both observational data and results from a habitat manipulation provided clear support for the potential-prey-site hypothesis and rejection of the total-foliage hypothesis. Birds chose nest patches containing both greater total foliage and potential nest site density (which were correlated in their abundance) than at random sites, yet only potential nest site density significantly influenced nest predation risk. 4. Our results therefore provided a clear and rare example of adaptive nest site selection that would have been missed had structural complexity or total vegetation density been considered alone. 5. Our results also demonstrated that interactions between predator foraging success and habitat structure can be more complex than simple impedance or occlusion by vegetation. ?? 2008 British Ecological Society.

  6. MST Fitness Index and implicit data narratives: A comparative test on alternative unsupervised algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new methodology for the evaluation of alternative algorithms in capturing the deep statistical structure of datasets of different types and nature, called MST Fitness, and based on the notion of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST). We test this methodology on six different databases, some of which artificial and widely used in similar experimentations, and some related to real world phenomena. Our test set consists of eight different algorithms, including some widely known and used, such as Principal Component Analysis, Linear Correlation, or Euclidean Distance. We moreover consider more sophisticated Artificial Neural Network based algorithms, such as the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and a relatively new algorithm called Auto-Contractive Map (AutoCM). We find that, for our benchmark of datasets, AutoCM performs consistently better than all other algorithms for all of the datasets, and that its global performance is superior to that of the others of several orders of magnitude. It is to be checked in future research if AutoCM can be considered a truly general-purpose algorithm for the analysis of heterogeneous categories of datasets.

  7. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  8. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  9. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance.

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicine and self-tests by coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease patients have to learn to manage their condition to maximise quality of life and prevent recurrence or deterioration. They may develop their own informal methods of self-management in addition to the advice they receive as part of formal cardiac rehabilitation programmes. This study aimed to explore the use of complementary and alternative medicines and therapies (CAM, self-test kits and attitudes towards health of UK patients one year after referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Method Questionnaire given to 463 patients attending an assessment clinic for 12 month follow up in four West Midlands hospitals. Results 91.1% completed a questionnaire. 29.1% of patients used CAM and/or self-test kits for self-management but few (8.9% used both methods. CAM was more often used for treating other illnesses than for CHD management. Self-test kit use (77.2%, was more common than CAM (31.7%, with BP monitors being the most prevalent (80.0%. Patients obtained self-test kits from a wide range of sources, for the most part (89.5% purchased entirely on their own initiative. Predictors of self-management were post revascularisation status and higher scores on 'holism', 'rejection of authority' and 'individual responsibility'. Predictors of self-test kit use were higher 'holism' and 'individual responsibility' scores. Conclusion Patients are independently using new technologies to monitor their cardiovascular health, a role formerly carried out only by healthcare practitioners. Post-rehabilitation patients reported using CAM for self-management less frequently than they reported using self-test kits. Reports of CAM use were less frequent than in previous surveys of similar patient groups. Automatic assumptions cannot be made by clinicians about which CHD patients are most likely to self-manage. In order to increase trust and compliance it is important for doctors to encourage all CHD patients to disclose their self

  11. Testing Constancy of the Error Covariance Matrix in Vector Models against Parametric Alternatives using a Spectral Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yukay

    I consider multivariate (vector) time series models in which the error covariance matrix may be time-varying. I derive a test of constancy of the error covariance matrix against the alternative that the covariance matrix changes over time. I design a new family of Lagrange-multiplier tests against...

  12. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation.

  13. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards conventional and complementary and alternative medicine treatments: Introduction of an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A; Hohmann, Cynthia; Lister, Kelsi; Albertyn, Riani; Bradshaw, Renee; Johnson, Christine

    2016-06-01

    This study examined associations between anticipated future health behaviour and participants' attitudes. Three Implicit Association Tests were developed to assess safety, efficacy and overall attitude. They were used to examine preference associations between conventional versus complementary and alternative medicine among 186 participants. A structural equation model suggested only a single implicit association, rather than three separate domains. However, this single implicit association predicted additional variance in anticipated future use of complementary and alternative medicine beyond explicit. Implicit measures should give further insight into motivation for complementary and alternative medicine use.

  14. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  15. Testing multi-alternative decision models with non-stationary evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eTsetsos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has investigated the process of integrating perceptual evidence towards a decision, converging on a number of sequential sampling choice models, such as variants of race and diffusion models and the non-linear leaky competing accumulator (LCA model. Here we study extensions of these models to multi-alternative choice, considering how well they can account for data from a psychophysical experiment in which the evidence supporting each of the alternatives changes dynamically during the trial, in a way that creates temporal correlations. We find that participants exhibit a tendency to choose an alternative whose evidence profile is temporally anti-correlated with (or dissimilar from that of other alternatives. This advantage of the anti-correlated alternative is well accounted for in the LCA, and provides constraints that challenge several other models of multi-alternative choice.

  16. Fractional Unit Root Tests Allowing for a Structural Change in Trend under Both the Null and Alternative Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Yeon Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers testing procedures for the null hypothesis of a unit root process against the alternative of a fractional process, called a fractional unit root test. We extend the Lagrange Multiplier (LM tests of Robinson (1994 and Tanaka (1999, which are locally best invariant and uniformly most powerful, to allow for a slope change in trend with or without a concurrent level shift under both the null and alternative hypotheses. We show that the limit distribution of the proposed LM tests is standard normal. Finite sample simulation experiments show that the tests have good size and power. As an empirical analysis, we apply the tests to the Consumer Price Indices of the G7 countries.

  17. Inductance plethysmography: an alternative signal to servocontrol the airway pressure during proportional assist ventilation in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Suguihara, C; Gerhardt, T; Schaller, P; Claure, N; Everett, R; Devia, C; Hehre, D; Bancalari, E

    2001-02-01

    During proportional assist ventilation (PAV), the ventilator pressure is servocontrolled throughout each spontaneous inspiration such that it instantaneously increases in proportion to the airflow (resistive unloading mode), or inspired volume (elastic unloading mode), or both (combined unloading mode). The PAV pressure changes are generated in a closed-loop feedback circuitry commonly using a pneumotachographic signal. In neonates, however, a pneumotachograph increases dead space ventilation, and its signal may include a substantial endotracheal tube leak component. We hypothesized that respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) can replace pneumotachography to drive the ventilator during PAV without untoward effects on ventilation or respiratory gas exchange. Ten piglets and five rabbits were supported for 10-min (normal lungs) or 20-min (meconium injured lungs) periods by each of the three PAV modes. In each mode, three test periods were applied in random order with the ventilator driven by the pneumotachograph signal, or the RIP abdominal band signal, or the RIP sum signal of rib cage and abdomen. Interchanging the three input signals did not affect the regularity of spontaneous breathing, and gas exchange was achieved with similar peak and mean airway pressures (ANOVA). However, the RIP sum signal worked adequately only when the relative gains of rib cage and abdominal band signal were calibrated. We conclude that an RIP abdominal band signal can be used to generate PAV, avoiding increased dead space and endotracheal tube leak problems.

  18. Report on noninvasive prenatal testing: classical and alternative approaches [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna S. Pantiukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT. These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing. Two alternative approaches are ascertained: one based on maternal/fetal differential methylation and another based on allelic difference. While the former failed to provide stable results, the latter was found to be promising and worthy of conducting a large-scale trial. One critical point in any NIPT approach is the determination of fetal cell-free DNA fraction, which dictates the reliability of obtained results for a given sample. We show that two different chromosome Y representation measures—by real-time PCR and by whole-genome massive parallel sequencing—are practically interchangeable (r=0.94. We also propose a novel method based on maternal/fetal allelic difference which is applicable in pregnancies with fetuses of either sex. Even in its pilot form it correlates well with chromosome Y coverage estimates (r=0.74 and can be further improved by increasing the number of polymorphisms.

  19. Comparative Testing of Hemostatic Dressing in a Large Animal Model (Sus Scorofa) with Severe hepatic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    hemostatic dressings in a large animal model (Sus scrofa ) with severe hepatic injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Capt...to Date Sus scrofa 36 18 18 Note. Many fewer animals than approved were used because one of the original treatment groups (Lypressin- soaked gauze

  20. Development and preliminary testing of a computerized Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, Wf; Loos, M; de Vet, Hcw

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ), based on video animations, for assessing activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (OA), which combines the advantages of self-reported questionnaires and performance-based tests, without many of their limitations......, 4) existing measurement instruments, and 5) focus groups of patients. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 30/110 patients. In 110 patients correlations were calculated between AAQ and self-reported Hip disability and Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome ADL subscale (H/KOOS). In 45/110 patients...

  1. Testing alternative uses of electromagnetic data to reduce the prediction error of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse Christensen, Nikolaj; Christensen, Steen; Ferre, Ty Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    In spite of geophysics being used increasingly, it is often unclear how and when the integration of geophysical data and models can best improve the construction and predictive capability of groundwater models. This paper uses a newly developed HYdrogeophysical TEst-Bench (HYTEB) that is a collection of geological, groundwater and geophysical modeling and inversion software to demonstrate alternative uses of electromagnetic (EM) data for groundwater modeling in a hydrogeological environment consisting of various types of glacial deposits with typical hydraulic conductivities and electrical resistivities covering impermeable bedrock with low resistivity (clay). The synthetic 3-D reference system is designed so that there is a perfect relationship between hydraulic conductivity and electrical resistivity. For this system it is investigated to what extent groundwater model calibration and, often more importantly, model predictions can be improved by including in the calibration process electrical resistivity estimates obtained from TEM data. In all calibration cases, the hydraulic conductivity field is highly parameterized and the estimation is stabilized by (in most cases) geophysics-based regularization. For the studied system and inversion approaches it is found that resistivities estimated by sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI) or joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI) should be used with caution as estimators of hydraulic conductivity or as regularization means for subsequent hydrological inversion. The limited groundwater model improvement obtained by using the geophysical data probably mainly arises from the way these data are used here: the alternative inversion approaches propagate geophysical estimation errors into the hydrologic model parameters. It was expected that JHI would compensate for this, but the hydrologic data were apparently insufficient to secure such compensation. With respect to reducing model prediction error, it depends on the type

  2. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  3. Combat-Related Heterotopic Ossification: Development of Animal Models for Identifying Mechanisms and Testing Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    etiology, treatment, and prevention is the absence of a reliable and reproducible small animal model that can be used to characterize combat‐related HO...contamination and subsequent wound colonization may be a key risk factor. Using a small animal model of blast-related extremity injury involving a...to the systemic and perhaps local antimicrobial therapies geared towards decreasing bioburden in combat wounds. 6 Using our blast-related HO

  4. An Alternative Corrosion Resistance Test Method for Solar Cells and Interconnection Materials Limiting the Number of Long-lasting and Expensive Damp-Heat Climate Chamber Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Gouwen, R.J.; Veldman, D.; Bende, E.E.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Damp-heat testing of PV modules is a time-consuming process, taking months. We present an alternative test method: electrochemical noise (EcN) measurements. Data acquisition times vary between minutes for direct exposure to several tens of hours for encapsulated samples. EcN measurements are presented for several solar cell concepts and different environments. We have found that the degradation in damp-heat testing is proportional to the electrochemical noise signal. In conclusion, the electrochemical noise measurements are a fast, versatile tool to test the corrosion resistance of solar cells, which can be tested for different environments including encapsulation.

  5. Innovative new method to test skill of bioassay in postgraduate students during doctor of medicine pharmacology examination using objective structured practical examination and animal experiment software

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh D. Balani; Prabodh Anant Wankhade

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the guidelines for discontinuation of dissection and animal experimentation and introduction of use of alternatives to animal experimentation, Maharashtra University of Health Science, Nashik has not modified the exam pattern by shifting the emphasis on to use of animal experiment software. In one study on importance of bioassay in career, it has been reported that 96.6% did not use their knowledge of Bioassay during their 10 years of post MD career, whether in pharmaceuti...

  6. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the t...

  7. A TeGM6-4r antigen-based immunochromatographic test (ICT) for animal trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Goto, Yasuyuki; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-11-01

    Animal trypanosomosis is a disease that is distributed worldwide which results in huge economic losses due to reduced animal productivity. Endemic regions are often located in the countryside where laboratory diagnosis is costly or inaccessible. The establishment of simple, effective, and accurate field tests is therefore of great interest to the farming and veterinary sectors. Our study aimed to develop a simple, rapid, and sensitive immunochromatographic test (ICT) for animal trypanosomosis utilizing the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r, which is conserved amongst salivarian trypanosome species. In the specificity analysis, TeGM6-4r/ICT detected all of Trypanosoma evansi-positive controls from experimentally infected water buffaloes. As expected, uninfected controls tested negative. All sera samples collected from Tanzanian and Ugandan cattle that were Trypanosoma congolense- and/or Trypanosoma vivax-positive by microscopic examination of the buffy coat were found to be positive by the newly developed TeGM6-4r/ICT, which was comparable to results from TeGM6-4r/ELISA (kappa coefficient [κ] = 0.78). TeGM6/ICT also showed substantial agreement with ELISA using Trypanosoma brucei brucei (κ = 0.64) and T. congolense (κ = 0.72) crude antigen, suggesting the high potential of TeGM6-4r/ICT as a field diagnostic test, both for research purposes and on-site diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis.

  8. Standardization and the 3Rconcept in animal testing - effects and benefits of refinement in two test protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the impact of housing- and husbandry conditions and experimental procedures on the outcome of animal studies. The aim was 1) to improve the quality of experimental data by limiting confounding factors, either in a qualitative or quantitative way, and 2) to reduce the vari

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVIII, ALTERNATOR AND REGULATOR SERVICING AND TESTING, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR REGULATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED AS A REVIEW OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND SERVICING PROCEDURES FOR GENERATORS AND AS AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR CONTROLLED VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF GENERATOR PRINCIPLES, AC AND DC, (2) SERVICING AND TESTING ALTERNATORS, AND (3)…

  10. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  11. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  12. Whiteboard animation for knowledge mobilization: a test case from the Slave River and Delta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. A. Bradford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the co-creation of a whiteboard animation video, an enhanced e-storytelling technique for relaying traditional knowledge interview results as narratives. Design: We present a design for translating interview results into a script and accompanying series of figures, followed by technical steps to create a whiteboard animation product. Method: Our project used content analysis and researcher triangulation, followed by a collaborative process to develop an animated video to disseminate research findings. A 13-minute long whiteboard animation video was produced from a research study about changing environments in northern Canadian communities and was distributed to local people. Three challenging issues in the video creation process including communication issues, technical difficulties and contextual debate were resolved among the supporting agencies and researchers. Conclusions: Dissemination of findings is a crucial step in the research process. Whiteboard animation video products may be a viable and culturally-appropriate form of relaying research results back to Indigenous communities in a storytelling format.

  13. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, 72060 Batman (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO{sub x} emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  14. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on the duration of chronic toxicity testing in animals (rodent and nonrodent toxicity testing); availability. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "S4A Duration of Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (Rodent and Nonrodent Toxicity Testing)." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and is intended to provide guidance on the duration of chronic toxicity testing in rodents and nonrodents as part of the safety evaluation of a drug product. FDA is also noting circumstances in which it may accept durations of chronic toxicity testing in nonrodents that differ from the duration generally recommended by ICH.

  15. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J.; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; Galbiati, V.; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H.; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.; Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.; Kuehnl, J.; Lambrechts, N.; Lindstedt, M.; Millet, M.; Martinozzi-Teissier, S.; Natsch, A.; Petersohn, D.; Pike, I.; Sakaguchi, H.; Schepky, A.; Tailhardat, M.; Templier, M.; van Vliet, E; Maxwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has define

  16. Surgical technique: establishing a pre-clinical large animal model to test aortic valve leaflet substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirsch, Walter; Cesarovic, Niko; Krüger, Bernard; Schmiady, Martin; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Frese, Laura; Dave, Hitendu; Hoerstrup, Simon Philipp; Hübler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To overcome current limitations of valve substitutes and tissue substitutes the technology of tissue engineering (TE) continues to offer new perspectives in congenital cardiac surgery. We report our experiences and results implanting a decellularized TE patch in nine sheep in orthotropic position as aortic valve leaflet substitute. Establishing the animal model, feasibility, cardiopulmonary bypass issues and operative technique are highlighted. PMID:28149571

  17. Using Online Tool (iPrior) for Modeling ToxCast™ Assays Towards Prioritization of Animal Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Sushko, Yurii; Novotarskyi, Sergii; Körner, Robert; Brandmaier, Stefan; Tetko, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    The use of long-term animal studies for human and environmental toxicity estimation is more discouraged than ever before. Alternative models for toxicity prediction, including QSAR studies, are gaining more ground. A recent approach is to combine in vitro chemical profiling and in silico chemical descriptors with the knowledge about toxicity pathways to derive a unique signature for toxicity endpoints. In this study we investigate the ToxCast™ Phase I data regarding their ability to predict long-term animal toxicity. We investigated thousands of models constructed in an effort to predict 61 toxicity endpoints using multiple descriptor packages and hundreds of in vitro assays. We investigated the use of in vitro assays and biochemical pathways on model performance. We identified 10 toxicity endpoints where biologically derived descriptors from in vitro assays or pathway perturbations improved the model prediction ability. In vivo toxicity endpoints proved generally challenging to model. Few models were possible to readily model with a balanced accuracy (BA) above 0.7. We also constructed in silico models to predict the outcome of 144 in vitro assays. This showed better statistical metrics with 79 out of 144 assays having median balanced accuracy above 0.7. This suggests that the in vitro datasets have a better modelability than in vivo animal toxicities for the given datasets. Moreover, we published an online platform (http://iprior.ochem.eu) that automates large-scale model building and analysis.

  18. Intrinsic steady alternate bars in alluvial channels. Part 1: experimental observations and numerical tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    Alternate bars in straight alluvial channels are migrating or steady. The currently accepted view is that they are steady only if the width-to-depth ratio is at the value of resonance or if the bars are forced by a steady local perturbation. Experimental observations, however, seem to indicate that

  19. Preferences Among Alternative Test Outcomes: A Classroom Measure of Social Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Charles G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to develop a methodology for assessing variations in social motives utilizing sets of alternative outcomes to self and others that would be both important and relevant to students enrolled in a class, and to use both the methodology and findings for the didactic purpose of illustrating the variety and importance of various social…

  20. Testing Alternative Assessment Strategies-the Ups and the Downs for Science-Teaching Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Hedy; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines the different alternative assessment strategies used by different biology instructors at Florida State University, each teaching a section of a new biology course for prospective elementary and early childhood teachers. Provides suggestions for similar relatively small classes as well as for large college classes. (JRH)

  1. Alternatives to Kronig-Kramers Transformation and Testing, and Estimation of Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; Ross Macdonald, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two alternatives to Kronig-Kramers analysis of small-signal ac immittance data are discussed and illustrated using both synthetic and experimental data. The first, a derivative method of approximating imaginary-part response from real-part data, is found to be too approximate in regions where the im

  2. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition.

  3. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  4. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge.

  5. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  6. Empirical testing of alternative price spread models in the South African maize market

    OpenAIRE

    Faminow, Merle D.; Laubscher, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Reduced-form price spread models have been recently utilized by Wohlgenant and Mullen, and Thompson and Lyon to evaluate the economic factors affecting the marketing margins for agricultural products. Drawing on Gardner, Heien, Buse and Brandow, Waugh, Tomek and Robinson, and others they specify alternative retail-farm price spread models and attempt to determine which best fit the data in the context of underlying theoretical rationale. This paper continues in the spirit of Wohlgenant and Mu...

  7. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P. F., II; Ferguson, A. F.

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPM's) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  8. An alternative approach to the Army Physical Fitness Test two-mile run using critical velocity and isoperformance curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of critical velocity (CV) and isoperformance curves as an alternative to the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) two-mile running test. Seventy-eight men and women (mean +/- SE; age: 22.1 +/- 0.34 years; VO2(MAX): 46.1 +/- 0.82 mL/kg/min) volunteered to participate in this study. A VO2(MAX) test and four treadmill running bouts to exhaustion at varying intensities were completed. The relationship between total distance and time-to-exhaustion was tracked for each exhaustive run to determine CV and anaerobic running capacity. A VO2(MAX) prediction equation (Coefficient of determination: 0.805; Standard error of the estimate: 3.2377 mL/kg/min) was developed using these variables. Isoperformance curves were constructed for men and women to correspond with two-mile run times from APFT standards. Individual CV and anaerobic running capacity values were plotted and compared to isoperformance curves for APFT 2-mile run scores. Fifty-four individuals were determined to receive passing scores from this assessment. Physiological profiles identified from this procedure can be used to assess specific aerobic or anaerobic training needs. With the use of time-to-exhaustion as opposed to a time-trial format used in the two-mile run test, pacing strategies may be limited. The combination of variables from the CV test and isoperformance curves provides an alternative to standardized time-trial testing.

  9. Focused evaluation of selected remedial alternatives for the underground test area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County in southern Nevada, was the location of 928 nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. Of the total tests, 824 were nuclear tests performed underground. This report describes the approach taken to determine whether any specific, proven, cost-effective technologies currently exist to aid in the removal of the radioactive contaminants from the groundwater, in the stabilization of these contaminants, and in the removal of the source of the contaminants.

  10. [Anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in experimental tests on laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramentinoli, G; Pezzoli, C; Catto, E

    1975-12-05

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) always plays an important role in the metabolism of catecholamines. Since the importance of the latter in the inflammatory process has been reported by several Authors, we examined the effect of SAMe in various tests of acute inflammation (carrageenin and white egg oedema) and chronic inflammation (cotton pellet induced granuloma, adjuvant induced arthritis). Considering the positive results we have obtained and being aware that many drugs with antiinflammatory activity also have an antalgic activity, we examined the effects of a treatment with SAMe on animals subjected to analgesic tests: hot plate and streching by acetic acid in mice.

  11. Laparoscopic orchidopexy: one-stage alternative for non-palpable testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shareef, Z. H.; Al-Shlash, S.; Koneru, S. R.; Towu, E.; Al-Dhohayan, A.; Al-Brekett, K.

    1996-01-01

    Laparoscopy was utilised in the evaluation of 24 non-palpable undescended testes in 19 children. The procedure was accurate in all patients while ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to localise the testes in most cases. At the same time laparoscopic orchidopexy was performed on 15 testes (62.5%). The remaining testes were either absent or atrophic, in which case they were excised. There were no complications from these procedures and the hospital stay was short. Paediatric laparoscopy is safe and effective in the definitive management of non-palpable undescended testes. PMID:8678443

  12. Robust inference from multiple test statistics via permutations: a better alternative to the single test statistic approach for randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Jitendra; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Guoguang Julie

    2013-01-01

    Formal inference in randomized clinical trials is based on controlling the type I error rate associated with a single pre-specified statistic. The deficiency of using just one method of analysis is that it depends on assumptions that may not be met. For robust inference, we propose pre-specifying multiple test statistics and relying on the minimum p-value for testing the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. The null hypothesis associated with the various test statistics is that the treatment groups are indistinguishable. The critical value for hypothesis testing comes from permutation distributions. Rejection of the null hypothesis when the smallest p-value is less than the critical value controls the type I error rate at its designated value. Even if one of the candidate test statistics has low power, the adverse effect on the power of the minimum p-value statistic is not much. Its use is illustrated with examples. We conclude that it is better to rely on the minimum p-value rather than a single statistic particularly when that single statistic is the logrank test, because of the cost and complexity of many survival trials.

  13. 皮肤刺激实验替代模型的研究新进展%Progress of Research on the Skin Irritation Test Alternative Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛善珍; 牛云彤; 卢涛

    2015-01-01

    皮肤刺激性是日常使用化妆品最常见的不良反应之一.人类健康相关产品危险性评价常做皮肤刺激性实验,皮肤刺激性试验是化妆品原料及产品安全性评价的主要项目.传统皮肤刺激试验采用实验动物进行,2013年3月11日欧盟已经禁止销售基于动物实验研发的化妆品原料及产品.随着组织工程技术和现代生物技术的发展,多种替代动物试验的体外模型被开发和应用,新的的皮肤刺激物陆续被发现.欧盟多采纳重组人表皮实验方法作为新体外皮肤实验指南(包括模型Episkin和模型Epiderm),随着体外模型重建技术的不断改善,不仅拓展了皮肤模型的临床应用范围,也必然推动新的敏感而特异的皮肤标志物的发现和应用.%Skin irritation is one of the most common adverse reactions in daily using cosmetics.Risk assessment of Human health related products often do skin irritation test,irritation test is the major projects to aspects of cosmetic of raw materials and product safety assessment.Traditional skin irritation tests use experimental animals.EU ban on animal-tested cosmetics goes into force on 11 March 2013.With the development of the tissue engineering and modem biotechnology,number of alternative animal testing in vitro models have been developed and applied,and new skin irritants were successively found.The EU adoption of experimental methods of recombinant human epidermal skin in vitro experiments as a new guide,such as Episkin and Epiderm.With the improving of vitro model recon-struction technology continues,the scope of the clinical application of skin model has been expanded,and it is bound to promote the discovery and application of new skin sensitive and specific markers.

  14. Juvenile animal studies for the development of paediatric medicines: a description and conclusions from a European Medicines Agency workshop on juvenile animal testing for nonclinical assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Due Theilade-Thomsen, Mette; Carleer, Jacqueline; Vidal, Jean-Marc; Tomasi, Paolo; Saint-Raymond, Agnes

    2010-12-01

    A workshop organised by the European Medicines Agency involved assessors and experts present in a Nonclinical Working Group evaluating juvenile animal studies for Paediatric Investigation Plans in collaboration with the Paediatric Committee and the Safety Working Party of the Committee for Human Medicinal Products. The objective of the workshop was to analyse which juvenile animal studies proposals were received and agreed by the Paediatric Committee, to check consistency and how to apply the existing European guideline on juvenile animal studies. A comparison of main organ system development in man vs. animal species was presented to guide the review and to support species selection and protocol design. An analysis of juvenile animal studies included in finalised PIP's was also presented. Out of 109 paediatric investigation plans finalised between November 2008 and March 2009, 43 included one or more juvenile animal studies. In most cases the preferred species was the rat; one species only was requested to be studied (20/22), but in a minority two species were required (2/22). When deciding on the characteristics of the juvenile animal studies, such as age of animals at study start, the age of the children targeted by the medicine was considered. It is expected that the increasing experience gained by Applicants and Regulators will allow further refining the criteria for these juvenile animal studies. Further research on this topic is highly encouraged in the European Regulatory framework.

  15. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  16. A Study on Measurement Error during Alternating Current Induced Voltage Tests on Large Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuan; LI Yun-ge; CAO Xiao-long; LIU Ying

    2006-01-01

    The large transformer is pivotal equipment in an electric power supply system; Its partial discharge test and the induced voltage withstand test on large transformers are carried out at a frequency about twice the working frequency. If the magnetizing inductance cannot compensate for the stray capacitance, the test sample turns into a capacitive load and a capacitive rise exhibits in the testing circuit. For self-restoring insulation, a method has been recommended in IEC60-1 that an unapproved measuring system be calibrated by an approved system at a voltage not less than 50% of the rated testing voltage, and the result then be extrapolated linearly. It has been found that this method leads to great error due to the capacitive rise if it is not correctly used during a withstand voltage test under certain testing conditions, especially for a test on high voltage transformers with large capacity. Since the withstand voltage test is the most important means to examine the operation reliability of a transformer, and it can be destructive to the insulation, a precise measurement must be guaranteed. In this paper a factor, named as the capacitive rise factor, is introduced to assess the rise. The voltage measurement error during the calibration is determined by the parameters of the test sample and the testing facilities, as well as the measuring point. Based on theoretical analysis in this paper, a novel method is suggested and demonstrated to estimate the error by using the capacitive rise factor and other known parameters of the testing circuit.

  17. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  18. Testing quantitative pollen dispersal models in animal-pollinated vegetation mosaics: An example from temperate Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M.; Connor, S. E.; Theuerkauf, M.; Kuneš, P.; Fletcher, M.-S.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing past vegetation abundance and land-cover changes through time has important implications in land management and climate modelling. To date palaeovegetation reconstructions in Australia have been limited to qualitative or semi-quantitative inferences from pollen data. Testing pollen dispersal models constitutes a crucial step in developing quantitative past vegetation and land cover reconstructions. Thus far, the application of quantitative pollen dispersal models has been restricted to regions dominated by wind-pollinated plants (e.g. Europe) and their performance in a landscape dominated by animal-pollinated plant taxa is still unexplored. Here we test, for the first time in Australia, two well-known pollen dispersal models to assess their performance in the wind- and animal-pollinated vegetation mosaics of western Tasmania. We focus on a mix of wind- (6 taxa) and animal- (7 taxa) pollinated species that comprise the most common pollen types and key representatives of the dominant vegetation formations. Pollen Productivity Estimates and Relevant Source Area of Pollen obtained using Lagrangian Stochastic turbulent simulations appear to be more realistic when compared to the results from the widely used Gaussian Plume Model.

  19. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, E. Dinant; Bosgra, Sieto; Buist, Harrie E.; Lewin, Geertje; van der Linden, Sander C.; Man, Hai-yen; Piersma, Aldert H.; Rorije, Emiel; Schulpen, Sjors H. W.; Schwarz, Michael; Uibel, Frederik; van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M. A.; Wolterbeek, Andre P. M.; van der Burg, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false negati

  20. Weighted Kolmogorov Smirnov testing: an alternative for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmpi, Konstantina; Ycart, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) is a basic tool for genomic data treatment. Its test statistic is based on a cumulated weight function, and its distribution under the null hypothesis is evaluated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Here, it is proposed to subtract to the cumulated weight function its asymptotic expectation, then scale it. Under the null hypothesis, the convergence in distribution of the new test statistic is proved, using the theory of empirical processes. The limiting distribution needs to be computed only once, and can then be used for many different gene sets. This results in large savings in computing time. The test defined in this way has been called Weighted Kolmogorov Smirnov (WKS) test. Using expression data from the GEO repository, tested against the MSig Database C2, a comparison between the classical GSEA test and the new procedure has been conducted. Our conclusion is that, beyond its mathematical and algorithmic advantages, the WKS test could be more informative in many cases, than the classical GSEA test.

  1. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  2. Real-time target motion animation for missile warning system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Timothy; Sundberg, Robert; Cordell, John; Tun, Zaw; Owen, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The QUick Image Display (QUID) model accurately computes and displays radiance images of aircraft and other objects, generically called targets, at animation rates while the target undergoes unrestricted flight. Animation rates are obtained without sacrificing radiometric accuracy by using two important innovations. First, QUID has been implemented using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) library, an open-source, cross-platform 3-D graphics toolkit for the development of high performance graphics applications in the fields of visual simulation, virtual reality, scientific visualization and modeling. Written entirely in standard C++ and fully encapsulating OpenGL and its extensions, OSG exploits modern graphics hardware to perform the computationally intensive calculations such as hidden surface removal, 3-D transformations, and shadow casting. Second, a novel formulation for reflective/emissive terms enables rapid and accurate calculation of per-vertex radiance. The bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is a decomposed into separable spectral and angular functions. The spectral terms can be pre-calculated for a user specified band pass and for a set of target-observer ranges. The only BRDF calculations which must be performed during target motion involves the observer-target-source angular functions. QUID supports a variety of target geometry files and is capable of rendering scenes containing high level-of-detail targets with thousands of facets. QUID generates accurate visible to LWIR radiance maps, in-band and spectral signatures. The newest features of QUID are illustrated with radiance and apparent temperature images of threat missiles as viewed by an aircraft missile warning system.

  3. Implementation challenges for designing integrated in vitro testing strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Krul, Cyrille; Mikulowski, Stan; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L; Vilà, Maya R

    2012-04-01

    At the IVTIP (in vitro testing industrial platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C')--working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and systematic approach to future toxicity testing without the use of animals. One of the emerging concepts focused on integrating a defined number of tests modelling in vivo-relevant and well-characterised toxicity pathways representing mechanistic endpoints. At this meeting the importance of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) as tools towards reduction and eventually replacement of the animals currently used for hazard identification and risk assessment was recognised. A follow-up IVTIP Spring 2010 meeting entitled 'Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS)--Implementation Challenges' was organised to address pending questions about ITS. This report is not a review of the ITS literature, but a summary of the discussions triggered by presented examples on how to develop and implement ITS. Contrasts between pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as well as a list of general but practical aspects to be considered while developing an ITS emerged from the discussions. In addition, current recommendations on the validation of ITS were discussed. In conclusion, the outcome of this workshop improved the understanding of the participants of some important factors that may impact the design of an ITS in function of its purpose (e.g., screening, or early decision making versus regulatory), the context in which they need to be applied (e.g., ICH guidelines, REACH) and the status and quality of the available tools. A set of recommendations of best practices was established and the importance of the applicability of the individual tests as well as the testing strategy itself was highlighted.

  4. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students’ Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Karadeniz Bayrak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify primary students’ conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include the concepts used in the subject of “Acids and Bases”, which is a part of the unit “Structure and Properties of Matter” taught in the eighth grade Science and Technology course. The conceptual understanding scale was developed by the researchers to identify the alternative conceptions students might have concerning this subject. The scale consists of diagnostic tests (n=15 designed to measure levels of understanding among students concerning the subject of acids and bases, and to identify their ways of thinking and rationales. Data were first analyzed by tabulating students’ answers to the first tier of each question, and the percentages of the reasons they selected for their answers. Analysis of results showed that students find difficulty about conceptual understanding and they have some alternative conceptions related to in acid-base.

  5. Turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Gretchen; Lee, William G; Pritchard, Daniel W; Wilson, J Bastow

    2014-02-01

    Alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. Using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. In a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably Leptinella dioica, Samolus repens, and Selliera radicans) alternates with vegetation comprising exotic (i.e., nonnative) pasture species (notably Agrostis stolonifera, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens). The species of these two communities differ in functional characters related to leaf longevity and growth rate, and occupy soils of differing nitrogen levels. Both spatial and environmental factors influenced the species composition locally. Reciprocal transplants of soil, with and without associated vegetation, showed that a native turf community developed when sward or soil from either community was bounded by turf, and a pasture community developed when sward or soil from either community was surrounded by pasture. In artificial mixed communities in the greenhouse, turf was able to invade the pasture community where the vegetation was clipped to simulate grazing, and also where Trifolium was removed and/or salt spray was applied. The pasture community invaded the turf where Trifolium was present or nitrogen was added. These results were supported by trends in experimentally manipulated field plots, where the amount of turf cover increased when nitrogen was kept low and when salt spray was applied, whereas pasture cover increased in the absence of salt spray. Thus, persistence of the native turf community is dependent on grazing, both directly and via its effect on keeping nitrogen levels low by excluding the exotic, nitrogen-fixing Trifolium, and by exposing the

  6. Expression of a novel alternative transcript of the novel retinal pigment epithelial cell gene NORPEG in human testes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wa Yuan; Ying Zheng; Ran Huo; Li Lu; Xiao-Yan Huang; Lan-Lan Yin; Jian-Min Li; Zuo-Min Zhou; Jia-Hao Sha

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To identify a novel alternative transcript of the novel retinal pigment epithelial cell gene (NORPEG) expressed in the human testis. Methods: A human testis cDNA microarray was established and hybridized with cDNA probes from human fetal testes, adult testes and human spermatozoa. Differentially expressed clones were sequenced and analyzed. One of these clones was a short transcript of NORPEG which we proceeded to analyze by RT-PCR.Results: The novel short alternative transcript of NORPEG was isolated and named sNORPEG. It was 3486 bp in length and contained a 2952-bp open reading frame, encoding a 110.4-kDa protein of 983 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the sNORPEG protein contains six ankyrin repeats and two coiled-coil domains. It shares a high homology with the NORPEG and ankycorbin proteins in both its sequence and motifs. Blasting the human genome database localized sNORPEG to human chromosome 5p13.2-13.3. Expression profiles showed that sNORPEG was expressed in human fetal testes, adult testes and spermatozoa. Moreover, sNORPEG was found to be ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. Conclusion: sNORPEG is expressed in different developmental stages of the testis and encodes a protein that may have roles in human testis development and spermatogenesis.

  7. Attempts to test an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors by low-temperature scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, Angelo; Giessibl, Franz J.

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment to test between two theories of the electrodynamics of superconductors: the standard London theory and an alternative proposed by J. E. Hirsch [Phys. Rev. B 69, 214515 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.214515]. The two alternatives give different predictions with respect to the screening of an electric field by a superconductor, and we try to detect this effect using atomic force microscopy on a niobium sample. We also perform the reverse experiment, where we demonstrate a superconductive tip mounted on a qPlus force sensor. Due to limited accuracy, we are able neither to prove nor to disprove Hirsch's hypothesis. Within our accuracy of 0.17 N/m, the superconductive transition does not alter the atomic-scale interaction between tip and sample.

  8. An alternative quantum theory for single particles and a proposed experimental test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quan-hui

    2007-01-01

    An alternative quantum theory for single particles bounded in the external field proposed in 1986(Huang X.Y.,Phys.Lett.A.,1986,115:310)is further developed from which the energy of the state for the single particle takes one of the eigenvalues of the quantum Hamiltonian,and the usual quantum mechanics for the particle in a stationary state holds only in the statistical sense.In light of the theory,the particle of definite energy,ground-state-energy for instance,can exhibit a novel periodic behavior.This result for the ground-state-energy state neutron in the Earth's gravitational field is experimentally testable using ultracold neutron beam passing through the same apparatus that was devised in 2002 to identify the energy quantization of neutron in the field(Nesvizhevsky V.V.,et al.,Nature,2002,415:297).

  9. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B (alternate ECC injection tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Jr., M. L.; Collins, B. L.; Sackett, K. E.

    1977-04-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Tests S-05-2A and S-05-2B were conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 543/sup 0/F and 2272 psia and 542/sup 0/F, respectively, to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the tests, cooling water was injected into the intact loop pump suction and broken loop cold leg to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR with flow rates based on system volume scaling. For Test S-05-2A the intact loop pump speed was held constant throughout the test at the initial blowdown value. During Test S-05-2B the pump speed was reduced and stopped according to a predetermined coastdown schedule.

  10. [Molecular test Genotype® MTBDRplus, an alternative to rapid detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencios, Luis; Galarza, Marco; Quispe, Neyda; Vásquez, Lucy; Leo, Elena; Valencia, Eddy; Ramírez, Juan; Acurio, Margoth; Salazar, Rosario; Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Cáceres, Omar

    2012-03-01

    The Genotype®MTBDRplus molecular test is a method that allows identification of the most frequent mutations associated with resistance to major first-line antituberculosis drugs, Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RFP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the molecular test with culture and smear- positive sputum samples. We evaluated 95 cultures and 100 sputum samples with resistance profiles previously determined by the reference method "Agar Plate Proportions" (APP). The molecular test from cultures showed a sensitivity of 100 %, 97,5 % and 96,97 % for RIF, INH and MDR respectively while from sputums the sensitivity was 95,65 %, 96,77 % and 95,24 % for RIF, INH and MDR respectively. We conclude that the molecular test Genotype®MTBDRplus is a very useful tool to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin simultaneously (MDR-TB) in up to 72 hours from sputum samples or cultures.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... soap suds or a water and oil mixture. The test must be conducted for a period of time sufficient to... packaging must be coated with a soap solution over the entire side seam and a distance of not less...

  12. Experimental Study of Dowel Bar Alternatives Based on Similarity Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-scaled accelerated loading test based on similarity theory and Accelerated Pavement Analyzer was developed to evaluate dowel bars with different materials and cross-sections. Jointed concrete specimen consisting of one dowel was designed as scaled model for the test, and each specimen was subjected to 864 thousand loading cycles. Deflections between jointed slabs were measured with dial indicators, and strains of the dowel bars were monitored with strain gauges. The load transfer efficiency, differential deflection, and dowel-concrete bearing stress for each case were calculated from these measurements. The test results indicated that the effect of the dowel modulus on load transfer efficiency can be characterized based on the similarity model test developed in the study. Moreover, round steel dowel was found to have similar performance to larger FRP dowel, and elliptical dowel can be preferentially considered in practice.

  13. Design and testing of microfabricated surgical tools for large animal probe insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Shelly [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Neural probes provide therapeutic stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders or record neural activity to investigate the workings of the brain. Researchers utilize 6 mm long temporary silicon stiffeners attached with biodissolvable adhesive to insert flexible neural probes into rat brains, but increasing the probe length fivefold makes inserting large animal probes a significant challenge because of an increased potential for buckling. This study compared the insertion success rates of 6 mm and 30 mm long silicon stiffeners that were 80 μm wide and 30 μm thick, and ascertained the material thickness and modulus of elasticity that would provide successful insertion for a 30 mm probe. Using a microdrive, stiffeners were inserted into an agarose brain phantom at controlled insertion speeds while being video-recorded. Twenty-five percent of the 30 mm silicon stiffeners fully inserted at speeds approximately four times higher than the target rate of 0.13 mm/s, while 100 percent of the 6 mm silicon stiffeners inserted successfully at target speed. Critical buckling loads (Pcr) were calculated for the 6 mm and 30 mm silicon stiffeners, and for 30 mm diamond and tungsten stiffeners, with thicknesses varying from 30-80 μm. Increasing the thickness of the material by 10 μm, 20 μm and 30 μm improved the Pcr by 2.4, 4.7 and 8.2 times, respectively, independent of the material, and substituting diamond for silicon multiplied the buckling capacity by 5.0 times. Stiffeners made of silicon for large animal probe insertion are not strong enough to withstand buckling upon insertion without a significant increase in thickness. Replacing silicon with diamond and increasing the thickness of the stiffener to 50 μm would afford a stiffener with the same Pcr capacity as the 6 mm silicon stiffener that had a 100 percent insertion success rate. Experiments should continue with diamond to determine a minimum thickness that will ensure successful

  14. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  15. Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado Alternative test for detection of coliforms bacteria in manually expressed human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz R. Novak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.Objective: To compare an alternative method to the most probable number (MPN test for the detection of total coliform present in manually expressed human milk. Methods: 343 samples of manually expressed human milk from flasks donated to the Human Milk Bank of Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF were sent to the Laboratory of Food Control of IFF. The samples were used for comparing both methods, i.e., the most

  16. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard" is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect, robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9 and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3, respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8. For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  17. Strategic test-day recording regimes to estimate lactation yield in tropical dairy animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, D.M.; Thomson, P.C.; Mulder, H.A.; Lievaart, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing dairy sectors, genetic improvement programs have limited resources and recording of herds is minimal. This study evaluated different methods to estimate lactation yield and sampling schedules with fewer test-day records per lactation to determine recording regimes that (1) e

  18. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data.

  19. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  20. VIGOR TESTS ASSOCIATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRECISE AND EFFICIENT ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ALTOMANI NEVES DIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate two concepts of seed vigor testing, the aging and seedling growth using image analysis, providing a feasible and time-saving way to evaluate maize seed vigor in large scale. For this purpose, five seed lots with different vigor levels from two single hybrids were used. The seeds were characterized by moisture content, germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, accelerated aging and cold tests. The treatments were composed by varying the accelerated aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96h and seedling growth periods (48 and 72h, before submitting the seedlings to image analysis for seedling root length measurement. Considering the results obtained, the adaptation of accelerated aging test by reducing the aging duration from 96h to 48h, and the replacement of the germination test by seedling root length measurement using image analysis could be considered a potential tool for maize seed vigor assessment. The treatments composed of 48h of seed aging followed by seedlings root length measurements using image analysis provided reliable data, compared to traditional vigor tests and it could be considered an efficient and timesaving approach, associating two different concepts of seed vigor analysis.

  1. Innovative new method to test skill of bioassay in postgraduate students during doctor of medicine pharmacology examination using objective structured practical examination and animal experiment software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh D. Balani

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This method is good alternative to the traditional method of bioassay, as there is no need of sacrificing and dissecting the animal for the sake of this less important experiment. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1622-1628

  2. Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT) for Rapid Diagnosis of Rabies in Animals and Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shampur Narayan Madhusudana; Sundaramurthy Subha; Ullas Thankappan; Yajaman Belludi Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Presently the gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFA) which is very expensive and requires a high level of expertise.There is a need for more economical and user friendly tests,particularly for use in developing countries.We have established one such test called the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) for diagnosis of rabies using brain tissue.The test is based on capture of rabies nucleoprotein (N) antigen in brain smears using a cocktail of biotinylated monoclonal antibodies specific for the N protein and color development by streptavidin peroxidase-amino ethyl carbazole and counter staining with haematoxollin.The test was done in parallel with standard FAT dFA using 400 brain samples from different animals and humans.The rabies virus N protein appears under light microscope as reddish brown particles against a light blue background.There was 100 % correlation between the results obtained by the two tests.Also,interpretation of results by dRIT was easier and only required a light microscope.To conclude,this newly developed dRIT technique promises to be a simple,cost effective diagnostic tool for rabies and will have applicability in field conditions prevalent in developing countries.

  3. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-05-07

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ∼21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.

  4. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  5. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-23

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  6. Nucleic-acid testing, new platforms and nanotechnology for point-of-decision diagnosis of animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Fernando; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis in animals is crucial for animal well-being but also for preventing zoonosis transmission to humans. In particular, livestock diseases may constitute severe threats to humans due to the particularly high physical contact and exposure and, also, be the cause of important economic losses, even in non-endemic countries, where they often arise in the form of rapid and devastating epidemics. Rapid diagnostic tests have been used for a long time in field situations, particularly during outbreaks. However, they mostly rely on serological approaches, which may confirm the exposure to a particular pathogen but may be inappropriate for point-of-decision (point-of-care) settings when emergency responses supported on early and accurate diagnosis are required. Moreover, they often exhibit modest sensitivity and hence significantly depend on later result confirmation in central or reference laboratories. The impressive advances observed in recent years in materials sciences and in nanotechnology, as well as in nucleic-acid synthesis and engineering, have led to an outburst of new in-the-bench and prototype tests for nucleic-acid testing towards point-of-care diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. Manufacturing, commercial, regulatory, and technical nature issues for field applicability more likely have hindered their wider entrance into veterinary medicine and practice than have fundamental science gaps. This chapter begins by outlining the current situation, requirements, difficulties, and perspectives of point-of-care tests for diagnosing diseases of veterinary interest. Nucleic-acid testing, particularly for the point of care, is addressed subsequently. A range of valuable signal transduction mechanisms commonly employed in proof-of-concept schemes and techniques born on the analytical chemistry laboratories are also described. As the essential core of this chapter, sections dedicated to the principles and applications of microfluidics, lab

  7. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR.

  8. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Refiners. Industry 54138 8734 Testing Laboratories. Industry 422710, 422720 5171, 5172 Gasoline Marketers... entities if the rule relieves regulatory burden, or otherwise has a positive economic effect on all of the..., requires Federal agencies, unless otherwise prohibited by law, to assess the effects of their...

  9. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  10. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil a

  11. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Cos

  12. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Oil- emitting EGU Fired Electric (LEE)testing Utility Steam for mercury Generating emissions. Units... Internal Analyzer and Combustion Method 18- Engines. Measurment of Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by... Municipal Method 18- Solid Waste Measurment of Landfills. Gaseous Organic Compound Emissions by...

  13. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a sing

  14. Optimal Tableaux-Based Decision Procedure for Testing Satisfiability in the Alternating-Time Temporal Logic ATL+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerrito, Serenella; David, Amelie; Goranko, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    We develop a sound, complete and practically implementable tableaux-based decision method for constructive satisfiability testing and model synthesis in the fragment ATL+ of the full Alternating time temporal logic ATL∗. The method extends in an essential way a previously developed tableaux......-based decision method for ATL and works in 2EXPTIME, which is the optimal worst case complexity of the satisfiability problem for ATL+. We also discuss how suitable parameterizations and syntactic restrictions on the class of input ATL+ formulae can reduce the complexity of the satisfiability problem....

  15. Experimental Test of an Event-Based Corpuscular Model Modification as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Migdall, Alan; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Polyakov, Sergey V; Traina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model (EBCM) [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 8 (2011) 1052] of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) 16]. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source [G. Brida et al.: Opt. Expr. 19 (2011) 1484], agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of 0.98 and falsify the EBCM with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of greater than 20.

  16. Temperature effects on mass-scaling exponents in colonial animals: a manipulative test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-01-01

    Body size and temperature are fundamental drivers of ecological processes because they determine metabolic rates at the individual level. Whether these drivers act independently on individual-level metabolic rates remains uncertain. Most studies of intraspecific scaling of unitary organisms must rely on preexisting differences in size to examine its relationship with metabolic rate, thereby potentially confounding size-correlated traits (e.g., age, nutrition) with size, which can affect metabolic rate. Here, we use a size manipulation approach to test whether metabolic mass scaling and temperature dependence interact in four species (two phyla) of colonial marine invertebrates. Size manipulation in colonial organisms allows tests of how ecological processes (e.g., predation) affect individual physiology and consequently population- and community-level energy flux. Body mass and temperature interacted in two species, with one species exhibiting decreased and the other increased mass-scaling exponents with increasing temperature. The allometric scaling of metabolic rate that we observe in three species contrasts with the isometric scaling of ingestion rates observed in some colonial marine invertebrates. Thus, we suggest that the often observed competitive superiority of colonial over unitary organisms may arise because the difference between energy intake and expenditure increases more strongly with size in colonial organisms.

  17. An alternative in vitro drug screening test using Leishmania amazonensis transfected with red fluorescent protein✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcele N.; Corrêa, Célia M.; Melo, Maria N.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Madureira, Ana Paula; Soares, Rodrigo P.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent and colorimetric reporter genes are valuable tools for drug screening models, since microscopy is labor intensive and subject to observer variation. In this work, we propose a fluorimetric method for drug screening using red fluorescent parasites. Fluorescent Leishmania amazonensis were developed after transfection with integration plasmids containing either red (RFP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes. After transfection, wild-type (LaWT) and transfected (LaGFP and LaRFP) parasites were subjected to flow cytometry, macrophage infection, and tests of susceptibility to current antileishmanial agents and propranolol derivatives previously shown to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi. Flow cytometry analysis discriminated LaWT from LaRFP and LaGFP parasites, without affecting cell size or granulosity. With microscopy, transfection with antibiotic resistant genes was not shown to affect macrophage infectivity and susceptibility to amphotericin B and propranolol derivatives. Retention of fluorescence remained in the intracellular amastigotes in both LaGFP and LaRFP transfectants. However, detection of intracellular RFP parasites was only achieved in the fluorimeter. Murine BALB/c macrophages were infected with LaRFP parasites, exposed to standard (meglumine antimoniate, amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and allopurinol) and tested molecules. Although it was possible to determine IC50 values for 4 propranolol derivatives (1, 2b, 3, and 4b), all compounds were considered inactive. This study is the first to develop a fluorimetric drug screening test for L. amazonensis RFP. The fluorimetric test was comparable to microscopy with the advantage of being faster and not requiring manual counting. PMID:23312610

  18. Experimental Test of Alternating-Current Zeeman Interference Effect in Ramsey Separated Oscillating Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Hai; WANG Feng-Zhi; YANG Dong-Hai

    2004-01-01

    An experimental test of ac Zeeman effect in an optically pumped caesium beam frequency standard is reported and analysed. An interference pattern of the atomic energy level shift as a function of the applied microwave field near the atomic transition frequency was observed. It was superimposed on the dispersion lineshape of a normal ac Zeeman effect. This effect was analysed with the atomic wavefunction phase analysing method.

  19. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; ASCARRUNZ, N.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F; Diaz, S; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M; L. Poorter

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  20. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing--recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, George; Knight, Derek J; Schwarz, Michael; Gocht, Tilman; Thomas, Russell S; Mahony, Catherine; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December 2015. Drawing on the experience gained in SEURAT-1 and appreciating international advancement in both basic and regulatory science, we reflect here on how SEURAT should evolve and propose that further research and development should be directed along two complementary and interconnecting work streams. The first work stream would focus on developing new 'paradigm' approaches for regulatory science. The goal here is the identification of 'critical biological targets' relevant for toxicity and to test their suitability to be used as anchors for predicting toxicity. The second work stream would focus on integration and application of new approach methods for hazard (and risk) assessment within the current regulatory 'paradigm', aiming for acceptance of animal-free testing strategies by regulatory authorities (i.e. translating scientific achievements into regulation). Components for both work streams are discussed and may provide a structure for a future research programme in the field of predictive toxicology.

  1. A multichannel neural signal detecting module: Its design and test in animal experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yufeng; Wang Zhigong; Lü Xiaoying; Gu Xiaosong; Li Wenyuan; Wang Huiling; Jiang Zhenlin; Lü Guangming; K. P. Koch

    2007-01-01

    A four-channel neural signal detecting module with an implantable 12-contact cuff electrode was designed for real-time neural signal recording on peripheral and central nerves. The mathematic coupling model between nerve and electronic system was analyzed. Electrode connection configurations were considered. The detecting circuit included an input coupling network, a pre-amplifier, and some filtering and notching stages. Shield guarding and the right-leg-driven circuit were developed for further elimination of common mode interference. By electrode switches, the module could cooperate with a nerve functional electrical stimulation circuit, building a neural channel bridge-connection system. It was tested by recording experiments on rat's sciatic and spine nerves. The signals in spontaneous and evoked conditions have been captured successfully. In addition, an implantable neural signal detecting CMOS IC has been introduced.

  2. The adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitisation: Moving closer to replacing animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Terry W; Dimitrova, Gergana; Dimitrov, Sabcho; Mekenyan, Ovanes G

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the work of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that led to being jointly awarded the 2015 Lush Black Box Prize. The award-winning work centred on the development of 'The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins'. This Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has provided the mechanistic basis for the integration of skin sensitisation-related information. Recent developments in integrated approaches to testing and assessment, based on the AOP, are summarised. The impact of the AOP on regulatory policy and on the Three Rs are discussed. An overview of the next generation of the skin sensitisation AOP module in the OECD QSAR Toolbox, based on more-recent work at the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry, is also presented.

  3. Metodologia alternativa para condução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de milho Alternative methodology for the accelerated aging test for corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Mudrovitsch de Bittencourt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os testes de vigor são rotineiramente empregados em programas internos de controle de qualidade por empresas sementeiras. Para tanto, é necessária a escolha de métodos eficientes que possibilitem a obtenção de respostas rápidas para a tomada de decisões relacionadas ao manuseio, descarte e comercialização dos lotes de sementes. A pesquisa objetivou verificar a redução do período de execução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado (EA em sementes de milho, empregando-se, para a avaliação do desempenho das sementes após o envelhecimento, o teste de tetrazólio - TZ (viabilidade e vigor em substituição ao de germinação (TG em 10 lotes de sementes de sete genótipos de milho, com e sem tratamento fungicida. Os dados obtidos com a metodologia proposta (EA+TZ foram comparados com os valores determinados pelo teste de envelhecimento acelerado realizado com a metodologia tradicional (EA+TG. O uso do teste de tetrazólio (vigor, associado ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado, possibilitou a obtenção de informações semelhantes às fornecidas pelo teste de germinação empregado para o mesmo fim, reduzindo de oito para três dias o tempo necessário para a obtenção dos resultados em sementes de milho.Some vigor tests are routinely used by seed industry for internal programs of seed quality control. Then, it is requested the use of efficient methods to obtain quick answers to take right decisions related to the management, discard and trade of seed lots. This research was carried out in order to study the possibility to short the period to get the accelerated aging test (AA results, using the tetrazolium test (TZ instead of germination test (GT to evaluate the seed performance after the seed aging. Tem corn seed lots were used, with and without fungicide treatment. The data obtained using the alternative method (AA+TZ were compared with those determined by the traditional one (AA+GT. There was discrimination among seed lots using

  4. Hanford Tanks Initiative alternate retrieval system demonstrations - final report of testing performed by Grey Pilgrim LLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-24

    A waste retrieval system has been defined to provide a safe and cost-effective solution to the Hanford Tanks Initiative. This system consists of the EMMA robotic manipulator (by GreyPilgrim LLC) and the lightweight Scarifier (by Waterjet Technology, Inc.) powered by a 36-kpsi Jet-Edge diesel powered high pressure pumping system. For demonstration and testing purposes, an air conveyance system was utilized to remove the waste from the simulated tank floor. The EMMA long reach manipulator utilized for this demonstration was 33 feet long. It consisted of 4 hydraulically controlled stages of varying lengths and coupling configurations. T

  5. The developmental antecedents of sexual coercion against women: testing alternative hypotheses with structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Raymond A; Sims-Knight, Judith E

    2003-06-01

    A unified model of the origin of sexual aggression against women on both adult and juvenile sexual offender samples has been developed and successfully tested. This model proposed three major causal paths to sexual coercion against women. In the first path, physical and verbal abuse was hypothesized to produce callousness and lack of emotionality, which disinhibited sexual drive and sexual fantasies. These in turn disinhibited hostile sexual fantasies, and led to sexual coercion. In the second causal path, sexual abuse contributed directly to the disinhibition of sexual drive and sexual fantasies, which through hostile sexual fantasies led to sexual coercion. The third path operated through early antisocial behavior, including aggressive acts. It developed as a result of both physical/verbal abuse and callousness/lack of emotion. It in turn directly affected sexual coercion and worked indirectly through the hostile sexual fantasies path. In the present study, the anonymous responses of a group of 168 blue-collar, community males to an inventory (the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression) were used in a structural equation model to test the validity of this model. Moreover, this model was pitted against (Malamuth's (1998)) two-path model. Whereas the three-path model had an excellent fit with the data (CFI =.951, RMSEA =.047), the two-path model fit less well (CFI =.857, RMSEA =.079). These results indicate the superiority of the three-path model and suggest that it constitutes a solid, empirically disconfirmable heuristic for the etiology of sexual coercion against women.

  6. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  7. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter; Hilner, Emelie Kristin Margareta

    2014-01-01

    the relationship between the wettability of pore surfaces and water salinity. We functionalise AFM tips with organic molecules and use them to represent tiny oil droplets of nonpolar or polar molecules and we use sand grains removed from core plugs to represent the pore walls in sandstone. We bring our "oil" close......Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling...... of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce...

  8. Use of immunofluorescence and animal tests to detect growth and toxin production by Clostridum botulinum type E in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midura, T; Taclindo, C; Nygaard, G S; Bodily, H L; Wood, R M

    1968-01-01

    The appearance of Clostridium botulinum type E organisms and of toxin in experimentally inoculated packages of turkey roll was followed to study the time relationship between the presence of vegetative cells and the demonstration of toxin. The presence of vegetative cells was determined by immunofluorescence, and animal tests were used to assay toxin production. Growth initiated from detoxified spores of C. botulinum type E resulted in toxin formation within 24 hr. Presence of fluorescing vegetative cells and of toxin coincided from 1 to 14 days of incubation. Beginning with the next testing date, day 21, differences were observed. Toxin could be detected for a longer time than vegetative cells. Neither toxin nor organisms could be found after 56 days of incubation. The mouse lethal dose tests (MLD per gram of turkey roll) showed fluctuations in the amount of toxin present throughout the period of testing. Maximal amounts of toxin were present during the period when fluorescing organisms were also more numerous. The applications of immunofluorescence in the study and in the diagnosis of botulism is discussed.

  9. Global Testing under Sparse Alternatives: ANOVA, Multiple Comparisons and the Higher Criticism

    CERN Document Server

    Arias-Castro, Ery; Plan, Yaniv

    2010-01-01

    Testing for the significance of a subset of regression coefficients in a linear model, a staple of statistical analysis, goes back at least to the work of Fisher who introduced the analysis of variance (ANOVA). We study this problem under the assumption that the coefficient vector is sparse, a common situation in modern high-dimensional settings. Suppose the regression vector is of dimension p with S non-zero coefficients with S = p^{1 -alpha}. Under moderate sparsity levels, i.e. alpha 1/2. In such settings, a multiple comparison procedure is often preferred and we establish its optimality when alpha >= 3/4. However, these two very popular methods are suboptimal, and sometimes powerless, under moderately strong sparsity where 1/2 1/2. This optimality property is true for a variety of designs, including the classical (balanced) multi-way designs and more modern `p > n' designs arising in genetics and signal processing. In addition to the standard fixed effects model, we establish similar results for a rando...

  10. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  11. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  12. Dissipated energy as a method to characterize the cartilage damage in large animal joints: an in vitro testing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Christian; Leichtle, Ulf; Lorenz, Andrea; Mittag, Falk; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Rothstock, Stephan

    2013-09-01

    Several quantitative methods for the in vitro characterization of cartilage quality are available. However, only a few of these methods allow surgical cartilage manipulations and the subsequent analysis of the friction properties of complete joints. This study introduces an alternative approach to the characterization of the friction properties of entire joint surfaces using the dissipated energy during motion of the joint surfaces. Seven sheep wrist joints obtained post mortem were proximally and distally fixed to a material testing machine. With the exception of the carpometacarpal articulation surface, all joint articulations were fixed with 'Kirschner' wires. Three cartilage defects were simulated with a surgically introduced groove (16 mm(2), 32 mm(2), 300 mm(2)) and compared to intact cartilage without an artificial defect. The mean dissipated energy per cycle was calculated from the hysteresis curve during ten torsional motion cycles (±10°) under constant axial preload (100-900 N). A significant increase in dissipated energy was observed with increasing cartilage defect size and axial load (p0.073), while all other defect conditions were significantly different (p=0.015). All defect sizes were significantly different (p=0.049) at 900 N axial load. We conclude that the method introduced here could be an alternative for the study of cartilage damage, and further applications based on the principles of this method could be developed for the evaluation of different cartilage treatments.

  13. [Alternate form of the test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonieta; Hernández-Rodríguez, Edith; Hernández-Torres, Atteneri; Velasco Rodríguez-Solís, Pedro; Hess-Medler, Stephany; Machado-Fernández, Alejandra; Molina-Rodríguez, Yaiza; Barroso, José

    2014-05-01

    Introduccion. La disponibilidad de formas paralelas de instrumentos de evaluacion neuropsicologica es escasa. El uso repetido del material y el consiguiente efecto de la practica dificultan la interpretacion de los cambios observados en evaluaciones sucesivas. La memoria es una de las funciones mas afectadas por este efecto. Objetivo. Obtener una version paralela de uno de los instrumentos disponibles en español para la evaluacion del aprendizaje y la memoria verbal, el test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC). Sujetos y metodos. Se realizo un estudio normativo con una muestra de 110 sujetos para la obtencion de los items de la forma paralela, siguiendo los criterios utilizados en la version original. La muestra para el estudio de la version paralela estuvo formada por 70 sujetos neurologicamente sanos, de 18-89 años. Se aplicaron ambas versiones en un intervalo de 15-20 dias. Resultados. Los analisis multivariados mostraron que no se producia efecto de la forma, del orden de administracion ni de la sesion. Las correspondientes interacciones tampoco fueron significativas. Estos resultados se observaron tanto para la muestra total como para el grupo de jovenes (18-29 años), edad intermedia (30-59 años) y envejecimiento (60-89 años). Los analisis correlacionales mostraron la validez y consistencia interna de la forma alternativa. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran la equivalencia entre la version original del TAVEC y la version elaborada en esta investigacion. Es, por tanto, una version recomendable para su uso en el estudio de la evolucion de los deficits de aprendizaje y memoria.

  14. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfringens type D and tests of animal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A M; Reis, J K P; Assis, R A; Horta, C C; Siqueira, F F; Facchin, S; Alvarenga, E R; Castro, C S; Salvarani, F M; Silva, R O S; Pires, P S; Contigli, C; Lobato, F C F; Kalapothakis, E

    2010-02-18

    Epsilon toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D causes enterotoxemia in sheep, goats and calves. Enterotoxemia can cause acute or superacute disease, with sudden death of the affected animal. It provokes huge economic losses when large numbers of livestock are affected. Therapeutic intervention is challenging, because the disease progresses very rapidly. However, it can be prevented by immunization with specific immunogenic vaccines. We cloned the etx gene, encoding epsilon toxin, into vector pET-11a; recombinant epsilon toxin (rec-epsilon) was expressed in inclusion bodies and was used for animal immunization. Serum protection was evaluated and cross-serum neutralization tests were used to characterize the recombinant toxin. To analyze the potency of the toxin (as an antigen), rabbits were immunized with 50, 100 or 200 microg recombinant toxin, using aluminum hydroxide gel as an adjuvant. Titers of 10, 30 and 40 IU/mL were obtained, respectively. These titers were higher than the minimum level required by the European Pharmacopoeia (5 IU/mL) and by the USA Code of Federal Regulation (2 IU/mL). This rec-epsilon is a good candidate for vaccine production against enterotoxemia caused by epsilon toxin of C. perfringens type D.

  16. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  17. Risk mitigation for children exposed to drugs during gestation: A critical role for animal preclinical behavioral testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Irving

    2017-03-16

    Many drugs with unknown safety profiles are administered to pregnant women, placing their offspring at risk. I assessed whether behavioral outcomes for children exposed during gestation to antidepressants, anxiolytics, anti-seizure, analgesic, anti-nausea and sedative medications can be predicted by more extensive animal studies than are part of the FDA approval process. Human plus rodent data were available for only 8 of 33 CNS-active drugs examined. Similar behavioral and cognitive deficits, including autism and ADHD emerged in human offspring and in animal models of these disorders after exposure to fluoxetine, valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and acetaminophen. Rodent data helpful in identifying and predicting adverse effects of prenatal drug exposure in children were first generated many years after drugs were FDA-approved and administered to pregnant women. I recommend that enhanced behavioral testing of rodent offspring exposed to drugs prenatally should begin during preclinical drug evaluation and continue during Phase I clinical trials, with findings communicated to physicians and patients in drug labels.

  18. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  19. Serological differentiation of Brucella-vaccinated and -infected domesticated animals by the agar gel immunodiffusion test using Brucella polysaccharide in mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Sugar, Sengee; Yondondorj, Agchbazar; Nagabayashi, Toshihiko; Syuto, Bunei; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2002-09-01

    To investigate Brucella infection in cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer and yak in Mongolia, serological reactions of Brucella-infected and -vaccinated domestic animals were compared by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with a polysaccharide (poly-B) of the B. Abortus strain S-19. The sensitivity and specificity were compared with conventional serological tests that are commonly used in Mongolia, such as the rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test and the compliment fixation test. A total of 73.3, 100, 100, 95.8 and 61.9% of the sera from suspected cattle, yak, goat, sheep and reindeer, respectively, that were positive in the compliment fixation test, were also positive in the AGID test. Sera from vaccinated cattle, sheep and goat were positive over 90% by conventional tests 3 months after vaccination, but were negative by the AGID. These results suggest that the AGID test may be useful to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals in the field.

  20. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  1. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  2. The fish embryo toxicity test as a replacement for the larval growth and survival test: A comparison of test sensitivity and identification of alternative endpoints in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Stephens, Dane A; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as an alternative to the larval growth and survival (LGS) test. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the sensitivity of the FET and LGS tests in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) and to determine if the inclusion of sublethal metrics as test endpoints could enhance test utility. In both species, LGS and FET tests were conducted using 2 simulated effluents. A comparison of median lethal concentrations determined via each test revealed significant differences between test types; however, it could not be determined which test was the least and/or most sensitive. At the conclusion of each test, developmental abnormalities and the expression of genes related to growth and toxicity were evaluated. Fathead minnows and zebrafish exposed to mock municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent in a FET test experienced an increased incidence of pericardial edema and significant alterations in the expression of genes including insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, heat shock protein 70, and cytochrome P4501A, suggesting that the inclusion of these endpoints could enhance test utility. The results not only show the utility of the fathead minnow FET test as a replacement for the LGS test but also provide evidence that inclusion of additional endpoints could improve the predictive power of the FET test.

  3. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  4. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  5. An Alternative to the Human Hemoglobin Test in the Investigation of Bloodstains Treated with Active Oxygen: The Human Glycophorin A Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castelló

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In criminal investigations, there are three stages involved when studying bloodstains: search and orientation, confirmation, and individualization. Confirmatory tests have two aims: to show that the stain contains a human biological fluid and to confirm the type of biological fluid. The need to determine the nature of the evidence is reflected in the latest bibliography, where the possibility of employing mRNA and miRNA markers for this purpose is proposed. While these new proposals are being investigated, the kits for determining human hemoglobin currently provide a simple solution for resolving this issue. With these kits, the possibility of obtaining false positives and false negatives is well known. However, recently, a new problem has been detected. This involves the interference caused by new cleaning products that contain sodium percarbonate (or active oxygen when determining human hemoglobin. With the aim to resolve this problem, this work studied the ability of the human glycophorin A test to determine human blood in samples that have been treated with active oxygen. Our results show that the human glycophorin A test has a greater resistance to the destructive effect of the new detergents containing active oxygen; consequently, it provides an alternative to be taken into consideration in the confirmatory diagnoses of bloodstains.

  6. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  7. Redução, refinamento e substituição do uso de animais em estudos toxicológicos: uma abordagem atual Reduction, refinement and replacement of animal use in toxicity testing: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cristine Ceroni Cazarin

    2004-09-01

    inhumanity from animal experimentation and aiming to lower the number of animals used, in order to decrease the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures and to find alternative procedures to replace in vivo testing. Many alternative toxicological tests have already been implemented, even knowing that this process is very complex and need to be extensively validated and accepted by regulatory bodies. This paper presents an overview on several aspects of the "Three Rs", including historical evolution and implementation and validation of alternative methods, emphasizing its application on toxicity testing and in global harmonization.

  8. Ketamine-enhanced immobility in forced swim test: a possible animal model for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindo, Ben A; Adzu, Bulus; Yahaya, Tijani A; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2012-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and highly complex psychiatric disorder characterised by cognitive dysfunctions, negative and positive symptoms. The major challenge in schizophrenia research is lack of suitable animal models that mimic the core behavioural aspects and symptoms of this devastating psychiatric disorder. In this study, we used classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs to examine the predictive validity of ketamine-enhanced immobility in forced swim test (FST) as a possible animal model for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We also evaluated the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the ketamine-enhanced immobility in FST. Repeated administration of a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine (30 mg kg(-1), i.p., daily for 5 days) enhanced the duration of immobility in FST 24 h after the final injection. The effect, which persisted for at least 21 days after withdrawal of the drug, was neither observed by single treatment with ketamine (30 mg kg(-1) i.p.) nor repeated treatment with amphetamine (1 and 2 mg kg(-1) i.p., daily for 5 days). The enhancing effects of ketamine (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p.) on the duration of immobility in the FST were attenuated by clozapine (1, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) i.p.), risperidone (0.25 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and paroxetine (1 and 5 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Haloperidol (0.25 and 0.50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p.) failed to attenuate the ketamine-enhanced immobility in the FST. The repeated ketamine administration neither affects locomotor activity nor motor coordination in rats under the same treatment conditions with the FST, suggesting that the effects of ketamine on the duration of immobility in this study was neither due to motor dysfunction nor peripheral neuromuscular blockade. Our results suggest that repeated treatment with subanaesthetic doses of ketamine enhance the duration of immobility in FST, which might be a useful animal model for the negative symptoms (particularly the depressive features) of

  9. Testing alternative conceptual models of seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer using computer simulation, southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.

    1997-01-01

    Two alternative conceptual models of the physical processes controlling seawater intrusion in a coastal basin in California, USA, were tested to identify a likely principal pathway for seawater intrusion. The conceptual models were tested by using a two-dimensional, finite-element groundwater flow and transport model. This pathway was identified by the conceptual model that best replicated the historical data. The numerical model was applied in cross section to a submarine canyon that is a main avenue for seawater to enter the aquifer system underlying the study area. Both models are characterized by a heterogeneous, layered, water-bearing aquifer. However, the first model is characterized by flat-lying aquifer layers and by a high value of hydraulic conductivity in the basal aquifer layer, which is thought to be a principal conduit for seawater intrusion. The second model is characterized by offshore folding, which was modeled as a very nearshore outcrop, thereby providing a shorter path for seawater to intrude. General conclusions are that: 1) the aquifer system is best modeled as a flat, heterogeneous, layered system; 2) relatively thin basal layers with relatively high values of hydraulic conductivity are the principal pathways for seawater intrusion; and 3) continuous clay layers of low hydraulic conductivity play an important role in controlling the movement of seawater.

  10. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, F. M.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies.

  11. Alternate assessment use with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: an exploratory mixed-methods analysis of portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level test formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Wurtz, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Drawn from the results of the "Second National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing," this study investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing. Analysis includes descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats, qualitative analyses of teacher perspectives, and an exploratory logistic regression analysis on predictors of alternate assessment use. This exploratory analysis looks at predictors such as state policy, educational setting, grades served, language of instruction, and participant perspectives. Results indicate that predictors at the student, teacher, and system level may influence alternate assessment use for SDHH.

  12. 甜梦胶囊改善睡眠功能动物试验报告%Sweet dream capsule improving sleep function of animal test report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬明武; 葛宇杰; 刘科亮

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨甜梦胶囊改善睡眠功能动物试验的效果。方法120只昆明种小鼠,分为三个剂量组进行试验。结果与结论甜梦胶囊连续31天经口灌胃给予动物后,动物生长良好,甜梦胶囊对动物具有改善睡眠的功能。%Objective To investigate the sweet dream capsule improving sleep function of animal test results. Methods 120 mice of Kunming species, divided into three groups for test. Results and Conclusion tianmeng capsule for 31 days after intragastric administration of animal, animal growth is good, sweet dream capsule can improve sleep function of animal.

  13. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  14. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    and approve alternative surface preparation technologies for use at NASA and AFSPC installations. Materials and processes will be evaluated with the goal of selecting those processes that will improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated. This Field Evaluations Test Plan defines the field evaluation and testing requirements for validating alternative surface preparation/depainting technologies and supplements the JTP. The field evaluations will be performed at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, under the oversight of the Project Engineer. Additional field evaluations may be performed at other NASA centers or AFSPC facilities.

  15. Field testing of ethanolamine, an alternative volatile alkalising agent; Faeltprovning av etanolamin vid Idbaeckens Kraftvaermeverk i Nykoeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, J. [Alstom Power Sweden AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The use of alternative volatile organic alkalising agents is increasing. These compounds are usually stronger bases than ammonia and most are also less volatile. This results in a higher pH-value in the first condensate, reducing the risk for erosion corrosion. The disadvantages are a higher cost as well as thermal decomposition in the boiler drum and in the superheater. The most common decomposition products are carbon dioxide and organic acids like formic and acetic acid. These decomposition products are acidic and may be corrosive as such. They also increase the cation conductivity making it difficult or impossible to use monitoring of cation conductivity to supervise steam purity. Thermal stability is therefore a desired property of an organic alkalising agent, in addition to a high base strength and a relatively low volatility. Ethanolamine (ETA) is a potential alternative volatile alkalising agent. ETA has shown promising alkalising properties in earlier tests performed. ETA did also show a better thermal stability than other candidates included in the tests. The results indicated that it should be possible to use a mixture of ammonia and ETA as an alkalising agent to reduce the risk for erosion corrosion without too much disturbance caused by the increase of the cation conductivity of the steam. The reason for the interest for the combination of ammonia and ETA is that such a combination should be well suited to alkalise the whole steam and condensate system. ETA should be enriched in the region of the first condensate while ammonia should be enriched in the latter part of the system. ETA has also been successfully used to reduce erosion corrosion as well as transport of iron oxides in PWR plants in the US. A field test as a complement to the earlier autoclave tests is a logical step towards establishing the use of a mixture of ETA and ammonia also in conventional fossil plants where erosion corrosion has been a problem. Such a field test has been performed

  16. Tumor implantation model for rapid testing of lymphatic dye uptake from paw to node in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue - used in the sentinel lymph node procedure - in normal and tumor-bearing animals, and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  17. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-404A Alternatives ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R32 + R-134a Mixture using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of four lower-GWP alternative refrigerants, ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-404A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for medium temperature refrigeration applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-404A and having a nominal rated capacity of 23,500 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of -10 F to 35 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 10 F to 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. However, the cooling capacities reported in this study are normalized for 0 F subcooling. The tests showed that the compressor energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity with all four alternative refrigerants tested are higher at higher saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature and lower at lower saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature, compared to that of R-404A. Discharge temperatures of all the alternative refrigerants were higher than that of R-404A at all test conditions.

  18. Importance of Fuel Cell Tests for Stability Assessment—Suitability of Titanium Diboride as an Alternative Support Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Roth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon corrosion is a severe issue limiting the long-term stability of carbon-supported catalysts, in particular in the highly dynamic conditions of automotive applications. (Doped oxides have been discussed as suitable alternatives to replace carbon, but often suffer from poor electron conductivity. That is why non-oxide ceramics, such as tungsten carbide and titanium nitride, have been discussed recently. Titanium diboride has also been proposed, due to its promising activity and stability in an aqueous electrochemical cell. In this work, Pt nanoparticles were deposited onto μm-sized TiB2 particles with improved grain size, manufactured into porous gas diffusion electrodes and tested in a realistic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell environment. In contrast to the model studies in an aqueous electrochemical cell, in the presence of oxygen and high potentials at the cathode side of a real fuel cell, TiB2 becomes rapidly oxidized as indicated by intensely colored regions in the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA. Moreover, already the electrode manufacturing process led to the formation of titanium oxides, as shown by X-ray diffraction measurements. This demonstrates that Cyclic Voltammetry (CV measurements in an aqueous electrochemical cell are not sufficient to prove stability of novel materials for fuel cell applications.

  19. Testing alternative models for sexual isolation in natural populations of Littorina saxatilis: indirect support for by-product ecological speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R; Carballo, M; Conde-Padín, P; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2004-03-01

    Two ecotypes of the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis occur at different shore levels, showing assortative mating for size and partial reproductive isolation when they meet at the mid-shore. This system represents a putative case of incomplete speciation in sympatry. Two processes contribute to the assortative mating: morph-specific microhabitat aggregation and mate choice. The estimation of mate choice coefficients in nature and a simulation of the aggregation effects on sexual isolation were used to disentangle these processes as well as to test alternative mechanisms of mate choice. Mate choice significantly increased the frequency of within-morph pairs and significantly decreased the frequency of between-morph pairs, whereas those pairs including at least one hybrid morph mated randomly. These results allow us to reject a discriminant mate choice and support a model of evolution of sexual isolation as a side-effect of size-assortative mating in a context of divergent natural selection for size in the population. This mechanism is more compatible with a model of incomplete by-product ecological speciation, as suggested by previous evidence.

  20. Alternatives to F-Test in One Way ANOVA in case of heterogeneity of variances (a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Moder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several articles deal with the effects of inhomogeneous variances in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. A very early investigation of this topic was done by Box (1954. He supposed, that in balanced designs with moderate heterogeneity of variances deviations of the empirical type I error rate (on experiments based realized α to the nominal one (predefined α for H0 are small. Similar conclusions are drawn by Wellek (2003. For not so moderate heterogeneity (e.g. σ1:σ2:...=3:1:... Moder (2007 showed, that empirical type I error rate is far beyond the nominal one, even with balanced designs. In unbalanced designs the difficulties get bigger. Several attempts were made to get over this problem. One proposal is to use a more stringent α level (e.g. 2.5% instead of 5% (Keppel & Wickens, 2004. Another recommended remedy is to transform the original scores by square root, log, and other variance reducing functions (Keppel & Wickens, 2004, Heiberger & Holland, 2004. Some authors suggest the use of rank based alternatives to F-test in analysis of variance (Vargha & Delaney, 1998. Only a few articles deal with two or multifactorial designs. There is some evidence, that in a two or multi-factorial design type I error rate is approximately met if the number of factor levels tends to infinity for a certain factor while the number of levels is fixed for the other factors (Akritas & S., 2000, Bathke, 2004.The goal of this article is to find an appropriate location test in an oneway analysis of variance situation with inhomogeneous variances for balanced and unbalanced designs based on a simulation study.

  1. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Baeten, V.; Murray, I.; Berben, G.; Brambilla, G.; Holst, von C.

    2003-01-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed.

  2. Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence.

  3. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  4. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2. 86.162-00 Section 86.162-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  5. Comment on 'Attempts to test an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors by low-temperature scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy'

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, S C

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that alternative electrodynamics of superconductivity proposed by Hirsch lacks mathematical rigour and it is conceptually flawed. Gauge non-invariance of the theory makes justification of the experiment reported in [arXiv:1607.05060] to test its prediction doubtful. It seems even with improved techniques the outcome would remain inconclusive.

  6. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool versus alternative tests for selecting postmenopausal women for bone mineral density assessment: a comparative systematic review of accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Hilden, J; Hyldstrup, L;

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, citation lists, and conference proceedings. Our main measure of accuracy was the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). We compared summary estimates of DOR (sDOR) for OST and alternative tests in pairwise meta-analyses by using the Moses-Littenberg approach...

  7. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome : preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  8. Revolution In Toxicity Testing And Risk Prediction For Chemicals In The Environment (ASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  9. Photothermal and thermoelastic microscopies: two alternative techniques for the non-destructive testing of materials; Microscopies photothermiques et thermoelastiques: deux techniques alternatives pour le CND des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Ridouane, H. [Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, LPPPC, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2002-07-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of application of photothermal and thermoelastic microscopies to the non-destructive testing of materials, such as niobium used in the fabrication of superconductive RF cavities. The theoretical results obtained in this study show the diagnostic potentialities of these techniques when applied to niobium sheets or directly to cavities. The microscopes that use an intensity modulated laser as excitation source have a lateral resolution comprised between 1 {mu}m for f{sub mod} = 10 MHz and 30 to 50 {mu}m for f{sub mod} = 10 kHz with a 1 {mu}m diameter beam. These techniques allow the detection, localization, and sometimes the characterization, of subsurface and deep defects and inclusions. In far field regime the resolution of the method depends on the thermal diffusion depth. Thanks to the strong dependence between the laser induced stress and the thickness of the target, the photothermal and thermoelastic microscopes can be used also for the measurement of cavities thickness and internal profile. (J.S.)

  10. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing – Recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December ...

  11. Alternative Processing Technology for Converting Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats to Clean Fuels and Light Olefins%动植物油生产清洁燃料和低碳烯烃的替代加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 李春义; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2008-01-01

    Since the production cost of biodiesel is now the main hurdle limiting their applicability in some areas, catalytic cracking reactions represent an alternative route to utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats. Hence, catalytic transformation of oils and fats was carried out in a laboratory-scale two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking (TSRFCC) unit in this work. The results show that oils and fats can be used as FCC feed singly or co-feeding with vacuum gas oil (VGO), which can give high yield (by mass) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), C2-C4 olefins, for example 45% LPG, 47% C2-C4 olefins, and 77.6% total liquid yield produced with palm oil cracking. Co-feeding with VGO gives a high yield of LPG (39.1%) and propylene (18.1%). And oxygen element content is very low (about 0.5%) in liquid products, hence, oxygen is removed in the form of H2O, CO and CO2. At the same time, high concentration of aromatics (C7-C9 aromatics predominantly) in the gasoline fraction is obtained after TSRFCC reaction of palm oil, as a result of large amount of hydrogen-transfer, cyclization and aromatization reactions. Additionally, most of properties of produced gasoline and diesel oil fuel meet the requirements of national standards, containing little sulfur. So TSRFCC technology is thought to be an alternative processing technology leading to production of clean fuels and light olefins.

  12. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Törnqvist

    Full Text Available The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53% reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level.

  13. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level.

  14. Simple solutions to false results with plate/slide agglutination tests in diagnosis of infectious diseases of man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Hari Mohan; Chothe, Shubhada; Kaur, Paviter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new Superagglutination test for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. It differs from conventional plate/slide agglutination tests (PAT/SAT) by three additional steps: prior staining of serum antibody by adding a dye and addition of diluted biotinylated antiglobulin and avidin in sequence after mixing the antigen with the test serum. The new steps circumvent the problems of false positive and false negative results of PAT/SAT. In serodiagnosis of brucellosis, Superagglutination test had higher positive predictive value and specificity than Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and higher negative predictive value and sensitivity than RBPT, STAT, ELISA and Complement Fixation Test (CFT).•Superagglutination is a simple, accurate and economic screening test for infections.•More specificity, sensitivity, positive & negative predictive value than RBPT, STAT.•More sensitivity, negative predictive value than ELISA and Complement Fixation Test.

  15. Alternative Testing Strategy Example: Bioactivity Profilign of Diverse Engineering Nanomaterials via High-throughput Screening in ToxCast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the over 2800 nanomaterials (NMs) in commerce lack hazard data. Efficient NM testing requires suitable toxicity tests for prioritization of NMs to be tested. The EPA’s ToxCast program is evaluating HTS assays to prioritize NMs for targeted testing. Au, Ag, CeO2, Cu(O2), T...

  16. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: the changing scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Desai, Chetna

    2014-01-01

    The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day's drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.

  17. Robustness testing in the determination of seven drugs in animal muscle by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Oca Casado, Mª Leticia; Rubio Martínez, Laura; Ortiz Fernández, Mª Cruz; Sarabia Peinador, Luis Antonio; García, I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the robustness of the sample preparation procedure for the determination of six tranquilizers (xylazine, azaperone, propionylpromazine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and azaperol) and a beta-blocker (carazolol) in animal muscle by LC/MS–MS was assessed through the experimental design methodology. A 2III7 − 4 fractional factorial design was performed to evaluate the influence of seven variables on the final concentration of the seven drugs in the samples, in accordance with what i...

  18. Reduction of use of animals in regulatory genotoxicity testing : Identification and implementation opportunities-Report from an ECVAM workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfuhler, S.; Kirkland, D.; Kasper, P.; Hayashi, M.; Vanparys, P.; Carmichael, P.; Dertinger, S.; Eastmond, D.; Elhajouji, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Rothfuss, A.; Schoening, G.; Smith, A.; Speit, G.; Thomas, C.; Benthem, J. van; Corvi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo genetic toxicology tests measure direct DNA damage or the formation of gene or chromosomal mutations, and are used to predict the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of compounds for regulatory purposes and/or to follow-up positive results from in vitro testing. These tests are widely used

  19. A multi-analyte biosensor for the simultaneous label-free detection of pathogens and biomarkers in point-of-need animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Melanie; Fechner, Peter; Gauglitz, Günter

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, a multi-analyte biosensor platform has been developed using the label-free 1-lambda-reflectometry technique. This platform is the first, which does not use imaging techniques, but is able to perform multi-analyte measurements. It is designed to be portable and cost-effective and therefore allows for point-of-need testing or on-site field-testing with possible applications in diagnostics. This work highlights the application possibilities of this platform in the field of animal testing, but is also relevant and transferable to human diagnostics. The performance of the platform has been evaluated using relevant reference systems like biomarker (C-reactive protein) and serology (anti-Salmonella antibodies) as well as a panel of real samples (animal sera). The comparison of the working range and limit of detection shows no loss of performance transferring the separate assays to the multi-analyte setup. Moreover, the new multi-analyte platform allows for discrimination between sera of animals infected with different Salmonella subtypes.

  20. Effect-based interpretation of toxicity test data using probability and comparison with alternative methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Markle, P.J.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is described that incorporates the intra- and intertest variability and the biological effect of bioassay data in evaluating the toxicity of single and multiple tests for regulatory decision-making purposes. The single- and multiple-test regulatory decision probabilities were determined from t values (n {minus} 1, one-tailed) derived from the estimated biological effect and the associated standard error at the critical sample concentration. Single-test regulatory decision probabilities below the selected minimum regulatory decision probability identify individual tests as noncompliant. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability below the multiple-test regulatory decision minimum identifies groups of tests in which the magnitude and persistence of the toxicity is sufficient to be considered noncompliant or to require enforcement action. Regulatory decision probabilities derived from the t distribution were compared with results based on standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests using single- and multiple-concentration toxicity test data from an actual national pollutant discharge incorporated the precision of the effect estimate into regulatory decisions at a fixed level of effect. Also, probability-based interpretation of toxicity tests provides incentive to laboratories to produce, and permit holders to use, high-quality, precise data, particularly when multiple tests are used in regulatory decisions. These results are contrasted with standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests in which the intratest precision is a determining factor in setting the biological effect used for regulatory decisions.

  1. International commission on trichinellosis : recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamble H.R.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of serological tests to detect Trichinella infection in domestic and wild animals and in humans has not been standardised yet. This review provides an uniform set of recommendations for the development and use of serological tests to detect circulating antibodies in serum samples. The recommendations are based on the best scientific published information and on the unpublished data from laboratories with a great expertise in this field and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable methods and the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Modified Adenoviral Vectors for Gene Therapy: A View through Animal Models Tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Lopez, M E; Garza-Veloz, I; Lopez-Hernandez, Y; Barbosa-Cisneros, O Y; Martinez-Fierro, M L

    2016-07-01

    The central dogma of gene therapy relies on the application of novel therapeutic genes to treat or prevent diseases. The main types of vectors used for gene transfer are adenovirus, retrovirus, lentivirus, liposome, and adeno-associated virus vectors. Gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The main targets are cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and different types of cells from hematological and mesenchymal sources. In this review, we focus on molecules with anti-inflammatory effects used for in vivo gene therapy mediated by adenoviral gene transfer in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, with particular emphasis on autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  3. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  4. The need for speed: testing acceleration for estimating animal travel rates in terrestrial dead-reckoning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidder, Owen R; Soresina, Marion; Shepard, Emily L C; Halsey, Lewis G; Quintana, Flavio; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Wilson, Rory P

    2012-02-01

    Numerous methods are currently available to track animal movements. However, only one of these, dead-reckoning, has the capacity to provide continuous data for animal movements over fine scales. Dead-reckoning has been applied almost exclusively in the study of marine species, in part due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the speed of terrestrial species. In the present study we evaluate the use of accelerometers and a metric known as overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) as a proxy for the measurement of speed for use in dead-reckoning. Data were collated from previous studies, for 10 species locomoting on a treadmill and their ODBA measured by an attached data logger. All species except one showed a highly significant linear relationship between speed and ODBA; however, there was appreciable inter- and intra-specific variance in this relationship. ODBA was then used to estimate speed in a simple trial run of a dead-reckoning track. Estimating distance travelled using speed derived from prior calibration for ODBA resulted in appreciable errors. We describe a method by which these errors can be minimised, by periodic ground-truthing (e.g., by GPS or VHF telemetry) of the dead-reckoned track and adjusting the relationship between speed and ODBA until actual known positions and dead-reckoned positions accord.

  5. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work

  6. Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver

  7. Task Order Number 5TS5702D035P: Testing Alternative Aircraft and Runway/Taxiway Deicers - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Polymer Matrix Composite Materials 55 10.3 Elastomeric Materials 56 10.4 AircraftWire Insulation "" 58 10.5... Polymer Matrix Composite Shear Stress Test Results 13 Table 8. Polymer Matrix Composite Glass Transition Temperature Test Results """"""’’’’’’’’’’ 14...Table 9. Polymer Matrix Composite Barcol Hardness Test Results 16 Table 10. Polymer Matrix

  8. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  9. Animal Investigation Program (AIP), A.I.P. summary report on and around the Nevada Test Site from 1982--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the Animal Investigation Program conducted from 1982--1995 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R and IE), formerly Radiation Sciences Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The surveillance program was designed to measure levels and trends of radionuclides in animals on and around the Nevada Test Site to ascertain whether world-wide fallout, current radiation levels, and associated doses, to the general public were in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally had the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well-being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results indicated that no significant amounts of biological radionuclides had been detected in the near offsite areas or on the NTS, except in animals drinking water that drains from tunnels in Area 12.

  10. Fibrinogen α-chain-derived peptide is upregulated in hippocampus of rats exposed to acute morphine injection and spontaneous alternation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Agatha E; Morris, Kenneth A; Catherman, Kasia; Chen, Xian; Hatcher, Nathan G; Gold, Paul E; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2014-06-01

    Fibrinogen is a secreted glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver, although recent in situ hybridization data support its expression in the brain. It is involved in blood clotting and is released in the brain upon injury. Here, we report changes in the extracellular levels of fibrinogen α-chain-derived peptides in the brain after injections of saline and morphine. More specifically, in order to assess hippocampus-related working memory, an approach pairing in vivo microdialysis with mass spectrometry was used to characterize extracellular peptide release from the hippocampus of rats in response to saline or morphine injection coupled with a spontaneous alternation task. Two fibrinopeptide A-related peptides derived from the fibrinogen α-chain-fibrinopeptide A (ADTGTTSEFIEAGGDIR) and a fibrinopeptide A-derived peptide (DTGTTSEFIEAGGDIR)-were shown to be consistently elevated in the hippocampal microdialysate. Fibrinopeptide A was significantly upregulated in rats exposed to morphine and spontaneous alternation testing compared with rats exposed to saline and spontaneous alternation testing (P morphine alone (P morphine and a memory task suggests that a complex interaction between fibrinogen and morphine takes place in the hippocampus.

  11. Serological Investigation Test of Brucellosis in Domestic Animal%家畜布鲁氏菌病的血清学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多里坤·努尔沙发; 闫晶华; 米吉提; 地力夏提

    2012-01-01

    In this article, to obtain current condition in management effectiveness and prognosis of brucellosis in domestic animal in our region and heighten the ability of different level administrations in earlywarning and management effectiveness of brucellosis ,carry on serological investigation test of brucellosis in domestic animal in several counties and providing some advise in brucellosis epidemic protection situation.%本文通过对新疆部分县家畜布鲁氏茵病的血清学调查,实际掌握新疆家畜布鲁氏菌病防控工作的真实效果,预测家畜布病疫情的流行态势,提高各级有关部门对动物布病的预警能力和防控效果,并且提出了一些对布病防控工作的建议。

  12. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  13. Disadvantages of using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to assess imaging tests: A discussion and proposal for an alternative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Altman, Douglas G. [University of Oxford, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The objectives are to describe the disadvantages of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) to measure diagnostic test performance and to propose an alternative based on net benefit. We use a narrative review supplemented by data from a study of computer-assisted detection for CT colonography. We identified problems with ROC AUC. Confidence scoring by readers was highly non-normal, and score distribution was bimodal. Consequently, ROC curves were highly extrapolated with AUC mostly dependent on areas without patient data. AUC depended on the method used for curve fitting. ROC AUC does not account for prevalence or different misclassification costs arising from false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Change in ROC AUC has little direct clinical meaning for clinicians. An alternative analysis based on net benefit is proposed, based on the change in sensitivity and specificity at clinically relevant thresholds. Net benefit incorporates estimates of prevalence and misclassification costs, and it is clinically interpretable since it reflects changes in correct and incorrect diagnoses when a new diagnostic test is introduced. ROC AUC is most useful in the early stages of test assessment whereas methods based on net benefit are more useful to assess radiological tests where the clinical context is known. Net benefit is more useful for assessing clinical impact. (orig.)

  14. 抑郁症动物模型及行为学评价%Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Behavioral Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of depression is as high as 20%.The drugs availablefor the treatment is relatively scarce.Since many symptoms of depression are of subjective nature,with no obvious biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests,and with a lack of basic understanding of its pathogenesis,it is extremely challenging to use animals for modeling human depression.Neverthe-less,improved animal models would be beneficial to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of human mental disturbance disease.This paper gives an overview of the animal models and animal behavioral tests applied in exploring the pathogenesis and treatment of depression.%抑郁症的发病率高达20%,而针对抑郁症可用的药物及治疗方法相对匮乏.由于抑郁的许多症状具有主观性,其没有明显生物标志和客观的诊断试验,同时对抑郁症的发病机理缺乏基本的了解,因此用动物模拟人类的抑郁症是具有挑战性的.然而不断改善的动物模型将会对探索人类精神障碍疾病病理生理机制和治疗提供帮助.综述了在探索抑郁症发病机制及治疗方法方面用到的动物模型及动物行为学测试等研究方法.

  15. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaghel, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain.

  16. Testing General Relativity and Alternative Theories of Gravity with Space-based Atomic Clocks and Atom Interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Jetzer, Philippe; Angélil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit; Lundgren, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft's reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth's gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of $\\Delta f/f \\sim 10^{-16}$ in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters $|\\beta -1|, |\\gamma-1| \\lesssim 10^{-6}$. We also briefly revi...

  17. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results......BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...

  18. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approachto predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, B.; Wedebye, E.B.; Dietrich, D.R.; Jaworska, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Paune, E.; Schwarz, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use.The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner prefer-ably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing strategy

  19. Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in-situ trapping of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmusson, M.; Rasmusson, K.; Fagerlund, F.; Niemi, A.; Bensabat, J.; Shtivelman, V.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling results of different single-well push-pull (injection-withdrawal) test designs have been analyzed for their ability to determine residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in-situ. The modeling aims to improve the design of a CO2 push-pull test that will be part of the field experiment conducted at the Heletz site, Israel, within the EU FP7 MUSTANG project. The injection will take place in a saline formation, where the target layer, an about 10 m thick sandstone layer composed of three layers, is located at a depth of 1600 m. Single-well experiments complement two-well injection-monitoring tests in that they offer a way of reducing heterogeneity effects on CO2 transport in comparison to two-well tests. The test scenarios simulated combine thermal, hydraulic and tracer tests in line with the work by Zhang et al (2011), where the test sequences have three main stages divided into (i) reference tests, (ii) creation of a zone of residual gas saturation and (iii) testing during residual gas saturation conditions. One of the main interests is to compare different ways of creating the residual zone, the two principal approaches being to push the mobile CO2 away by injecting CO2 saturated water, thus leaving the residual zone behind or by pumping the mobile CO2 back. Implications of the different designs on optimal use of tracers are also analyzed. Inverse modeling with the iTOUGH2/EOS17 and EOS7c simulators is used to analyze the ability of the competing test designs to accurately determine parameters of main interest during CO2 sequestration, in particular the residual gas saturation and dissolution. The inverse modeling approach uses results from e.g. sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation analysis to make design decisions leading to improvements in the test scenarios, choosing the optimum pumping and injection rates, heating effects, amount of CO2 used, tracer and method to create the zone of residual CO2 trapping, leading to a test design that will

  20. Implementation challenges for designing Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Mikulowski, S.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.; Vilà, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    At the IVTIP (In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C') - working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and syst

  1. A more robust predictor of ideomotor dyspraxia: study on an alternative scoring method of the Bergès-Lézine's Imitation of Gestures test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2002-01-01

    Use of the traditional Bergès-Lézine standardization [Test d'imitation de gestes (1963).] allowed us to confirm praxic disorders in children who are encountering obvious motor difficulties. However, in comparison to other neuropsychological assessments carried out on these children, it does not enable us to precociously pinpoint disorders in praxic organization. By means of a newly evaluated method (1997) developed on the basis of the Bergès-Lézine Imitation of Gestures test (1963), we retroactively assessed a group of children (N=10) who had been observed in a longitudinal study at the age of 3-5 years and at 7-8 years and assessed with the Bergès-Lézine version (1963) of the Imitation of Gestures test. Our revised test (1997) takes into account the quantitative factor of success, as well as the qualitative factor of movement planning. It facilitates the early detection of motor organization disorders, in correlation with other neuropsychological assessments carried out on these children. Comparative clinical findings with the same group of children tested using the Bergès-Lézine version and ours indicate that our version detects, more robustly, children encountering difficulties resulting from ideomotor dyspraxia, not identified by the Bergès-Lézine test (1963). Our alternative scoring method of Bergès-Lézine's test contributes largely to early detection of instrumental difficulties in children. Additionally, its predictive capacity makes it possible to apprehend disorders in distal and digital neuromotor functions.

  2. Genotyping using whole-genome sequencing is a realistic alternative to surveillance based on phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer;

    2013-01-01

    genes and MLST types (where MLST stands for multilocus sequence typing). ResFinder results were compared with phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing results using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and MLST types. Results: A total of 3051 different phenotypic tests were performed; 482 led......-genome sequencing (WGS) may soon be within reach even for routine surveillance and clinical diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate WGS as a routine tool for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance compared with current phenotypic procedures. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed...... on 200 isolates originating from Danish pigs, covering four bacterial species. Genomic DNA was purified from all isolates and sequenced as paired-end reads on the Illumina platform. The web servers ResFinder and MLST (www.genomicepidemiology.org) were used to identify acquired antimicrobial resistance...

  3. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, H.; Aruoma, O.I.; van Delft, J.H.M.;

    2003-01-01

    future, it has become essential that studies reported in this journal reflect an adequate level of scientific scrutiny. Therefore a set of essential characteristics of studies has been defined. These basic requirements are default properties rather than non-negotiables: deviations are possible and useful......, provided they can be justified on scientific grounds. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo concern the following areas: (1) Hypothesis-driven study design; (2...

  4. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from municipal sewage, patients, foods, and animals in Greece using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Papadopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to compare Salmonella isolates from different sources using molecular and phenotypic methods, targeting better possibility of understanding the epidemiology of this organism in the Greek context with emphasis in municipal wastewater. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in combination with antimicrobial susceptibility testing to analyze a total of 88 Salmonella Enterica isolates from municipal sewage (n=25, humans (n=36, animals (n=24, and foods (n=3 in Greece. Results: The higher resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (59.1%, tetracycline (47.7%, nalidixic acid (46.6%, ampicillin (37.5%, and oxolinic acid (35.2%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was not observed; 22 isolates (25% were sensitive to all 9 antimicrobials, 36%, 25% and 12% of human, animal and wastewater origin, respectively, showing a significant difference. Salmonella ser. Hadar was the serovar with the highest resistance rates followed by Salmonella ser. Anatum and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium; Salmonella ser. Infantis strains were almost pansusceptible. Cluster analysis did not reveal close genetic relationship between human animal food and wastewater strains belonging to the same serovars. In most of the cases, distinct clusters were observed between human and non-human isolates indicating diversity and no epidemiological connection. Conclusion: This study indicates that municipal wastewater would be of interest to further monitor the community’s prevalence of subclinical or non-reported S. Enterica infections.

  5. Testing general relativity and alternative theories of gravity with space-based atomic clocks and atom interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarescu Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft’s reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth’s gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of Δ f / f ∼ 10−16 in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters |β − 1|, |γ − 1| ≲ 10−6. We also briefly review potential constraints by atom interferometers on scalar tensor theories and in particular on Chameleon and dilaton models.

  6. In vivo micronucleus test in the assessment of cytogenotoxicity of landfill leachates in three animal models from various ecological habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimba, Chibuisi G; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2016-03-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, a standard test for the genotoxicity screening of xenobiotics, was used to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of landfill leachates in Clarias gariepinus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Rattus norvegicus. These organisms were exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations (1-50%) of Olusosun and Aba Eku landfill leachates. At post exposure, peripheral erythrocytes from catfish and quail, and bone marrow cells of quail and rat were subjected to MN analysis following standard protocols. The leachates induced significant increase in MN formation and total nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the peripheral erythrocytes of catfish and quail. NAs occurred in the order; BN > BL > LB > NT in the catfish and BN > BudN > TLN > TN in quail. There was significant increase in MN formation in the bone marrow cells of quail, and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes formation in the bone marrow of rats. The concentration dependent significant (p test organisms; and it increased with exposure duration in the catfish. Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste generates leachates containing multiple xenobiotics that are capable of increasing genomic instability among vertebrates inhabiting various ecological habitats.

  7. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  8. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.

  9. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  10. The Measurement and Functional Properties of Reinforcer Value in Single-Alternative Responding: A Test of Linear System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; McDowell, J. J.; Soto, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Matching theory and linear system theory make different predictions about how the y-asymptote, k, of Herrnstein's (1970) hyperbola varies with reinforcer value. The present experiment tested both these predictions and linear system theory's account of how reinforcement rate and reinforcer value jointly govern response rate. Eight rats served as…

  11. Generation of dried tube specimen for HIV-1 viral load proficiency test panels: a cost-effective alternative for external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Artur; Nguyen, Shon; Garcia, Albert; Subbarao, Shambavi; Nkengasong, John N; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Participation in external quality assessment programs is critical to ensure quality clinical laboratory testing. Commercially available proficiency test panels for HIV-1 virus load testing that are used commonly in external quality assessment programs remain a financial obstacle to resource-limited countries. Maintaining cold-chain transportation largely contributes to the cost of traditional liquid proficiency test panels. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a proficiency test panel using dried tube specimens that can be shipped and stored at ambient temperature. This dried tube specimens panel consisted of 20 μl aliquots of a HIV-1 stock that were added to 2 ml tubes and left uncapped for drying, as a preservation method. The stability of dried tube specimens at concentrations ranging from 10² to 10⁶·⁵ RNA copies/ml was tested at different temperatures over time, showing no viral load reduction at 37 °C and a decrease in viral load smaller than 0.5 Log₁₀ at 45 °C for up to eight weeks when compared to initial results. Eight cycles of freezing-thawing had no effect on the stability of the dried tube specimens. Comparable viral load results were observed when dried tube specimen panels were tested on Roche CAPTAQ, Abbott m2000, and Biomerieux easyMAG viral load systems. Preliminary test results of dried proficiency test panels shipped to four African countries at ambient temperature demonstrated a low inter assay variation (SD range: 0.29-0.41 Log₁₀ RNA copies/ml). These results indicated that HIV-1 proficiency test panels generated by this methodology might be an acceptable alternative for laboratories in resource-limited countries to participate in external quality assessment programs.

  12. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  13. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  14. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  15. The FMCA-GM assays, high throughput non-clonogenic alternatives to CFU-GM in preclinical hematotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Caroline; Aleskog, Anna; Håkansson, Lena Douhan; Höglund, Martin; Jacobsson, Stefan; Larsson, Rolf; Lindhagen, Elin

    2010-05-04

    One of the most common dose limiting adverse effects in cancer treatment is myelotoxicity. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro method for measuring potential myelotoxic properties of a drug candidate in a high throughput setting. Human CD34(+) progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood were plated in 384-well microplates with drugs in liquid culture, supplemented with specific cytokines for the granulocytopoietic-macrophage lineage. After 7 or 14 days of proliferation and differentiation the cells were analyzed using the automated non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Two types of assays setups were evaluated, the FMCA-GM7 where cells were exposed to drugs directly after thawing and cytotoxicity measured on day 7 in contrast to the FMCA-GM14 where the cells were cultured 7 days prior to plating and drug exposure, with viability analysis on day 14 of differentiation. Drug sensitivity was similar in both assays and method validation was performed using 24 drugs with known myelotoxic profile (acyclovir, bortezomib, busulfan, carboplatin, chloramphenicol, chlorpromazine, cisplatin, cytarabine, clozapine, doxorubicin, erlotinib, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, fludarabine, gefitinib, gemcitabine, hydroxyurea, imatinib, lomustine, melphalan, sorafenib, sunitinib, taxol and 6-thioguanine). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) from the FMCA-GM7 and the FMCA-GM14 correlated highly (r = 0.83) and (r = 0.82), respectively, with IC(50) from the established clonogenic assay (CFU-GM), obtained from the literature. The current data suggests that the FMCA-GM could offer a simple and robust alternative to the CFU-GM assay in preclinical hematotoxicity studies.

  16. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics: Experience with HiMAT remotely piloted research vehicle - An alternate flight test approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.

  17. Reconstituted human corneal epithelium: a new alternative to the Draize eye test for the assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, O; Lanvin, M; Thillou, C; Linossier, C; Pupat, C; Merlin, B; Zastrow, L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of a new three-dimensional epithelial model cultivated from human corneal cells to replace animal testing in the assessment of eye tolerance. To this end, 65 formulated cosmetic products and 36 chemicals were tested by means of this in vitro model using a simplified toxicokinetic approach. The chemicals were selected from the ECETOC data bank and the EC/HO International validation study list. Very satisfactory results were obtained in terms of concordance with the Draize test data for the formulated cosmetic products. Moreover, the response of the corneal model appeared predictive of human ocular response clinically observed by ophthalmologists. The in vitro scores for the chemicals tested strongly correlated with their respective scores in vivo. For all the compounds tested, the response of the corneal model to irritants was similar regardless of their chemical structure, suggesting a good robustness of the prediction model proposed. We concluded that this new three-dimensional epithelial model, developed from human corneal cells, could be promising for the prediction of eye irritation induced by chemicals and complex formulated products, and that these two types of materials should be tested using a similar protocol. A simple shortening of the exposure period was required for the chemicals assumed to be more aggressively irritant to the epithelial tissues than the cosmetic formulae.

  18. Alternatives to conventional evaluation of rideability in horse performance tests: suitability of rein tension and behavioural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König von Borstel, Uta; Glißman, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Rideability, i.e. the ease and comfort with which a horse can be ridden, is considered to be one of the most important traits in riding horses. However, at present rideability is evaluated rather subjectively in breeding horse performance tests. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role horse behaviour as well as degree and quality of rein tension might play in judges' evaluation of horses' rideability. Mares (n=33) and stallions (n=13) from two different mare- and one stallion-testing station were observed twice during their performance test dressage training. During these rides, rein tension was measured continuously, and frequency of behaviour patterns such as head-tossing, tail swishing, and snorting was recorded. Rein tension parameters showed reasonable repeatabilities within horse-rider pairs (e.g. mean rein tension: r(2)=0.61 ± 0.11; variance of rein tension: r(2)=0.52 ± 0.14). Regression analysis revealed that a larger proportion of variance in rideability scores could be explained by maximum (17%), mean (16%) and variance (15%) of rein tension compared to horses' or riders' behavioural parameters (tail-swishing: 5% and rider's use of hands: 5%, respectively). According to mixed model analysis, rideability scores dropped (all Prider comfort and horse welfare, potentially, measurements of rein tension along with behaviour observations assessing the quality of rein contact (e.g. distinguishing a light contact from attempts to evade contact) might be used to make the assessment of rideability more impartial.

  19. Ontogeny and nutritional status influence oxidative kinetics of nutrients and whole-animal bioenergetics in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata: new applications for (13)C breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly growing animals or those that are recovering from nutritional stress may use exogenous nutrients differently from well fed adults. To test this possibility, we compared the rates of exogenous nutrient oxidation among fledgling, fasted adult, and refed adult zebra finches using a technique called breath testing, where animals are fed (13)C-labeled nutrients and (13)C in the exhaled breath is collected and quantified. In order to identify the possible mechanisms responsible for differences in oxidative kinetics of ingested nutrients, we also compared body mass (m(b)), organ mass, core body temperature (T(b)), and metabolic rate (MR). We found that fasted birds had lower T(b), relative liver and intestine masses, MR, and respiratory exchange ratios (RERs) than fed adults. Adult birds recovering from nutritional stress had much lower rates of exogenous nutrient oxidation than fed birds; this difference was particularly evident for fatty acids. Differences in oxidative kinetics were correlated with reduced RER, m(b), and liver mass, suggesting that previously fasted birds were using recently assimilated nutrients to replenish exhausted fuel stores. Rapidly growing fledglings oxidized exogenous nutrients as quickly as fed adults, despite their significantly lower m(b) and T(b). We suggest that fledglings had higher mass-specific rates of exogenous nutrient oxidation because they must compensate for the relatively low conversion efficiency of feather production and other lean tissue growth, which was not taking place in the adults. Although this study demonstrates that ontogeny and nutritional status influence the way that birds oxidize exogenous nutrients, it also underscores the likelihood that environmental and endogenous factors shape how other types of animals spend the nutrients they ingest.

  20. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti